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Radio Science,Volume 22, Number 7, Pages1283-1288,December1987

Someessentialformulasin dyadicanalysisand their applications


C. T. Tai

RadiationLaboratory,Departmentof ElectricalEngineering
andComputerSciences,
Universityof Michigan,Ann Arbor
(ReceivedFebruary 2, 1987' revisedJune 12, 1987' acceptedJuly 7, 1987.)

Some commonly used formulas in dyadic analysisare reviewed and summarizedin this article. In
particular, we have derived the dyadic-dyadicversion of two vector-dyadicGreen's theorems.The
applicationof thesetheoremsto electromagnetics
is illustratedby two examples.
1.

INTRODUCTION

F = F,,
Dyadic analysisas a branch of applied mathematics was enunciated by American physicist J. W.
Gibbs after he introduced vector analysis.In his original treatise [Gibbs and Wilson, 1913], many basic
definitions in dyadic analysiswere given, but none of
the integral theorems were discussed.The use of
dyadic analysis in electromagneticsappeared in the
book by Morse and Feshbach[1953] and the one by
Collin [1960]. Van Bladel, to whom this article is
dedicated, was the first author to provide a list of
formulas in dyadic analysis in his book ElectromagneticFields [Van Bladel, 1964].
In view of the growing interest of applying dyadic
Green's function technique to electromagneticproblems in recent years, it seemsdesirable to supplement
Van Bladel's list and collect them in one place for the
convenienceof people interestedin this technique. In
order to present a logical development of various
formulas with different degree of complexity, we
decide to start from the very basic definition of
dyadic analysis. Some repetition of elementary material is therefore unavoidable. Finally, we introduce
two dyadic-dyadic Green's theorems which have not
appeared before. Two examples are given to show
the application of thesetheorems.
2.

DYADIC

ALGEBRA

2,1. Dyadicfunctionsor dyadics

A vector function or a vector, F, expressedin a


Cartesian coordinate systemis definedby

(1)

i=1

where Fi, with i= 1, 2, 3, denote the three scalar


componentsof the vector and xi denote the three
unit vectors in the direction of i, which are commonly referred to as x, y, z. Although (1) can be used
to define a vector in any orthogonal or nonorthogonal system,we use xi in subsequentsectionsto denote
Cartesian

variables.

Now

we consider

three

distinct

vector

functions

denoted by
3

F= Foi ,

j=1,2,3

(2)

i=1

Then a dyadic function or a dyadic is defined by


3

(3)
j=l

whereFj, withj = 1, 2, 3, are designated


asthe three
vector components of F. If we substitute the ex-

pression
for Fj defined
by (2)into(3),then canbe
written

in the form
3

F=
i=1

Fu,

(4)

j=l

whereF u are designated


as the nine scalarcomponentsof F and the doublet
as the nine unit
dyadicsor dyads each being formed by a pair of unit

vectors,whichare not commutative,


i.e.,
equalto i unlessi = j.
2.2.

is not

The transposeoff

The transpose
of , denotedby []r, is definedby
Copyright 1987 by the American Geophysical Union.

= E

Paper number 7S0595.


0048-6604/87/007S-0595508.00

j=l

1283

= E E
i=1

j=l

= E E
i=1

j--1

(5)

1284

TAI:

DYADIC

ANALYSIS

AND

APPLICATIONS

Comparingthe expressions
for F givenby (3) and (4), notedby F a, is definedby
we seethat the positionsof Fj and :j have been
interchanged,
or thescalarcomponents
Fo in F have F.a= F(. a)= aF,,= , , a,F,
3

j=l

beenreplaced
byFji in IF] r, hence
thename"trans2.3. Symmetricaland antisymmetricaldyadic
functions

symmetrical dyadic, denoted by

i=lj=l

(10)

i=1j=3

which is also a vector. In general, the two products


are not equal unless F is a symmetrical dyadic. For
any dyadic we have the relation

pose."

a. [F] :

F s, is

characterized
by Fo = F, hence

An antisymmetricaldyadic, denoted by Fo, is

a. F s = Fs. a
a'Fa=

-Fa'a

a.i=l.

(7)

An antisymmetrical dyadic therefore has only three


distinct scalar components if we do not consider the
negativesign as being distinct.

(12)
(13)

If F s = I, the idemfactor,then

characterized
by Fj - --Fi, henceFu -- 0, and
[Fa]T-" --F a

( )

This is an important identity in dyadic analysis.As a


result of (6), (7), and (11), one finds

(6)
A symmetricaldyadic thereforehas only six distinct
scalar components.

[F]. a

a= a

(14)

This is, perhaps,the reasonwhy i is calledan idemfactor.

2.6. Vectorproductsof a vectorand a dyadic

There are again two vector products.The anterior

vectorproduct,denotedby a x F, is definedby

2.4. ldemfactor

a x = (a x Fj)j

One special case of a symmetricaldyadic is describedby

(15)

j=l

The posteriorproduct,denotedby F x a, is defined


Fq - 1

i =j

Fij=0

i -j

by
3

F x a = Fj(j x a)

(16)

j=l

or

These products are both dyadics, and there is no


identity similar to (11) for the vector products.

Flj =

whereij denotes
theKronecker
deltafunction.
This

dyadicis denotedby I-,andit is calledan idemfactor. 2.7. Triple products


Its explicitexpressionis

In vector analysiswe have the followingidentities


involving three vectors'
a. (b x c)= b. (c x a)= c. (a x b)

or more clearly,

(17)

These identities can be generalized to involve dyadics. We consider

(8)

There are two scalar products between a vector


and a dyadic. The anterior scalarproduct denotedby
a F, is defined by
3

a. ' -" E (a. Fj)j = E E aiFuj


j=l

i=1

sets of these identi-

tieswiththreedifferentvectorfunctions
%, i.e.,
a.(b x %)= -b.(a x %):(a x b).%

2.5. Scalar productsof a vectora and a dyadic F

three distinct

(9)

j=l

which is a vector. The posterior scalar product, de-

(18)

withj = 1, 2, 3. We purposely
placethefunctionc at
the posterior position in order to derive the desired

dyadicidentity.Now wejuxtaposea unit vector:j at


the posterior position of each term in (18) and sum
the resultant equationswith respectto j to obtain
a. (b x :)= -b.

(a x :)= (a x b). :

(19)

Thus we have elevated the vector triple products to a

TAI'

DYADIC

ANALYSIS

AND

APPLICATIONS

1285

higher level involving one dyadic and two vectors. 3.2. Vector-dyadic Green'ssecondidentity
We can elevate the vector function b to a dyadic in
One of the most useful theorems in dyadic analysis
the last two terms of (19) by considering three disis the vector-dyadic Green's secondidentity, which is
tinct equations of the form
a generalization of the vector Green's secondidentity
-[a x :]r. bj = [:]r. (a x bj)
(20) first introduced by Stratton [1941]. The latter states
that

for

two

continuous

differentiable

vector

func-

withj = 1, 2, 3. Byjuxtaposinga unit vectorj at the tions P and Q defined in a region V

posterior position of each of these equations and


summing the resultant equations with respectof j, we
obtain

-[a x :]r. $ = [:]r. (a x $)

(21)

f,l[P'VxVxQ-(VxVxP)'Q]d
v

Equation (21) is a scalar product of two dyadics, and


the result is a dyadic.

The previous sectionsmainly deal with dyadic algebra. In the following sectionswe introduce definitions and formulas involving differentiation and integration of dyadic functions,which is the main body
of dyadic analysis.
3.

DYADIC

ANALYSIS

=-ff[(fix
VxP).
Q+P.(fix
VxQ)]
ds(27)
s

where $ denotes the enclosed surface of the volume

and fi denotes the outward

unit normal

vector to the

surface.We now considerthreedistinctfunctionsQj


with j- 1, 2, 3, so we have three identities of the
form describedby (27). By juxtaposing a unit vector

at theposterior
position
ofeachofthethreevector
equations and summing the three equations, we

3.1. Divergence,curl of dyadicfunctions, and


gradient of vectorfunctions

obtain

The divergenceof a dyadic function F, denoted by


V F, is defined by

[P.V
xVxQ-(V
xVxP)-O]dv
v

V-'=(V.F)*
cFu (22)
= x/*
j=l

i=1

which is a vector function. The curl of a dyadic function, denoted by V x F, is defined by


3

x -

(V xFj)*j=
j:l

(VF ux*,)*J

i=1

=_ff[,fi
x,xP).
Q+(fix
P).
VxQ]as (28)

j=l

(23)

which is designated as the vector-dyadic Green's


secondidentity.
This theorem and several other formulas which we

j=l

which is a dyadic function. Sometimeswe need to


know the gradient of a vector function, denoted by
VF, which is defined by

VF= (VFj)j
=
j=l

i=1

j=l

have discussedin this paper are tabulated by Van


Bladel [1964] without derivations. We merely supply
the details to show the origin of theseformulas.

(24)3.3.

Dyadic-dyadicGreen'ssecondidentity

The function P in (28) can also be elevated to a

which is a dyadic.

When a dyadic function is constructedfrom an

dyadic.To do sowe first write (28) in the form

idcmfactor and a scalar function in the form

{[V
xVxQ]r.
p_
[Q]r.
VxVxP}
dv

F = WI

then

=-ff

,fix
vxPj)
+[vxQ]r.
(fix
Pj)}
ds

v.()- = v.() = =v

(25)

and

for threedistinctPj, withj: 1, 2, 3. Byjuxtaposing


(26) a unit vectorxj at theposteriorpositionof the three

j=l

j=

V x (i)= V x (W)i = V x i
j=l

equationsand summingthe resultant equations,we

1286

TAI' DYADIC

ANALYSIS AND APPLICATIONS

obtain

This formula can also be obtained by generalizing


the vector identity

([v x v x Q].P-[Q].v

x v x P)

fff(A.
VxB-B.VxA)
dV=
fffi.(B
xA)
dS
(34)
{[Q]. (a x v x P) + Iv x Q]. (a x P} as

into the dyadic-dyadicform.


(29)
4.

which is designatedas the dyadic-dyadic Green's


secondidentity.
3.4. First vector-dyadicand dyadic-dyadic
Green's identities

In addition to the two identitiesdescribedby (28)


and (29), there are two more identities which are not

widely used in dyadic analysis.By starting with the


first vector Green'sidentity statedas

The formulas which we have compiled here are


useful in deriving some important relations in the
theory of dyadic Green's functionsas applied to electromagnetictheory. In this author's book on the subject [Tai, 1971], many of the theorems,particularly
the vector-dyadic and the dyadic-dyadic Green's
identities,are not discussed.Much of the presentations therein follow closelythe method of Levine and
Schwinler[1950], where only the vector Green's theorem is used. Since then, we have found that it is

ff[(V
xP)-(V
xQ)P-VxVxQ]av

=ff(fi
xP).
VxQds

APPLICATIONS

more convenientto apply the dyadic theoremsin the


treatment, making the presentation simpler and
giving the resultsmore directly. The following examples illustrate our new approach.
We consider first integration of the vector wave
equation for the electricfield, which is assumedto be

(30)

and the following proceduressimilar to those in the


derivation of (28) and (29), we can derive the following two identities'

a harmonic function of time with time factor e -'t.

The phasor function E pertaining to the electricfield


then satisfiesthe equation

ff[,v
xP).
VxQ--P-VxVxQ]dv

V x V x E- k2E = ico#J

(35)

=f(fi
xP).
xQdS
s

where k2-- (D2#Eand J denotesthe electriccurrent


density function responsiblefor producingthe field.
To integrate (35) we introduce the electric dyadic
Green'sfunctionGe, whichsatisfies
theequation

(31)

V X V X Je- k2e = ig(R- R')

(36)

: ;.,IEV
xQ]T-(
xP)
ds
$

where I denotes the idemfactor and g(R- R') denotes the three dimensional delta function, which is
characterizedby

(32)

Equation (31) is designatedas the first vector-dyadic


Green's identity and (32) as the first dyadic-dyadic
Green's identity.
In (32),if we let V x Q = , and P = ., then

fF(R)g(R
--R')
dV
=F(R')
R'inV
v

(37)

ff F(r)a(R
--R')
dV=0

f{[]T,
VxA-[Vx]T.
]}dv

The function F can be a scalar function, or a vector

(33)
s

R'notin

function, or a dyadic function. The fact that we use a


delta function to characterizethe inhomogeneous
part of a partial differential equation implies that we

TAI'

DYADIC

ANALYSIS

AND

APPLICATIONS

1287

considerG e to be a generalizedfunction. By an ap- We now consider two distinct free-space Green's


plication of the second vector-dyadic identity as functionswith sourceslocated at R a and R b, so that

statedby (28)withP = E andQ = Ge,we obtain

E(R')
=iwla
fffJ(R,.
e(R,
g')
--{[fi
xVxE(R)].
Je(R,
R')]
s

+ [fi X E(R, R')]. V x e(R, R')} ds

V x V x Geo(R,Ro)- k2Geo(R,
Ro)= i6(R -- Ro)

(42)

V X V X eo(R, Rb)-- k2eo(R,Rb)-- i6(R -- Rb)

(43)

Both functions satisfy the radiation condition stated


by (41). By applying the second dyadic-dyadic
Green's identity, equation (29), to thesetwo functions
with P = Geo(R,Ra) and Q = G eo(R,Rb), we obtain
(38)
immediately

which is the same as the one originally derived by


Levine and Schwin]er [1950] by using the second

[Jeo(ga,ab)]T - Je0(gb,
ga)

vector Green's identity with P = E and Q = G e a,


where a denotes an arbitrary constant vector. After
substitutingP and Q into (27) the dot product with a
is deleted.The differencein these two approachesis,
perhaps, minor, but it appears that our revised
method is more compact. It is also implied here that
the second vector dyadic Green's identity is applicable to generalizedfunctions.We normally use R to
denote the point of observation.By interchangingR
and R' in (38) we can transform it into

The surface integral drops out because of the radiation condition. Equation (44) is a mathematical
statement of the symmetrical property of the freespaceelectric dyadic Green's function. Since R and
R are arbitrary, we normally write (44) in the form

E(R)ico#
ffJ(R').
Je(R
t,R)
d19
t

[Jeo(R
t, R)]T= Jeo(R,Rt)

which can alternately be written in the form

(45)

In a similar manner one can find the symmetrical


relations for other kinds of dyadic Green's functions.

Thus the function Gex, designated as the electric


dyadic Green's function of the first kind, satisfiesthe
dyadic Dirichlet boundary condition on a surfaceS,
usually correspondingto the surface of a perfectly
conducting scatteringbody, i.e.,
fi X Ge = 0 on S

+ [fix E'(R')] V' x Ge(R',R)) ds'

(44)

(46)

(39) while the boundary condition for G e2, the electric


dyadic Green's function of the second kind, corre'spondsto the dyadic Neumann condition
fi X V X G e2---0 on S

(47)

The symmetrical
propertyof C.eXis similarto that of

- [Ge(R',
R)'l
r.[fi'
xV'xE(R')3

Geo, but the symmetricalproperty of V x Gex and


V x Ge2 is slightlydifferent.By an applicationof the
first dyadic-dyadic Green's identity as stated by (32)

with

Equation (40) now involves the transposes of the

P = V x Ge1(R, R)

Je(R',R) and V' x Ge(R',R), which can be further


simplifieddependingupon the kind of electricdyadic
Green's function being considered. These simplifications require a knowledge of the symmetry
property of these functions. As an example, let us
consider the free-spaceelectric dyadic Green's func-

tion, denotedby Jeo(R,R'), whichsatisfied


(36) and
is characterizedby the radiation condition at infinity,
namely,

LimR[V x Jeo(R,
R')-- ikt x eo(R,R')']-- 0

Q = a e2(g, ga)
it is not difficult

to show that

IV x Ge2(Rt,,R,)]r= V x Ge(R,,Rt,)
or

['X Ge2(R',R)']r-- X Gel(R, R')

(48)

Thus in (40) if we chooseG e to be Ge and let S be


the surface of a conducting body with an aperture
(41)
then as a result of the symmetricalproperty of Ge

1288

TAI' DYADIC ANALYSISAND APPLICATIONS

and x Ge we obtain

whosework has beenadoredand appreciated


by
many colleaguesall over the world.

E(R)
=ico#
fff C.
el(R,
R').
J(R')
dr'
--

IV x Ge2(R, R)-I[fix E(R)-IdS'

Acknowledgments.
Suggestions
by a reviewer
in addingad-

ditional
references
andpolishing
thebriginal
manuscript
are
(49)

where SA denotesthe portion of surfaceat the site of


the aperture.
Theseexamples,hopefully,illustrateclearlythe ad-

greatly appreciated.

The supportof thiswork by the NationalScience


Foundation
undergrantECS-8319595
isalsoverymuchappreciated.
REFERENCES

Collin,R. E., FieldTheoryof Guided


Waves,pp.58-64and568570, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960.

vantage of applying the vector-dyadicand dyadicGibbs,J. W., and E. B. Wilson,VectorAnalysis,


536pp.,Yale
dyadic Green's identities in formulating electroUniversity Press,New Haven, Conn. 1913.
magneticproblemsbasedon the techniqueof dyadic Levine,H., andJ. Schwinger,
On the theoryof electromagnetic
Green's functions.

wavediffraction
byan aperture
in aninfiniteplaneconducting
screen,Commun.
PureAppl.Math., 3, 355-391, 1950.
5.

CONCLUSION

Morse,P.M., andH. Feshbach,


Methods
of Theoretical
Physics,
part II, 1978pp., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1953.

Stratton,J. A.,Electromagnetic
Theory,p. 250,McGraw-Hill,New

In thisarticlewereviewandcompile
a fairlycom- York, 1941.
pletelist of identities
in dyadicanalysis.
Two exam- Tai, C. T., DyadicGreen's
Functions
in Electromagnetic
Theory,

ples are given to illustratetheir applications.The


pioneer work of Jean Van Bladel in this area has in-

spiredmany people,includingthis author, to ad-

vancefurtherresearch
in dyadicanalysis.
It isa privi-

246pp.,InternationalTextbooks,Scranton,Pa., 1971.

Van Bladel,J.,Electromagnetic
Fields,pp.506-511,McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1964.

C. T. Tai, RadiationLaboratory,Departmentof ElectricalEn-

lege to this author to contribute an article in this


gineering
andComputer
Sciences,
University
of Michigan,
Ann
special issue of Radio Science,to honor a scientist Arbor, MI 48109.