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DESIGN OF CANTILEVER BEAM (L.S.

M)

1) Design a cantilever beam of span 3m subjected to u.d.l of 10KN/m.

useM20 grade concrete and HYSD bars. Design as per L.S.M.
Data:
For M20 grade concrete, fck = 20N/mm.
For HYSD bars, fy = 415N/mm.
Super imposed load = 10KN/m.
Span = 3m.
xu max. = 0.48d.
Breadth and depth of the beam:
Assume depth, d = L/7 = 3000/7 = 428mm.
let us adopt overall depth of the beam, D = 500mm.
at the fixed end. The depth can be reduced to 200mm (min. is 150mm) at the free
end. Where the B.M will be zero. Provide, b= D/2 = 500/2= 250mm.
the effective span = clear span for cantilevers = 3m.
eff. Cover = 40mm.
d, eff. Depth = 500-40 =460mm.

Self weight of beam = (0.5+0.2)/2 *0.25*3*25 = 6.56KN/m.

This acts at = 3/3[(0.5+2*0.2)/(0.5+0.2)] = 1.29m from the fixed end.

Taking a load factor of 1.5,
Factored B.M at fixed end = (1.5*10*3/2)+(1.5*6.56*1.29) = 80.15KN.m.
Depth for B.M:
M.R of a singly reinforced balanced section
Mu = 0.36*fck*b*xu max.*(d-(0.42 xu max)) ---------------------- (1)
80.15*10^6= 0.36*20*250*0.48*d.*(d-(0.42 *0.48*d))
80.15*10^6 = 689.8d
d=340.8mm <460mm (available depth) o.k.
Depth provided is larger than the depth required for balanced section the section
becomes U.R.section
Steel for bending moment:
To find steel area,
Mu=0.87*fy*Ast(d-0.42xu)
Where xu, depth of neutral axis for U.R.section
This is given by
Total compression = total tension
0.36fck*b*xu=0.87fy*Ast
xu =[ (0.87fy*Ast)/(0.36fck*b)]
=[ (0.87*415*Ast)/(0.36*20*250)]
= 0.2006 Ast
Substituting this in equation (1)
Mu= 0.87*415*Ast (460-(0.42*0.2006Ast))
80.15*10^6 =166083 Ast- 30.42Ast
Ast = 535mm
Min Ast= 0.85bd/fy
=0.85*250*460/415 = 236mm < 535 mm o.k.
Using 16mm-dia bars, no. of bars =535/201
=2.7 =3bars
Provide 3 16 mm dia bars at the top

Check for deflection:

Actual l/d = 3000/460 =6.52
Allowable l/d = (basic l/d)****
= 1, =1, =1
, modification factor for percentage of steel and stress in steel is given by,
% steel= [(3*201)/ (250*460)] *100 =0.52%
Stress in steel = 0.85*fy*(Ast required / Ast provided)
=0.85*415*(2.67 / 3)
= 214 N/mm
Ref. to fig 4 of IS-456,=1.4
Basic l/d= 7 for cantilevers (clause 23.2.1)
Allowable l/d= 7*1.4 =9.8 > actual l/d

o.k.

Check for shear:

Factored max. Shear force at the fixed end = 1.5(10*3) + 1.5(6.56)
= 54.84 KN.
v , nominal shear = for beams of varying depth ,v =[Vu-((Mu/d)*tan)]/bd
v =[54.84*10^3- ((80.15*10^6/460)*0.1)]/250*460
= 0.33 N/mm
For 0.52% steel and M20 grade concrete
c , permissible shear stress = 0.49 N/mm > v
There fore provide minimum shear reinforcement.
Using 8mm dia 2-legged vertical stirrups
Spacing = Asv* (0.87fy)/(0.4b) = 2*50* (0.87*415)/(0.4*250)
= 361mm
Max. Spacing = 0.75 d
= 0.75*460 =345 mm.
There fore, provide 8mm dia 2-legged vertical stirrups @ 300mm c/c. through out .
Check for development length:
Inorder to develop full tensile strength at the face of support, each of the 3-16dia bars
must be embedded by a length equal to the development length.
Ld= s/4bd

= *(0.87fy)/(4*1.2*1.6) = 47.01

500
mm

= 752mm.
Check for cracking:
Clear distance between bars = [(250-(2*25)-(3*16)]/2
= 76mm<180mm

250mm

(o.k)

Ast provided is 3*201 = 603 mm

Min. Ast = 236mm <Ast provided (o.k.)
Max. Ast = 0.04 bD
= 0.04*250*500 = 5000mm >Ast provided (o.k.)
Curtailment of longitudinal reinforcement:
The reinforcement can be curtailed towards the free end of the cantilever as bending
moment decreases very rapidly.
Let us curtail 1-16 bar at x distance from free end where this is not required to resist
bending moment.
Effective depth of the beam at distance x =200-40 + [(460-160)/3000]*x
= 160 +0.1 x .mm.
Factored bending moment at x from free end = 80.15*10^6*x/3000
= 8.91x
Area of the remaining 2-16 bars = 2*201 =402 mm
M.R. = 0.87fy*Ast(d-0.42xu)
Where xu= (0.87*fy*Ast)/ (0.36*fck*b) = (0.87*415*2*201)/(0.36*20*250)
= 80.63mm.
There fore, 8.91x = (0.87*415*402) [(160+0.1x)-80.63]
= 11519928+14514.2x
x = 2213 mm.& d = 381.3 mm
Hence, 1-16 can be curtailed at (3000-2213) 787mm from the fixed end.
However as per clause 26.2.3.1 , the reinforcement shall extend beyond the point at
which it is no longer required. To resist flexure for a distance equal to the effective depth
of the member or 12 which ever is greater.
Here d= 381.3mm
12 = 12*16 =192mm

Greater is 381.3 mm.

Extend the for a length of 381.3mm from the theoretical cutoff point.
Practical cutoff point = 787+381.3
= 1168.3

say 1170mm.

Min.distance at which any bar can be curtailed from the fixed end is Ld = 752mm<
1170mm(o.k.)
Further ,the remaining 2-16 bars must be continued upto a length Ld beyond the
Actual cutoff point in order to develop their full tensile strength at that section.

(P) Design the lintel and sun shade over an opening 2m wide in a wall 300mm
thickness. The length of the sun shade is 750mm.the live load on sunshade is
500N/m and the density of masonry is 19KN/m.The height of opening is 2m with
the height of the floor being 3.2m.Use M20 concrete and Fe415 steel.

The 750mm wide sunshade act as a cantilever with clear span = 0.75m
It will be designed for a unit width and the same reinforcement will be provided in the
entire width.
Let the overall thickness of sunshade be 1/10 th of span = 750/10 =75mm
(2) Loads and bending moment:

Total load = 2.375 KN/m
For 1m wide strip, load per a meter = 2.375KN/m
Wu,factored load = 1.5*2.375 =3.56KN/m
Mu,factored bending moment = Wul/2
= 3.56*0.75/2 = 1.002KN-m.
(3) Depth for bending moment
M.R.of a singly reinforced balanced section = 0.36*fck*b*xumax(d-0.42xumax)
1.002*10^6 = 0.36*20*1000*0.48d(d-0.42*0.48d)
d = 19.1mm

too small

adopt 75mm overall depth at the fixed end and 50mm overall depth at free end.
Effective depth at fixed end = 75-15-6/2 =57mm > 19.1mm (O.K.)
Depth provided is larger than the depth required for a balanced section. and here the
section become under reinforced section.
(4) Steel for B.M.:
Mu= 0.87*fy*Ast*(d-0.42xu)
Where xu = [(0.87*fy*Ast)/(0.36*fck*b)] = [(0.87*415*Ast)/(0.36*20*1000)]
= 0.05Ast
1.002*10^6 =0.87*415*Ast*[57-0.42(0.05Ast)]
Ast-2707.5Ast+131842 =0
Ast = 50mm
However minimum Ast = 0.12%of b*D
= 0.12/100*1000*(75+50/2)= 75mm
Therefore provide minimum Ast = 75mm
Using 6mm, spacing = (28.5/75)*1000 = 380mm
<3*d = 3*75 = 171mm
<450mm
Therefore provide 6mm@ 170mmc/c at top of sunshade as shown in fig. also provide
distribution steel in the transverse direction @0.12%of b*D = 75mm
Therefore provide 6mm@170mm c/c.

(5) Check for deflection:

Actual l/d = 750/57 = 13.16
Allowable l/d = (basic l/d)****
Basic l/d = 7for cantilever slab
, modification factor for %steel & stress in steel is given by,
%steel = [[(1000/170)*28.3]/(1000*57)]*100 = 0.3%
Stress in steel = 0.58fy*(Ast req)/(Ast provided)
= 0.58*415*50/((1000/170)*28.3)
= 72.3N/mm
, from fig. no 4 of IS 456= 2
Therefore allowable l/d = 7*2 = 14 > actual l/d

(safe.)

(6) check for shear:

Factored S.F at the end of fixed end for 1m wide strip = [0.75*0.5+
((0.075+0.05)/2)*0.75*25]
Vu = 2.32KN
v, nominal shear stress = Vu/(b*d) = 2.32*10/(1000*57)
= 0.04n/mm
c, shear strength of M20 grade concrete @0.3% steel
Design shear strength of slab = k.c = 1.3*0.38 >> v
(7) Check for development length:

(safe.)

In order to develop full tensile strength at the face of support, extended the reinforcement
for a length Ld in to the support Ld = ( s)/(4bd) = 47 = 47*6 = 282mm
Design of lintel:
The clear span of lintel = 2m
Assuming width of bearing on either side as 300mm
Assume breadth of lintel = thickness of wall = 0.3m
Assume depth of lintel, d = l/10 =200mm
D, overall depth of lintel = 200+40 = 240mm
Effective span is given by
(1) c/c of bearings = 2+0.3/2+0.3/2 = 2.3m
(2) clear span + d = 2+0.2 = 2.2m
The least of the above is effective span, l =2.2m

The height of roof above the bottom of lintel =3.2-2 = 1.2m <1.25 (1.91)
Therefore no arch action is possible.
Sin 60 = h/l
or h= l*sin 60 = 2.2*sin 60
= 1.91m
Hence loading due to wall will be uniform.

Self weight of lintel = 0.3*0.24*1*25 = 1.8KN/m.

Dead load of masonry above lintel = (1.2-0.24)*0.3*19 = 5.47KN/m.
Super imposed load from floor slab = 15KN/m

(assumed)

Load from sunshade =n 0.75*1*0.5+ [(0.075+0.05)/2]*0.75*1*25 = 1.55KN/m

Total load on lintel = 23.82KN/m
Factored load = 1.5(23.82) = 35.73KN/m
Max. B.M = wl/8 = 35.73*2.2/8 = 21.61KN-m.
Depth for B.M:
M.R of singly reinforced balanced section, Mu = 0.36*fck*xumax(d-0.42xumax)
Where xu max = 0.48d
B = 300mm
Fck = 20N/mm
21.61*10^6 = 0.36*20*300*0.48d*(d-0.42*0.48d)
d =(21.61*10^6/(0.138*20*300)) = 161.5mm
Effective depth available = 200mm > d required

(o.k)

Depths provide is larger than depth required for a balanced section. And hence the section
becomes under reinforced section.
Steel for B.M:
Mu = 0.87*fy*Ast(d- 0.42xu)
Where xu = [(0.87*fy*Ast)/(0.36*fck*b)] = [(0.87*415*Ast)/(0.36*20*300)]
= 0.167Ast.
21.61*10^6 = 0.87*415*Ast(200-0.42*0.167Ast)
21.61*10^6 = 72210Ast-25.27Ast
Ast = 340mm
Minimum Ast = 0.85bd/fy = 0.85*300*200/415 = 123mm <Ast required
Provide Ast = 340mm
No of 16mm required = 340/211 = 1.7~2 bars
Provide 2-16mm at bottom
Check for deflection:
Actual l/d = 2200/201 = 11
Allowable l/d = (basic l/d)****

for %steel = [(2*201)/(300*200)]*100 = 0.67%

And stress in steel = 0.58*fy [Ast req/Ast prov]
= 0.58*415*[340/102] = 203.6N/mm
from fig. 4 of IS456 = 1.3
Basic l/d = 20

(o.k)

Check for shear:

Factored S.F = Vu = wu.l/2 = 35.73*2/2 = 35.73KN.
v = Vu/bd = [(35.73*10)/(300*200)] = 0.6N/mm.
c, permissible shear stress for M20 concrete with 0.67% steel = 0.53N/mm.
c <v < cmax=2.8N/mm
Provide shear reinforcement
Shear to be resisted by steel = Vu-(c*b*d)
= 35.73*10-(0.53*300*200)
Vus = 3.93*10N. = 3.93KN.
Using 6mm 2-legged vertical stirrups, spacing = (Asv*0.87*fyd)/Vus
(2*28.3*0.87*415*200)/3.93*10 = 1040mm.
Spacing of minimum shear reinforcement = (Asv*0.87*fy)/(0.4*b)
= (2*28.3*0.87*415)/(0.4*300)
= 170mm
Max. Spacing = 0.75*d = 0.75*200 = 150mm
Provide 6mm 2-legged vtl. stirrups@150mm c/c
Check for development length:
1.3*(M1/V) +Lo>= Ld
Ld = (*s)/(4*bd) = (*0.87*fy)/(4*bd) = (16*0.87*415)/(4*1.2*1.6) = 47
= 752mm
M1 = M.R = 0.87*fy*Ast(d-0.42xu)
= 0.87*415*2*201*(200-(0.42*0.167*402))
= 24.94KN-m
Vu = 35.73KN.
Lo = bs/2-25-3+8+100

= 150-25-3*16+8*16+100 = 305mm
1.3(M1/V)+Lo = 1.3*[(24.94*10^6)/(35.73*10)]+305 = 1212mm > Ld

(safe)

T- Beam floor
A hall of internal dimensions of 6m*15m has beans spaced at 3m c/c. the
beams are supported by wall around 300mm thick design the T-beam roof for a live
load intensity of 1.5KN/m use M20mix and Fe415 steel.

ly/lx = 6/3 = 2
Therefore the slab is designed as one way slab
Design of intermediate slab
Assume width of beam = 300mm.
Thickness of slab from deflection criteria:
lx/d = 26
Assume = 1.2
d = lx/ (26*1.2) = 3000/(26*1.2) = 96mm
Assuming a clear cover of 15mm for 10mm bars.
Overall depth, D = 96+15+10/2 = 120mm.
Provide D = 120mm.
Effective depth provide = 120-20 = 100mm.

Dead load of slab = 0.12*25 = 3KN/m
Live load on slab = 1.5KN/m
Assume floor finish = 1KN/m
Total load = 5.5KN/m
Factored load = 1.5*5.5 = 8.25KN/m
Consider 1m wide strip:
Effective span for interior span is ( as per cl.22.2.b)
As the width of support (here beam) = 300mm > 1/12 of clear span = (1/12)*2700 =
225mm
The eff. Span for intermediate spans is clear span
i.e. l =2700mm.
for intermediate span, -ve B.M at support = (wd*l/12)+(wl*l/9)
= (4*2.7/12) + (1.5*2.7/9)
= 3.645KN-m
+ve B.M at mid span = (wd*l/16) + (wl*l/12) = (4*2.7/16) + (1.5*2.7/12)
= 2.73KN-m.
Factored B.Ms:
At support = 1.5*3.465 = 5.47KN-m
At mid span = 1.5*2.73 = 4.1KN-m
Check the depth for B.M:
Mu = 0.36*fck*b*xumax(d-0.42xumax)
Where xumax = 0.48d
5.46*10^6 = 0.36*20*1000*0.48d*(d-0.42*0.48d)
d = 44.52mm < d provide

(o.k)

the depth provide is larger than the depth required for a balanced section, the section
becomes U.R section
Steel for B.M:
For U.R sections,
Ast for ve B.M = (0.5*fck*b*d/fy)*[1-(1-((4.6*Mu)/(fck*b*d)))]
= (0.5*20*1000*100/415)*[1-(1-((4.6*5.47*10^6)/(20*1000*100)))]

= 157mm.
Ast for +ve B.M = (0.5*fck*b*d/fy)*[1-(1-((4.6*Mu)/(fck*b*d)))]
= 0.5*20*1000*100/415)*[1-(1-((4.6*4.1*10^6)/(20*1000*100)))]
= 116mm <Ast minimum
Therefore provide minimum Ast = 0.12% 0f b*D = (0.12/100)*1000*120 = 144mm.
Using 8mm, spacing = (a/Ast)*1000 = 50/157)*1000 = 318mm c/c
But the spacing should not exceed
3*d = 3*100 = 300mm
450mm
Provide 8mm @ 300mm c/c on top at supports.
At mid span (for +ve B.M)
Using 8mm, spacing = (a/Ast)*1000 = (50/144)*1000 = 347mm c/c
But spacing should not exceeded
3*d = 3*100 = 300mm
450mm.
Therefore provide 8mm 300mm c/c at bottom near the mid span.
Distribution steel @0.12% of c.s area = 144mm
Provide 8mm@

(50/144)*1000 = 347mm

But the maximum spacing

< 450mm
< 5*d = 500mm
Provide 8mm 340mm c/c both at top and bottom as shown in fig.
Check for deflection:
Actual l/d ratio = 2700/100 = 27
Allowable l/d = (basic l/d)* ***
Basic l/d =26 fot continuous slabs
% of steel = [((1000/300)*50)/(1000*100)]*100 = 0.17%
Stress in steel = 0.58*(Ast req/Ast prov) = 0.58*415*(116/167) = 167N/mm
from fig. 4 of IS 456 = 2
allowable l/d = 26*2 = 52 > allowable l/d

(o.k)

Check for shear:

S.F coefficients:
Shear force at interior supports
Due to dead load = 0.50wd*l = 0.5*4*2.7 = 5.4KN.
Due to live load = 0.60wl*l = 0.6*1.5*2.7 = 2.43KN.
Total S.F = 7.83KN.
Factored S.F = Vu = 1.5*7.83 = 11.75KN.
v, nominal shear stress = Vu/(bd)= 11.75*10/(1000*100) = 0.12N/mm
c, permissible shear stress for 0.17% steel&M20 concrete = 0.296N/mm
c, for slabs = ks c = 1.3*0.296 = 0.38N/mm
(where ks = 1.3 for D< 150mm) > v

(safe)

Check for development length:

At points of inflection
Ld <= (M1/V) + Lo
Ld = (*s)/(4*bd) = (8*0.87*415)/(4*1.6*0.8) = 564mm
M1 = M.R
= 0.87*fy*Ast(d-0.42*xu)
xu = (0.87*fy*Ast)/(0.36*fck*b)
M1 = 0.87*fy*Ast(d-0.42*((0.87*fy*Ast)/(0.36*fck*b)))\
= 0.87*fy*Ast(d-((fy*Ast)/(fck*b)))
Ast = (1000/300)*50 = 166mm
M1 = 0.87*415*166(100-((415*166)/(20*1000)))
= 5.78KN-m
Shear force at point of inflection assume point of inflection at (0.15l) from the face of the
support.
S.F = shear force at the face of the support------------ (0.15l)*wu
= 11.75-(0.15*2.7)*8.25 = 8.4KN.
Lo = 12 = 12*8 = 96mm
d = 100mm
Grater of the above is 100mm
Lo = 100mm

(M1/V)+Lo = (5.78*10^6/8.4*10)+100 = 787mm.

> Ld

(safe)

Design of beam:
(1) breadth and depth of the beam:
Clear span of the beam = 6m
Assume depth as 1/15 of L = (1/15)*6000 = 400mm
Overall depth = 400+50eff cover = 450mm.
Let breadth of the beam = 300mm
Effective span:
(1) clear span +c/c of bearings = 6000+300/2+300/2 = 6300mm
(2) clear span +d = 6000+400 = 6400mm
The least of the above is l = 6300mm
Effective flange width = (lo/6)+bw+6Df = (6300/6)+300+(6*120) = 2070mm <3000mm
Therefore take bf = 2070mm
(3) loads and B.M:

Load from slab = (1.5+1+3)*3 = 16.5KN/m

Self weight of rib = 0.3*0.33*1*25 = 2.5KN/m
Total load per meter run of the beam = 19KN/m
Max. B.M = wu*l/8 = 28.5*6.3/8 = 141.4KN-m
Depth of N.A :
Assume N.A lies in flange b = bf
Total comp. = total ten.
0.36*fck*b*xu = 0.87*fy* Ast
xu = (0.87*fy*Ast)/(0.36*fck*bf)

Steel:
Equating M.R to design B.M,
Mu = 0.87*fy*Ast(d- 0.42xu)
Ast = (0.5*fck*b*d/fy)*[1-(1-((4.6*Mu)/(fck*b*d)))]
= (0.5*20*2070*400/415)*[1-(1-((4.6*141.6*10^6)/(20*2070*400)))]
= 1005mm.
xu = (0.87*415*1005)/(0.36*20*2070) = 24.34mm< Df
Therefore our assumption is correct.
Minimum Ast = (0.85*bw*d)/fy
= (0.85*300*400)/415 = 246mm.
Provide 1005mm.
Using 16mm, no of bars = 1005/201 = 5 bars.
Provide 5-16mm bars at bottom.
Check for deflection:
Actual l/d = 6300/400 = 15.75
Allowable l/d = (basic l/d)****
% of steel = [(5*201)/(2070*400)] = 0.12%
Stress in steel = 0.58*fy*(Ast req/Ast prov) = 240N/mm
from fig. 4 of IS 456 = 2
modification factor for flanged section- related to ratio of (web width/ flange width)
= 300/2070 = 0.145
= 0.8

= 32

Check for shear:

Cross section for shear lies at d from the face of the support
Vu , shear at the critical section = wu*l/2 (wu*d)
= 28.5*6/2-(28.5*0.4) = 74.1KN.
v, nominal shear stress = Vu/bw*d = 74.1*10/(300*400)
= 0.62 N/mm
c, permissible shear stress for % of steel = [(5*201)/(300*400)]*100 = 0.84%
and M20 grade concrete is = 0.58N/mm < v
c<v <cmax =2.8N/mm
there fore provide shear reinforcement .
using 8mm 2-legged vertical stirrups
spacing is
(1) [Asv*0.87*fy*d]/Vus =[ 2*50*0.87*415*400]/(4.5*1000)
= 3209 mm
(2) Asv*0.87*fy/0.4b

= 2*50*0.87*415/(0.4*300)
= 301 mm

(3) 0.75d

Vus, shear to be resisted by steel = Vu-Vuc =74.1-(0.58*300*400/1000)

= 4.5 KN.
The least of the above is 300 mm
Provide 8mm 2-legged vertical stirrups @ 300mm c/c through out.

Check for development length:

Ld <= 1.3(M1/V) + Lo
Ld = (*0.87*fy)/(4*bd)
= (16*0.87*415)/(4*1.6*0.8)
= 1128 mm.
M1= 0.87*fy*Ast(d-(fy*Ast/fck*b))
= 0.87*415*5*201(400-(415*5*201/20*300))
= 119.9 KN-m.
V= 28.5*6/2 = 85.5 KN.
Lo = (bs/2)-25-3+8+100
= 150-25-3*16+8*16+100
= 305 mm.
(1.3M1/V)+Lo = 1.3(119.9*10^6/85.5*10)+305
= 2128 mm

>Ld

(O.K)

Design of a section subjected to B.M.,S.F. and Torsion Moment.

2) Design a rectangular beam 300 mm wide and 600 mm deep subjected to a BM of
100 kN-m, shear force of 25 kN and twisting moment of 40 kN-m. Use M20 grade

concrete

and

HYSD

bars.Design
300 mm

as

per

LSD

method.

600 mm

A).
Mu = 80 kN-m

Vu = 70 kN

Tu = 40 kN-m

Assume effective cover = 50mm

effective depth = d = 600 50 = 550m
Equivalent shear Ve = Vu + 1.6Tu/b = 70 + 1.6 * 40/0.3 = 283.3 kN.
ve equivalent nominal shear stress =

Ve
283.3 * 10 3

1.72 N / mm 2
bd
300 * 450

Assuming % tension steel as 0.25%

c for M20 concrete = 0.36 N/mm2 (table 19)
cmax for M20 concrete = 2.8 N/mm2
c<ve<cmax
Torsion reinforcement is required in the form of longitudinal steel and
transverse reinforcement.

Longitudinal steel
Equivalent B.M = Me1 = Mu + Mt.
l D /b
1 600 / 300
40

70.6kN .m.
1. 7
1. 7

Where, M t Tu
Me1 = 80 +70.6

= 150.6 kN m.

Mt < Mu No steel is required on compression face. (cl.: 41.4.2.1)

Check depth
Me1 = 0.36 fck b xumax (d-0.42 xumax)
Xumax = 0.48d
150.6*106 = 0.36 *20*300*0.48d( d- 0.42 *0.48d)
d = 438 mm

< d available (o.k)

Since d available is greater than drequired for a balanced section,the section will be designed as
U.R.Beam.
Ast

0.5 fckbd
fy

1 1

4.6 M e1
fckbd 2

0.5 * 20 * 300 * 550

4.6 * 150.6 * 10 6
1 1

415
20 * 300 * 550 2

=849.5 mm2
min Ast

0.85bd
0.85 * 300 * 550

fy
415

Using16 bars no. of bars = 849.5/201 = 4.22 5

Provide 5 16 at the bottom.
Transverse Reinforcement:
Assuming 10 - 2 legged vertical stirrups
Spacing is given by
1). From strength requirement (as per clause 41.4.3)
Asv

Tu Sv
VuSv

b1d 1(0.87 fy ) 2.5d 1(0.87 fy )

b1
d1
157.08

b [2 (25) + 2 (16/2)]

300 66 = 234

40 * 10 6 * Sv
70 * 10 3 * Sv

1.10Sv

Sv

142 mm

Asv

(ve - c) b Sv
0.87 fy

157.08

2).

157.08

0.87 * 415

c based on 5- 16 mm dia. Bars

% steel = 5*201*100/300*550 = 0.61
For 0.61% steel and M 20 grade concrete, c = 0.52 N/mm2
Sv

282.15 mm.

Transverse reinforcement as per Cl. 26.5.1.7 of IS 456

3).

Spacing , Sv = x1
x1

= 234 + 16 + 10 = 260 mm

y1

= 600 2 (50) + 2(16/2) + 2(10/2)

= 526 mm.

4)

x1 y1 260 526

196.5
4
4

5)

300 mm.
Provide stirrups at 140 c/c
As the depth is greater than 450mm provide side face reinforcement @ 0.1% of

C.S area (Cl.25.5.1.7(b))

=

0.1
* 300 * 600 180mm 2
100

Using 12 , no of bars

180
= 1.59 2.
113

Provide 2-12 on each side, and also provide 2-12 at top as anchor bars

Reinforcement details