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By

Dr Muhammad Akmal Rahim


Muhammad Ajmal Rahim
Dr. Seemal Vehra Ejaz

WILDLIFE
RESERVATION AND
MANAGEMENT

Wildlife generally refers to all


species of mammals, birds,
reptiles, amphibians and fishes
occurring in the wild implying
thereby undomesticated and
free-roaming in a natural
environment.
One deer in a zoo may not be able
to roam free, it is still
considered wildlife because
deer as a species occurs
unrestrained in the wild.
Deer in an enclosure would also be
considered wildlife even though
their movements might be
restricted to a large data area.
But the rats and mice occurring in
a building in city shall not be
considered as wildlife because
they are defined as Pests which
occur
in
a
man-made
environment.

WILD LIFE AND


MANAGEMENT
Wild
life
is
part
of
ecosystem,
nutrient
cycle and energy flow
Wildlife
is
an
organic
resource and can be
managed on sustained
basis.
The value of wildlife is also
found
in
their
educational
scientific,
aesthetic
and
recreational significance
Its recreational values can
be
approximated
in
terms of the money
spent on hunting and
fishing
licenses
and
equipments but other
values are more difficult
to assess

WILD LIFE AND


MANAGEMENT

For wildlife the


struggle for
survival
became a
competition
with human
beings and
their livestock
for life

Food

Shelter

Space

WILD LIFE AND


PAKISTAN
Out of 188 mammalian,
666 avian, 174 reptilian
and 16 amphibian
species reported from
Pakistan, 31 mammals,
21 birds and 5 reptilian
species are facing the
danger of extinction
/endangered , whereas
three mammals vis.
Cheetah, wild dog
Chow-singha have
already been made
extinct.

WILD LIFE
Northern
Mountains
areas
embracing Himalayan, Karakorum
and
Hindu
Kush
ranges
in
Northern areas, Malakand Hazara
and AJK are rich and fauna and
flora
has compared to
other
parts of the country.
These
are
provide
and
an
excellent habitat for Wildlife in
the form of Alpine grazing land,
sub alpine scrub and temperate
forests. These habitats support a
variety of wild animals .
The areas are difficult to tread by
the human beings, hence, most
wild life species are still present
in fare numbers thought some
species are endangered due to
different reasons

Wildlife Area in Pakistan


Nine major Ecological
zones and 19 of 21 wet
land types in Pakistan
About
6000
plants
species of which 5000
are
wild
and
372
endemic occurring only
in Pakistan
Out of the 18 million
orders
recorded
the
world over 10 occur in
Pakistan
.

Wildlife Area in Pakistan


One species and two sub species
are endemic of 4100 species,
188 species have been reported
from Pakistan.
Amongst the bird 666 species,
out of 6500 in the world occur in
the
country,
both
resident
migratory.
There are 174 reptiles species
out of 6500 found the world
over. There are 14 amphibians
species 400 marine fish and 125
fresh water fish species.
In insects and invertebrates are
represented by 2000 species of
which 700 are marine

WILDLIFE, GAME
RESERVE &
SANCTUARIES

Wildlife

It refers to nondomesticated animal species, but has


come to include all plants, fungi, and
other organisms that grow or live
wild in an area without being

.
wildlife sanctuary,

Game reserves are large

introduced by humans

is a
naturally occurring sanctuary, such
as an island, that provides protection
for species from hunting, predation
or competition
areas of land where wild animals live
safely or are hunted in a controlled
way for sport. Many game
reserves are located in Africa

MANAGEMENT

The function that


coordinates the efforts
of people to
accomplish goals
and objectives by
using available
resources efficiently
and effectively.
It also includes
deployment and
manipulation
of human
resources, financial re
sources, technological
resources, and natural
resource towards the
realization of set
goals.

WILDLIFE
RESEVATION
It refers to
wildlife habitats
where nondomesticated
animals live,
thrive, reproduce
and form
community, for
example parks,
wildlife game
reserves, wildlife
sanctuaries and
zoological gardens

Management/Conserva
tion Principles

Wildlife managers job


is to maintain number
of animals in a habitat
at or below habitats
carrying capacity, so
no damage is done to
the animals or to their
habitat.
In addition to looking
at the total number of
a species in a habitat,
wildlife managers also
monitor breeding stock
correct mix of adult
and young animals
needed to sustain a
population.

Management/Conse
rvation Principles
To manage a
habitat, wildlife
managers must
consider historical
trends, current
habitat conditions,
breeding
population levels,
long-term
projections and
breeding success.

Wildlife
Conservation
Concept of wildlife
conservation has
been around since
ancient times.
Restrictions on taking
game are mentioned
in the Bible, first
official hunting
season may have
been established in
the 13th century by
Kubla Kahn.

Wildlife Conservation
Today,
wildlife
conservation has evolved
into a science, but its goal
remains
essentially
the
same: to ensure the wise
use and management of
renewable
resources.
Given
the
right
circumstances,
living
organisms that we call
renewable resources can
replenish
themselves
indefinitely.
Conservation: Is the wise
use of natural resources,
without wasting them.

Preservation
Preservation:
(Saving
natural resources, but
with no consumption of
them), is another means
of protecting or saving a
resource,
such
as
outlawing
hunting
of
endangered species. Both
preservation
and
conservation
are
necessary
to
sustain
resources
for
future
generations.

Wildlife Management
Wildlife
managers
learned there is more
to conservation than
just protecting wildlife.
They discovered that
nature
overproduces
its
game
resources,
and that good wildlife
management yields a
surplus that can be
harvested by hunters.

Habitat Management
Most critical aspect of
wildlife conservation
is habitat
management.
Habitat loss presents
the greatest threat to
wildlife.

Habitat Management
These
five
essential
elements must be present:
The need for food and
water is obvious.
Cover
is
needed
for
shelter as well as to
protect
animals
while
feeding,
breeding,
roosting,
nesting,
and traveling.

Habitat Management
Space is necessary
to avoid overcompetition for
food. Some animals
also need a certain
amount of
territorial space for
mating and nesting.
Arrangement refers
to the placement of
food, water, cover
and space in a
habitat.

Habitat Management
For example, quail will
spend much of their time
where shrub and
grassland areas
converge. This is called
edge effect. Most animals
can be found where food
and cover meet,
particularly near a water
source. River bottoms are
ideal, offering many
animals all their habitat
needs along one corridor.

Carrying Capacity
Resources in any given
habitat can support only a
certain
quantity
of
wildlife.
As
seasons
change, food, water, or
cover may be in short
supply. Carrying capacity
is number of animals
habitat can support all
year
long.
Carrying
capacity of a certain tract
of land can vary from year
to year. It can be changed
by nature or humans.

Limiting Factors
Factors that limit potential
production of wildlife include:

Disease and starvation

Predators and hunting

Pollution

Accidents

Old Age

Hunting

Limiting Factors
If the conditions are
balanced, game
animals will produce
a surplus, which can
be harvested.

The Hunters Role in


Wildlife Conservation
Since wildlife is a renewable
resource
with
surplus,
hunters help control wildlife
populations at a healthy
balance
for
the
habitat.
Regulated hunting has never
led
to
threatened
or
endangered
wildlife
populations.
Hunting is effective wildlife
management tool. Hunters
play
important
role
by
providing information from
the
field
that
wildlife
managers need.

The Hunters Role in


Wildlife Conservation
Funding from hunting
licenses has helped many
game and non-game species
recover from dwindling
population. Hunters spend
more time, money and effort
on wildlife conservation than
any other group in society. In
addition to participating in
the harvest of surplus
animals, hunters help sustain
game populations by:

The Hunters Role in


Wildlife Conservation

Filling out
questionnaires
Participating in surveys
Stopping at hunter
check stations
Providing samples from
harvested animals
Funding for wildlife
management through
license fees.

Wildlife Management
Practices
Monitoring
Wildlife
Populations:
Wildlife
managers
continuously
monitor birth and death
rate of various species
and condition of their
habitat.
This
provides
data
needed
to
set
hunting regulations and
determine if other wildlife
management
practices
are needed to conserve
wildlife species.

Wildlife Management
Practices
Habitat
Improvement:
As succession occurs,
change in habitat affects
type and number of
wildlife
habitat
can
support.
Wildlife
managers may cut down
or burn forested areas
to promote new growth
and slow down the
process of succession.
This practice enables
them to increase the
production of certain
wildlife species.

Wildlife Management
Practices
Hunting Regulations:
Hunting regulations
protect habitat and
preserve
animal
populations.
Regulations include
setting
daily
and
seasonal time limits,
bag limits and legal
methods for taking
wildlife.

Beneficial Habitat
Management Practices
Food plots and planting
Controlled burning
Brush pile creation
Timber cutting
Ditching
Diking
Nuisance plant or animal
control
Mechanical brush or
grass control
Water holdings

Death Rate

Birth Rate
Number of young born
to a wildlife species in
one year.

Number of wildlife
species that die in
one year.

Succession
Natural
progression
of
vegetation
and
wildlife
populations of an area; for example, as trees grow and
form a canopy, shrubs and grasses will disappear along
with the wildlife that use them for food and cover.

Predator
An animal that kills other animals for food

Wildlife Management Tools


Laws: Wildlife laws must be
flexible, based on biological
facts, and used in combination
with other management tools.
These game laws are necessary
to protect the safety of people,
to protect the game, and to
insure a fair share for future
generations.

Wildlife Management Tools


Habitat Management: Ideal goal is manipulate
vegetation so necessities for life for variety
of wildlife are provided. Generally this is
done by controlled burning, selective
forestry, food planting where feasible and
appropriate, and other practices to maintain
proper mix of habitat requirements.
Stocking: Purpose of stocking is release
wildlife species in areas that have suitable
habitat but no animal population.

Wildlife Management Tools


Hunting and Trapping: Valuable tools for
maintaining wildlife populations at or below
carrying capacity for the habitat. Goal is
regulate hunting so only excess animals in a
population are removed.
Public
Education:
Necessary
for
public
understanding
of wildlife
management
programs. The more people know and
understand wildlife and its needs, the more
likely
they
will
support
management
programs.

Markhor

Lynx

Himalayan Ibex

Marcho polo

Black and brown bear

Snow leopard

Otter

Otter

Wolf

Sheep

Shapu

Musk deer

Marmoth

Tragopan

Monal

Pheasants

Snow Partridge

Fishing Cat

Indus
Dolphi
n

Crocodil
e

Fish

HOG DEAR

Peafowl

Houbara Bustard

Great Indian
Bustard

Common
Leopard

CAT

Goral

Chakor

ParadisePheasants

Squirrels

Black Buck

Rhesus Monkey

RED FOX

Common Langur

Black bear

Osprey

Falcon

Peregrine

Cheerug

Spotted eagles

Shikra

Sand Lizards

Wild bores

Black winged
kite

Marin Turtles

Water
fowl

Water
fowl

Leather

National and
International
Interests

Climatic
Change

Indigenous
Peoples
Interests

Newer
Residents
interests

Traditional Rights
Urbanization

Wildlife
management
and
Conservation

Mining
Oil/Gas

Hydropower

Agriculture
Herding

Tourism

The Diversity of
Interests
Forestry
Logging

Subsistence
Harvest

Commercial
Harvest

The strategy to improve the situation

Up dating inventory of flora and faunal diversity reviewing


current field research presently under taken and planning
for future to fill in the gaps in the knowledge biodiversity in
Pakistan
Identification of species and delineation of areas of
importance with the stand point of biodiversity values.
Critically a review the currents program and plans for the
conservation or biodiversity, research and information
management efforts and institutionally responsibilities and
capabilities
Review and up grade the management of current status of
the protected area system and community based projects,
oriented towards the conservation of biodiversity, occurring
in representative samples of ecosystem and plant and
animal communities

The strategy to improve the situation

Review the existing legal frame work at the


provincial and federal levels identifying short
coming, and suggesting improvements in overall
biodiversity conservation efforts in the country.
Develop a comprehensive long term strategy, where
faceable, based on community participation, to
address the needs to conserve biodiversity, and
priorities actions keeping in view the need for
changes in policies. Legal solutions institutional and
technical aspects .
Achieve consensus on the long term strategy and in
priorities biodiversity conservations

Action Plan

Identification of key high priorities sites and species for


conservations based on the criteria developed during the
study and development of the strategy for the conservation
of biodiversity
Based on above and the strategy, development of long
terms planning process including Monitoring and evaluation
system to measure change in biodiversity overtime
Identification of specific actions essential for the
conservation and management of high priority sites and
species.
The world envisage protected area planning, data
management, initiation of management process especially
with the help of community participation( participatory rural
Approach PRA), and amendments in legal solutions

Action Plan

Involvement of NGOs in the conservations and


management of biodiversity through legal process.
Based on the action plan following action/
intervention have been suggested.

Reorganization of Protection area system


Community Participation in the Conservation and
Management of Biodiversity
Development of Human resources
Conservation Programs
Biodiversity Conservation outside the protected
areas
Hunting recourse development

General

The protected areas and the potential areas out


side these to be managed in a way, that the
recommendation made by the action plan are
seriously looked in to. The talk would be:
To develop the biodiversity strategy
To draw up the national Biodiversity action plan
Implementing
(Improving)
biodiversity
management and protection skills to up grade the
management program convened to fill full the
long term requirements of research into the
conservation of specific site and species, and
training the staff, and other related main power.

WILDLIFE REGULATION IN PAKISTAN

Wildlife is protected, preserved,


conserved and managed under
Pakistan Wildlife Act 1975 &
Provincial wildlife Act 1974.
The hunting of wildlife is
regulated under this act.

INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS

Convention on international
trade in endangered species
of wild fauna and flora
Convention on migratory
species of wild animals
Convention on biological
diversity

NATIONAL PARKS IN PAKISTAN

National

park

is

protected

area

set

aside

by

the government for the protection and conservation of its


outstanding scenery and wildlife in a natural state. It is
accessible to public for research, education and recreation.

Development of national parks was mainly carried out


by National Conservation Strategy of 1992.

Pakistan has 29 protected areas known as national parks

Lal Suhanra is the only national park established before


the independence of the nation in August 1947

The smallest national park is the Ayub, covering a total


approximate area of 931 hectares (2,300.6 acres).

NATIONAL PARKS IN PAKISTAN


1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Ayub Rawalpindi Punjab


Shandure-Phander National Park Ghizer Gilgit Baltistan
Shandure-Phander National Park Chitral Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Central Karakoram Gilgit and Skardu Gilgit Baltistan
Chinji Chakwal Punjab
Chitral Gol Chitral Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Deosai Skardu Gilgit Baltistan
Deva Vatala Bhimber Azad Kashmir
Ghamot Neelum Azad Kashmir
Gurez Neelum Azad Kasmir
Hazarganji-Chiltan Quetta Baluchistan
Hingo Awaran, Gawadar and Lasbela
Sheikh Buddin DI Khan Khyber Pakhtun khwa
Toli Pir Poonch Azad Kashmir
Panjal Mastan Bagh Azad Kashmir

GAME RESERVS IN PAKISTAN


Abbasia
Askor Nallah
Bahawalpur Plantation
Bhon Fazil
Bhono
Bilyamin
Bund Khush Dil Khan
Chassi/Baushdar
Chaupalia
Cholistan
Danyor Nallah
Darosh Gol
Daulana
Deh Jangisar
Deh Sahib Saman
Diljabba-Domeli
Dosu Forest
Gat Wala
Gehrait Gol
Ghamot

WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES IN PAKISTAN


Argam Basti Wildlife Sanctuary
Astore Wildlife Sanctuary
Bajwat Wildlife Sanctuary
Baltistan Wildlife Sanctuary
Bijoro Chach Wildlife Sanctuary
Borraka Wildlife Sanctuary
Buzi Makola Wildlife Sanctuary
Chashma and Taunsa Barrage Dolphin
Sanctuary
Cholistan Wildlife Sanctuary
Chorani Wildlife Sanctuary
Chotiari Wetland
Chumbi Surla Wildlife Sanctuary
Cut Munarki Chach Wildlife Sanctuary
Daphar Wildlife Sanctuary
Deh Akro Wildlife Sanctuary
Dhoung Block Wildlife Sanctuary
Drigh Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
Dureji Wildlife Sanctuary
Ghondak Dhono Wildlife Sanctuary
Gullel Kohri Wildlife

Gulsher Dhand Wildlife Sanctuary


Hub Dam Wildlife Sanctuary
Hadero Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Haleji Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
Islamabad Wildlife Sanctuary
Kachau Wildlife Sanctuary
Kargah Wildlife Sanctuary
Keti
Bunder
South
Wildlife
Sanctuary
Khadi Wildlife Sanctuary
Kharar Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
Khat Dhoro Wildlife Sanctuary
Kinjhar Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
Koh-e-Geish Wildlife Sanctuary
Kolwah Kap Wildlife Sanctuary
Kot Dinghano Wildlife Sanctuary
Lakhi Wildlife Sanctuary
Lehri Nature Park
Mahal Kohistan Wildlife Sanctuary
Majiran Wildlife Sanctuary

THANKS