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Dyadic analysis for EM

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C. T. Tai

RadiationLaboratory,Departmentof ElectricalEngineering

andComputerSciences,

Universityof Michigan,Ann Arbor

(ReceivedFebruary 2, 1987' revisedJune 12, 1987' acceptedJuly 7, 1987.)

Some commonly used formulas in dyadic analysisare reviewed and summarizedin this article. In

particular, we have derived the dyadic-dyadicversion of two vector-dyadicGreen's theorems.The

applicationof thesetheoremsto electromagnetics

is illustratedby two examples.

1.

INTRODUCTION

F = F,,

Dyadic analysisas a branch of applied mathematics was enunciated by American physicist J. W.

Gibbs after he introduced vector analysis.In his original treatise [Gibbs and Wilson, 1913], many basic

definitions in dyadic analysiswere given, but none of

the integral theorems were discussed.The use of

dyadic analysis in electromagneticsappeared in the

book by Morse and Feshbach[1953] and the one by

Collin [1960]. Van Bladel, to whom this article is

dedicated, was the first author to provide a list of

formulas in dyadic analysis in his book ElectromagneticFields [Van Bladel, 1964].

In view of the growing interest of applying dyadic

Green's function technique to electromagneticproblems in recent years, it seemsdesirable to supplement

Van Bladel's list and collect them in one place for the

convenienceof people interestedin this technique. In

order to present a logical development of various

formulas with different degree of complexity, we

decide to start from the very basic definition of

dyadic analysis. Some repetition of elementary material is therefore unavoidable. Finally, we introduce

two dyadic-dyadic Green's theorems which have not

appeared before. Two examples are given to show

the application of thesetheorems.

2.

DYADIC

ALGEBRA

Cartesian coordinate systemis definedby

(1)

i=1

componentsof the vector and xi denote the three

unit vectors in the direction of i, which are commonly referred to as x, y, z. Although (1) can be used

to define a vector in any orthogonal or nonorthogonal system,we use xi in subsequentsectionsto denote

Cartesian

variables.

Now

we consider

three

distinct

vector

functions

denoted by

3

F= Foi ,

j=1,2,3

(2)

i=1

3

(3)

j=l

asthe three

vector components of F. If we substitute the ex-

pression

for Fj defined

by (2)into(3),then canbe

written

in the form

3

F=

i=1

Fu,

(4)

j=l

as the nine scalarcomponentsof F and the doublet

as the nine unit

dyadicsor dyads each being formed by a pair of unit

i.e.,

equalto i unlessi = j.

2.2.

is not

The transposeoff

The transpose

of , denotedby []r, is definedby

Copyright 1987 by the American Geophysical Union.

= E

0048-6604/87/007S-0595508.00

j=l

1283

= E E

i=1

j=l

= E E

i=1

j--1

(5)

1284

TAI:

DYADIC

ANALYSIS

AND

APPLICATIONS

Comparingthe expressions

for F givenby (3) and (4), notedby F a, is definedby

we seethat the positionsof Fj and :j have been

interchanged,

or thescalarcomponents

Fo in F have F.a= F(. a)= aF,,= , , a,F,

3

j=l

beenreplaced

byFji in IF] r, hence

thename"trans2.3. Symmetricaland antisymmetricaldyadic

functions

i=lj=l

(10)

i=1j=3

are not equal unless F is a symmetrical dyadic. For

any dyadic we have the relation

pose."

a. [F] :

F s, is

characterized

by Fo = F, hence

a. F s = Fs. a

a'Fa=

-Fa'a

a.i=l.

(7)

distinct scalar components if we do not consider the

negativesign as being distinct.

(12)

(13)

If F s = I, the idemfactor,then

characterized

by Fj - --Fi, henceFu -- 0, and

[Fa]T-" --F a

( )

result of (6), (7), and (11), one finds

(6)

A symmetricaldyadic thereforehas only six distinct

scalar components.

[F]. a

a= a

(14)

vectorproduct,denotedby a x F, is definedby

2.4. ldemfactor

a x = (a x Fj)j

(15)

j=l

Fq - 1

i =j

Fij=0

i -j

by

3

F x a = Fj(j x a)

(16)

j=l

or

identity similar to (11) for the vector products.

Flj =

whereij denotes

theKronecker

deltafunction.

This

Its explicitexpressionis

involving three vectors'

a. (b x c)= b. (c x a)= c. (a x b)

or more clearly,

(17)

(8)

and a dyadic. The anterior scalarproduct denotedby

a F, is defined by

3

j=l

i=1

tieswiththreedifferentvectorfunctions

%, i.e.,

a.(b x %)= -b.(a x %):(a x b).%

three distinct

(9)

j=l

(18)

withj = 1, 2, 3. We purposely

placethefunctionc at

the posterior position in order to derive the desired

the posterior position of each term in (18) and sum

the resultant equationswith respectto j to obtain

a. (b x :)= -b.

(a x :)= (a x b). :

(19)

TAI'

DYADIC

ANALYSIS

AND

APPLICATIONS

1285

higher level involving one dyadic and two vectors. 3.2. Vector-dyadic Green'ssecondidentity

We can elevate the vector function b to a dyadic in

One of the most useful theorems in dyadic analysis

the last two terms of (19) by considering three disis the vector-dyadic Green's secondidentity, which is

tinct equations of the form

a generalization of the vector Green's secondidentity

-[a x :]r. bj = [:]r. (a x bj)

(20) first introduced by Stratton [1941]. The latter states

that

for

two

continuous

differentiable

vector

func-

summing the resultant equations with respectof j, we

obtain

(21)

f,l[P'VxVxQ-(VxVxP)'Q]d

v

the result is a dyadic.

The previous sectionsmainly deal with dyadic algebra. In the following sectionswe introduce definitions and formulas involving differentiation and integration of dyadic functions,which is the main body

of dyadic analysis.

3.

DYADIC

ANALYSIS

=-ff[(fix

VxP).

Q+P.(fix

VxQ)]

ds(27)

s

unit normal

vector to the

with j- 1, 2, 3, so we have three identities of the

form describedby (27). By juxtaposing a unit vector

at theposterior

position

ofeachofthethreevector

equations and summing the three equations, we

gradient of vectorfunctions

obtain

V F, is defined by

[P.V

xVxQ-(V

xVxP)-O]dv

v

V-'=(V.F)*

cFu (22)

= x/*

j=l

i=1

3

x -

(V xFj)*j=

j:l

(VF ux*,)*J

i=1

=_ff[,fi

x,xP).

Q+(fix

P).

VxQ]as (28)

j=l

(23)

secondidentity.

This theorem and several other formulas which we

j=l

know the gradient of a vector function, denoted by

VF, which is defined by

VF= (VFj)j

=

j=l

i=1

j=l

Bladel [1964] without derivations. We merely supply

the details to show the origin of theseformulas.

(24)3.3.

Dyadic-dyadicGreen'ssecondidentity

which is a dyadic.

{[V

xVxQ]r.

p_

[Q]r.

VxVxP}

dv

F = WI

then

=-ff

,fix

vxPj)

+[vxQ]r.

(fix

Pj)}

ds

v.()- = v.() = =v

(25)

and

(26) a unit vectorxj at theposteriorpositionof the three

j=l

j=

V x (i)= V x (W)i = V x i

j=l

1286

TAI' DYADIC

obtain

the vector identity

([v x v x Q].P-[Q].v

x v x P)

fff(A.

VxB-B.VxA)

dV=

fffi.(B

xA)

dS

(34)

{[Q]. (a x v x P) + Iv x Q]. (a x P} as

(29)

4.

secondidentity.

3.4. First vector-dyadicand dyadic-dyadic

Green's identities

and (29), there are two more identities which are not

first vector Green'sidentity statedas

useful in deriving some important relations in the

theory of dyadic Green's functionsas applied to electromagnetictheory. In this author's book on the subject [Tai, 1971], many of the theorems,particularly

the vector-dyadic and the dyadic-dyadic Green's

identities,are not discussed.Much of the presentations therein follow closelythe method of Levine and

Schwinler[1950], where only the vector Green's theorem is used. Since then, we have found that it is

ff[(V

xP)-(V

xQ)P-VxVxQ]av

=ff(fi

xP).

VxQds

APPLICATIONS

treatment, making the presentation simpler and

giving the resultsmore directly. The following examples illustrate our new approach.

We consider first integration of the vector wave

equation for the electricfield, which is assumedto be

(30)

derivation of (28) and (29), we can derive the following two identities'

then satisfiesthe equation

ff[,v

xP).

VxQ--P-VxVxQ]dv

V x V x E- k2E = ico#J

(35)

=f(fi

xP).

xQdS

s

density function responsiblefor producingthe field.

To integrate (35) we introduce the electric dyadic

Green'sfunctionGe, whichsatisfies

theequation

(31)

(36)

: ;.,IEV

xQ]T-(

xP)

ds

$

where I denotes the idemfactor and g(R- R') denotes the three dimensional delta function, which is

characterizedby

(32)

Green's identity and (32) as the first dyadic-dyadic

Green's identity.

In (32),if we let V x Q = , and P = ., then

fF(R)g(R

--R')

dV

=F(R')

R'inV

v

(37)

ff F(r)a(R

--R')

dV=0

f{[]T,

VxA-[Vx]T.

]}dv

(33)

s

R'notin

delta function to characterizethe inhomogeneous

part of a partial differential equation implies that we

TAI'

DYADIC

ANALYSIS

AND

APPLICATIONS

1287

plication of the second vector-dyadic identity as functionswith sourceslocated at R a and R b, so that

E(R')

=iwla

fffJ(R,.

e(R,

g')

--{[fi

xVxE(R)].

Je(R,

R')]

s

V x V x Geo(R,Ro)- k2Geo(R,

Ro)= i6(R -- Ro)

(42)

(43)

by (41). By applying the second dyadic-dyadic

Green's identity, equation (29), to thesetwo functions

with P = Geo(R,Ra) and Q = G eo(R,Rb), we obtain

(38)

immediately

Levine and Schwin]er [1950] by using the second

[Jeo(ga,ab)]T - Je0(gb,

ga)

where a denotes an arbitrary constant vector. After

substitutingP and Q into (27) the dot product with a

is deleted.The differencein these two approachesis,

perhaps, minor, but it appears that our revised

method is more compact. It is also implied here that

the second vector dyadic Green's identity is applicable to generalizedfunctions.We normally use R to

denote the point of observation.By interchangingR

and R' in (38) we can transform it into

The surface integral drops out because of the radiation condition. Equation (44) is a mathematical

statement of the symmetrical property of the freespaceelectric dyadic Green's function. Since R and

R are arbitrary, we normally write (44) in the form

E(R)ico#

ffJ(R').

Je(R

t,R)

d19

t

[Jeo(R

t, R)]T= Jeo(R,Rt)

(45)

relations for other kinds of dyadic Green's functions.

dyadic Green's function of the first kind, satisfiesthe

dyadic Dirichlet boundary condition on a surfaceS,

usually correspondingto the surface of a perfectly

conducting scatteringbody, i.e.,

fi X Ge = 0 on S

(44)

(46)

dyadic Green's function of the second kind, corre'spondsto the dyadic Neumann condition

fi X V X G e2---0 on S

(47)

The symmetrical

propertyof C.eXis similarto that of

- [Ge(R',

R)'l

r.[fi'

xV'xE(R')3

V x Ge2 is slightlydifferent.By an applicationof the

first dyadic-dyadic Green's identity as stated by (32)

with

P = V x Ge1(R, R)

simplifieddependingupon the kind of electricdyadic

Green's function being considered. These simplifications require a knowledge of the symmetry

property of these functions. As an example, let us

consider the free-spaceelectric dyadic Green's func-

(36) and

is characterizedby the radiation condition at infinity,

namely,

LimR[V x Jeo(R,

R')-- ikt x eo(R,R')']-- 0

Q = a e2(g, ga)

it is not difficult

to show that

IV x Ge2(Rt,,R,)]r= V x Ge(R,,Rt,)

or

(48)

the surface of a conducting body with an aperture

(41)

then as a result of the symmetricalproperty of Ge

1288

and x Ge we obtain

by

many colleaguesall over the world.

E(R)

=ico#

fff C.

el(R,

R').

J(R')

dr'

--

Acknowledgments.

Suggestions

by a reviewer

in addingad-

ditional

references

andpolishing

thebriginal

manuscript

are

(49)

the aperture.

Theseexamples,hopefully,illustrateclearlythe ad-

greatly appreciated.

Foundation

undergrantECS-8319595

isalsoverymuchappreciated.

REFERENCES

Waves,pp.58-64and568570, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960.

536pp.,Yale

dyadic Green's identities in formulating electroUniversity Press,New Haven, Conn. 1913.

magneticproblemsbasedon the techniqueof dyadic Levine,H., andJ. Schwinger,

On the theoryof electromagnetic

Green's functions.

wavediffraction

byan aperture

in aninfiniteplaneconducting

screen,Commun.

PureAppl.Math., 3, 355-391, 1950.

5.

CONCLUSION

Methods

of Theoretical

Physics,

part II, 1978pp., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1953.

Stratton,J. A.,Electromagnetic

Theory,p. 250,McGraw-Hill,New

In thisarticlewereviewandcompile

a fairlycom- York, 1941.

pletelist of identities

in dyadicanalysis.

Two exam- Tai, C. T., DyadicGreen's

Functions

in Electromagnetic

Theory,

pioneer work of Jean Van Bladel in this area has in-

vancefurtherresearch

in dyadicanalysis.

It isa privi-

246pp.,InternationalTextbooks,Scranton,Pa., 1971.

Van Bladel,J.,Electromagnetic

Fields,pp.506-511,McGraw-Hill,

New York, 1964.

gineering

andComputer

Sciences,

University

of Michigan,

Ann

special issue of Radio Science,to honor a scientist Arbor, MI 48109.

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