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TM 3-1

Michelle Anne Tayoba


Ma. Rhea Sumagaysay
Ronalyn Seguiran
Charlyn Roncal
Ronald Ragon
Kristy Anne Mendoza
Christopher Lahaylahay
Francis Jan Lagaras
Ricky Diamante
Sarah Marie Daria
Cheryl Rose Cambel
Krizzele Mae Bucquial
BAROUCHE
A barouche, developed from the calash of the 18th century, was a fashionable type of horse-drawn carriage
in the 19th century. It was a four-wheeled, shallow vehicle with two double seats inside, arranged so that
the sitters on the front seat faced those on the back seat. It had a collapsible half-hood folding like a bellows
over the back seat and an outside box seat high in front for the driver. The entire carriage was suspended on
C springs. It was drawn by a pair of high-quality horses and was used principally for leisure driving in the
summer. A light barouche was a barouchet or barouchette.
The word barouche is an anglicisation of the German word barutsche, via the Italian baroccio or biroccio
and ultimately from the Latin birotus, "two-wheeled". The name thus became a misnomer, as the later form
of the carriage had four wheels.

BERLIN
A Berlin (or Berline) carriage was a type of covered, fast and light, four-wheeled, travelling carriage with
two interior seats and a separate hooded rear seat for a footman, detached from the body. It had a distinctive
two-perch running gear and thoroughbrace suspension, with the body hung high between the perches by
shafts to leather braces.

The Berlin was a more convenient method of transportation, being lighter and less likely to overturn than
other carriages. A stirrup or footstool made boarding more convenient. Instead of side windows, there were
hoods to let down in bad weather.
BRITZKA
A britzka (also spelled brichka or britska) is a type of horse-drawn carriage. It was a long, spacious
carriage with four wheels, with a folding top over the rear seat and a rear-facing front seat. Pulled by two
horses, it had a place in front for the driver. It was so constructed as to give space for reclining at night,
when used on a journey. Its size made it suitable for use as a 19th century equivalent to a motorhome, as it
could be adapted with all manner of conveniences (beds, dressing tables and so on) for the traveller.

The term is a variant of the Polish term bryczka, a "little cart", from bryka, "cart", possibly coming into
English via several ways, including German britschka and Russian brichka.

BROUGHAM
A brougham (pronounced "broom" or "brohm") was a light, four-wheeled horse-drawn carriage built in
the 19th century. It was invented for Scottish jurist Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, Lord
Chancellor of Great Britain, or simply made fashionable by his example. It had an enclosed body with two
doors, like the rear section of a coach; it sat two, sometimes with an extra pair of fold-away seats in the
front corners, and with a box seat in front for the driver and a footman or passenger. Unlike a coach, the
carriage had a glazed front window, so that the occupants could see forward. The forewheels were capable
of turning sharply. A variant, called a brougham-landaulet, had a top collapsible from the rear doors
backward.
BUCKBOARD
A buckboard is a four-wheeled wagon of simple construction meant to be drawn by a horse or other large
animal. The buckboard is steered by its front wheels, which are connected to each other by a single axle.
The front and rear axle are connected by a platform of one or more boards to which the front axle is
connected on a pivoting joint at its midpoint. A buckboard wagon often carries a seat for a driver. Such a
seat may be supported by springs. The main platform between axles is not suspended by springs like a
carriage. Made in the 1700s around the same time as carriages.Originally designed for personal
transportation in mountain regions. These distinctively American vehicles were widely used in newly
settled regions of the United States.

BUGGY
A horse and buggy (in American English) or horse and carriage (in British English and American English)
refers to a light, simple, two-person carriage of the 19th and early 20th centuries, drawn usually by one or
sometimes by two horses. Also called a roadster, it was made with two wheels in England and the United
States, and with four wheels in the United States as well. It had a folding or falling top.
CAISSON
from French caisse-chest; a military term for an ammunition wagon.

CALASH
The earlier carriage type, called calash or caleche, was also a light carriage with small wheels, inside seats
for four passengers, a separate driver's seat and a folding top. A folding calash top was a feature of two
other types: the chaise, a two-wheeled carriage for one or two persons, a body hung on leather straps or
thorough-braces, usually drawn by one horse; and a victoria, a low four-wheel pleasure carriage for two
with a raised seat in front for the driver.

In Quebec, Canada, calèche refers to a two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle with or without a folding top and
with a driver's seat on the splashboard. In the Philippines, a small two-wheeled calash is called a kalesa or
calesa.
CAPE ART
A Cape cart was a two-wheeled four-seater carriage, drawn by two horses, and formerly used in South
Africa. It was equipped with a bowed canvas or leather hood. It was used to carry passengers and mail; in
the days before the railways arrived, it was one of the fastest means of transport available in the region. The
name comes from the Cape of Good Hope.

CART
A two-wheeled vehicle drawn by an animal and used in farm work and for transporting goods.
CARIOLE
A cariole (also spelled carriole) was a type of carriage used in the 19th century. It was a light, small, two-
or four-wheeled vehicle, open or covered, drawn by a single horse. The term is also used for a light covered
cart or a dog-drawn toboggan. The name is French, derived from the Latin carrus, vehicle.

CHAISE
A chaise, sometimes called chay or shay, was a formerly popular, light two- or four-wheeled traveling or
pleasure carriage, usually of a chair-backed type, with a movable hood or calash top. The name came from
the French for chair, through a transference from a sedan-chair to a wheeled vehicle. The two-wheeled
version, for one or two persons, also called a gig or one-horse shay, had a body hung on leather straps or
thorough-braces and was usually drawn by one horse; a light chaise having two seats was a double chair .
The four-wheeled pleasure carriage type was similar. The term chaise was also used for any light carriage
or pleasure cart. The post-chaise was a fast carriage for traveling post in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
It usually had a closed body on four wheels, sat two to four persons, and was drawn by two or four horses.
The driver, especially when there was no coachman, rode postillion on the near horse of a pair or of one of
the pairs attached to the post-chaise.
CHARIOT
The chariot is the earliest and simplest type of carriage, used in both peace and war as the chief vehicle of
many ancient peoples. Chariots were built in Mesopotamia by the Mesopotamians as early as 3000 BC and
in China during the 2nd millennium BC. The original chariot was a fast, light, open, two or four-wheeled
conveyance drawn by two or more horses hitched side by side. The car was little else than a floor with a
waist-high semicircular guard in front. The chariot, driven by a charioteer, was used for ancient warfare
during the Bronze and Iron Ages, armor being provided by shields. The vehicle continued to be used for
travel, processions and in games and races after it had been superseded militarily.

CLARENCE
A clarence or growler (British) was a type of carriage popular in the 19th century. It was a closed, four-
wheeled horse-driven vehicle with a glass front and seats for four passengers inside. The driver sat at the
front, outside the carriage. It was named after Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews, later to
become King William IV of England, who died in 1837. It was introduced in 1840 in London.
COCKING CART
A high seat two wheeler with a small box body for the carrying of fighting cocks. This style, and that of the
dog cart, became the basis for many of the commercial carts used from Georgian thru Victorian Britain.

COACH
A coach was originally a large, usually closed, four-wheeled carriage with two or more horses harnessed as
a team, controlled by a coachman and/or one or more postilions. It had doors in the sides, with generally a
front and a back seat inside and, for the driver, a small, usually elevated seat in front called a box, box seat
or coach box.

The name probably came from the Hungarian kocsi, a wagon from the village of Kocs, Hungary. Kocs
(pronounced "kotch") was the place of manufacture, from the 15th century onwards, of an exceptionally
well designed example of such a vehicle with durable and comfortable suspension and steering. Therefore
the English word coach, the Spanish and Portuguese coche, and the German Kutsche all derive from the
Hungarian word "kocsi", literally meaning "of Kocs".

A coach with four horses is a coach-and-four. A coach together with the horses, harness and attendants is a
turnout.
COUPE
A coupé or coupe (from the French verb couper, to cut) is a closed car body style, the precise definition of
which varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, and over time. Coupés are often hardtopped sports cars or
sporty variants of sedan (also known as saloon; see American and British English spelling differences)
body styles, with doors commonly reduced from 4 to 2, and a close-coupled interior (i.e., the rear seat
placed further forward than in a standard sedan) offering either two seats or 2+2 seating (space for two
passengers in the front and two occasional passengers or children in the rear). Before the days of motorized
vehicles, the word referred to the front or after compartment of a Continental stagecoach.
From French couper-to cut, used originally to denote cut down coach bodies. Later used to signify a larger
vehicle similar to a Brougham, yet smaller than a Clarence.

CROYDON
A Croydon is a type of horse-drawn two-wheeled carriage. The first examples were seen around 1850 and
were made of wicker-work, but they were later made of wood.
CURRICLE
from Latin curriculum-racecourse for chariots and currere-to run as in careen; a chaise or showy carriage
with two wheels, drawn by two horses abreast with a bar across the backs of the horses to carry the weight
of the pole.

DOG CART
It was made with a ventilated compartment used to carry sporting dogs such as greyhounds to a coursing
event. Similarly the Cocking Cart was used to accommodate fighting cocks. Again, as in the case of the
Dog-Cart, these carriages developed into pleasure carts and were rarely used to transport either cocks or
hounds.
This kind of vehicle would normally have been driven in tandem and that's the reason for its height. This
characteristic also makes it a difficult carriage to drive and it could easily have been thrown out of balance
by any sudden movement of the groom in the rear.
DOS-A-DOS
A dos-à-dos is an open dogcart carriage having four wheels and seats set back to back. "Dos-à-dos" means
back-to-back in French. A sado (a Malay word) is a Javanese carriage like the dos-à-dos.

DRAY
A wagon (in British English, sometimes waggon) or dray (low, sideless) is a heavy four-wheeled vehicle.
Wagons were formerly pulled by animals such as horses, mules or oxen. Today farm wagons are pulled by
tractors and trucks. Wagons are used for transporting people or goods. Wagons are distinguished from carts
(which is small and has two wheels), or a semi-trailor (which is large and has two wheels), and from lighter
four-wheeled vehicles such as carriages. A wagon could be pulled by one animal or by several, often in
pairs.

Sometimes, the word wagon is also used for railroad cars (not motorized, for goods or passengers) and the
word is a part / the usual short form of station wagon, the non-British term for a sedan (saloon) with an
extended rear cargo area.
DROSKHY
A droshky or drosky (Russian: дрожки) is a term used for several types of carriage, including:

* A low, four-wheeled open carriage used especially in Russia. It consists of a long bench on which the
passengers ride sideways or astride, as on a saddle, with their feet on bars near the ground.
* Various two-wheeled or four-wheeled public carriages used in Russia and other countries.

The name comes from the Russian droga, pole of a wagon. Baroosh was, briefly in the l850s, a colloquial
Muscovite term for the Droshky.

FIACRE
French coach for hire, named for the Hôtel Saint-Fiacre, in Paris, where it was introduced in the 1640s. The
first fiacres were boxlike, four-wheeled, open, hooded vehicles that were drawn by three horses and were
designed to navigate the muddy Parisian streets. In 1794 about 800 were in use in Paris, and by the 19th
century there were more than 1,500. The 19th-century fiacre resembled the carriages for hire used in
England and the United States that were known as hackneys.
FOUR-IN-HAND
A four-in-hand is a carriage drawn by a team of four horses having the reins rigged in such a way that it
can be driven by a single driver. The stagecoach and the tally-ho are usually four-in-hand coaches. Before
the four-in-hand rigging was developed, two drivers were needed to handle four horses. However, with a
four-in-hand, the solo driver could handle all four horses by holding all the reins in one hand, thus the
name. The four-in-hand knot used to tie neckwear may have developed from a knot used in the rigging of
the reins.

GEORGE IV PHAETON
This style of phaeton is patterned after a pony phaeton made for King George IV by the London builder
William Cook in 1824.
A gharry in Pyin U Lwin, Myanmar

GHARRY
A gharry or gharri is a horse-drawn cab used especially in India. A palkee gharry is shaped somewhat like a
palanquin. A gharry driver is a gharry-wallah.

GIG
A gig, also called chair or chaise, is a light, two-wheeled sprung cart pulled by one horse.
Gigs travelling at night would normally carry two oil lamps with thick glass, known as gig-lamps. Gig carts
are constructed with the driver's seat sitting higher than the level of the shafts. Traditionally, a gig is more
formal than a village cart or a meadowbrook cart. A light gig can be used for carriage racing.
A light carriage, with one pair of wheels suspended on thoroughbraces, drawn by one horse. Later versions
are the curricle, cabriolet, Dennet, Stanhope, and Tilbury. The Stanhope was a small two seater designed by
Fitzroy Stanhope, the second son to the Third Earl Stanhope. It was suspended on four springs to provide a
smoother ride. By 1830 it was a popular vehicle for trips between the suburbs and the city.
HACKNEY CARRIAGE
A hackney or hackney carriage (also called a cab or hack) is a carriage or automobile for hire. A livery
carriage superior to the hackney was called a remise.
The name 'hackney' was once thought to be an anglicized derivative of French haquenée—a horse of
medium size recommended for lady riders; however, current opinion is that it is derived from the village
name Hackney (now part of London).

HANSOM CAB
A hansom cab is a kind of horse-drawn carriage designed and patented in 1834 by Joseph Hansom, an architect from
York. The vehicle was developed and tested by Hansom in Hinckley, Leicestershire, England. Originally known as the
Hansom safety cab, its purpose was to combine speed with safety, with a low centre of gravity that was essential for
safe cornering. Hansom's original design was heavily altered by John Chapman to improve its practicability, but
retained Hansom's name.
The cab, a type of fly, sat two passengers (three if squeezed in) and a driver who sat on a sprung seat behind the
vehicle. The passengers were able to give their instructions to the driver through a trap door near the rear of the roof.
They could also pay the driver through this hatch and he would then operate a lever to release the doors so they could
alight. The passengers were protected from the elements by the cab itself, as well as by folding wooden doors which
enclosed their feet and legs, protecting their clothes from splashing mud. Later versions also had an up-and-over glass
window above the doors to complete the enclosure of the passengers. Additionally, a curved fender mounted forward of
the doors protected passengers from the stones thrown up by the flying hooves of the horse.
HERDIC
A herdic is a type of horse-drawn carriage, used as an omnibus, invented by Peter Herdic of Williamsport,
Lycoming County, Pennsylvania in 1881.

HIGH PERCH PHAETON


This style, a "High Perch" phaeton, cornered well for such a tall carriage, being well sprung, and was
popular with sporting drivers, or those interested in fast driving.
Irish jaunting car, photochrom, ca. 1890-1900

JAUNTING CAR
The Irish form of the sprung cart, called a jaunting car or jaunty car, was a light, horse-drawn, two-wheeled
open vehicle with seats placed lengthwise, either face to face or back to back. It was a popular mode of
transportation in 19th Century Dublin popularized by Valentine Vousden in a song by that name. Also
called an outside car or sidecar, it was peculiar in that its seats ran longitudinally and the passengers' feet
were placed on a footboard outboard of the wheels. Legend tells of the knights of Erin fighting battles in
chariots arranged this way.

The colloquial name for the driver of a jaunting car was "jarvey", referenced in the song "The Jarvey Was
A Leprechaun" by Val Doonican. Jarveys are found in Killarney, County Kerry and went on strike in July
2009.

LANDAU
A landau is a coachbuilding term for a type of four-wheeled, convertible carriage.
It is lightweight and suspended on elliptical springs. It was invented in the 18th century (first noted in English in 1743
and was named after the German city of Landau in the Rhenish Palatinate where they were first produced. Lord,
Hopkinson, coachmakers of Holborn, London, produced the first English landaus in the 1830s.
A landau, drawn by a pair or four-in-hand, is similar to a vis-à-vis, a social carriage with facing seats over a dropped
footwell (illustration), which was perfected by the mid-19th century in the form of a swept base that flowed in a single
curve.
MAIL COACH
In Great Britain, the mail coach or post coach was a horse-drawn carriage that carried mail deliveries,
from 1784. In Ireland, the first mail coach began service from Dublin in 1789. The coach was drawn by
four horses and had seating for four passengers inside. Further passengers were later allowed to sit outside
with the driver. The mail was held in a box to the rear, where a Royal Mail post office guard stood.

The mail coach was faster than the stage coach as it only stopped for delivery of mail and generally not for
the comfort of the passengers. They were slowly phased out during the 1840s and 1850s, their role being
replaced by trains as the railway network expanded.

MAIL PHAETON
The mail phaeton first appeared in England in the early years of the nineteenth century. The suspension was the same
as that used on the English mail coach of 1805, i.e., with a combination of two side- and two cross springs, known as
“telegraph” springs, at the front and, at the rear, a combination of three springs, i.e., two side elbow springs and one
cross spring (a so-called “gallows” spring). The imitation cane-work on the seat panel has been done by the tube
method, using paint mixed to a very thick consistency and applied by capillary feed from a metal tube. This panel is a
very fine example of the high quality a skilled craftsman could achieve by this method on a surface with a double
curvature. “Sham caning” by this method was often done in Britain by itinerant French craftsmen.
The mail phaeton was a gentleman’s carriage that might be used for pleasure driving or for travelling by “post,” that is,
making a journey by stages, using hired post horses driven postilion by a postboy. It came to be seen as the ne plus
ultra of gentleman’s driving carriages. The mail phaeton was designed for use with a pair of horses, and two grooms in
livery would normally be carried on the rear seat.
MUD COACH
During the 1 hour Stage Coach ride, in what is known as the “MUD COACH” you will be taken
through the old ruins of Gold Roads located 2 ½ miles west of Oatman, Arizona on Historical old
Route 66 and very near the original old Beale Trail.

Mud Coach is lighter and smaller than the Concord coach, flat sides, simpler joinery

OMNIBUS
A long four-wheeled carriage, having seats for many people; especially, one with seats running lengthwise, used in
conveying passengers short distances.
ONE HORSE CARRIAGE
open two-wheeled vehicle that was the American adaptation of the French chaise. Its chairlike body,
seating the passengers on one seat above the axle, was hung by leather braces from a pair of square wooden
springs attached to the shafts.
Early one-horse shays had fixed standing tops, later ones folding tops.

A Park drag built by Brewster in 1887, seen in spring 2008 in Valkenswaard (Netherlands) drawn by Cleveland Bay
(Meneur is Paul Berens-Scott from Luxemburg)

PARK DRAG
The park drag carriage was a lighter, more elegant version of the road coach. A park drag (or simply
drag) is also known as a "private coach" as it was always owned by private individuals for their own
personal driving. A park drag has seats on its top and is usually driven to a team of four well-matched
carriage horses.
PHAETON
Phaeton is the early 19th-century term for a sporty carriage drawn by a single horse or a pair, typically with
four extravagantly large wheels, very lightly sprung, with a minimal body, fast and dangerous. It usually
had no sidepieces in front of the seats. The rather self-consciously classicizing name refers to the disastrous
ride of mythical Phaëton, son of Helios, who set the earth on fire while attempting to drive the chariot of
the sun.
-from Greek phaethon-to shine;
A light four-wheeled carriage with open sides in front of the seat, generally drawn by one horse. The term
was first applied to classify a carriage during that 18th and early 19th century period in France when it was
so fashionable to use classical pseudonyms. Usage of the term spread quickly to England and America.
There are few distinguishing characteristics that can restrict the use of the term -- perhaps only that it is an
owner driven vehicle with no coachman's seat and that it nearly always includes some sort of top that
would shelter, at least, the driver.

POSTCHAISE
A chaise used with rented horses (see "post"). The postchaise was always yellow and was sometimes
referred to as "a yellow bounder." It was controlled by a postillion riding one of the horses.
RATHA
Ratha ( Sanskrit rátha, Avestan raθa) is the Indo-Iranian term for the spoked-wheel chariot of Antiquity. It
derives from a collective *ret-h- to a Proto-Indo-European word *rot-o- for "wheel" that also resulted in
Latin rota and is also known from Germanic, Celtic and Baltic. The Sanskrit terms for the wagon pole,
harness, yoke and wheel have cognates in other branches of Indo-European.

ROCKAWAY
Rockaway is a term applied to two types of carriage: a light, low, American four-wheel carriage with a
fixed top and open sides that may be covered by waterproof curtains, and a heavy carriage enclosed at sides
and rear, with a door on each side. The name may be derived from the town of Rockaway, New Jersey,
where carriages were made.
SOCIABLE
A sociable (short for sociable coach) is an open, four-wheeled carriage having two double seats facing each
other and a box for the driver.

SPIDER PHAETON
The spider phaeton, of American origin and made for gentlemen drivers, had a very high carriage of light
construction, with a covered seat in front and a footman's seat behind.

Stagecoach in Switzerland
STAGECOACH
A stagecoach is a type of four-wheeled closed coach for passengers and goods, strongly sprung and drawn
by four horses, usually four-in-hand. Widely used before the introduction of railway transport, it made
regular trips between stages or stations, which were places of rest provided for stagecoach travelers. The
business of running stagecoaches or the act of journeying in them was known as staging.

STANHOPE
The stanhope was a gig, buggy or light phaeton, typically having a high seat and closed back. It was named
after Captain Hon. Henry FitzRoy Stanhope (ca. 1754 - 1828, son of William Stanhope, 2nd Earl of
Harrington), a well-known sportsman of his time, and built by the London firm of Tilbury, coachbuilders in
Mount Street.
SULKY
A sulky is a lightweight cart having two wheels and a seat for the driver only but usually without a body,
generally pulled by horses or dogs, and is used for harness races. The term is also used for a light stroller,
an arch mounted on wheels or crawler tracks and used in logging, or other types of vehicle having wheels
and usually a seat for the driver, such as a plough, lister or cultivator.

SURREY
The surrey was a popular style of American family carriage that first appeared in the last quarter of the 19th century.
The first surreys had two seats for four persons, on a carriage with a straight sill. Some had a folding or a standard top,
as in this version, and the suspension was usually of American type, with a reach and two or three springs. Like most
surreys, this carriage can be fitted with shafts for a single, or with a drop-pole for a pair.
Provenance:
The surrey was purchased from Mr. Ward Melville of Stony Brook, Long Island, the founder of the Museums at Stony
Brook. It had been restored by George Isles, the first curator at the Museums. The names of former owners are not
known.
TARANTAS
A tarantass is a type of low, horse-drawn carriage used in Russia. During the summer, it moves on four
wheels. However, when snow falls, its wheels are removed and the body is mounted on runners.

TILBURY
A tilbury is a light, open, two-wheeled carriage, with or without a top, developed in the early 19th century
by the London firm of Tilbury, coachbuilders in Mount Street
A tilbury rig is little more than a single "tilbury seat"—the firm's characteristic spindle-backed seat with a
curved padded backrest— mounted over a raked luggage boot, and fitted with a dashboard and mounting
peg, all on an elaborate suspension system of curved leaf springs above the single axle. The tilbury has
large wheels for moving fast over rough roads.
An old horse trap at Snowshill Manor.

TRAP
A trap, pony trap or horse trap is a light, often sporty, two-wheeled or sometimes four-wheeled
horse-drawn carriage, accommodating usually two to four persons in various seating
arrangements, such as face-to-face or back-to-back.

VICTORIA
The victoria was an elegant French carriage, possibly based on a phaeton made for King George IV of the
United Kingdom. It was made some time before 1844, and imported to England by the Prince of Wales in
1869. It was very popular amongst wealthy families. On a low body, it had one forward facing seat for two
passengers and a raised driver's seat supported by an iron frame, all beneath a calash top. It was usually
drawn by one or two horses. This type of carriage became fashionable with ladies for riding in the park,
especially with a stylish coachman installed. It was named after Princess Victoria in the 1830s.

Nowadays, Victoria carriages can be seen in the Chilean city of Viña del Mar, where they are rented to
tourists. They are also seen in the streets of Mumbai, where they are rented out in a fashion similar to that
of taxis.
VILLAGE CART
Village cart, a kind of two-wheeled pleasure carriage
without a top.

VIS-À-VIS
A vis-à-vis is a horse drawn carriage in which the passengers sit face to face. The term comes from the
French vis-à-vis, meaning face to face. These carriages are still commonly made by Amish carriage makers
in the midwest. The vis-a-vis is the most common type of carriage style used commercially in downtown
city settings.
WAGONETTE
The wagonette was said to have been introduced in England by Prince Albert, the Prince Consort, about 1850. Its
design was probably based on a type then in use in Germany.
Wagonettes became very popular in Britain and were made in a range of types and sizes. Many were made with the
passenger seats hinged so they could be dropped down to provide space for luggage or goods. Removable tops were
popular, making this a useful carriage for all seasons.
Provenance:
The wagonette was purchased from Ben W. Colburn of Tulare, California, in June 1961. Mr. Colburn said it had been
bought in Canada.

WAGON TRAIN
A wagon train is a group of wagons traveling together. In the American West, individuals traveling across
the plains in covered wagons banded together for mutual assistance.