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CE BIO 1994

1.

(a)

(i)

The formation of red precipitate indicates the presence of


reducing sugar (glucose) in the water ------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
This shows that the dialysis tubing is permeable to glucose /
permits the diffusion of glucose into the external solution ------------------------------------------ 1

(ii)

(1)

Increased amount of precipitates in set-up a indicates


the presence of more reducing sugar ------------------------------------------------------------- 1
which comes from the hydrolysis / break down of starch ------------------------------------ 1
catalysed by the amylase / enzyme in digestive juice X -------------------------------------- 1

(2)

* saliva / salivary juice -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


* pancreatic juice --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(iii)

The knot of the dialysis tubing should be tied tightly ------------------------------------------------- 1


The outside of the dialysis tubing should be rinsed with
distilled water before immersing into the water.
Any ONE of the following :
- after putting in the dialysis tubing, the water

in the boiling tube should be tested for the

presence of reducing sugar immediately.

- the digestive juice X should be tested for the

presence of reducing sugar.


- the dialysis tubing should be examined for any
damage.
- the volume of distilled water in the boiling tube
should be the same.

) any ONE------------------------------------- 1
)
)
)
)
Total : 10 marks

1.

(a)

(i)

In the Benedicts test, the formation of red precipitate indicates the presence of reducing
sugar. However, many candidates incorrectly deduced that glucose was present. Some
even came to the wrong conclusion that starch could not pass through the dialysis tubing. A
considerable number of candidates stated wrongly that glucose passed out of the dialysis
tubing by osmosis. These answers showed that some candidates were rather weak in their
logical thinking and they tended to rely on factual recall to explain experimental results.

(ii)

(1)

Many candidates wrongly concluded that starch was digested into glucose. The result
of the Benedicts test only suggested that reducing sugar was formed from the
breakdown of starch. In fact, the two digestive juices in humans or other mammals that
can break down starch, i.e. saliva and pancreatic juice, produce maltose instead of
glucose through the action of amylase.

(2)

Many candidates gave the name of the enzymes involved, i.e. salivary and pancreatic
amylase, instead of the names of the digestive juices.

(iii)

Some candidates stated the purpose of the precautions instead of indicating the precautions
themselves, which was required by the question. This was probably due to a

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1.

(b)

(i)

The difference in no. of yeast cells between


flask A and B at hour 20 = 675 - 150 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
= 525 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
EITHER
in flask A, the yeast cells undergo aerobic respiration ----------------------------------------------- 1
whereas in flask B, the yeast cells undergo anaerobic respiration. ------------------------------- 1
Anaerobic respiration releases less energy for cell division / growth of the yeast ------------ 1
OR
In flask A, the yeast cells undergo aerobic respiration
whereas in flask B, the yeast cells undergo anaerobic respiration ------------------------------- 1
Anaerobic respiration produce ethanol / alcohol ------------------------------------------------------ 1
which inhibits the cell division / growth of the yeast -------------------------------------------------- 1

(ii)

The rate of reproduction of the yeast at hour 8 is much faster than that at hour 16 ---------- 1
Reasons :
- at hour 16, nutrients in the solution may become exhausted ------------------------------------- 1
- at hour 16, there may be accumulation of toxic wastes -------------------------------------------- 1
Both causes a decline in the reproductive rate of yeast

(iii)
No marks for the whole set-up if it is not workable (e.g. using dry yeast, with an oil layer)
air in

thermometer

insulating layer and stopper / cotton wool ------------------------------------ 1

air out

thermometer (the bulb must be immersed in the mixture) ---------------- 1

air-tight stopper

insulating layer

correct connection of tubes ------------------------------------------------------ 1


Clear, well-labelled and accurate diagram (D) ------------------------------ 1

yeast and
glucose mixture

Total : 12 marks
1.

(b)

(i)

Many candidates failed to read correctly from the graph the number of yeast cells at hour 20
for flask A. This was mainly due to careless calculation from the scale of the axis given. In
explaining the different results of flasks A and B, many candidates just described the
conditions in one flask instead of comparing the conditions of the two flasks to account for
the different results. Some candidates mistakenly thought that, under anaerobic conditions,
yeast could not carry out respiration and would die due to lack of an energy supply.

(ii)

The candidates in general could relate the slope of the curve to the reproductive rate of the
yeast. Most candidates, however, did not point out that toxic waste would accumulate in the
solution after a period of time.

(iii)

This question assessed students' ability in experimental design and their knowledge of
practical skills. The rather poor performance on this question reflects a general weakness in
this area. Very few candidates could present a design that satisfied the conditions required :
presence of an insulating layer, a thermometer immersed in the yeast and glucose
mixture, and tubes for aeration.
In general, the quality of drawing was poor; clear, well labelled and accurate diagrams were

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very rare.
1.

(c)

(i)

The movement of the train results in the movement


of the endolymph / the gelatinous structure of the semi-circular canal -------------------------- 1
in the direction opposite to that of the train movement ---------------------------------------------- 1
This stimulates the sensory hair cells and -------------------------------------------------------------- 1
nerve impulses are generated ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Impulses than travel to the cerebrum -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
where the sensation of the direction of movement is produced

(ii)

(1)

Cornea transplant -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(2)

This treatment requires the donation of cornea form other people ------------------------ 1
Very few people are willing to do this after death ---------------------------------------------- 1
Total : 8 marks

1.

(c)

(i)

This question asked for a concise account of the functioning of the semicircular canals in
detecting body movements. However, most answers did not show a mastery of the concept
involved and the description was often incomplete and incomprehensive. It should be noted
that the endolymph inside the semicircular canal does not actually move backward. As the
head moves forward, the endolymph lags behind due to inertia, i.e. it shows a backward
movement relative to the head. Many candidates did not point out that the sensory hair cells
in the semicircular canal are stimulated as a result of the relative movement of the
endolymph.

(ii)

Most candidates answered correctly that very few people were willing to donate their cornea
after death, so that only a small number of patients could receive this treatment in Hong
Kong. This shows that candidates have a good social awareness of the problems regarding
this treatment.

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2

(a)

(i)

The starch in the rice is first digested into glucose and ---------------------------------------------- 1
absorbed into the blood of the small intestine --------------------------------------------------------- 1

(ii)

(1)

Liver ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Glycogen is broken down into glucose which is then released into the blood ---------- 1

(2)

This provides more glucose for the respiration of muscle ----------------------------------- 1


to release more energy for muscle contraction during exercise ---------------------------- 1

(iii)

From hour 05 to 15, the increase in blood glucose level -------------------------------------------- 1


stimulates the pancreas ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
to secrete more insulin --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
The increased insulin lowers the blood glucose level ------------------------------------------------ 1
From hour 15 to 3, a decrease in the blood glucose
causes the pancreas to secrete less insulin ------------------------------------------------------------ 1
Total : 11 marks

2.

(a)

(ii)

(2)

Most answers simply stated that the rise in blood glucose level led to an increase in
the respiration rate of body cells. Candidates should have specified that the effect was
on skeletal muscle, thus more energy would be released for muscle contraction during
exercise.

(iii)

Some candidates gave an account of the changes in blood insulin level by rote without
relating them to the changes in blood glucose level as shown in the graph. A considerable
number of candidates wrongly stated that insulin secretion was under the control of the
brain or hypothalamus, and that glucose was converted to glycogen by insulin.

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2.

(b)

(i)

(1)

It allows the mesophyll cells (photosynthetic cells) ----------------------------------------- 1


to have a rapid supply of gases, and -------------------------------------------------------------- 1
adequate supply of light ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1

(2)

Because mesophyll cells contain chloroplasts / chlorophyll --------------------------------- 1


to absorb sunlight -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(ii)

Carbon dioxide is used in photosynthesis -------------------------------------------------------------- 1


Carbon dioxide is released in respiration --------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Since the rate of photosynthesis is faster than the rate of respiration at daytime ------------- 1
Carbon dioxide has to be taken into the leaf from the air

(iii)

During daytime, stomata open in the presence of light ---------------------------------------------- 1


Temperature of air is higher / the relative humidity of
air is lower / the rate of evaporation is faster ----------------------------------------------------------- 1
Water vapour diffuses faster / diffuses along a steeper
concentration gradient through the stomatal pore ---------------------------------------------------- 1
Total : 11 marks

2.

(b)

(i)

Many candidates did not state clearly that the reason most leaves are thin is because this
allows light and carbon dioxide to reach the mesophyll cells efficiently, thus speeding up the
photosynthetic process. Some candidates wrongly remarked that a thin structure would
present a large surface area for photosynthesis. Most candidates could relate the green
colour of the leaf to the presence of chlorophyll, but many failed to point out that chlorophyll
is important in photosynthesis because it absorbs solar energy. Some wrongly stated that
chlorophyll was responsible for the reduction of carbon dioxide in the formation of
carbohydrate.

(iii)

When comparing the water loss through leaves between daytime and night, some
candidates failed to refer to the different conditions between day and night. Very few
candidates realized that under daytime conditions, e.g. higher temperature, a steeper
concentration gradient of water vapour is established across the stomatal pore, and thus
water vapour is lost faster during the daytime.

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2

(c)

(i)

The high temperature is due to the breakdown / decay of organic wastes --------------------- 1
by respiration / activities of microorganisms ------------------------------------------------------------- 1
which release heat

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1

(ii)

as fertilizer for plant growth --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(iii)

- it causes less pollution to the environment

- it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels /chemical fertilizers

) any TWO --------- 1,1

- the wastes can be recycled into useful matters e.g. fertilizer, fuel

(iv) - land in Hong Kong is too expensive / not enough for building such pit

- it is smelly in a crowded area

- there are problems of collection and transport of wastes

) any TWO----- 1,1

- energy production by this practice cannot meet the great demand

in Hong Kong

and other acceptable suggestions


Total : 8 marks
2.

(c)

Although some of the questions in this pan were open-ended and could not be answered by
simple recall, the performance on this pan was generally good. This shows that many candidates
can apply their biological knowledge to explain unfamiliar situations related to conservation.
(ii)

Some candidates of the English version paper mistakenly used the word fertilization for
fertilizers.

(iii)

The candidates in general showed a good understanding of the concept of conservation,


which involved reducing the use of fossil fuels and artificial fertilizers, and recycling the
waste into useful matter.

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3.

(a)

(i)

(ii)

(1)

Oxygen --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(2)

glucoses / amino acids / mineral salts / vitamins / water ------------------------------------- 1

With a rich supply of blood capillaries,


substances absorbed can be transported away ------------------------------------------------------- 1
so as to maintain a steep concentration gradient
across the wall of the air sacs / villus -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
The capillary network provides a large surface area ------------------------------------------------- 1
As a result, the rats of diffusion of substances increases ------------------------------------------- 1

(iii)

A
N.B.

pulmonary vein

left atrium (auricle)

left ventricle

aorta

B ------------0.5 4=2

for each correct spelling of the heart chambers / blood vessels in the correct
sequence.
Deduct

mark for not showing arrow sign. No mark if the answer is not in the

form of a flowchart.
(iv) The blood carbon dioxide content increases ----------------------------------------------------------- 1
because carbon dioxide is produced by respiration -------------------------------------------------- 1
by the cells in the villus (small intestine) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Total : 11 marks
3.

(a)

(ii)

Many candidates did not seem to understand the precise requirement

of

the

question.

Instead of explaining the importance of a rich blood supply, they elaborated on other
structural features of the air sacs and villus, such as the presence of a folded surface and a
thin epithelial wall, which are irrelevant to the question. Very few answers mentioned the
point that the transport of absorbed substances can maintain a steep concentration gradient
across the wall of the air sacs or villus.
(iii)

The answers concerning the flow chart were satisfactory, but

some

candidates

wrongly

stated the hepatic artery supplied blood to the small intestine. There were a lot of spelling
mistakes of the names of blood vessels and heart chambers.

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3.

(b)

(i)

Title (T) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.5


correct choice of axes (A) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.5
correct labelling of axes with units (L) -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
correct plotting and joining of all points (P) ------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(ii)

The potato strip decreased in length --------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


This indicates that the potato cells were at a higher water
potential than the sugar solution -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Water moved out of the potato cells ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
The potato cells shrank in size / cells became less turgid / flaccid ------------------------------- 1

(iii)

(1)

hour 2.5 to 3 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


(If the staring time lies between hour 2 - 2.5, must refer to the graph plotted)

(2)

It is because the water potential of potato cells


became equal to that of the sugar solution ------------------------------------------------------ 1
There was no net water movement in an out of the cells ------------------------------------ 1
(accept : no osmosis or no diffusion)

3.

(b)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Total : 10 marks
The plotting of graphs was generally satisfactory. However, many candidates did not choose
a suitable scale. As a result, the changes in the length of the potato strip could not be shown
clearly on the graph. This is a weakness shown by the candidates every year. For the first
time, the candidates were asked to give a suitable title to the graph. Most candidates who
attempted this question failed to give a suitable title such as changes in the length of the
potato strip with time. Many Title, such as the relationship between the length of the potato
strip and time, were considered acceptable, but not so appropriate. Titles such as *the
changes in the length of the potato strip in a sugar solution* were incorrect.
Most candidates could use the concept of water potential correctly to explain the change in
the length of the potato strip in the first hour. A small number of candidates, however,
concluded wrongly that the potato cells were hypotonic to the sugar solution. Many failed to
explain that the decrease in the length of the potato strip was a result of the cells shrinking
or becoming flaccid after losing water by osmosis.
(2) To account for the constant length of the potato strip, some candidates stated wrongly
that no water moved in or out of the cells. Actually water molecules moved into and out of
the cells all the time but at the some rate, so that the net rate of water movement into or out
of the cells was zero. It was equally acceptable to state that no osmosis or diffusion

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3.

(c)

(i)

(4)

(2)

(3)

(1) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 or 0

(ii)

(1)

DNA content of cell (1) is only half of that in cell (4) ------------------------------------------ 1

(2)

Chromosomes in cell (4) will separate into 2 equal groups, -------------------------------- 1


resulting in the formation of two daughter cells (cell (1)) ------------------------------------ 1
Since chromosome are made of DNA, the
above process will reduce the DNA content
of cell (1) to half of that of cell (4) ----------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(iii)

DNA controls the formation of proteins ------------------------------------------------------------------ 1


such as enzymes --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
which catalyse chemical reactions in the cells --------------------------------------------------------- 1
Total : 9 marks

3.

(c)

(i)

A considerable number of candidates could not give a correct sequence of mitosis. This
suggested that they lacked a basic understanding of the process of mitosis. This weakness
was also reflected in the poor performance in Q.3(c)(ii).

(ii)

(2)

Most candidates showed a poor understanding of the changes in chromosomal


materials in a dividing cell during mitosis. They often missed out the point that the
chromosomes in cell (4) would separate into two equal groups for the formation of two
daughter cells. They also failed to mention the relationship between chromosomes and
the DNA content of a cell.

(iii)

Most candidates did not have the basic understanding of how DNA may act as a genetic
material by controlling the typos of proteins produced.

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4.

(a)

(i)

Discontinuous variation -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


as the character (seed colour) can be grouped into a few distinct classes --------------------- 1

(ii)

(1)

(2)

Environmental factors :
- light supply

- carbon dioxide supply

) any ONE ----------------------------------------------------------- 1

- water supply

- nutrients supply

Genetic variation may be caused by :


- random fertilization ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
- independent assortment of chromosomes in meiosis --------------------------------------- 1

(iii)

The ratio of the number of yellow seeds to green seeds


among the offspring is 143 : 46 ; -----------------------------------------)
which is approximately 3 : 1 -----------------------------------------------)
According to the Mendel's Law, the parent is thus
heterozygous for the seed colour ----------------------------------------)
OR -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- any ONE set 1+1+1
The parent plant, which germinated from a yellow seed,
should contain alleles for yellow seed ----------------------------------)
It produces some green seeds which must have received
alleles for green seeds from the parent ---------------------------------)
Therefore the parent plant is heterozygous for the seed colour --)

4.

(a)

(iv) (1)

Mutation is a sudden and inheritable change of genetic material (gene/chromosome) 1

(2)

anther / pollen grain / ovary / ovule ---------------------------------------------------------------- 1

Total : 10 marks
(i) To explain why they thought that seed colour was a kind of discontinuous variation, some
candidates explained that seed colour was controlled by a small number of genes. This
point could not be derived from the given data. The correct reason was that seed colour
could be grouped into a few distinct classes with no intermediate phenotypes.
(ii) (1) This appeared to be a very straight forward and simple question ad any environmental
factor that affects plant growth could be cited as the answer. This was not, however,
the case. The candidates had to consider critically what factors would cause variation
in the size of seeds in the same plant. Such a consideration would rule out factors
such as temperature, water supply and mineral supply which would affect the plant as
a whole. Light and carbon dioxide supply would have s more localized effect on seed
growth in the same plant.
(2) Many candidates did not realize that mutation could not be a main cause for the
genetic variation that leads to the difference in the mass of seeds under normal
conditions.
(iii) This question assessed the candidates* ability to make deductions from the results of
genetic crossing. This ability has been frequently assessed in recent years. Despite this,
many candidates did not seem to have mastered the skill and could not make logical
deductions from the information given. The following illustrates how to arrive at a logical
conclusion from the result of the cross :
The parent plant war developed from a yellow seed so it should contain alleles yellow seed.
It produces some green seeds which must have received alleles for green seeds from the
parent plant. The parent plant should therefore contain alleles for both yellow seed and
green seed. It is therefore heterozygous for the seed colour.
(iv) (2) Some candidates did not understand that for the offspring to be affected, it would be
necessary for mutation to have occurred in the parts of the flower that are directly involved

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in the production of the seed, such as the anther, pollen grain, ovary or ovule.

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4.

(b)

(i)

Through placenta (structure A), nutrients diffuse from the ------------------------------------------ 1


maternal blood into the foetal blood and carried by the --------------------------------------------- 1
umbilical cord to the foetus --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(ii)

(iii)

* amniotic fluid

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1

- act as shock absorber / to protect the foetus from mechanical damage

- prevent desiccation of the foetus

- maintain a relatively constant environment around the foetus

) any TWO - 1,1

- allow the foetus to move freely / support the foetus inside the uterus

A will be expelled out of the woman's body ------------------------------------------------------------- 1


by the contraction of the uterus ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(iv) Milk is rich in protein which is important for ----------------------------------------------------------- 1 +


the growth of the foetus ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Milk is rich in vitamin D / calcium which is important for ------------------------------------------- 1 +
the development of bones and teeth of the foetus ---------------------------------------------------- 1
Total : 12 marks
4.

(b)

(i)

Although this was a straightforward question, many candidates were unable to explain
clearly how nutrients from maternal blood could reach the foetus. The descriptions of the
role of placenta in which nutrients diffused from maternal blood into foetal blood were
particularly confusing and ambiguous.

(ii)

Most candidates managed to state the functions of the amniotic fluid correctly and
accurately. However, some mentioned that the fluid served as a lubricant during the birth of
the baby. This is a function of the fluid at the birth of the baby, but not during the
development of the foetus.

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4.

(c)

(i)

It is taken from the root -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


Reasons : - xylem / vascular tissue is found at the center of the section ----------------------- 1

(ii)

(iii)

(1)

The cell wall of cell type A is thicker than that of cell type B --------------------------------- 1

(2)

The thick cell wall is rigid / hard -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


- to provide support to the plant

- to give better penetrating power through the soil

- to prevent it from collapse

) any TWO ------------------------- 1,1

- to increase the tensile strength of the root

The dark blue colour indicates the presence of starch ----------------------------------------------- 1


cell type B is for food storage ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1
Total : 8 marks

4.

(c)

(i)

This part was well-answered. Most candidates correctly pointed out that the section was
taken from a root because the vascular tissue was located at the centre of the section.

(ii)

Most candidates failed to mention the point that the thick cell wall conferred rigidity to the
cell, and then to relate this property to the functions of cell type A.

(iii)

Many candidates wrongly stated that cell type B was responsible for the transport of starch.
They failed to realize that starch is insoluble and is mainly used as a form of food storage.

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