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Summaries of all lessons concerning Learning and

Teaching Language

Any approach or
method

Theory of
Language

Objective
of any
method

Theory of
Learning

Roles
Curriculum or
syllabus

Role of students

Role of teachers

Audiolingual:
Theory
of
language:
Language is a system of rule-governed
structures hierarchically arranged. Theory of
learning: Habit formation; skills are learned
more effectively if oral proceeds written;
analogy not analysis. Objective: Control of
the structures of sound; form and order,
mastery over symbols of the language; goal;
native-speaker mastery. Syllabus: Graded
syllabus of phonology, morphology and
syntax. Contrastive analysis. Activity types:
Dialogues
and
drills,
repetition
and
memorization pattern practice. Learner
roles: Organisms that can be directed by
skilled training techniques to produce correct
responses. Teacher roles: Central and active
teacher dominated method. Provides model,
controls direction and pace. Roles of
materials: Primarily teacher oriented. Tapes
and visuals, language lab often used.

Communicative approach in teaching


English: Theory of language: Language is
a system for the expression of meaning;
primary
function-interaction
and
communication.
Theory
of
learning:
Activities involving real communication;
carrying out meaningful tasks; and using
language which is meaningful to the learner
promote learning. Objective: Objectives will
reflect the needs of the learner; they will
include functional skills as well as linguistic
objectives.
Syllabus: Will include some/all
of the following: structures, functions,
notions, themes, tasks. Ordering will be
guided by learner needs.
Activity types:
Engage learners in communication; involve
processes such as information sharing,
negotiation of meaning and interaction.
Learner roles: Learner as negotiator,
interact or, giving as well as taking.
Teacher
roles:
Facilitator
of
the
communication process, participants tasks
and texts, needs analyst, counselor, process
manager. Roles of materials: Primary role
of promoting communicative language use;
task-based materials; authentic.

Total Physical Response: Theory of


language: Basically a structuralist, grammar
based view of language. Theory of
learning: L2 learning is the same as L1
learning; comprehension before production, is
imprinted through carrying out commands
(right brain functioning) reduction of stress.
Objective: Teach oral proficiency to produce
learners who can communicate uninhibitedly
and
intelligibly
with
native
speakers.
Syllabus:
Sentence-based syllabus with
grammatical and lexical criteria being
primacy, but focus on meaning not form.
Activity types: Imperative drills to elicit
physical actions. Learner roles: Listener and
performer, little influence over the content of
learning. Teacher roles: Active and direct
role the director of a stage play with
students as actors. Roles of materials: No
basic text; materials and media have an
important role later. Initially voice, action and
gestures are sufficient.
.
Second Language (L2) Acquisition:
Word
second
in
second
language
acquisition can refer to any language that is
learned subsequent to the mother tongue.
L2 acquisition can be defined as the way in
which people learn language other than their
mother tongue, inside or outside of a
classroom, and Second Language Acquisition
(SLA) as the study of this. SLA has not
focused on the communicative aspects of
language development but on the formal
features of language that linguists have
traditionally concentrated on. There are
external and internal factors in achieving
goals of SLA. External factor is the social
milieu in which learning takes place. Social
conditions influence the opportunities that
learners have to hear and speak the language
and the attitudes that they develop towards
it. The other external factor is the input that
learners receive, that is the samples of
language to which a learner is exposed. The
internal factor are learners possess cognitive
mechanisms which enable them to extract
information about L2 from the input, learners
possess communication strategies that can
help them make effective use of their L2
knowledge, and learners are equipped with
knowledge of how language in general works
and that this helps them to learn a particular
language. The goals of SLA, then are to
describe how L2 acquisition proceeds and to
explain this process and why some learners
seem to be better at it than others.
Naturalistic learner is an example of someone
who learns the language at the same time as
learning
to
communicate
in
it.
The
methodologic issue of SLA: language is such a
complex phenomenon that researchers have
generally preferred to focus on some specific
aspect rather than on the whole of it.

.
Introduction; The field of language learning
is indeed a complex domain of study: it can
vary according to different criteria related to

The Silent Way: Theory of language: Each


language is composed of elements that give it a
unique rhythm and spirit. Functional vocabulary
and core structure is a key to the spirit of the
language.
Theory of learning: Processes of
learning a second language are fundamentally
different from L1 learning. L2 learning is an
intellectual, cognitive process. Surrender to the
music of the language, silent awareness then
active trial.
Objective: Near-native fluency,
correct pronunciation, basic practical knowledge
of the grammar of the L2. Learner learns how to
learn a language.
Syllabus:
Basically
structural lessons planned around grammatical
items and related vocabulary. Items are
introduced according to their grammatical
complexity. Activity types: Learner responses
to commands, questions and visual cues.
Activities encourage and shape oral responses
without grammatical explanation or modeling by
teacher. Learner roles: Learning is a process of
personal growth. Learners are responsible for
their
own
learning
and
must
develop
independence autonomy and responsibility.
Teacher roles: Teachers must a) teach b) test
c) get out of the way. Remain impassive. Resist
temptation to model, remodel, and assist, direct,
exhort. Roles of materials: Unique materials:
colored rods, color-coded pronunciation and
vocabulary charts.

Community Language Learning: Theory of


language:
Language is more than a system
for communication. It involves whole person,
culture,
educational,
developmental
communicative processes.
Theory of
learning: Learning involves the whole person. It
is a social process of growth from child-like
dependence to self-direction and independence.
Objective: No specific objectives. Near native
mastery is the goal.
Syllabus: No set
syllabus. Course progression is topic-based;
learners provide the topics. Syllabus emerges
from learners intention and the teachers
reformulations. Activity types: Combination of
innovative and conventional. Translation, group
work, recording, transcription, reflection and
observation,
listening,
free
conversation.
Learner roles: Learners are members of a
community. Learning is not viewed as an
individual accomplishment, but something that
is achieved collaboratively. Teacher roles:
Counseling/parental analogy. Teacher provides a
safe environment in which students can learn
and grow. Roles of materials: No textbook,
which would inhibit growth. Materials are
developed as course progresses.

Grammar Translation approachg: Theory of


language: Literary language is superior to
spoken language .Theory
of
learning:
translation and memorization, learn about L2 by
translating L2 to L1 and vice versa and by
learning vocabulary and grammar of L2
.Objective: to be able to read literature in L2;
translate L2 to L1 and vice versa; achieve
proficiency in L2 reading and writing .Syllabus:
Literary passages to be translated; vocabulary
and grammar based lessons based on
passages .Activity types: Translation; reading
comp; memorization of vocabulary lists; identify
synonyms, antonyms, cognates, deductive
application of grammar rules. Learner roles:
read and write; no control over content;
memorize; answer-usually written. Teacher
roles: Authority; has all control; corrects
students; assign tasks to be memorized. Roles
of materials: Textbooks; prepared passages
and related grammar and vocabulary exercises.

The Cognitive Theory


The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget placed acquisition of
language within the context of a child's mental or cognitive
development. He argued that a child has to understand a
concept before s/he can acquire the particular language form
which expresses that concept.
A good example of this is seriation. There will be a point in
a child's intellectual development when s/he can compare
objects with respect to size. This means that if you gave the
child a number of sticks, s/he could arrange them in order of
size. Piaget suggested that a child who had not yet reached
this stage would not be able to learn and use comparative
adjectives like "bigger" or "smaller".
Object permanence is another phenomenon often cited in
relation to the cognitive theory. During the first year of life,
children seem unaware of the existence of objects they
cannot see. An object which moves out of sight ceases to
exist. By the time they reach the age of 18 months, children
have realised that objects have an existence independently of
their perception. The cognitive theory draws attention to the
large increase in children's vocabulary at around this age,
suggesting a link between object permanence and the
learning of labels for objects.
Limitations of the Cognitive Theory
During the first year to 18 months, connections of the type
explained above are possible to trace but, as a child continues
to develop, so it becomes harder to find clear links between
language and intellect. Some studies have focused on
children who have learned to speak fluently despite abnormal
mental development. Syntax in particular does not appear to

The
Natural
Approach:
Theory
of
language: The essence of language is
meaning. Vocabulary not grammar is the heart
of language. Theory of learning: There are
two ways of L2 language development
acquisition -a natural subconscious process,
and learning -a conscious process. Learning
cannot lead to acquisition.
Objective:
Designed to give beginners and intermediate
learners basic communication skills. Four broad
areas; basic personal communicative skills
(oral/written);
academic
learning
skills
(oral/written) .Syllabus: Based on a selection
of communicative activities and topics derived
from learner needs. Activity types: Activities
allowing comprehensible input, about things in
the here-and-now. Focus on meaning not form.
Learner roles: Should not try and learn
language in the usual sense, but should try and
lose
themselves
in
activities
involving
meaningful communication. Teacher roles:
The teacher is the primary source of
comprehensible input. Must create positive lowanxiety climate. Must choose and orchestrate a
rich mixture of classroom activities. Roles of
materials: Materials come from realia rather
than textbooks. Primary aim is to promote
comprehension and communication.

Suggestopedia: Theory
of
language:
Rather conventional, although memorization of
whole meaningful texts is recommended.
Theory of learning: Learning occurs through
suggestion, when learners are in a deeply
relaxed state. Baroque music is used to induce
this state. Objective: To deliver advanced
conversational competence quickly. Learners
are required to master prodigious lists of
vocabulary pairs, although the goal does
understand not memorization.
Syllabus:
Ten unit courses consisting of 1,200 word
dialogues graded by vocabulary and grammar.
Activity types: Initiatives, question and
answer, role play, listening exercises under
deep relaxation. Learner roles:
Must
maintain a passive state and allow the
materials to work on them (rather than vice
versa).Teacher roles: To create situations in
which the learner is most suggestible and
present material in a way most likely to
encourage positive reception and retention.
Must exude authority and confidence. Roles
of materials: Consists of texts, tapes,
classroom fixtures and music. Texts should
have force, literary quality and interesting
characters,.
.
Direct Method: Theory of language:
Language is primarily speech; learning
language
involves
culture.
Theory
of
learning: Acquire vocabulary by speaking full
sentences in L2; communication is purpose of
language learning. Objective: Communicate
orally and think in L2, students make direct
association
between
meaning
and
L2 .Syllabus: Based on situations and topics,
not usually linguistic. Activity types: Use L2
exclusively;
inductive
grammar;
much
speaking, T to Ss and Ss to Ss; dictation.
Learner roles: Answer and ask questions, use
L2
and
communicate
as
if
in
real
situations .Teacher roles: Direct class
activities;
demonstrate,
not
explain
or
translate; give Ss choices to correct selves
Roles of materials: Text, plays, dialogues
drive T's demonstrations of their meanings;
objects (realia) in class.

...
Interlanguage :
Interlanguage is the systemic development of
learner language reflects a mental system of L2
knowledge.
This
system
is
called
interlanguage. Here are some factors which
influence interlanguage:
- Language learning is like any other kind of
learning in that it involves habit formation.
-A habit is a stimulus-response connection. -All
behaviour could be explained in terms of
habits. -Learners imitated models of correct
language
and
received
reinforcement.
-Behaviourist accounts of L2 acquisition
emphasize only what can be directly observed
and ignore what goes on in the black box of
the learners mind. -Learning is not just a
response to external stimuli.
In the 1960s and 1970s a mentalist theory of
L1 acquisition emerged, according to this
theory:
a.Only human beings are capable of learning
language. b.The human mind is equipped with
a faculty for learning language (Language
Acquisition Device). c. faculty is the primary
determinant of language acquisition. d. Input is
needed, but only to trigger the operation of
the language acquisition device.
A learners interlanguage is a unique linguistic
system. The concept of interlanguage involves
the following premises about L2 acquisition:
a. The learner constructs a system of abstract
linguistic
rules
which
underlines
comprehension and production of the L2.
b. The learners grammar is permeable. c. The
learners grammar is transitional. d. Some
researchers have claimed that the system
learners construct contain variable rules.

The Natural Approach:


Stephen Krashens (1982) theories of second
language acquisition have been widely
debated
over
the
years.
The
major
methodological offshoots of Krashens views
are manifested in the Natural Approach,
developed by one of Krashens colleagues,
Tracy Terrell (Krashen &Terrell, 1983). They
argue that learners would benefit from
delaying production until speech emerges.
They also point out that a great deal of
communication and acquisition should take
place when learners should be relaxed in the
classroom.
The natural approach is aimed at the goal of
basic personal communication skills, that is,
everyday language situations-conversations,
shopping, listening to the radio and the like.
The initial task of the teacher is to provide
comprehensible input. Learners need not say
anything during this silent period until they
feel ready to do so. In the natural approach,
learners will move through what Krashen and
Terrell (1983) defined as three stages: -The
preproduction stage is the development of
listening comprehensible skills. -The early
production stage is usually marked with errors
as the student struggles with the language.
The teacher focuses on meaning not on form
and therefore the teacher does not make a
point of correcting errors during this stage.
-The last stage is one of the extending
productions into longer stretches of discourse
involving more complex games, role-plays,
open-ended dialogues and small group-work.
-The most controversial aspects of the Natural
Approach are its advocacy of a silent period
and its heavy emphasis on comprehensible
input.

..
Behaviourism ;
Origins of behaviourism lie in the Russian
psychologist, Pavlov's, work with dogs. At
about the same time as Freud was developing
his basic ideas of psychoanalysis in Vienna, an
American psychologist, John Watson, was
laying the foundations for the development of
Pavlov's and Freud's work into what was to
become a whole new - and highly influential school of psychology. Watson argued that the
Freudian approach based on self-observation
(introspection) had yielded poor results, and
that if psychology was to be considered to be
a true science, its data would have to be
both observable and measurable,
like
Pavlov's. His approach, which was later to
become known as 'behaviourism', thus
adopted the systematic study of observable
behaviour as its focus. Behaviourists argue
that nearly all behaviour is learned, and that
the main function of psychology should be to
seek to discover what the basic laws of
learning are. Largely because of the work of
the later American behavioural psychologist
B.F. Skinner during the 1950's, behaviourism
has had a tremendous influence on
educational thinking.
Behavioural psychological theory is based on
what
is
commonly
referred
to
as stimulus/response or S-R
learning.
It
assumes that learning has occurred if a
specific response is elicited from a learner
when he or she is placed in a particular
situation and is given a particular stimulus.
Learning of relatively complex behaviour can
(it is claimed) be achieved through an
appropriate
series of
stimulus-response
situations. At each stage, the learner must
actively participate by performing a set task,
after which he or she is then supplied with
immediate feedback in the form of the correct
answer.
This
is
known
as successive
reinforcement. Skinner also argued that each
successive stimulus-response step should be
small enough to ensure that the learner is
almost always correct in their response. Use
of these small steps, plus successive
reinforcement, led to what behavioural
psychologists believed was an efficient way of
'shaping behaviour'. Skinner's original work
was with animals, mostly with pigeons. His
later work, which evolved from this, was with
humans, and was largely responsible for
triggering
the
bandwagon programmed
learning movement
that
so
dominated
progressive educational thinking during the
1960's and early 1970's. This, in turn, led to
more recent developments such as open
learning, distance learning, computer-based
learningand multimedia. Although Skinner's
original behavioural model of learning has
since been rejected or at least greatly
modified by many educational psychologists,
he has probably had a greater influence on
educational
thinking
than
any
other
psychologist. Indeed, every teacher who
makes use of individualised learning methods
today owes him a very real debt.

The Natural Approach:


Stephen Krashens (1982) theories of second
language acquisition have been widely
debated
over
the
years.
The
major
methodological offshoots of Krashens views
are manifested in the Natural Approach,
developed by one of Krashens colleagues,
Tracy Terrell (Krashen &Terrell, 1983). They
argue that learners would benefit from
delaying production until speech emerges.
They also point out that a great deal of
communication and acquisition should take
place when learners should be relaxed in the
classroom.
The natural approach is aimed at the goal of
basic personal communication skills, that is,