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Who

Morpholog

S/Sx

Dx

Tx

Life cycle

Preventio

 

y

n

Enterobius

Most

Eggs

Perianal itching

Scotch tape

Pyrental

Humans –

Hygiene

vermicularis

common

flattened on

test for

palmoate,

definitive host,

(pinworm)

helminth;

one side

adults or

mebendazole,

fecal-oral

daycares

eggs

or albendazole

transmission

Trichuriasis

   

Nonspecific, diarrhea, blood

Eggs in

Mebendazole,

Humans –

infectious

 

(whipworm)

loss, anemia

feces

albendazole

definitive host;

eggs must embryonate in soil before being

Hookworm

 

Adults have

Teeth attach to intestinal

Eggs in

Mebendazole,

Eggs hatch in

and swallow them

Shoes

teeth, eggs

villi and produce

feces

albendazole,

environment,

have clear

anticoagulant, can cause

maybe iron if

enters thru skin;

outer shell,

microcytic anemia; larva

anemic

can migrate from

produces

can migrate and cause

skin to blood,

anticoagulant

inflammation and

heart, lungs and

eosinophilia (Loeffler’s = eosinophilic pneumonitis)

other organs; cough them up

Ascariasis

 

Eggs have

Severity related to worm

Eggs in

Mebendazole,

Eggs need to

Proper

irregular

burden; can cause

feces

albendazole,

embryonate to be

sewage

outer coating

pneumonitis (Loeffler’s),

ivermectin

infectious; worms

disposal,

intestinal obstruction, bowel

can transit from

wash food,

perforation

blood to lung to

sanitize,

intestinal tract,

don’t spray

can cause

poop on

Loeffler’s

fruits and

veggies

Toxocara

Dogs, cats,

 

Visceral larva migrans –

asymptomatic eosinophilia

   

Humans –

Wear shoes

canis and T.

people

larva penetrate mucosa and

accidental host;

to prevent

cati

go to liver, lungs, eyes,

dogs and cats

cutaneous

cause inflammation;

cause visceral

larva

cutaneous larva migrans –

form, hookworm of

migrans

larva penetrate skin and cause inflammation; most commonly massive

other species cause cutaneous form

Strongyloide

Most commonly

Larva in

Ivermectin,

Autoinfection

s stercoralis

   

asymptomatic with

eosinophilia)

stool or

albendazole

(chronic infection

 

eosinophilia, can invade skin

sputum,

for decades),

(purpuric papules), lung

serology

rhabditiform larva

(Loeffler’s), intestines (GI symptoms); hyperinfection in immunocompromised (no

can be shed or autoinfect the host

Trichinella

Pork,

Adult in

Depends on worm burden,

History,

Supportive tx;

Humans – dead

Properly

spiralis

undercooke

intestine,

can cause gastroenteritis,

eosinophilia

mebendazole

end host; larva

clean and

d meat,

larva in

fever, muscle pain,

, serology,

or albendazole

become encysted

cook meat

bear meat

tissue

periorbital edema,

larva in

kills adults but

in muscle of

weakness, elevated WBC

muscle

not larva

animal hosts and

and eosinophilia

eaten

Wuchereria

Tropical

Adults in

Inflammation and

Microfilaria

Diethylcarbama

 

Treat to

bancrofti

areas,

lymphatics,

obstruction of lymphatic

in blood at

zine kills

prevent

mosquito

microfilaria in

channels (lymphatic

night

microfilaria,

transmissio

vector

bloodstream

filariasis, elephantiasis),

doxycycline

n

adults die and calcify and

kills adults,

cause occlusion

steroids

Taenia

Developing

Scolex –

T. solium (pork) more

Eggs or

Praziquantel,

Humans –

Properly

saginata, T.

world

head,

infectious, can cause

proglottids

niclosamide

definitive host,

cook beef

solium

proglottid –

cysticercosis involving brain

in stool,

cysts can also be

and pork to

(tapeworm)

make eggs,

(cerebral), eyes, liver, lung,

serology or

caused by

kill

hermaphrodit

or muscles, leading to

imaging for

ingesting eggs

cysticerci,

ic and no

seizures; eggs cause

extraintesti

from human fecal

hygiene

digestive

neurocysticercosis, cysts

nal disease

matter

tract

cause gut cysticercosis

Echinococcu

 

Smallest of

Forms cysts in various

History

Surgery for

Definitive – dog;

Hygiene,

s granulosus

all

tissues that grow slowly

(sheep

cyst,

intermediate –

avoid dog

(hydatid cyst

tapeworms,

over time, can present like a

herding),

albendazole or

goat and sheep;

feces

disease)

scolex, 1

slow growing tumor; liver

serology,

mebendazole,

accidental –

immature, 1

cyst (obstructive jaundice),

space

PAIR

human

mature, 1

brain cyst (ICP and

occupying

gravid

seizures), ruptured cyst

lesion with

proglottid

(anaphylaxis)

eosinophilia

Schistosomia

Depends on

Mansoni –

Mansoni and japonicum – GI

History;

Praziquantel

Humans –

Snail

sis

region

side spine,

(periportal fibrosis, portal

eggs in

intermediate host

control,

hematobium

HTN, hepatosplenomegaly),

urine

proper

– terminal

hematobium – GU (bladder

(hematobiu

sewage

spine,

granuloma, hematuria,

m) or stool

disposal

 

japonicum –

bladder cancer),

(mansoni,

no spine

hypersensitivity to eggs

japonicum)

Entamoeba

1-3% of US

Trophozoite –

Acute – dysentery with

Cysts in

Metronidazole

Transmitted by

Don’t drink

histolytica

population

active form,

abdominal pain, chronic –

stool,

or tinidazole for

free-living amoeba

or eat

single

recurrent episodes with

serology,

symptomatic,

in the water

fecally

nucleus with

blood and mucus in feces,

amoeba

iodoquinol or

contaminat

ingested

can disseminate to form

antigen,

paromyomycin

ed things

RBC; flask-

abscesses in liver (“anchovy

PCR and

for

shaped

paste”), lung, brain

DNA tests

asymptomatic

ulcers

Naegleria

Rare, neti-

Portal of

Causes amebic

Trophozoite

Amphotericin B

 

Don’t swim

fowleri

pots

entry – nose,

meningoencephalitis

s in CSF and

in

(brain eating

craws up

tissue

freshwater,

amoeba)

cribriform

don’t use

plate

neti pots

Trichomonas

STD

Flagellated,

Frothy vaginal discharge,

Trophozoite

Metronidazole,

Multiplies by

Safe sex

vaginalis

single

strawberry cervix

s in

tinidazole

binary fission,

nucleus,

discharge,

sexually

undulating

PCR

transmitted, no

membrane

cysts, no

reservoirs

Giardia

Common,

Flagellated, 2

Uncontrollable flatulence,

Cysts and

Metronidazole,

Have cysts, cysts

Not killed

intestinalis

esp.

nuclei and

abdominal distension, foul-

trophozoite

tinidazole,

are ingested, can

by chlorine;

daycares,

bilateral

smelling diarrhea,

s in stool

nitazoxanide

have animal

kill by

increased

symmetry,

malabsorption (trophozoites

reservoirs

heating and

in immuno-

suction disks

cover and flatten intestinal

desiccation

compromis

epithelium)

ed

African

Gambiense

Trypomastigo

Bite rxn (chancre),

Parasites in

Blood –

Immune evasion

Mosquito

trypanosomi

in W Africa,

te with

parasitemia, fever, CNS

blood or

pentamidine,

via antigenic

nets, avoid

asis (T.

rhodesiens

kinetoplast

(coma and death); E African

lymph

suramin; CNS –

variation (VSG,

tsetse flies,

brucei,

e in E

and

form more rapidly

nodes; Card

melarsoprol,

variable surface

protective

sleeping

Africa;

undulating

progressive

agglutinatio

nifurtimox,

glycoproteins)

clothing

sickness)

tsetse fly

membrane

n test

eflornithine

vector

American

Central and

Trypomastigo

Primary lesion (chagoma)

lymphocytosis; chronic –

Bloor

Complex;

Reduviid bug lays

amastigotes once

Can kill with

trypanosomi

S America;

te in blood,

usually at bite, periorbital

smear,

benznidazole,

feces near bite and

gentian

asis (T. cruzi,

reduviid

amastigote in

swelling (Romana sign),

tissue

nifurtimox

gets rubbed into

violet plus

Chagas

bug vector

tissue

nonspecific symptoms,

histology

eye, wound, or

heat

disease)

parasitemia and

mouth; become

 

cardiomyopathy,

inside cells

megaesophagus, megacolon

Leishmaniasi

Depends on

Promastigote

Cutaneous (ulcers, boils and

Blood or

Sodium

Obligate

Control

s

species and

taken up by

sores), mucocutaneous

tissue

stibogluconate,

intracellular

sandflies,

immune

macrophages

(face, nose deformities),

exam,

miltefosine,

organism

sleep

status;

and become

visceral (hepatomegaly,

serology,

amphotericin B

higher,

sandfly

amastigote

splenomegaly), damage

clinical hx

permethrin

vector

mainly due to immunologic

bed sheets

response

Toxoplasma

Congenital,

Pseudocysts

Rarely symptomatic in

Special

Pyrimethamine

Cat – definitive

Avoid cat

gondii

direct

immunocompetent people,

antibodies

and

host, forms

litter, cook

contact

can cause congenital

sulfadiazine, or

pseudocysts in

meat, TMP-

with cat

infections and serious illness

TMP-SMX

intermediate

SMX

feces, blood

via reactivation in

hosts, can infect

prophylaxis

transfusion,

immunocompromised

placenta and

in HIV/AIDS

undercooke

people, extra caution for

vertical

patients

d meat

pregnant and HIV/AIDS

transmission

patients

Cryptosporid

Outbreaks

Oocysts,

Diarrhea (dose-dependent),

Antigen

Nitazoxanide

Ingest oocysts,

UV and

i hominis or

via

sporozoites,

can disseminate and cause

testing,

release

filters, boil

parvum

contaminat

merozoites

severe disease in

stool

sporozoites,

water,

ed water,

immunocompromised,

microscopy

differentiate into

resistant to

water

dehydration from diarrhea

merozoites

chlorine

parks, pools

Malaria

Different by

Ring-form

RBC rupture, cyclic

Giemsa

Variable

 

DEET, bed

(plasmodium

region;

trophozoites

symptoms, headache, n/v,

stain blood

resistance,

nets, avoid

)

anopheles

in blood

anemia, seizures,

smear,

primaquine to

mosquito

mosquito

smear,

pulmonary symptoms,

rapid

kill hypnozoites

bites,

vector

hypnozoites

ARDS, hypoglycemia, lactic

antigen test

(P. vivax and P.

mefloquine

are dormant

acidosis; P. falciparum is

ovale)

prophylaxis

and cause

deadliest

in kids

relapsing

disease

Schistosoma

Schistosoma

Leischmaniasis

Leischmaniasis

Malaria

Malaria
Malaria