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TITLE: Dimensional Measurement of Screw Thread

OBJECTIVE
1) To measure the Major Diameter, the Minor Diameter and the Effective Diameter of
a Screw Plug Gauge using Floating Carriage Diameter Measuring Machine and
Horizontal/Vertical Profile Projector.
2) To compare the reading between 2 measuring machine.
3) To compare the reading with the standard value.
4) To compare the accuracy of two measuring machine.
INTRODUCTION (Background and theory)
Profile Projector
This is a projection apparatus that can produce an enlarge projection shadow of an
object. The projection methods of examination are well adapted to the examination of form
tools, profile gauges, press-tools, gear teeth, screw thread etc. Sizes of the object may be
checked by direct measurement on the enlarged shadow and subsequent division by the
multiplication factor. The magnification factor is accurate and that the design of the apparatus
permits maximum latitude in holding and adjusting the object.

Floating Carriage
a) Major Diameter
Referring to the illustration:
If the micrometer reading over Standard Cylinder = R1
the micrometer reading over Screw Plug Gauge = R2
the diameter of Standard Cylinder = D1
therefore, Major Diameter of Screw Plug Gauge, Dmajor = D1 + ( R2 - R1 )

b) Minor Diameter
Referring to the illustration:
If the micrometer reading over Standard Cylinder and Core Prisms = R3
the micrometer reading over thread and Core Prisms = R4
the diameter of Standard Cylinder = D1
therefore, Minor Diameter of Screw Plug Gauge, Dminor = D1 + (R4 R3)

c) Effective Diameter
Referring to the illustration:
If the micrometer reading over Standard Cylinder and wires = R5
the micrometer reading over screw thread and wires = R6
the diameter of Standard Cylinder = D1
therefore, the diameter under the wire, D3 = D1 + ( R6 R5 )

Hence, the Effective Diameter Deff = D3 + P where P is the difference between the Effective
Diameter and the diameter under the wires as shown below.

The P value is a constant depending on the diameter of the wires (d), the pitch (p) and the type
of screw thread, it is found as follows:
Metric threads (600) P = 0.86602p - d
Whitworth threads (55o) P = 0.96049p -1.16568d
British Association threads (47 1/2o) P = 1.13634p -1.43295d
APPARATUS
a) Screw Thread Specimen
b) Profile Projector (Horizontal/Vertical)

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Floating Carriage Diameter Measuring Machine
Major Diameter
1. The position of the fiducial indicator and the micrometer anvils so that the gauge to be
measured is between or within the range of the micrometer
2. A suitable Standard Cylinder was placed between the centres. The suitable Standard
Cylinder should have diameter within 1mm of the actual major diameter of work piece.
Time for temperature stabilization and centralization of the fiducial indicator was
allowed and the reading of the micrometer drum R1.
3. The standard was removed and was replaced with the work piece to be measured. The
micrometer drum reading R2was been noted.
4. The Major Diameter Dmajor of the work piece is been evaluated.
Minor Diameter
1. The position of the fiducial indicator and the micrometer anvils so that the gauge to be
measured is between or within the range of the micrometer
2. A suitable Standard Cylinder was placed between the centers. The selected prisms was
been inserted between the standard and the anvils. The hanging prisms should be
vertical. The reading on the micrometer drum R3 was been noted.
3. The standard was removed and was replaced with the work piece. The prisms was been
inserted between the thread grooves and the anvils, and the micrometer reading R4
was noted.
4. The Minor Diameter Dminor of the work piece is noted.
Effective Diameter
1. A suitable Standard Cylinder was placed between the centers. The suitable Standard
Cylinder should have diameter within 1mm of the actual effective diameter of work
piece.
2. The wires selected were inserted in positions between the Standard Cylinder and
micrometer anvils. The wires are selected accordance with N.P.L. recommendation.
The reading on the micrometer drum R3 was noted.

3. The standard cylinder was replaced with the Screw Plug Gauge. Note the micrometer
reading R2 with the wires inserted in the thread grooves.
4. The Effective Diameter Deff of the Screw Plug Gauge was evaluated
Profile Projector
A briefing session will be conducted prior to students carrying out the measurement on the
specimen. Please take note of the procedures for setting up the specimen on the adjusting
table. Adjust the magnification to ensure the shadow obtained is sharp and clear. Movements
can be made through micrometer adjustment. Parameters to be measured on the specimen are:

major diameter
minor diameter
effective diameter

RESULT & DATA ANALYSIS

Profile Projector
dmajor
dminor
deff

1
18.018
14.678
17.062

2
18.006
14.796
17.118

3
18.010
14.710
17.054

Average
18.011
14.728
17.078

Floating Carriage
Standard Cylinder (16 mm)
1
2
3
Average
7.2346 7.2781 7.2206 7.2444
15.696 15.758 15.692
15.7158
2
4
8
10.510 10.570 10.561
10.5475
4
6
4

R1
R3
R5

Calculation :

Major diameter

R2
R4
R6

Plug Gauge (M18 x 2.5)


1
2
3
Average
9.2742 9.3012 9.3012
9.2922
14.233 14.207 14.149
14.1968
6
8
0
10.453 10.451 10.453
10.4527
2
0
8

Dmajor = D1 + ( R2 - R1 )
= 16 + ( 9.2922 7.2444 )
= 18.0478 mm

Minor diameter

Dminor = D1 + ( R4 R3 )
= 16 + ( 14.1968 15.7158 )
= 14.4810 mm

Effective diameter

D3 = D1 + ( R6 R5 )
= 16 + ( 10.4527 10.5475 )
= 15.9052 mm
P = 0.86602 (2.5) 1.65
= 0.515 mm
Deff = D3 + P
= 15.9052 + 0.515
= 16.4202 mm

Percentage of error
Error=

ExperimentalTheoretical
100
Theoretical

o Major diameter (Profile Projector)

Error=

18.01118
100
18

Error=0.061

o Major diameter (Floating Carriage)

Error=

18.047818
100
18

Error=0.266

o Minor diameter (Profile Projector)

Error=

14.72814.933
100
14.933

Error=1.373

o Major diameter (Floating Carriage)

Error=

14.48114.933
100
14.933

Error=3.027

DISCUSSION

From this experiment, we have study about to measuring screw thread by using 2 types
of machine which are known as floating carriage diameter measuring machine and the profile
projector. By using floating carriage measuring machine, we have measured the internal
diameter for the screw thread. The major diameter value is 18.0478 mm, the minor diameter
value is 14.4810 mm and the effective diameter value is 16.4202 mm. The percentage error
for major diameter and minor diameter value compare with the standard value is 0.266 % and
-3.027 %.
For the second machine, profile projector that was used to measure the screw thread. In
this experiment two types of profile projector vertical and horizontal profile projector. The
major diameter value is 18.011 mm and for minor diameter value is 14.728 mm and the
effective diameter value is 17.078 mm. The percentage error for major diameter and minor
diameter value compare with the standard is 0.061 % and -1.373 %.
There are many possible errors that can occur during the experiment. The possible
errors involved include the miss alignment of the work piece where the work piece may not be
placed at the correct coordinate or axis. There is no a fix location to place the work piece and
scale to align work piece. Other possible errors are the position of the students eyes during
the time the reading is taken may contribute to the error itself. Miss position measured surface
may also be the possible error for this experiment. Temperature in the laboratory may also
affect the metal size due to thermal contraction. So, measurement may vary.
There are necessary precaution which must be implementing during the experiment is done:

The measured surface must first be clean from all contaminant such as oil, dust,

moisture and many more. This is to ensure the accurateness of each reading.
The work piece must be placed at the correct position where the projector can show the

image clearly so that we can take the reading correctly.


The work piece must be clamped rigidly so that it is not moveable during the
experiment done. Other that to ensure the accuracy of the reading, this measurement is

also taken to avoid or minimize error.


The person who takes the reading must be in right position to avoid parallax error.

CONCLUSION

From the experiment, we have learned how to use both Profile Projector and also Floating
Carriage Diameter Measuring Machine to measure the profile and the dimensional of the work
piece ourselves. Both machines were successfully used to measure the Major Diameter, the
Minor Diameter and the Effective Diameter of a Screw Plug Gauge. After measuring we were
able to compare the readings between both measuring machines. However, the errors are
acceptable since its below than 5%. The value we obtained was closed to the standard value.
It can be concluded that this experiment have achieved its objective by using Profile Projector
and Floating Carriage successfully therefore the experiment was success.

RECOMMENDATION

1. The measured surface must first be clean such as from oil, dust, and moisture to ensure
the reading is accurate.
2. The work piece must be placed at the correct position where the projector can show the
image clearly so that we can take the reading correctly.
3. The work piece must be clamped rigidly so that it is not move during the experiment
done.
4. The person who takes the reading must be in right position to avoid parallax error.

REFERENCES
1. Serope Kalpakjian, W.R. Schmid, Manufacturing Technology and Fundamental,
5thedition, Prentice Hall, 2004
2. Serope Kalpakjian & Steven

R.

Schmid,

Manufacturing

Processes

for

EngineeringMaterials, 4th Edition, Illinois Institute Of Technology, Prentice Hall,


2003.
3. http://www.engineersedge.com/screw_threads_chart.htm
4. http://www.threadcheck.com/the-three-wire-method-of-measuring-pitchdiameter/technicalinfo/