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Shear in homogeneous beams: Shear in a beam is indused due to the change of bending
moment along the span.

Section xx


shear stress

For homogeneous beams, shear stress distribution across the section, = (V*A y)/(b*Ixx)
V= shear at the section
A= area out side the section when shear stress is required = b*c
y = distance from the centroid of A to the center of section. = (D/2)-(c/2)
Ixx = M.I. of beam = bD/12
For rectangular homogeneous sections, theshear stress distribution is parabolic.the
max.shaer stress at the center,
max =

(V/b)* (b*D/2)*(D/4)

= (3/2)*(V/bD)







consider two sections AB&CD of a beam x a part.let M and M+M be the moments
acting on the sections respectively.

To find shear stress at a distance a from the N.A (sec.C/S) when breadth is z, take
b*dy elementry area at a distance y from N.A. above a
Stress at the section = (M/I)*y
Elementary force on area (b*dy) = (M/I)*y*(b*dy)
Total force above distance a from N.A on section CD
= P = (M/I)*y*(b*dy)
= (M/I) (y*b*dy)
parallally total force above a on section AB.
= P+P = (M+M)
P = (M/I)


total shear force on area z*x = P

, shear stress = P/(z*x) = (1/z*x)*(M/I) (b*y*dy)
= (M/x)*(1/z*I)

= (F/I*z)



[ since (M/x) = F ]

(b*y*dy) = moment of area above a about N.A if the area above a is A and y is the
distance of its .
(b*y*dy) = A. y

therefore = (F/I*z)*A* y
for a particular section, (F/I) is a constant.therefore varies as (a* y )*1
at extreme fibres intensity of shear stress will be zero.
When a beam is loaded with transverse loads, the B.M varies from section to
section. Shearing stresses in the beam are caused by this variation of B.M along the span.

w KN/m



cross section




A z




short length x

forces of x

shear stress

consider ashort length x of an RCC beam as shown in fig. M and V be the moment and
shear at section CD, and M+M and V+V the moment and shear at section AB.taking
the moment of forces about side AB,
M+V*x w(x)/2 (M-M) = 0 as the section is in equilibrium.
w (x)/2 is a very small and can be neglected.
Therefore V*x M = 0
Or V*x = M

The M.R = c*z


[where z is lever arm]


External moment = internal M.R

Therefore M = T*z = c*z = V*x
c = (V*x/z) or

T = (V*x/z)

at any level, the difference in longitudinalforces induce horizontal shear stresses. At the
N.A, the difference in forces above it is c, which causes the shear stress on the area
(b*x) thus at N.A, = [c/(b*x)] = (Vx/z)*(1/b*x) = (V/b*z)
= (V/b*jd)
the shear stress distribution in RCC beam is zero at top and parabolic up to N.A at
the value is maximum and is equal to (V/b*jd).
Below the N.A as the concrete is cosidered ineffective in tension, the change in
longitudinal forces remains constant and is equal to C or T.
Shear stress, = (T/b*x) = (V*x/z)*(1/b*x) = (V/b*z)= (v/b*jd)
At C.G of bars the compression forces causing stress c are neutralised by equal and
opposite force T and hence, shear stress drops to zero.
Diagonal tension and diagonal comprission


small element along

the length of beam

principal stresses

cosider a small element along the length of the beam. This is subjected to shear stress
and tensile stress f .
the principal stresses on this element are
1 = (f/2)(f/2)+

and the inclination of principal plane is

tan 2 = 2/f
the major principal stress is tensile and is equal to
1 = (f/2)+ (f/2)+

and is known as diagonal tension.

The minor principal stress is compression and is equal to

2 = (f/2)- (f/2) + and is known as diagonal compression.
Design for shear by working stress method
v= v/(bd)

Elastic theory

= V/(bd)
Indian standard load recommonds to use normal shear stress given by the expression
v, nominal shear stress = V/bd
Where V = S.F at the section due to design loads.
b = breadth of beam, for flanged beams breadth of web
c, permissible shear stress in concrete in beams with out shear reinforcement is given in
table 23 of IS:456-2000.
The permissible shear stress depends upon two factors
(1) grade of concrete.
(2) Percentage of reinforcement (100As/bd)
c,max, maximum shear stress.

When shear reinforcement is provided the nominal shear stress v in beams shall
not exceed c,max given in table 24 of IS:456-2000.
Design of shear reinforcement.
V = S.F at the section due to design loads
Vc = shear resistance of concrete = cbd
Vs = shear to be resisted by steel
V = Vc+Vs or
Vs = V-Vc
= V - cbd
when v exceeds c, shear reinforcement shall be provide.
Shear reinforcement shall be provided in any of the following forms.
(A) Vertical stirrups.
(d-d =)d

holding bars

Tension reinforcement

In the absence of shear reinforcement, the beam fails in diagonal tension, the inclination
of the tension cracks being at 45 to the axis of the beam and extended upto horizantal
distance equal to d-d d.
There fore number of vertical stirrups resisting shear force = d/Sv
Asv = area of each stirrup.
For 2 legged vertical stirrups, area of each stirrup = area of 2- legs.
sv = permissible tensile stress in shear reinforcement
there fore shear resistance of stirrups = shear resistance of each stirrup*no.of stirrups.
Vs = (Asv*sv)d/Sv


Sv = Asv*sv*d/Vs

(B) Inclined stirrups or series of bent up bars

(P) A simply supported beam 200mm wide and 380mmm eff.depth is loaded with a
UDL of 20KN/m as shown in fig. The span of the beam is 3.5m. Chech the beam for
shear reinforcement if the tension steel provided is 4 bars of 20mm dia.(mild steel)
and the concrete used is M20.


c.s.for shear

S.F. at critical section

S.F. at support
Shear Force diagram

For simply supported beams critical section for S.F is located at a distance d
from the face of support (ref: cl. of IS:456-2000)
Therefore S.F at the C/S = (wl/2) (wd)
V = (20*3.5/2)-(20*0.38)
V = 27.4KN.
c,nominal shear stress = (V/bd) = (27.4*10/200*380) = 0.36N/mm.
c,permissible shear stress:
% of tension steel = 100As/bd.
= (100*4*314)/(200*380)
= 1.65%
for 1.65% steel and M20 grade concrete,
c = 0.46N/mm

(table 23 of IS:456-2000)

therefore no shear reinforcement is required.

However, provideing minimum shear reinforcement as per (cl. of IS:456-2000)

(Asv/b*sv) (0.4/0.87fy)
providing 6mm 2-legged vertical stirrups, spacing required.
Sv [(Asv*0.87fy)/(0.4*b)] = [(2*28.3*0.87*250)/(0.4*200)]
= 153.74mm
maximum spacing of shear reinforcement = 0.75*d = 0.75*380 = 285mm
Therefore provide 6mm 2-legged vertical stirrups @ 150mm c/c through out the span.
(2) A reinforcement concrete rectangular beam 400mm wide and 700mm overall
depth is simply supported over a span of 6m. It carries a concentrated load of
150KN at 1.0m from one end in addition to a super imposed load of 18KN/m. The
section is reinforced with 6 nos of 20mm bars of grade Fe415 using M20 concrete,
calculatethe shear reinforcement if
(a) Only vertical stirrups are used.
(b) Two bars are bent up at 45 at the same cross section.
(c) Two groups of bars are bent up at 45, each group consisting of 2-bars each
group separated by 600mm (Design in L.S.M)


w = 18KN/m

L = 6m
199 KN

174.44 KN

Ast = 6*314
99.16 KN

Assuming the given span as clear span shear force at the critical section (at d
from the face of support )
V = (W*5/6)+(w*l/2) (w*d).
Where d = 700-35 = 665mm
Self weight of beam = 0.4*0.7*1*25 = 7KN/m
Therefore V = (150*5/6)+(25*6/2) (25*0.665).
= 182.7KN
Vu = 1.5V = 275KN.
v,nominal shear stress = (Vu/bd) = (275*10/400*665)
= 1.03/mm
c,permissible shear stress:
% of steel = (100As/bd) = (100*314*6)/(400*665)
= 0.71
for 0.71% steel and M20 grade concrete,
c = 0.54N/mm (table19)

c,max. = 2.2N/mm (table 24 of IS:456-2000)

c < v < c,max.

therefore provide reinforcement

(A) Only vertical stirrups are used.

Vus, shear to be resisted by stirrups = Vu-Vc
Vc, shear resistance of concrete = c.b.d
= 0.54*400*665
= 143.6KN
Vus = 275-143.6 = 131.4KN
Using 10mm 2-legged vertical stirrups,spacing required
Sv = (Asv*0.87fy*d)/Vus
= (2*78.5*0.87*415*665)/131400
= 286.9mm.
Maximum spacing as per minimum shear reinforcement requirement
Sv = (Asv*0.87*fy)/(0.4*b)
= (2*78.5*0.87*415)/(0.4*400)
= 354mm.
However maximum spacing shall not exceed 0.75d = 0.75*665 = 499mm
Therefore provide 10mm 2- legged vertical stirrups @280mm c/c for a length of 1m
from the respective ends. At the centre minimum shear reinforcement of 10mm 2legged @350mm c/c shall be provided.



d= 665mm

v, nominal shear stress = 0.69N/mm (as before)
Assume that bars 2 and 5 are bent up at 45.
When 2 bars are bent up, remaining bars are 4 nos and they continued to the support.
Therefore % of tension reinforcement = (100*As/bd)
= (100*4*314/400*665)
= 0.47%.
therefore for 0.47% steel & M20 grade concrete,
c, permissible shear stress = 0.47N/mm.
c < v < c,max
Therefore provide shear reinforcement.
Vuc, shear resistance of concrete = c.b.d
= 0.47*400*665
= 125KN
Vus, shear to be resisted by stirrups = Vu-Vc
= 275-125
= 150KN.
Actual shear strength of 2 bent up bars.
= Asv*0.87fy*sin
= 2*314*0.87*415*sin45
= 160.3KN.
However, maximum contribution of shear possible by bent up bars = 50% of Vus
= 0.5*150
= 75KN
Net shear to be resisted by vertical stirrups = 0.5*150 = 75KN.
Using 8mm 2-legged vertical stirrups, spacing
Sv = (Asv*0.87fy*d)/(0.5*Vus)
= (2*50*0.87*415*665)/(75*10)
= 320mm

Maximum spacing from minimum shear reinforcement,

Sv = (Asv*0.87fy)/(0.4b)
= (2*50*0.87*415)/(0.4*400)
= 225.6mm
Maximum spacing = 0.75d
= 499mm
Therefore provide 8mm 2-legged stirrups @225mm c/c through out the span in
addititional to bent up bars near the supports.
(C) When two groups(2-bars of 20mm) of bars are bent at 45 and each group is
separated by 600mm.




tan = d/a
a = (d/tan)= d.cot

tan = d/b
b = d/tan = d.cot

a+b = d.cot + d.cot

= d(cot +d.cot)
n, no of inclined bars or stirrups = d(cot +d.cot)/Sv
vertical component of tensile resistance in inclined bars crossing diagonal crack.
Vs = Asv*sv*sin*n.
= [Asv*sv*d*(cot+cot)*sin] / Sv
Assuming that the crack is located at = 45, the above relation simplifies to.
Vs = [Asv*sv* d*(cot+cot)] / Sv
c,permissible shear stress:
% of steel = [(2*314)/(400*665)]*100
= 0.24%
for 0.24% steel & M20 concrete, c = 0.28N/mm
Therefore design shear reinforcement
Vc, shear to be resisted by steel = 182.72-58.52
= 124.2KN
Actual shear resistance of series of bent up bars
= [Asv*sv*d*(sin +cos)] / Sv
= [2*314*230*665*(sin 45 +cos45)] / 600
= 226.7KN.
However maximum contribution of bent up bars = 0.5*124.2
= 62.1KN.
Therefore Net shear to be resisted by vertical stirrups = 62.1KN.
Spacing of 8mm 2-legged vertical stirrups
Sv = (Asv*sv*d)/(0.5*Vs) = (2*50*230*665)/(0.5*124.2*10)
= 246.3mm.
minimum shear reinforcement = 226mm
maximum spacing = 499mm

Therefore provide 8mm 2-legged vertical stirrups @225mm c/c.

Vu = factored shear force or design shear force = 1.5V
v = nominal shear stress = Vu/bd
c = permissible shear stress is related to % of tension steel& grade of concrete(table:19)
c,max. = refer table 20 of IS:456-2000
Vuc = shear resistance of concrete = c.b.d.
Vus = shear to be resisted by steel = Vu-c.b.d
For vertical stirrups:
V'us = (0.87*fy*Asv*d)/Sv
For bent up bars(single group):
Vus = 0.87*fy*Asv*sin.
For series of bent up bars or inclined stirrups:
V'us = [0.87*fy*Asv*d*( sin +cos)]/Sv.
However V'us 0.5Vus
Minimum shear reinforcement:
Sv = (0.87*fy*Asv)/(0.4*b)
a rectangular beam 350mm wide and 500mm effective consist of 4-25mm bars out
of which two bars are to be bent up at 1m from support with 45 inclination. Design
the shear reinforcement the beam is subjected to shear force of linear variation with
200KN at the support and zero at mid span, which is 3m from support. Use M25
concrete and Fe415 steel. Adopt L.S.M
Maximum shear force at the face of support = 200KN
Shear force at the critical section located at d from the face of support
Vu = 200(2.5/3) = 166.7KN.
v, nominal shear stress = (Vu/bd) = (166.7*10/350*500)
= 0.95N/mm

% of tension steel after bending up 2-25mm bars is (remaining bars consists of 225mm)
= 100*As/(bd) = (100*2*491)/(350*500) = 0.56
for 0.56% steel & M25 concrete
c,permissible shear stress = 0.51N/mm
c,max. for M25 concrete = 3.1N/mm
c <v < c,max.
Design shear reinforcement.

c.s for shear

d = 500

Ast = 4-25mm



Vu = 200*2.5/3


Shear to be resisted by steel, Vus = Vu Vuc

= Vu - c.b.d
= 166.7 (0.51*350*500/1000)

= 77.5KN.
shear resistance of a single group of bent up bars , V'us = 0.87*fy*Asv*sin
= 0.87*415*2*491*sin45
= 250.7KN.< 0.5Vus
shear to be resisted by vertical stirrups = 0.5*Vus
= 0.5*77.5
= 38.75KN.
providing 8mm 2-legged vertical stirrups spacing = (0.87*fy*Asv*d)/(0.5*Vus)
= (0.87*415*2*50*500)/38.5*10
= 465.8mm
Spacing of minimum shear reinforcement = (0.87*fy*asv)/(0.4*b)
= (0.87*415*2*50)/(.04*350)
= 258mm
Maximum spacing = 0.75*d = 0.75*500
= 375mm
provide 8mm 2-legged vertical stirrups @ 250mm c/c through out.

BOND: The grip of the reinforcement and concrete due to adhesion or bearing is termed
as bond.
Development length: A length of reinforcement embedded in concrete so that it can
develop the stress by bond is termed as development length.
The bond between concrete and steel is responsible for the transfer of axial
force from a reinforcing bar to the surrounding concrete, there by providing strain
compatibility and composite action of concrete and steel.If this bond is adequate, slipping
of reinforcing bar will occur, destroying full composite action.
It is through the action of bond resistance that the axial stress in a reinforcing bar
can under go variation from point to point along its length had the bond been absent, the
stress at all points on a straight bar would be constant, as a string or a straight cable.
Bond resistance in R.C.C. is achieved through the following mechanism.
(1) Chemical action: Due to a gum-like property in the products of hydration formed
during the making of concrete.
(2) Frictional resistance: Due to surface roughness of the reinforcement and the grip
extended by the concrete shrinkage.
(3) Mechanical interlock: Due to surface protrusions or ribs provided in deformed
Bond stress(bd):
Bond resistance is achieved by the development of tangential stress (shear)
components along the inter face (contact surface) between the reinforcing bar and the
surrounding concrete. The stress so developed at the inter face is called bond stress, and
is expressed in terms of the tangential face per unit nominal surface area of the
reinforcing bar.


Development length:
Pull out test:To find development length, consider a pull out test as shown in fig.
Diameter of rod =
Embedment length = Ld
Pull = P
Average bond stress in concrete = bd
Working stress in bar = s
Let the axial pull P is increased gradully pull P is noted when the bar is puled out.
The bond resistance of concrete and the strength of bar can be equated.
bd**Ld = (s*)/4
Ld = (s*)/(4*bd) = (s)/(4*bd)

[cl.26.2.1 of IS:456]

Where Ld is known as development length.

In working stress designs (ref. Table 21)
s = st = 140N/mm for mild steel
= 230 N/mm for HYSD bars.
In limit state method


s =0.87fy
Flexural bond stress:




At certain locations in a beam, high bond stress may arise due to large variations of
bending moment over a short distance, i.e. high shear force.These bond stress are called
flexural bond stresses and must be checked at the face of a simply support and at the

points of inflection with in continuous spans.At these locations, tensile capacity to be

developed is usually small but the rate of change of tensile stresses in the bars is high.
Let the increase in tension between sectio(1) and (2) x meters apart be equal to T
T = M/jd
Let bd be the local bond stress and o the parimeter of steel bars provided.
Equating the forces
bd * o * dx = T = dM /jd
bd = (dM/dx) * 1/(o*jd) = V/(o * jd)


parallally for a group of n bars the development length Ld required ,

n***Ld*bd = Ast *s
Ld = (Ast*s)/( o*bd)

bd = (Ast*s)/( o*Ld)


Equating bd from equations (1) and (2)

V/(o*jd) = (Ast*s)/( o*Ld)
Ld = (Ast*s*jd)/V = M1/V


Where M1 = M.R.with respect to tension steel alone at the section under consideration
V = shear force at the same section
If the permissible bond stress bd is not be exceeded, the ratio M1/V be must be equal to
or greater than Ld. As an additional factor of safety, the code has added, the anchorage
length Lo to the right hand side of Eq (3).,i.e.
Ld (M1/V)+Lo.
Where Lo = sum of the anchorage beyond the centre of support.
Anchorage bond stress:
(ref. development length)
anchorage value of hooks:
(a) Deformed bars may be used without end anchorages provided development length
required is satisfied.
(b) (1) Bends: The anchorage value of bend shall be taken as 4 times of the diameter
of the bar for each 45 bend subjected to a max. of 16.

(2) Hooks: The anchorage value of standard U- type hook shall be equal to 16.






Min. value of n for mild steel is 2 and for other steels is 4.