Anda di halaman 1dari 236

# H. E.

Rose

A COURSE ON
FINITE GROUPS
Web Sections, Web Chapters and
Solution Appendix

Springer

322

## TABLE OF Web Sections

The material presented in this Web Site is additional to that given in the
main text A Course on Finite Groups. It consists of extra sections to
some of the chapters with in most cases a set of supplementary problems,
two extra chapters providing an introduction to group representation theory,
and a long Appendix giving solutions, ranging from brief hints to complete
answers, to all of the problems listed in the main text. Chapter, section,
definition, theorem, problem and equation numbers all follow on from those
given in the main text. In fact these Web Sections could be printed, and
then slotted into the main text at the appropriate places allowing for the
non-consecutive page numbers. Again it is a pleasure to thank Ben Fairbairn
for commenting on and improving the text.

## Web Section 3.6

3.7

Representations of A5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

Problems 3W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

4.7

## Group Presentation, Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

4.8

Problems 4W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

## Web Section 5.4 Transitive and Primitive Permutation Groups, Iwasawas

Lemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
5.5

Problems 5W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

## Web Section 6.5 Further Applications. Burnsides Normal Complement

Theorem, Groups with Cyclic Sylow Subgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
6.6

Problems 6W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

## Schur-Zassenhaus Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

9.5

Problems 9W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

324

Web Section 12.6 Simple Groups of Order less than 1000000, a second
proof of the Simplicity of the Groups Ln (q), and a method for generating
Steiner Systems for some Mathieu Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
12.7

Web Chapter 13
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5

## Representations and Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402

Theorems of Schur and Maschke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Characters and Orthogonality Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
Lifts and Normal Subgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Problems 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427

## Web Chapter 14 Character Tables and Theorems of Burnside and

Frobenius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5

## Character Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434

Burnsides pr q s -theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Frobenius Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Problems 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Appendix on Algebraic Integers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

## Answers and Solutions, Problems 2 . . . . . . . . 461

Problems 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Problems 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Problems 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
Problems 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Problems 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
Problems 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
Problems 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
Problems 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
Problems 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Problems 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
Problems A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
Problems B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
Subgroup lattice diagrams for Groups of Order 8, 12 or 16 . . . . . . . . . 547
Addendum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559

3.6 Representations of A5

3.6

325

Representations of A5

At the beginning of this chapter we noted that most groups have several
distinct representations; to illustrate this fact we discuss here some representations of A5 . In Section 3.2 we introduced A5 as the group of all even
permutations on a five element set. It can also be (indirectly) specified as the
only non-Abelian simple group up to isomorphism of order less than 100,1
see Problem 6.15.
The group A5 has a number of presentations, three are as follows:
P1 : ha, b | a3 = b5 = (ab)2 = ei,
P2 : ha, b | a5 = b5 = (ab)2 = (a4 b)3 = ei,
P3 : ha, b, c | a3 = b3 = c3 = (ab)2 = (bc)2 = (ca)2 = ei.
To show that each of these presentations do in fact define A5 we can argue as
follows. Consider P1 . We associate permutations in A5 (treating A5 as a permutation group) with each generator and then show that the corresponding
relations hold. This shows that a copy of A5 is a factor of P1 . Secondly, we
show that P1 has 60 elements and this will be done in Problem 3.26. Similar
arguments are required for P2 and P3 . For P1 set
a 7 (1, 4, 2)

then

## It is immediately clear that the relations of P1 are satisfied. For P2 we set

a 7 (2, 1, 3, 4, 5)

## and b 7 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5),

ab = (1, 4)(3, 5)

then

a 7 (1, 2, 3),

b 7 (1, 2, 4)

## note that (1, 2, j)(1, 2, k) = (1, k)(2, j) if j, k > 2 and j 6= k.

The group A5 also has a number of matrix representations, we give two
here and one more in Problem 3.27, further representation examples can be
found in the Atlas (1985). First we show that SL2 (4) is one such representation. This group is defined as the set of all 2 2 matrices A with det A = 1
defined over the 4-element field F4 , see Section 3.3. Let the elements of F4 be
0, 1, c and c + 1,

where

1 + c + c2 = 0,

## and we work modulo 2, that is 1 + 1 = c + c = 0 and c2 = c + 1; see Section

12.2. Using the presentation P3 , we set






1 1
1 c+1
1 c
a 7
, b 7
and c 7
,
1 0
c 0
c+1 0
1

In fact, it is the only non-Abelian simple group of order less than 168, see Chapter 12.

326

## 3 Group Constructions and Representations

then

ab =

c+1 c+1
1 c+1


, bc =

c+1 c
c c+1


and ca =

c+1 1
c+1 c+1


.

We leave it as an exercise for the reader to show that these matrices satisfy
the relations in P3 , and that this system contains 60 matrices.
Our second matrix representation is L2 (5) which is defined as follows.
Working over the 5-element field (that is working modulo 5), we take SL2 (5)
and factor out its centre. The process of forming
 a factor group is defined
0
Chapter 4. The centre of SL2 (5) is { 10 01 , 1
}, see Problem 3.19; hence

0 1
a b
a b
we work in SL2 (5) and treat c d and c d as the same matrix. Formally,
the elements of L2 (5) are the cosets of Z(SL2 (5)) in the group SL2 (5). Note
that 1 4 (mod 5) et cetera. Using the presentation P2 above, we set




1 0
4 1
a 7
and b 7
,
3 1
1 3
then

ab 7

4 1
3 1

and a4 b 7

4 1
4 0


,

and it is a simple matter to show that the relations of P2 are satisfied. The
choice of matrices and permutations above do satisfy the required conditions
but are definitely not unique; as an exercise the reader should find some other
examples.
Another representation of A5 is as the rotational symmetry group of
a dodecahedron. A dodecahedron is a regular solid structure with twelve
regular equal-sized plane pentagonal faces with edges of equal length. This
structure has three types of rotational symmetry: (i) rotation about a line
drawn through the centres of opposite faces, this has order 5 as the faces
are regular and have five edges; (ii) rotation about opposite vertices, in this
structure three pentagonal faces meet at a vertex, and so this symmetry has
order 3; and (iii) rotation about the centres of opposite edges, this has order
2. Now using the presentation P1 above, if we associate a symmetry of type
(ii) with a and a symmetry of type (i) with b, then a symmetry of type (iii)
is associated with ab. To see this the reader should obtain a model of an
dodecahedron and try it! It is now easily seen that the relations of P1 are
satisfied, and (with some patience) that there are 60 symmetries in all. An
excellent film, made by the Open University for their second year course in
pure mathematics, illustrates this isomorphism clearly.
The group A5 can also be treated as the rotational symmetry group of a
icosahedron. An icosahedron I is a regular solid with 20 identical equilateral
triangular faces and it can be inscribed in a dodecahedron D by taking the
vertices of I as the centres of the faces of D. This process is self-inverse for
we can also inscribe a dodecahedron inside an icosahedron using the same
method. This latter representation of A5 is the one that has been used by

3.7 Problems 3W

327

## some chemists to describe the structure of the carbon molecule Carbon60,

see page 24.
The Atlas (1985) gives some more representations of A5 , for example
as unitary groups defined over the fields F16 or F25 . Also this group occurs
as maximal subgroups of a number of simple groups, for example A6 , L2 (k)
where k = 11, 16, 19, 29 and 31, and the Janko group J2 (sometimes called
the Hall-Janko group). Further details are given in Chapter 12, the Atlas
(1985), and the online Atlas.

3.7

Problems 3W

Problem 3.25 (An Example of a Free Group) A linear fractional transformation f of the complex plane C to itself is a map of the form
fa,b,c,d (z) =

az + b
cz + d

where

## (i) Show that the mapping



a b
c d

ad bc 6= 0 for a, b, c, d C.


7 fa,b,c,d

is a homomorphism (see Section 4.1) from GL2 (C) to the group of all linear
fractional transformations.


(ii) Show that the matrices A = 12 01 and B = 10 21 generate a free
subgroup in the group of all linear fractional transformations. (Hint. Consider
the effect on points inside and outside the unit circle in the complex plane.)
Problem 3.26? Let G = ha, b | a3 = b5 = (ab)2 = ei; see page 325. Show
that G has at most 60 elements using the following method, see Passman
(1968, page 120). Clearly if H = hbi, then o(H) = 5 and H G. Consider
the following set of twelve cosets of H in G (we are not assuming that they
are distinct, but in fact they are).
H Ha2 Ha2 ba Ha2 b2 Ha2 b2 a2 Ha2 b2 a2 ba
.
Ha Ha2 b Ha2 ba2 Ha2 b2 a Ha2 b2 a2 b Ha2 b2 a2 ba2
Further, let H ? denote the union of these twelve cosets. Now if H1 H ? ,
then H1 a H ? as a3 = e. By considering each coset in turn, show that if
H1 H ? then H1 b H ? . Deduce H ? G = H ? , and so prove the result.
Problem 3.27 Working over the complex field C, let z be a primitive
fifth-root of unity, that is z 5 = 1 and z 6= 1. Note that

328

Further let
A=

1 0 0
0 z 0
0 0 z4

!
,

2
4
4
1
2 1 5 1 + 5 .
B=
2 5 2 1 + 5 1 5

## (i) Show that A5 = B 2 = (AB)3 = I3 , and so using Problem 3.26 show

that hA, Bi ' A5 . Note that the presentation suggested here is closely related
to the presentation P1 given on page 325.
(ii) Give representatives of the conjugacy classes.
Problem 3.28 (Properties of A6 ) (i) Our first representation of A6 is
as the group of even permutations on the set X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. It also has
the following two presentations:
ha, b | a5 = b5 = (ab)2 = (a4 b)4 = ei,
and

## hc, d | c5 = d3 = (cd)4 = [c, d] = ei,

where the square brackets denotes the commutator. Note the similarity of
the first of these presentations with the presentation P2 for A5 given on page
325. Show that each of these presentations is valid for A6 using the following
method. Begin by showing that if we set
a 7 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

and b 7 (1, 4, 6, 3, 2)

## then a and b satisfy the first set of relations, and if we set

c 7 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

and d 7 (4, 5, 6)

then c and d satisfy the second set. Now show that b can be expressed in
terms of c and d, and also d can be expressed in terms of a and b, and use
these facts to establish these presentations.
(ii) Show that the group G = h(1, 2)(3, 4), (1, 2, 3)(4, 5, 6)i is a subgroup
of A6 using one of the presentations of A5 given in this section.
(iii) By trial show that the group G given in (ii) is doubly transitive
on {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, that is for every pair of two-element subsets of X: Xi =
{xi1 , xi2 } X, there exists G with the properties x11 = x21 and
x12 = x22 .
(iv) How many copies of A5 occur as subgroups in A6 ?
Problem 3.29 (i) Show that if n > 2, then every index n subgroup in An
is isomorphic to An1 . (Hint. Use Theorem 5.15 and the example on page
192.)

3.7 Problems 3W

329

(ii) Use (i) to show that if G is a non-Abelian simple group with order 60,
then G ' A5 . The method is as follows. Using Theorem 5.15 and the Sylow
theory (for the prime 5) to show that G can be embedded in S6 , then use (i)
and Problem 3.7(ii).
Problem 3.30

## Suppose Sn has the cyclic decomposition

= (a1 , . . . , ai1 )(b1 , . . . , bi2 ) . . . (c1 , . . . , cin ).

## Let , a product of 2-cycles, be defined by

= (a2 , ai1 )(a3 , ai1 1 ) . . . (aj1 , ak1 )(b2 , bi2 )(b3 , bi2 1 ) . . . (cjn , ckn ),
where no 2-cycle is present if ir = 2 (that is if the rth cycle in is a 2-cycle),
and
jr = [ir /2] and kr = jr + 2 if ir is even
jr = [ir /2] + 1 and kr = jr + 1 if ir is odd,
where the square brackets denote integer part. The term is called the
standard conjugator for .
(i) Show that 1 = 1 .
(ii) A group G is called ambivalent if each element of G is a conjugate of
its inverse. Prove that
(a) Sn is ambivalent for all n,
(b) An is ambivalent if, and only if, n = 1, 2, 5, 6, 10 or 14.
(Hint. See Theorem 3.12 and Problems 3.3 and 5.25, and for (b) consider the
following cases where Sn
if n = 4r, then is a (4r 1)-cycle 1-cycle;
if n = 4r + 1 and r > 1, then is a (4r 3)-cycle 3-cycle;
if n = 4r + 2 and r > 3, then is a (4r 7)-cycle 5-cycle 3-cycle
1-cycle;
if n = 4r + 3, then is an n-cycle.)
One application of ambivalence is related to the character theory of the group
in question, for if G is ambivalent then all of the irreducible characters of G
are entirely real-valued; a stronger result holds for symmetric groups, see Web
Chapter 13.
Problem 3.31 (An Infinite Simple Group) Let SN denote the group of
all permutations of the positive integers N. If SN let
z() = {n N : n 6= n},
so z() equals the set of integers moved by , note that this set may be finite
or infinite.

330

## (i) For , SN show that (a) z( 1 ) = z(), (b) z( ) z() z( ),

(c) z( 1 ) = {n : n z( )}, and (d) if z() z( ) = then and
commute.
Now define
S(N) = { SN : o(z()) < },
it is called the restricted symmetric group on N, and it contains those permutations that move only a finite number of elements of N.
(ii) Show that (a) S(N) / SN , (b) every element of S(N) has finite order,
and (c) S(N) has infinitely many cosets in SN . In the notation of Chapter 4,
the factor group SN /S(N) is infinite.
Further, for k = 1, 2, . . . , define
k
= { S(N) : n = n
S(N)

for all

n > k}.

k
k
1
2
(iii) Show that, for all k, (a) S(N)
< S(N) , (b) S(N)
' Sk , (c) S(N)
< S(N)
<
S
k
< S(N) , and (d) k=1 S(N) = S(N) .

Lastly define A1(N) = A2(N) = hei, for k > 1 let Ak(N) denote the unique
k
subgroup of index 2 in S(N)
(note we need to prove uniqueness), and let
A(N) =

[
k=1

Ak(N) .

(iv) Prove that Ak(N) ' Ak , A1(N) < A2(N) < < A(N) , and so deduce,
using Problem 2.30, A(N) is simple.
(v) As a corollary show that A(N) contains a subgroup isomorphic to the
infinite cyclic group Z.

331

## 4.6 The Transfer

In this section we define a new homomorphism called the transfer first introduced by Issai Schur to prove the result quoted in Problem 4.29. It provides
an example of the construction of an actual homomorphism, and we shall
use it in Web Section 6.5 to prove Burnsides Normal Complement Theorem
(Theorem 6.23). We shall only consider the Abelian subgroup case; in the
general non-Abelian case, the subgroup H in the definition below is replaced
by H/H 0 ; see for example Rose (1978) or Rotman (1994). Either case provides
a useful exercise in the methods discussed in this chapter.
We begin with
Definition 4.24 For a group G and a subgroup H of finite index n, a
set T containing exactly one representative from each left coset of H in G is
called a transversal of H in G.
Notes. (a) If T = {a1 , . . . , an } and T is a transversal of H in G, then
G=

[
n
i=1

ai H,

where the dot denotes disjoint union. The transversal given by this definition
is, strictly speaking, a left transversal. Right transversals can also be defined
but we shall not need them, see Problem 4.24.
(b) By Lemma 2.22 an element ai T cannot belong to two distinct cosets
of G.
(c) In Chapter 9 we define a similar entity called the section which is a type
of transversal with an extra condition concerning the neutral element.
Before defining the transfer we need to establish some basic facts about
Lemma 4.25 Suppose H G, H is Abelian, [G : H] = n, g G, and
T = {a1 , . . . , an } is a transversal of H in G.
(i) There exists hr H and Sn that depend on g and satisfy
gar = ar hr

for r = 1, . . . , n.

## (ii) If {b1 , . . . , bn } is another transversal of H in G, and so by (i) gbr = br kr

for some kr H and Sn , then
Yn
Yn
hr =
kr .
r=1

r=1

## Proof. (i) As gar belongs to some left coset of H in G, we can find

hr H and an integer sr to satisfy
gar = asr hr

where

1 sr n

and

1 r n.

332

4 Homomorphisms

## To prove (i) we need to show that sr defines a permutation in Sn . It is

sufficient to show that sr is injective because an injection of a finite set
to itself is also surjective (Problem A5 in Appendix A).
Suppose gar0 = asr0 hr0 , for hr0 H, and sr = sr0 . Then we have
1
a1
(gar0 ) = (asr hr )1 (asr0 hr0 ) = h1
r ar 0 = (gar )
r hr 0 H,

## by assumption. Hence by Lemma 2.22, ar H = ar0 H which shows that

r = r0 because T is a transversal. Therefore the function s is injective,
and so it is a bijection on {1, . . . , n}, that is a permutation belonging
to Sn .
(ii) Set s = Sn . By (i) with g = e, there exist jr H and Sn
satisfying br = ar jr , for 1 r n. So using (i) again, and the identity
ar = ar1 , we have
gbr = g(ar jr ) = (ar hr )jr = br1 (jr1 )1 hr jr .
As 1 Sn and (jr1 )1 hr jr H, we can set = 1 and
kr = (jr1 )1 hr jr ,
which gives gbr = br kr as required. Hence, as H is Abelian, we obtain
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
kr =
(jr1 )1 hr jr =
jr1
hr
jr =
hr ,
r

## as , Sn , where the parameter r ranges from 1 to n in each product.

The result follows.
2
Now using Lemma 4.25(ii) we can define the transfer which we shall see
is a homomorphism from G to H.
Definition 4.26 Let H be an Abelian subgroup of G with index n. Using
the notation set up in Lemma 4.25, the function : G H given by
Yn
g =
hr for all g G,
r=1

## is called the transfer of H in G.

By Lemma 4.25(ii), this expression is independent of the coset representatives
hr , and so it is a well-defined function.
Theorem 4.27

## The transfer : G H is a homomorphism.

Proof.
Suppose g, h G, gar = ar jr and har = ar kr where
{a1 , . . . , an } is a transversal and , Sn ; see above. Then
ghar = gar kr = ar jr kr ,
and so, as H is Abelian,

333

gh =

Y
r

jr kr =

Y
r

jr

Y
r

kr = g h,

## Example. Let G = D4 = ha, b | a4 = b2 = e, bab = a3 i and let H = habi

G. The cosets of H in G are {e, ab}, {a, a2 b}, {a2 , a3 b} and {a3 , b}, and we
can take T = {e, a, a2 , a3 } as a transversal. Putting g = b in Lemma 4.25 we
obtain
b e = a4 b = a3 (ab)
b a = a3 b = a2 (ab)
b a2 = a2 b = a (ab)
b a3 = ab = e (ab),
where on each side of these equations the elements of T are underlined. The
permutation , see (i) of Lemma 4.25, in this case has the form = (1, 4)(2, 3)
as e and a3 , and a and a2 are interchanged, and b = (ab)4 = e. A similar
calculation shows that a = e, and so the transfer in this example is the trivial
homomorphism. We obtain the same result if we take a different transversal.
For example let T 0 = {ab, a, a2 , b} be a second transversal, then repeating
the above calculations we obtain
b ab = b (ab)
b a = a3 b = a2 (ab)
b a2 = a2 b = a (ab)
b b = e = ab (ab),
and again we have b = (ab)4 = e.
The following corollaries are useful in the evaluation of the transfer.
Corollary 4.28 Using the notation set out above where T = {a1 , . . . , an }
is a transversal of H in G and g G, we can write T as a disjoint union of
subsets
T = {a1,1 , . . . , a1,m1 } {at,1 , . . . , at,mt }
where
Qt
mr
(i) g = r=1 a1
ar,1 ,
r,1 g
Pt
(ii) r=1 mr = [G : H], and
s
(iii) mr is the smallest positive s such that a1
r,1 g ar,1 H.

## Proof. As above we have Sn and, for r = 1, . . . , n, gar = ar hr

where hr H. Let (r1 , . . . , rm1 ) be a cycle of length m1 in , see
Definition 3.3, and let ar1 = a1,1 , . . . , arm1 = a1,m1 , then
ga1,1 = a1,2 hr1 , ga1,2 = a1,3 hr2 , . . . , ga1,m1 = a1,1 hrm1 ,

334

4 Homomorphisms

## and combining these we obtain

m1
a1,1 = hrm1 hr1 H.
a1
1,1 g

Also if s < m,
1
s
a1
1,1 g a1,1 = a1,1 ars+1 hrs hr1 6 H

because the set T is a transversal. This shows that m1 is minimal, and a similar argument can be applied to the remaining cycles
(a2,1 , . . . , a2,m2 ), . . . . The main part of the result now follows using the
definition of .
2
(1, 4)(2, 3), and so in this case m1 = m2 = 2, a1,1 = e, a1,2 = a3 , a2,1 = a
and a2,2 = a2 . Now using the corollary above we have
b =

Y2
r=1

2
2
3 2
a1
r,1 b ar,1 = (eb e)(a b a) = e

## as in the example on page 333.

Corollary 4.29 Again using the notation set out above, if H Z(G) then,
for all g G, g = g n where n = [G : H].
Proof. As H Z(G), we have H / G, see Problem 2.14. So if g G
and a1 g mr a H, then g mr = a(a1 g mr a)a1 H. But H Z(G),
and so a1 g mr a = g mr . The result now follows by Corollary 4.28(i) and
(ii).
2
Returning again to the example on page 333, we have Z(G) = Z(D4 ) =
ha2 i, and a transversal is {e, a, b, ab}. The reader should now check that g = e
for all g G, and also g 4 = e, again for all g G, confirming the corollary
in this case.
As noted above an important application of the transfer is in the proof of
Burnsides Normal Complement Theorem given in Web Section 6.5. Another
is the following
Theorem 4.30 For a group G, if p | o(G0 Z(G)), then a Sylow p-subgroup
of G is not Abelian.
A proof of this result is given in Problem 4.30. The result itself has connections with the so-called Schur multiplier of a group, see Web Section 12.6 and
Issacs [2008], page 151.
Some more problems relating to the work of this section are given at the
end of the next section.

4.7

335

## Group Presentation, Part 2

The main purpose of this section is to show that the group presentation construction described on page 58 is valid. We claimed that given a set (alphabet)
A and a set of relations R on A (words on A A0 ), then the system
H = hA | Ri
always forms a group. We do this by first constructing the free group G
on A, and then showing that H can be treated as a factor group of G, the
implied normal subgroup being defined in terms of the words in R. Although
we know that H forms a group, it can be quite difficult (and in some cases
impossible) to determine its properties. In the second part of this section we
describe a method mainly due to Todd and Coxeter which in many cases will
help with this determination; it gives a description of the coset product once
a suitable subgroup is known.
First we need to give a new definition of the term free.
Definition 4.31 Given a set A, the group G is called free on A if the
conditions (i) and (ii) given below are satisfied.
(i) There exists a map from A to G.
(ii) Given a group H and a map from A to H there exists a unique
homomorphism : G H which satisfies = .
The diagram below illustrates the maps given by this definition. In many
applications the set A is an alphabet (page 55), G is defined by a presentation
on A, and the map is the inclusion map of A into G.
G


3



A

Q
Q
Q

?
QQ
s

If G was not free, then there would exist at least one group H for which no
homomorphism from G to H was possible because some relation would hold
in G but not in H. So in this sense the free group G is the most general
possible on the set (alphabet) A. This definition of free is an extension of
the notion of a free Abelian group. A free Abelian group G is defined as a
direct product (Web page 371) of copies of the infinite cyclic group Z; that
is if I = {. . . , i, . . . } is an index set, and ai is a generator of the ith copy of
Z, then a free Abelian group G has the form

336

4 Homomorphisms

G=

Y
I

Z=

Y
iI

hai i,

## with a typical element of the form

. . . asi i . . .
where si is some integer. In this case the group is Abelian, and so the order
of the elements is immaterial. Let : I G be given by i = ai , and let
be a map from I into some group H, then it is easy to see that there exists
a unique homomorphism from the free Abelian group G to H given by
( . . . asi i . . . ) = ( . . . (i)si . . . ).
The definition of the term free given in the main text for a general
group was an informal one, so secondly we give a formal version of our origial
definition. We shall then show that the two definitions agree.
Definition 4.32

Let G be a group.

(i) A subset C of G\{e} freely generates G if, and only if, each g G\{e}
can be uniquely expressed in the form
r

g = cr11 . . . cj j ,

(4.5)

## where ci C, ci+1 6= ci for all i, and ri is a nonzero integer.

(ii) G is called free if, and only if, it is freely generated by some subset C
of G\{e}.
Notes. (a) The elements ci are not necessarily distinct, only adjacent ones
are. For example c1 c2 c1 c2 c1 G. (b) The most important word in the defir
nition is uniquely: if cr11 . . . cj j = ds11 . . . dskk where ci , di C, and ri and si
are nonzero integers, then j = k, ci = di and ri = si for i = 1, . . . , j there
are no relations amongst the elements of G apart from those that make G
into a group.
We show now that our two definitions of free agree.
Theorem 4.33 If G is freely generated by C (Definition 4.32), H is a
group, and is a map from C into H, then there exists a unique homomorphism : G H with the property |C = .
Proof. We establish uniqueness first. Suppose exists and g is given
by (4.5), then
eG = eH and
g = (c1 )r1 . . . (cj )rj
= (ci )r1 . . . (cj )rj

(4.6)

## This shows that is unique. Also ci = ci , and so |C = . For the

main homomorphism equation we proceed as follows. First we have, if
g 6= e,

## 4.7 Group Presentation, Part 2

337

(eg) = g = eg,
(ge) = ge and
(ee) = e = ee.
Secondly, suppose h = bs where b C and s is a non-zero integer. There
are three cases to consider.
Case 1. b 6= cj . We have
r

gh = cr11 . . . cj j bs

and

r1

## (gh) = (c1 ) . . . (cj )rj (b)s = gh.

Case 2. b = cj and rj + s 6= 0.
r

We have
r +s

gh = c1j . . . cj j

and

## (gh) = (c1 )r1 . . . (cj )rj +s = gh.

Case 3. b = cj and rj + s = 0.
r

We have

j1
gh = cr11 . . . cj1

and

r1

## (gh) = (c1 ) . . . (cj1 )rj1 (cj )rj +s

= (c1 )r1 . . . (cj )rj (b)s = gh.
Hence we have gh = gh for all g and h of the form bs . Lastly we
sk1
proceed by induction (on k). Suppose h = h1 h2 where h1 = bs11 . . . bk1
sk
and h2 = bk . Then using the inductive hypothesis we have
(gh) = (gh1 h2 ) = (gh1 )h2 = gh1 h2
= g(h1 h2 ) = gh.
This completes the proof of Theorem 4.33.

## For the converse of the theorem see Problem 4.32.

Next we consider the formation a free group on a set, first we need to
establish the uniqueness property of reduced words. On page 57 we described
the process of forming the reduced word w[] of a word w. This process always
gives a unique result as the next theorem shows.
Theorem 4.34 For each word w on an alphebet A the reduction process
described on page 57 gives a unique reduced word w[] .
Proof. First note that every word w does reduce to a reduced word.
Reduction proceeds by deleting pairs of letters from w step by step to
form a reduced word and, as w only has a finite number of letters, this
procedure must stop after a finite number of steps.
We prove the result by induction on n, the length (number of symbols)
of w, that is on the number of letters from A A0 that make up w. If
n = 0 there is nothing to prove as w is then the empty word which is

338

4 Homomorphisms

clearly reduced. Note that words of length 1 are also reduced. Suppose
the result holds for all words of length less than or equal to n where
n > 1. Let w is a word of length n + 1, and suppose we have two
reductions (deletions) labelled (a) and (b). In (a), suppose the deletion
removes the consecutive pair of letters ai ai+1 , and in (b), suppose the
deletion removes the consecutive pair aj aj+1 . There are a number of
cases to consider.
Case 1. j = i In this case the two reductions each give the same
word w0 , say, of length n 1. By the inductive hypothesis, w0 reduces
to a unique reduced word, and so this is also true for w.
We may now assume that j > i.
Case 2. j = i + 1 In this case we may suppose the ith, (i + 1)st and
(i + 2)nd letters take the form
aa0 a

or a0 aa0 ,

## for some letter a A. This follows because we have consecutive deletions

in this case. Consider aa0 a. Deletion (a) will reduce this term to a (by
the removal of aa0 as ai = a, ai+1 = a0 and ai+2 = a in this case), and
deletion (b) will again reduce this term to a (this time by the removal
of a0 a where aj = a0 and aj+1 = a). In each case the deletions give the
same result, a word of length n1 with a in the ith place, and as in Case
1 we can apply the inductive hypothesis. An exactly similar argument
applies to subword a0 aa0 which reduces to a0 . Hence the induction step
is complete in this case.
Case 3. j > i + 1. In this case we suppose ai ai+1 is removed by
Deletion (a), and aj aj+1 is removed by Deletion (b); note there is no
overlap. Let w0 denote the result of Deletion (a) on w, and let w00 the
result of Deletion (b) on w. Further, we can remove aj aj+1 from w0
to form a new word x (of length n 3). We can also remove ai ai+1
from w00 , and then we obtain the same word x (as j > i + 1). By
the inductive hypothesis w0 , w00 and x all reduce to the same reduced
word. This follows because x has a unique reduction x[] (by the iductive
hypothesis), w0 and w00 both reduce to x, and so both (w0 )[] and (w00 )[]
equal x[] . But Deletion (a) (of w) gives w0 , and Deletion (b) (also of
w) gives w00 . Hence the induction step is complete in this final case and
the theorem follows.
2
We can now prove our main existence theorem.
Theorem 4.35

## Proof. An element of the group that we are about to construct is a

reduced word on the set A. Suppose w1 and w2 are reduced words on
A. (Note that by definition we have a second disjoint set A0 having the
same cardinality as A, and a bijective map 0 between A and A0 . Also the
symbols that make up w1 and w2 belong to A A0 .) Using Definition
3.17 we can form the reduced product
(w1 w2 )

339

## of w1 and w2 ; that is we can form the concatenation w1 w2 and then

we apply the reduction process to form (w1 w2 ) . By Theorem 4.34 this
gives a well-defined product on AA0 . This product is associative, for if
w1 , w2 and w3 are words on A, then both ((w1 w2 ) w3 ) and (w1 (w2 w3 )
are equal to the unique reduction of w1 w2 w3 given by Theorem 4.34.
The neutral element is the empty word which we denote by e (Note that
e does not belong to A A0 ; see page 57). The inverse of the reduced
word
c1 c2 . . . cn is the word cn cn1 . . . c1 ,
where each ci A A0 . As the first of these words is reduced, it follows
immediately that the second word is also reduced. (Note that the reduction process is symmetrical as there is a bijection 0 between A and
A0 .) Hence we see that the set of reduced words on A forms a group
which we denote by hGi. We need to show that it is free.
Let be the inclusion map from A into G, clearly a = a for all
a A. This gives the first part of Definition 4.31. For the second part
suppose H is a group and : A H. First we extend the domain of
to A A0 by defining
a0 = (a)1

for

a A.

(4.7)

This is valid because we are using the inverse operation in the group H.
Further, if w = a1 a2 . . . an where each ai A A0 , we define the map
from the set of words on A into H by
w = a1 an .
Note that by (4.7) if we reduce the word w by deleting ai a0i or a0i ai the
value of is unaltered. Let be with its domain restricted to G, and
so : G H. We claim that is a homomorphism. If w1 and w2 are
reduced words on A (that is elements of G), then
w1 w2 = w1 w2
= ((w1 w2 ) )

by definition
by note above,

## so is the homomorphism required by Definition 4.31. Also clearly we

have = by definition. This completes the proof.
2
An immediate consequence of this result is the following characterisation
of all groups.
Theorem 4.36

## Proof. Let H be a group and let B be a generating set for H (page

25). Further, let be the inclusion map from B into H. By Theorem
4.35 there exists a free group G on the set B. Applying Condition (ii)
in Definition 4.31 there exists a homomorphism from G to H with the
property
(a) = a for a B.
But hBi = H by definition of B, and so is surjective. Hence

340

4 Homomorphisms

H = {g : g G} = G
2

## which gives the result.

A famous theorem due Nielsen and Schreier states that every subgroup
of a free group is also free; see the references quoted at the end of this subsection. Our next corollary shows how normal subgroups come into the picture.
Remember that a relation of an alphabet A is an equation of the form x = e
where x is a word on A A0 (page 58).
Corollary 4.37 Using the notation set out above where G is the free group
on A, is a homomorphism from G to H, and is the inclusion map from
A to G, then x = e is a relation in H if, and only if, x belongs to the kernel
of the homomorphism .
Proof. Let
x = c1 . . . cr

where

ci A A0

for i = 1, . . . , r.

## The map has domain A, we can extend its domain to A A0 by

defining
(a0 ) = (a)1 for a A.
This is valid as we are working in the group G. We have (a) = a and
using this definition we also have (a0 ) = a1 . As is a homomorphism
this further gives
(x) = (c1 ) . . . (cr ) = c1 . . . cr = x = e,
and so x ker .
Conversely, suppose y ker and y = d1 . . . ds . As we are working
inside G we may assume that d1 . . . ds is a reduced word on the alphabet
A. Now y = e by supposition, and
y = d1 . . . ds = e.
By Theorem 4.34 the di are unique, hence d1 . . . ds = e is a valid relation
in H.
2
We can now prove our main result: Theorem 3.19. We begin by restating
this result. We have alphabets A = {a1 , . . . , an } and A0 = {a01 , . . . , a0n }, a
bijection 0 mapping A onto A0 , and a collection of words R = {x1 , . . . , xm }
where each xi is a concatenation of letters from A A0 . The system hA | Ri
is a subset of the free group on A with the added relations
x1 = = xm = e.
Theorem 3.19 claims that this system forms a group, we prove this by showing
that it can be defined as the factor group G/K where G is the free group on
A, and K is the smallest normal subgroup given by Corollary 4.37 using the
relations in R. We let be the inclusion map of A into G which as before we
extend to A0 by letting a0 = (a)1 and, if x = c1 . . . cr is a word on A A0 ,
then we let

## 4.7 Group Presentation, Part 2

341

x = c1 . . . cr .
Further, let : A G/K be given by
a = (a)K

a A.

for

## As above we extend the domain of the function to A A0 by defining

a0 = (a)1 for a0 A0 , and if x = c1 . . . cr where ci A A0 , i = 1, . . . , r,
we let x = c1 . . . cr . Lastly we define
A = {a : a A},
(A)1 = {a0 : a0 A0 }, and
R = {xi : i = i, . . . , m}.
Theorem 4.38 (3.19) Using the notation set out above, the set R is a
collection of relations on the generating set A, and
G/K = hA | Ri.
Proof. In this proof , and are maps from sets of letters to groups,
and and are homomorphisms. As G = hAi by definition, we see
that G/K = hAi. Also if xi R, then (xi )K = K, and so xi = e
in G/K; that is xi = e is a relation of G/K for all i. This shows that
G/K hA | Ri.
Let J be a group and let be a map from A to J which preserves
the relations in R. We now apply the definition of a free group to
the map from A to J. Hence there exists a unique homomorphism
: G J with the property
(a) = (a)

for a A.

## The map is a homomorphism, hence ((a)1 ) = ((a))1 . Also we

can extend the domain of to A A0 by defining
(a0 ) = ((a))1 ,
which gives
(a0 ) = ((a))1 = (a0 )

and

(xi ) = (xi )

(xi ) = e

K ker .

xi ker ,

342

4 Homomorphisms

## Therefore induces a homomorphism from H(= G/K) to J which

satisfies
(a) = (a) = (a).
Now using Problem 4.13(iv) [see Addendum] can be extended to a
homomorphism from H to J. This shows that G = hA | Ri. We using
the same idea here at that given in Definition 4.31, see the note below
the diagram on page 335.
2
Corollary 4.39 If A is a set of generators for a group G, then there exists
a set R of relations defined on the elements of A A0 with the property
G = hA | Ri.
Proof. The First Isomorphism Theorem applied to the homomorphism
defined in the above proof gives an isomorphism from G/ ker onto H
which maps (a) ker to a. Now suppose R = {xi : i = 1, . . . , s} is a
set of generators for ker , then ker is identical to the smallest normal
subgroup K containing all elements of the form xi for i = 1, . . . , s,
and so by Theorem 4.38 we have G = hA | Ri because a is mapped to
a and xi is mapped to xi by this isomorphism.
2
We have now completed our stated aim which was to prove Theorem
3.18, that is to justify the use of presentations in the theory. Further developments have been considered many of which relate infinite groups. One of
these involves the extension of free group theory to so-called free products
and free products with amalgamated subgroups; for details the reader should
consult Scott [1964], Suzuki [1982], or Robinson [1982] amongst other texts.
Another development concerns the Word Problem for Groups, an important
result proved independently by P. S. Novikov, W. W. Boone, and J. L. Britten which extends a similar result for semigroups proved by A. A. Markov
and E. L. Post, and which makes extensive use of ideas from mathematical
logic. A group with a presentation G = hA | Ri is said to have a solvable word
problem if there exists a computer algorithm which will determine in a finite
time whether the equation x = e holds in G where x is an arbitrary word
on the alphabet A. Novikov, Boone and Britten showed that there exists a
finitely presented group (that is one with a finite alphabet and a finite number of relations) for which the word problem is unsolvable there is at least
one word in this group for which we cannot determine whether, or not, it
equals the neutral element. A good account of this topic is given in Rotman
[1994].

Coset Enumeration
As we have noted before, given a presentation of a group it can be difficult,
and in some cases impossible, to determine the groups properties including
its order or even if it is finite. Todd and Coxeter developed a method which
will give some of these properties provided we know in advance that the
group is finite. It is mechanical and so is easily computerised; the computer
program GAP makes extensive use of this procedure in several contexts. We
shall describe the basic method by giving a series of examples.

343

## Suppose we have a group with a presentation G and a subgroup H, the

method of Todd and Coxeter will determine the coset product. We label the
cosets with the numerals 1, 2, . . . , where the subgroup H has the label 1. If a
is a generator of the group G then, given a numeral (coset) m, the method will
solve the equation ma = n, that is it will determine the coset ma; remember
throughout that the numerals m and n are labels for cosets. We do this by
constructing a table of coset multiplications; once this is complete we can
describe the basic structure of the group in question.
Example 1.

## For our first example we consider the group

D3 = ha, b | a2 = b3 = (ab)2 = ei,
and take H = hai. (We often take H cyclic but this is not essential.) The first
row of the table lists the letters which make up the relations with asterisks
between the relation words, and so has the form:
a a b b b a b a b
We begin the second row by placing 1 below each asterisk (this corresponds
to the fact that each relation word equals the neutral element) and between
each pair of relation letters a (as Ha = H (or 1a = 1) for all a H (= 1))
a * b
* a
1
1
1

b * a
1

b *
1

## This reads as 1a = 1 et cetera; in general if m and n are consecutive numerals

in a row and c is the group letter at the head of the columns containing m and
n, then mc = n is the coset product. At each stage we use the information
to hand to try to complete the row, if we cannot do this we introduce a new
coset (numeral). In our example we can put 1 in the seventh place copying
the first two entries (that is, 1a = 1). As we have no information on b yet we
place 2 and 3 in the fourth and fifth columns, respectively, as shown below
(so 1b = 2 and 2b = 3). This gives our first new fact: 3b = 1 (note b is an
element of order 3) and enables us to complete the row. We can place 2 in
the eighth column and 3 in the ninth (as 1b = 2, and 3b = 1). This provides
a new fact: 2a = 3 which we will use later.
a * b
b
b * a
b
a
b *
* a
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
2
3
1
We have introduced two new cosets (numerals) 2 and 3, and so we need at
least two new rows in the table. In some cases a few of these rows will not
be necessary because we can find one or more identities between the cosets
under consideration and those already introduced, but this is not so here. We
begin by placing 2 below each asterisk in Row 3 and 3 below each asterisk
in Row 4, and then we try to complete these rows using the information
tabulated so far. So we can place 3 in the second entry of the third row
using the fact noted above (2a = 3). This gives a new fact: 3a = 2 (note that

344

4 Homomorphisms

## a is an element of order 2). We now have sufficient information to complete

the table as shown below.
a * b
b
b * a
b
a
b *
* a
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
2
3
1
2
3
2
3
1
2
3
1
1
2
3
2
3
1
2
3
2
3
2
3
By definition the table is finished because we have the same number of completed rows as numerals (cosets). It gives the following description of the
coset product:
1a = 1, 2a = 3, 3a = 2, 1b = 2, 2b = 3, 3b = 1.

(4.8)

This incidentally reproves the fact that o(D3 ) = 6, that is the order of H
(o(hai)) times the number of coset rows in the table (which also equals the
number of numerals used). The reader should check that the data given in
(4.8) is exactly mirrored in the table above.
Example 2.

## Symmetric Group S4 with a Subgroup of Order 4

For our second example we consider the symmetric group S4 , using the
presentation
S4 = ha, b | a4 = b3 = (ab)2 = ei,
and the subgroup H = hai. We introduce two extra symbols. Each time a
new numeral (coset) is defined (reading the tables from left to right, and then
by columns) we place a bar over it, and each time a new fact is discovered (of
the form mc = n) we place the symbol  between m and n. So, following the
same procedure as above, the first two rows of our coset enumeration table
for S4 and H are as follows:
a
a
a * b
b
b * a
b
a
b *
* a

1
1
1
1
1
2
3  1
1
2  3
1
We have 3b = 1 (as b3 = e) and 2a = 3 (as 1b = 2), but we do not have a
value for 3a which we set as 4, or for 4a which we set as 5. On the other hand
we do have 5a = 2 applying the relation a4 = e. Using this information we
can write down the next two rows of the coset table as follows:
a
a
a * b
b
b * a
b
a
b *
* a

2
3  1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2  3
1

2
3
4
5  2
3
1
2
3
1
1
2
3
4
5
2
3
1
2
3
4  5
2
3
At this stage the table is not complete because we have more numerals
(cosets) than numeral rows. So we need to start again placing 4 below each
asterisk in Row 5 and 5 below each asterisk in Row 6. During this process
we will need to introduce the sixth coset (numeral) 6 by defining 5b = 6.
Constructing this row (Row 5) shows that 6a = 6 and 6b = 4. Hence we can
complete the table now.

## 4.7 Group Presentation, Part 2

345

a
a
a * b
b
b * a
b
a
b *
* a

1
1
1
1
1
2
3  1
1
2  3
1

2
3
4
5  2
3
1
2
3
1
1
2
3
4
5
2
3
1
2
3
4  5
2
3
6
4
5
2
3
4
5
4
5
6  6  4
5
2
3
4
5
6
4
5
2
3
4
5
6
6
6
6
6
4
5
6
6
4
5
6
The table is now finished, we have six cosets 1, 2, . . . , 6 and six rows; and so
the coset product is given by
1a = 1, 2a = 3, 3a = 4, 4a = 5, 5a = 2, 6a = 6,
1b = 2, 2b = 3, 3b = 1, 4b = 5, 5b = 6, 6b = 4.
This can be used to give a permutation representation for S4 with a
(2, 3, 4, 5) and b (1, 2, 3)(4, 5, 6). Note also that each column in this table
is a permutation of the set {1, 2, . . . , 6}, similar properties hold for all coset
enumeration tables (use Lemma 2.22) and this can be used as a check on the
calculations.
Example 3.
of Order 3

## Special Linear Group SL2 (3) with a Cyclic Subgroup

Our remaining two examples will again use groups from Chapter 8, and
they will illustrate some further simple adaptions of the method. Let SL2 (3)
be presented by
SL2 (3) = ha, b | a3 = abab1 a1 b1 = ei,
with subgroup H = hai; see page 176. We fill in the first three lines of the coset
enumeration table using similar arguments to those applied in the example
above by letting 1b = 2, 3b1 = 2, 2a = 4, 4a = 5 and 5b1 = 6. Using
inverses these also show that 2b1 = 1, 2b = 3, 5a1 = 4 and 6a1 = 3 (as
5b1 = 6 and 3b1 = 2). Secondly we can deduce the identities: 4b1 = 4
(and so 4b = 4) and 5a = 2 (as a3 = e). Hence the first three rows of the
table are:
a
a * a
b
a
b1
a1
b1 *
* a

2
4  4
1
1
1
1
1
2
1

2
4
5  2
4  4
5
6  3
2
We can now proceed much as before. We let 6a = 7 and 5b = 8, this gives
7a = 3 and 8a = 8. Hence the next three lines of the table are:
3
4
5

6
5
2

7  3
2
4
4
5

6
5
2

5
2
8  8
3
6

1
5
8

1
4
8

3
4
5

346

4 Homomorphisms

We have used eight cosets (numerals) and so we need at least three further
rows in the table. This is sufficient because we do not need to introduce any
more cosets; hence the complete table is as follows:
a
a * a
b
a
b1
* a

2
4 
1
1
1
1
1

2
4
5  2
4  4
5

3
6
7  3
6
5
2

4
5
2
4
5
8  8
5
2
4
5
2
3
6
6
7
3
6
7  7
3
7
3
6
7
3
1
1
8
8
8
8
8
6
7

a1
4
2
6  3
1
1
5
4
8
8
2
5
3
7
7
6

b1 *
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

## The information in this table can be summarised as follows:

1a = 1, 2a = 4, 3a = 6, 4a = 5, 5a = 2, 6a = 7, 7a = 3, 8a = 8,
1b = 2, 2b = 3, 3b = 1, 4b = 4, 5b = 8, 6b = 5, 7b = 7, 8b = 6.
This reproves the fact that o(SL2 (3)) = o(A) 8 = 24.
Example 4.

## Group E with its Subgroup of Order 3

For our last example we consider the group E with its presentation (page
182)
E = ha, b | a4 = d 6 = (ad)2 = (a3 d)2 = ei,
and its unique subgroup of order 3 given by H = hd2 i. Here H is not generated
by one of the group generators a or d, so we proceed as follows. We define
1a = 2, 2a = 3, 3a = 4, and 1d = 5.
As we are considering cosets of H we have 5d = 1 (d 2 , d 4 and d 6 = e all lie
in H). Also as a4 = e, we have 4a = 1. This gives the first half of Row 2 in
the table on the next page. To complete this row we define
2d = 6,

and

4d = 7.

## As 5d = 1 these equations give

6a = 5,

and

7a1 = 5

or

5a = 7,

see the completed row in the table below. The information in this row also
gives 2a1 = 1 and 5a1 = 6. Applying this to the latter part of Row 3 we
obtain 6d = 2 as this row ends in 2 (that is (ad)2 = e). If we set 3d = 8 we
obtain 8a = 6 (check between the third and fourth asterisks in Row 3). This
completes the third row and we can construct the fourth row using similar
methods which gives the facts: 7a = 8 and 8d = 3. No new cosets are needed
for we can complete the remaining rows using the information to hand.

4.8 Problems 4W

347

1
d a1 d *
* a a a a * d d d d d d * a d a d *a

1 2 3 41 5 1 5 1 5 1 2 65 1
4 7  5 1
2 3 4 1 2 6 2 6 2 6 2 3 8  6 2
1 5
62
3 4 1 2 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 78 3
2 6
83
4 1 2 3 4 7 4 7 4 7 4 1 5 7 4
3 8
7 4
5 7 8 6 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 7 4 1 5
6 2
1 5
6 5 7 8 6 2 6 2 6 2 6 5 1 2 6
8 3
2 6
7 8 6 5 7 4 7 4 7 4 7 8 3 4 7
5 1
4 7
8 6 5 7 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 6 2 3 8
7 4
3 8

## This construction shows that [G : H] = 8 and the coset product can be

summarised as
1a = 2, 2a = 3, 3a = 4, 4a = 1, 5a = 7, 6a = 5, 7a = 8, 8a = 6,
1d = 5, 2d = 6, 3d = 8, 4d = 7, 5d = 1, 6d = 2, 7d = 4, 8d = 3.
We have given a few examples to illustrate the basic ideas. Many improvements and simplifications have been suggested, and some remarkable
facts have been established using variants of this basic method. For example a permutation representation for the Lyons sporadic group Ly (with order 51765,179004,000000) was constructed by Sims using a subgroup with
8835156 cosets; see Sims, C. C., The existence and uniqueness of Lyons
group. Finite Groups 72, edited by Gagen, Hale and Shult, North Holland
Pub. Co., 1973, pages 138 to 141. The reader wishing to go further with this
method should first look at Coxeter and Moser [1984], pages 12 to 18, and
143 to 148, and Suzuki [1982], pages 174 to 180 where a formal definition due
to Higman is given.

4.8 Problems 4W
Problem 4.23 (i) Suppose H / G and T G. Show that T is a transversal
of H in G if, and only if, G = HT and, for all t1 , t2 T with t1 6= t2 , we
have t1
1 t2 6 H.
(ii) Using (i), if H, J G, G = HJ and H K = hei, deduce J is a
transversal of H in G.
(iii) If J H G, {j1 , . . . , jm } is a transversal of J in H, and
{h1 , . . . , hn } is a transversal of H in G, show that {hr js }1rn,1sm is
a transversal of J in G.
(iv) If K / G and T is a transversal of K in G, show that the set T 1 =
{t1 : t T } is also a transversal of K in G.
Problem 4.24 For this problem we use the term left transversal for the
transversal given in Definition 4.24. First you are asked to define a right
transversal.

348

4 Homomorphisms

Now suppose H G.
(i) Show that if H / G, then every left transversal is a right transversal,
and vice versa.
(ii) Prove that if every left transversal of H in G is also a right transversal,
then H / G.
(iii) Give an example using one of the groups discussed in Chapter 8.
Problem 4.25 Suppose K / J G, [G : J] = n < , o(J/K) = m <
and J/K is Abelian. Prove that if (m, n) = 1, then
J G0 Z(G) K.
Problem 4.26

## Suppose G is a finite group.

(i) Show that if G has a Abelian Sylow p-subgroup, then p - o(G0 Z(G)).
Hence deduce G0 Z(G) = hei if all of the Sylow subgroups of G are Abelian.
Theorem 10.18 is also relevant here.
(ii) Prove that if G/Z(G) is a p-group, then G0 is also a p-group.
(iii) Give an example to show that the converse of (ii) is false.
(iv) Lastly, suppose G is a non-Abelian p-group, show that
G0 Z(G) > hei.
Problem 4.27 Suppose n > 2 and G = Sn . Using the natural action
(Chapter 5) of G on the set {1, 2, . . . , n}, let H = stabG (1) and J = An H.
Show that the transfer of G into H/J is non-trivial if, and only if, n is odd.
(Hint. Note that {e, (1, 2), . . . , (1, n)} is a transversal of H in G.)
For the next two problems suppose the groups G are infinite.
Problem 4.28 Show that if G has a finite generating set and H is a
subgroup of G with the property [G : H] < , then H also has a finite
generating set. Note that this result can fail if the index [G : H] is infinite.
Problem 4.29

If

## [G : Z(G)] < then G0

is finite.

(Hint. Begin by showing that G0 has a finite generating set, then use the
previous problem to deduce G0 Z(G) also has a finite generating set. Now
consider the transfer of G into Z(G), and use Corollary 4.29.) We noted
earlier that an Abelian group with a finite generating set and finite exponent
is finite; this is not true in general, see page 26.
Problem 4.30 Prove Theorem 4.30. (Hint. Assume the contrary, choose
a P G0 Z(G) and, using the transfer of G to P , show that a = a[G:P ] .
Then, noting that is a homomorphism, obtain a contradition. For the second
part see Chapter 8.)

4.8 Problems 4W

Problem 4.31

349

## (i) G is torsion-free (except for e it has no elements of finite order).

(ii) If G has at least two generators (its rank is larger than 1), then it is
centreless.
(iii) G is Abelian if, and only if, it is cyclic.
Problem 4.32 Prove the converse of Theorem 4.33, and so complete the
result relating our two definitions of free. (Hint. Consider the homomorphism property given in Definition 4.31.)
Problem 4.33 Suppose hA | Ri is a presentation of a group G. Show that
if S is another set of relations on A, then the group H = hA | R Si is a
homomorphic image of G. Hence if we add more relations to the presentation
of G we obtain a presentation of some factor group of G.
Problem 4.34

## Let a, b, c and d be elements of a finite group which satisfy:

a1 ba = b2 , b1 cb = c2 , c1 dc = d2 , d1 ad = a2 .
Using the following method show that a = b = c = d = e. Suppose o(a) = r
and o(b) = s with r, s > 1. Show that
2r 1 (mod s).
Deduce the least prime divisor of r is smaller than the least prime divisor
of s. Further, if q is a prime divisor of s, then there exists divisors t and p
(prime) of r which satisfy
2t 6 1 (mod q)

and

## Now use Fermats Theorem to obtain a contradiction.

In 1951 Higman2 showed that if we remove the requirement that G is
finite, then G is not the neutral group, and it has a maximal normal subgroup
K with the property that G/K is a finitely generated infinite simple group
one of the first known examples of such a group.
Problem 4.35 Investigate the proposition: Suppose G is a group with n
generators and m relations where m < n, then G is infinite.
Problem 4.36 Write out the coset enumeration tables for the group A5
and subgroups isomorphic to (a) C5 , (b) C3 , and (c) C2 C2 .
Problem 4.37
group

## Explain why the coset enumeration method fails for the

H = ha, b | a3 = b3 = (ab)3 = ei

and the subgroup hai. (Hint. Try to construct the coset enumeration table.)
Note that the method will succeed if the exponents 3, 3, 3 are replaced by
2

A finitely generated infinite simple group. J. London Math. Soc., 26, pp. 61-64.

350

4 Homomorphisms

## either (a) 2, 2, m where m 2 (Problem 3.22), or (b) 2, 3, n where 3 n 5;

see Coxeter and Moser [1984].
Problem 4.38

## Consider the group J with presentation

J = ha, b | a5 = b3 = (ab)4 = e, Ri

where R stands for the relation: (ab)2 Z(J). First construct the coset
enumeration table for this group and the subgroup generated by a and (ab)2 .
Secondly, try to simplify this table by introducing a new variable c = ab
(for more details see Suzuki [1982], page 176). Incidently J is isomorphic to
the special linear group SL2 (5) (page 451).

351

## 5.4W Transitive and Primitive

Permutation Groups
Here we return to the study of permutation groups begun in Chapter 3 and
introduce tramsitivity and primitivity. This work is more specialised than
that given in the earlier sections of the chapter; some applications will be
given in Chapter 12 and Web Section 12.6. The development is based in
part on Robinson [1982], Chapter 7.

Transitivity
We begin with
Definition 5.28 (i) Given a set X, a group of permutations G on X, that
is a subgroup of SX , is called a permutation group on X.
(ii) The degree of G is o(X).
(iii) G is called transitive on X if, for each pair x, y X, there exists an
element G with the property
y = x.
If this property fails then G is called intransitive on X.
(iv) If G acts on X and : G 7 SX is the permutation representation
given in Definition 5.9, then the action of G on X is called faithful if the
homomorphism is injective.
By Theorem 5.11, we see that if is injective, then the intersection of the
stabilisers stabG (x) for x X is the neutral subgroup.
In Example (d) on page 93 we defined a permutation action. For each permutation group G on X we see that G acts on X using this permutation action,
and G is transitive if, and only if, the corresponding action is transitive.
Examples.
Clearly both the groups An and Sn are transitive on their
underlying sets {1, . . . , n}, but note there are both intransitive on the set
{1, . . . , n + 1}. Some further examples are given in Chapter 12.
A stronger transitivity property holds for the group Sn (Problem 5.29
gives a similar property for An ): if we take two subsets of X = {1, . . . , n},
each with k elements where k n, there is an element of Sn which provides
a bijection of the first set onto the second; we say Sn is k-transitive, see
definition below. For large k not many k-transitive groups exist3 , but those
that do have a number of special properties.
3

## The following result holds (see the reference quoted above)

(i) The only 4-transitive groups are Sn (n > 3), An (n > 5), M11 and M23 ,
(ii) The only 5-transitive groups are Sn (n > 4), An (n > 6), M12 and M24 , and
(iii) If n > 5, then the only n-transitive groups are Sn and An+2 .
The current proof of this theorem relies on CFSG, but it is generally believed that a
CFSG-free proof is possible a hard open problem!

352

## 5 Actions and the Orbit-Stabiliser Theorem

Given a finite set X and positive integer k which is not greater than o(X)
we let {X; k} denote the set of all ordered k-element subsets of X with no
repetition. If o(X) = n and k n, then clearly
o({X; k}) = n(n 1) . . . (n (k 1)).

(5.10)

## If G is a permutation group on X, we define a new action of G on {X; k}

by
(a1 , . . . , ak )\ = (a1 , . . . , ak ),

(5.11)

where (a1 , . . . , ak ) {X; k}, G, and k n, the reader should check that
the action axioms hold.
Definition 5.29 (i) Using the notation set out above, we say that G is
k-transitive if the action of G on {X; k} is transitive.
(ii) G is called sharply k-transitive if it is k-transitive, and for every pair
of k-tuples in {X; k} there is a unique G which provides a bijection of
the first member of the pair to the second.
Note that 1-transitivity is the same as transitivity. Once we have proved
the following two results we shall give some examples of sharply 2- and 3transitive groups, and in Chapter 12 we shall discuss some sharply 4- and
5-transitive examples the Mathieu groups M11 and M12 .
The following straightforward theorem is basic.
Theorem 5.30 If G is a transitive permutation group on a finite set X,
x X, and k > 1, then G is k-transitive on X if, and only if, stabG (x) is
(k 1)-transitive on X\{x}.
Proof. First suppose G is k-transitive on X. If
(x1 , . . . , xk1 ), (y1 , . . . , yk1 ) {X\{x}; k 1},
then xi 6= x 6= yi for i = 1, . . . , k 1, and by hypothesis (k-transitivity),
there exists G which maps
(x1 , . . . , xk1 , x)

to

## (y1 , . . . , yk1 , x).

But then maps x to x, and (x1 , . . . , xk1 ) to (y1 , . . . , yk1 ), and as this
applies to all pairs of distinct (k 1)-tuples of elements of G, the result
follows in this case by the definitions of stability and (k 1)-transitivity.
Conversely, suppose stabG (x) is (k 1)-transitive on {X\{x}; k 1},
and let (x1 , . . . , xk ), (y1 , . . . , yk ) {X; k}. The group G is transitive by
hypothesis, and so there exists 1 , 2 G to satisfy
xk 1 = x and x2 = yk .
By hypothesis we can find stabG (x) which maps (x1 1 , . . . , xk1 1 )
to (y1 21 , . . . , yk1 21 ). That is

xi 1 = yi 21

353

or xi 1 2 = yi ,

## for i = 1, . . . , k 1. Further, as stabG (x) we have xk 1 2 = x2 =

x2 = yk . Combining these two statements we see that 1 2 belongs
to G and maps (x1 , . . . , xk ) to (y1 , . . . , yk ). As above this applies to all
subsets of G with k elements, and so the result follows.
2
Note that by treating each x in turn this result shows that if a group G is
(k + 1)-transitive, then it is also k-transitive as stabG (x) G.
Corollary 5.31

## (i) o(G) is divisible by n(n 1) . . . (n (k 1)).

(ii) G is sharply k-transitive if, and only if, o(G) = n(n 1) . . . (n (k 1)).
Proof. (i) This is an immediate consequence of (5.10) and the Orbitstabiliser Theorem (Theorem 5.7).
(ii) This also follows from (5.10) and Theorem 5.7, for in this case
the stabiliser has order 1.
2
We give some examples of sharply 2- and 3-transitive groups.
Example. Let
X = Fp {}.
Reader: think of X as a line in a geometry defined over the finite field Fp
with p + 1 elements where {} is the point at infinity on this line.4 We
work with the symbol in the usual naive way, that is: 1/0 = , a + =
= a , / = 1 et cetera. Further, let LF (p) denote the set of linear
fractional transformations on P; that is the set of functions : P P where,
for x P\{},
a
ax + b
and = ,
x =
cx + d
c
a, b, c, d Fp , and ad bc 6= 0 (that is ad bc 6 0 (mod p)). It can be shown
that LF (p) is a group with the operation of composition of functions, and it
is isomorphic to GL2 (p) factored by its centre (P GL2 (p); page 170). Using
the natural action of LF (p) on P, where x\ = x, we define
LP (p) = stabLF (p) (),
and we obtain the group of all linear polynomial functions, that is maps of
the type x ax + b where x P and a 6= 0. We have
Theorem 5.32 (i) The group LP (p) is sharply 2-transitive on Fp , and it
has order p(p 1).
(ii) The group LF (p) is sharply 3-transitive on Fp {}, and it has order
p(p2 1).
4 We can use any finite field as the base field in this example. Also P is called the projective
line, see Chapter 12 for a further discussion of this type of geometry.

354

## Proof. We show first that LP (p) is 2-transitive on Fp . As Fp is a field,

given x1 , y1 , x2 , y2 Fp where xi 6= yi , i = 1, 2, we can find a, b Fp to
satisfy:
x2 = ax1 + b, y2 = ay1 + b where a 6= 0.
Hence there exists an element of LP (p) which maps (x1 , y1 ) to (x2 , y2 ),
and so LP (p) is 2-transitive. This further shows that LF (p) is transitive
on X = Fp {} because LP (p) is transitive on Fp , and the linear
fractional function which maps x to 1/x also maps = 1/0 to 0, and
vice versa. Using Theorem 5.30 this shows that LF (p) is 3-transitive on
the set X.
Further, the order of LP (p) is p(p 1). In the definition above, a and
b are arbitrary elements of Fp except that a 6= 0. Hence by Corollary
5.31(ii), LP (p) is sharply 2-transitive on Fp . Also o(LF (p)) = (p +
1)p(p 1) because [LF (p) : LP (p)] = o(X) = p + 1, and so LF (p) is
sharply 3-transitive, again by Corollary 5.31(ii); the theorem follows. 2
Zassenhaus has shown that every sharply 2-transitive group is either of the
same general type as LP (p), or has one of the following orders: 52 , 72 , 112 , 232 ,
292 or 592 ; see Passman [1968], and Huppert and Blackburn III (1982b). We
shall return to this topic in Web Section 14.3 where we discuss Frobenius
groups.

## Primitive Permutation Groups

We come now to primitive permutation groups, they have a somewhat technical definition but as we shall see below they are a useful tool in the further
development of the theory of transitive groups.
Definition 5.33 Let G be a transitive permutation group on a set X. A
proper subset Y of X is called an imprimitive subset, or sometimes a block,
for G if
(i) o(Y ) 2, and
(ii) for each in G, the sets Y and Y are either identical or disjoint.
The group G is called imprimitive if it possesses an imprimitive subset, and
it is called primitive if no such subset exists. To be more precise it is the
action that is (im)primitive: A permutation group is (im)primitive if the
corresponding action has this property.
It is easy to see that the symmetric group Sn is primitive provided
n > 2. The group D4 is an example of an imprimitive group. This group
has the presentation ha, b | a4 = b2 = (ab)2 = ei, and we can treat it
as a permutation group on a 4-element set if, for example, we let a 7
(1, 2, 3, 4) and b 7 (1, 3). It is a straightforward exercise to show that
Y = {a, ab} = {(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 2)(3, 4)} is an imprimitive subset for D4 . For
instance Y (1, 3) = Y , and Y (13)(24) = {(1, 4, 3, 2), (1, 3)} which has no element in common with Y .

355

## The imprimitive subsets of an imprimitive group behave rather like cosets

for we have5 imprimitive subsets
Theorem 5.34 Suppose G is a transitive permutation group on X, Y is
an imprimitive subset for G, and H = { G : Y = Y }.
(i) H G.
(ii) If Z is a transversal of H in G (Web Section 4.6), then the collection of
subsets
Y = {y : y Y },
one for each Z, forms a partition of X.
(iii) o(X) = o(Y ) o(Z).
(iv) In the natural action, defined by right multiplication, the subsets Y are
permuted by the elements of G.
Proof. (i) This is a straightforward exercise for the reader.
(ii) and (iii) Suppose x X and y Y . We can find G to
satisfy x = y because G is transitive. Also, as Z is a transversal of H
in G, we can find H and Z to satisfy = . Combining these
equations we have, for x X,
x = y = (y) Y ,
hence X equals the union of Y for Z. Further, if Y Y 0 6= ,
then Y Y 0 1 6= , and so Y = Y 0 1 and 0 1 H as Y is an
imprimitive subset. But and 0 are members of the same transversal,
therefore = 0 . This proves (ii), and (iii) follows immediately because
o(Y ) = o(Y ).
(iv) If Z and G, then H = H1 , say, is a permutation of
the set of right cosets of H in G. Therefore (Y ) = Y 1 , that is (iv)
follows.
2
Corollary 5.35 If G is a transitive permutation group on X and o(X) is
prime, then G is primitive.
Proof. This follows immediately from Theorem 5.34(iii).

For example this shows that S3 acts primitively on {1, 2, 3}. The reader should
check that the argument we used for D4 in the example on page 354 does not
work in this case.
Theorem 5.36 If G is a transitive permutation group on X, then G is
primitive if, and only if, stabG (x) is a maximal subgroup of G, and this
applies for all x X.
Proof. Suppose we have stabG (x) < H < G, that is the stabiliser of x
in G is not maximal. Let
5

Note that the imprimitive subsets, the blocks, are subsets of the underlying set X and
not of the group G.

356

## 5 Actions and the Orbit-Stabiliser Theorem

Y = {x : H}.
Now o(Y ) 2 because stabG (x) is a proper subgroup of H. Also Y 6= X.
For if Y = X and G, we can find H to satisfy x = x , that
is 1 stabG (x) which in turn shows that H and, as this holds
for all G, we have H = G contradicting our hypothesis. Is Y an
imprimitive subset? Yes, for if Y Y 6= we can find 1 , 2 H with
the property x1 = x2 . This gives in turn 2 11 stabG (x), H,
and Y = Y . By definition it follows that G is imprimitive.
For the converse, suppose Y is an imprimitive subset of X. By the
transitivity of G we may suppose x Y . Let
J = { G : Y = Y }

so J G,

## as the reader can easily check. Now let y, z Y . As G is transitive, we

can find G to satisfy y = z, then z Y Y and J. By the
Orbit-stabiliser Theorem (Theorem 5.7) this shows that
o(Y ) = [J : stabJ (x)].
If stabG (x), then x = x Y Y which shows that Y = Y as
Y is imprimitive, and J (by definition of J). Hence stabG (x) J
and stabG (x) = stabJ (x). Combining these we have
o(X) = [G : stabG (x)]

## and o(Y ) = [J : stabJ (x)] = [J : stabG (x)].

Therefore stabG (x) < J as o(Y ) > 1, and J < G as o(Y ) < o(X), that
is stabG (x) is not maximal in G.
2
The following corollary gives a number of examples of primitive groups,
remember that a k-transitive group is 2-transitive if k 2.
Corollary 5.37

## Proof. Suppose G is 2-transitive on X, and Y X is an imprimitive

set for G, then we can find x, y Y, x 6= y and z X\Y (set difference).
By the 2-transitivity of G, there is an element G satisfying x = x
and y = z. Hence x Y Y which in turn shows that Y = Y . This
is a contradiction because it also implies that z = y Y .
2
The last basic result in this section provides a connection between primitive groups and transitivity.
Theorem 5.38 If K is a non-neutral normal subgroup of a primitive permutation group G on X, then K is transitive on X.
Proof. Let x X and let Y = {x : K}, so Y is an orbit of
the natural action of K on X which contains x. If G and K,
then (x) = x1 where 1 K by hypothesis. This shows
that Y is another orbit of K on X, one which contains x. As orbits
are either disjoint or identical, see Lemma 5.2, we have Y = Y or

357

## Y Y = , that is Y is an imprimitive set if it contains more than one

element. But by hypothesis no such set exists, and so either Y = X, and
then K is transitive, or every orbit has order 1 in which case K = hei
the kernel of the action of a permutation group is hei by definition.
2
We shall illustrate these results with three applications, more are given
in Chapter 12. First we give another proof of the simplicity of A5 . This proof
uses Cauchys Theorem (Theorem 6.2) whose proof only requires some basic
action properties, and so is independent of the work presented in this section.
Theorem 5.39

## Proof. Suppose K / A5 and K 6= hei. By Problem 5.29(ii), A5 is

3-transitive, and so 2-transitive; see comment on page 356. Hence by
Corollary 5.37 it is primitive, and by Theorem 5.38 the normal subgroup K is transitive on {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. Further by Corollary 5.31 we
have 5 | o(K), and so by Cauchys Theorem (Theorem 6.2), it follows
that K contains a 5-cycle which we can take to be (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). But
K / A5 , and so K contains the twelve 5-cycles which are conjugate to
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5), see Problem 3.3. The subgroup K also contains e, that is
K contains at least 13 elements, but we have seen (page 101) that A5
has no proper subgroup of order greater than 12. Therefore K = A5 ,
and the result follows.
2
Using some further permutation group properties which we have not developed (they involve so-called regular normal subgroups), the above proof can
be extended to show that An is simple for all n 5; see Robinson [1982],
page 195.
For our second illustration the reader will need to read Section 11.1 first,
it deals with the notion of solubility. It can be shown that if G is a soluble
primitive permutation group then it has prime-power degree. This in turn
can be used to show that G can be interpreted as a affine group (that is a
linear group which includes translations) over a field of prime-power degree.
As with most of the material in this section further details can be found in
Chapter 7 of Robinson [1982].
Lastly we use this work to give a group simplicity criterion which has
wide applicability. It can be used to establish the simplicity several classes of
classical groups including the linear groups Ln (q), and some Mathieu groups;
see Chapter 12.
Theorem 5.40

(Iwasawas Lemma)

Suppose

## (a) G is a perfect group (that is G = G), and

(b) G acts faithfully (Definition 5.28) and primitively on a set X.
If there exists an Abelian subgroup J of G, which is normal in stabG (x) where
x X, whose normal closure J in G is G itself, then G is simple.
The normal closure of a group was introduced in Problem 2.25, this problem
gives

358

## 5 Actions and the Orbit-stabiliser Theorem

J = hg 1 Jg : g Gi.
Proof. Suppose the subgroup K satisfies hei < K / G, we prove the
theorem by showing that K = G. By Problem 5.27, K acts transitively
on X, and so by Problem 5.28
G = K stabG (x).

(5.12)

ji J with
Y
g=
gi1 ji gi .
(5.13)
i

## By (5.12) we can write gi = ki ai where ki K and ai stabG (x).

Hence as J / stabG (x), equation (5.13) gives
Y
g=
ki1 a1
i ji ai ki KJK KJ
i

G = KJ.

(5.14)

## Applying the Second Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem 4.15) to (5.14)

we obtain
J/(J K) ' KJ/K = G/K.
Now J is Abelian by supposition and, as a factor group of an Abelian
group is itself Abelian, we also have G/K is Abelian. By Problem 4.6
this shows that G0 K. But by (a) G0 = G, so K = G as required. 2
This result can be strengthened by replacing the condition J is Abelian by
the condition J is soluble; see Issacs (2008), page 252. In Web Section 12.6
we shall use this lemma to reprove the simplicity of the linear groups Ln (q)
in all cases except n = 2 and q < 4.

5.5

Problems 5W

Problem 5.27 Suppose G acts on the set X which has more than one
element, and H G. For x X, let x\H = {x\h : h H}.
(i) If x, y X and x\H y\H 6= , show that x\H = y\H.
(ii) If H / G show that x\H is a block in X for each x X. For the
definition of a block see Definition 5.33.
(iii) Now suppose hei < H / G. Show that the action of H on X is
transitive if the action of G on X is both faithful and primitive. Secondly,
show that o(X) | o(H). (Hint. Use (ii) to show that, for x X, x\H equals
either , {x} or X, and use the given conditions to show that the first two
cases are impossible.)

5.5 Problems 5W

359

## Problem 5.28 (i) Suppose K / G, G acts on the set X, and K acts

transitively on X, show that for all x X
G = KstabG (x).
(Hint. Note that as K acts transitively on X, given x X and g G, there
exists k K with the property x\g = x\k.)
(ii) Use (i) to reprove Lemma 6.14 the Frattini Argument.
Problem 5.29
(i) Show that Sn is sharply n-transitive and (n 1)transitive on the set {1, . . . , n}. Is this second transtivity property sharp?
The symmetric groups are in fact the only groups with this property.
(ii) Secondly, show that An is sharply (n 2)-transitive, provided n > 2.
(iii) Prove that Sn is primitive.
Problem 5.30 (i) Suppose G acts on X, K / G and O is the set of orbits
of K on X (that is we can naturally extend the action of G on X to an action
of G onto the set of all subsets X). Show that G acts transitively on O.
(ii) Suppose the permutation group G acts primitively on X and it contains a 2-cycle. Show that G ' SX .
Problem 5.31 (i) Using Theorem 5.22, prove that if G is a primitive
permutation group of degree m where 2 | m and m > 2, then 4 | o(G).
(ii) Suppose G is a permutation group, K is a minimum normal subgroup
of G (page 235), and K is both transitive and Abelian, prove that G is
primitive.
Problem 5.32? Suppose G is a sharply 2-transitive group on X. Show
that its degree, that is o(X), is a power of some prime p using the following
method. Let o(X) = n. Apart from the neutral permutation, elements of G
either have no fixed points, or have exactly one fixed point. Let G(0) denote
the first of these sets and G(1) the second, so by hypothesis
G = {e} G(0) G(1) .
Finally let p | n where p is prime.
(i) Show that if is an element of order p in G, then G(0) .
(ii) By considering G(1) and the stabilisers of the elements of G, deduce
o(G(0) ) = n 1.
(iii) Using Theorem 5.19, prove the result.
Problem 5.33 (i) Show that if the group G acts faithfully and primitively
on a set X, then (G) = hei. For details concerning the Frattini subgroup
(G) see Section 10.2.
(ii) Suppose G is a p-group which is not elementary Abelian. Show that
it cannot act both faithfully and primitively on a set X.

360

## Problem 5.34 Suppose G is a nilpotent permutation group of order larger

than 1. (For a definition of nilpotency see Chapter 10.) Prove that G is
primitive if, and only if, the order of the set on which G is acting equals o(G)
and this integer is prime.
Problem 5.35 Let G act on the set X where o(X) > 1. If this action is
both faithful and primitive, and if hei < H / G, show that H acts transitively
in X, and deduce
o(X) | o(H).
(Hint. See Problem 5.27.)

361

## 6.5 Further Applications

Three further aspects of Sylow theory will be discussed in this section: (a)
Intersections of Sylow subgroups, the radical, and Brodkeys Theorem; (b)
Burnsides Normal Complement Theorem with some applications; and (c) a
theorem of H
older, Burnside and Zassenhaus which classifies amongst others
all groups of square-free order.

## Intersections of Sylow Subgroups, the Radical and

Brodkeys Theorem
For a fixed prime p, the p-radical Op (G) of a finite group G is defined as the
intersection of all Sylow p-subgroups Pi of G, it is an important example of
a normal subgroup of G; see pages 87, 133 and 222. The question arises: In
this definition do we need to use all of the subgroups Pi to obtain the pradical, or is a subset sufficient? Brodkey6 showed that if Pi is Abelian, then
the intersection of just two is sufficient to define the p-radical provided the
right two are chosen. The Abelianness condition is essential, see Problem
6.24, also there are a number of applications.
We shall prove Brodkeys result now. It is a corollary of the following
lemma which applies to all Sylow subgroups of a finite group.
Lemma 6.19 Suppose Q and R are Sylow p-subgroups of G with the following property: If T = Q R, then o(T ) is minimal as Q and R range over
all pairs of Sylow p-subgroups Pi of G. The p-radical Op (G) is the unique
largest subgroup of T which is normal in both Q and R.
Proof. Suppose K T, K / Q and K / R. If we can show that
K Pi

(6.8)

## then K Op (G) and the result follows.

By definition of the normaliser we have Q NG (K). Also Pi NG (K)
is a p-subgroup of NG (K), and so it is contained in some Sylow psubgroup of NG (K). Combining these propositions and using Sylow 2
(Theorem 6.9) we can find a NG (K) to satisfy
Pi NG (K) a1 Qa.
We also have R NG (K), and so a1 Ra NG (K). Hence
Pi a1 Ra = Pi NG (K) a1 Ra a1 Qa a1 Ra = a1 T a.
This gives
6

Brodkey, J. S. (1963), A note on finite groups with an Abelian Sylow subgroup. Proc.
Amer. Math. Soc., 14, 132-3.

362

## T = a(a1 T a)a1 a(Pi a1 Ra)a1 = aPi a1 R.

(6.9)

Now both aPi a1 and R are Sylow p-subgroups of G, and by (6.9) their
intersection is contained in T . But by definition, T is minimal for this
property, hence
aPi a1 R = T,

and so

K T aPi a1 .

## This shows that a1 Ka Pi , but by assumption g 1 Kg = K for all

g G, hence (6.8) follows and the proof is complete.
2
We can now derive
Theorem 6.20 (Brodkeys Theorem) If G has Abelian Sylow p-subgroups
Pi , then i and j can be chosen so that
Pi Pj = Op (G).
Proof. If in Lemma 6.19 the Sylow p-subgroups Q and R are Abelian,
then automatically the intersection T chosen there is normal in both of
them, and so the result follows.
2
Corollary 6.21

(i)

(ii)

## If o(P ) > [G : P ], then G is not simple provided o(G) 6= p.

Proof.
(i) By Brodkeys Theorem there exist Abelian Sylow psubgroups Q and R of G satisfying Q R = Op (G). Hence by Theorem
5.8 we have
o(G) o(QR) =

o(Q)o(R)
o(P )2
=
,
o(Q R)
o(Op (G))

## and (i) follows.

(ii) By Problem 6.19(vi) and (i), Op (G) is a proper non-neutral normal subgroup of G. Hence G is not simple.
2
For example if o(G) = 4p and p > 3, then G is not simple as p2 > 4p in this
case. Some further examples are given in Problem 6.25.
In the printed text we also considered intersections of Sylow subgroups
in part of the proof of Theorem 6.13, and in Problems 6.8 and 6.17.

## Burnsides Normal Complement Theorem

We begin with
Definition 6.22 (i) Let H, J G, HJ = G and H J = hei. The subgroup
J is called a complement of H in G, and H is a complement of J in G.
(ii) If K / G, then G is called an extension of K by H if G/K ' H.

363

## Notes. In (i), if H / G, then G/H ' J by the Second Isomorphism Theorem

(Theorem 4.15), and so G is an extension of H by J; and in (ii), K does
not necessarily have a complement. One possible reason is that G may not
contain a subgroup isomorphic to H.
Some of the most important results in the theory concern the existence of
complements. These include the Schur-Zassenhaus Theorem to be proved in
Web Section 9.4, results about semi-direct products given in Chapter 7, and
Burnsides theorem to be proved now. This result gives a condition under
which a Sylow subgroup has a (normal) complement, it has a number of
useful applications, an example is given after the proof.
Theorem 6.23(17) (Burnsides Normal Complement Theorem) If G is
a finite group and P is a Sylow subgroup of G which satisfies the condition
P Z(NG (P )),

(6.10)

## then P has a normal complement in G.

The condition (6.10) is equivalent to the statement: CG (P ) = NG (P ); see
Problem 5.17(ii). The proof below uses the transfer, before proceeding the
reader should review Web Section 4.6 which introduces this entity.
Proof. Note first that as P is a subgroup of a centre, it is Abelian. Let
[G : P ] = m and let denote the transfer of G to P , see Definition 4.26
in Web Section 4.6. The map is a homomorphism and we shall prove
the theorem by showing that its kernel is a (normal) complement of P .
Let a P . By Corollary 4.28, the value of a is given by
Y
mr
a =
h1
hr ,
r a
r

## where {h1 , . . . , hn } is a subset of a transversal, and 1 mr m. For

mr
hr belong to P by definition and Corollary
each r both amr and h1
r a
4.28, and they are conjugate in CG (P ), for as P is Abelian it is a subgroup of CG (P ). Using Problem 6.10(ii) we see that, as these elements
belong to CG (P ) and are conjugate in G, they are also conjugate in
NG (P ), and so there exist jr NG (P ) with the property
mr
h1
hr = jr1 amr jr = amr .
r a

## This last equality follows by (6.10). Hence by Corollary 4.29

X
a = am for all a P where m =
mr = [G : P ].
r

## Suppose o(P ) = pt , then (m, pt ) = 1 as P is a Sylow p-subgroup.

Using the Euclidean Algorithm (Theorem B2), integers r and s can be
found to satisfy rm + spt = 1, and so as a P
t

364

## Rewriting this we have ar = arm = a; that is is surjective. Let

K = ker , then the First Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem 4.11) shows
that G/K ' P . So G = KP , and K P = hei, because we have
o(K) = [G : P ] = m and (m, pt ) = 1. The theorem follows because a
kernel of a homomorphism, in this case, is always normal.
2
Example. Let G be a non-Abelian group of order pq with p < q, and let
P1 , P2 G with o(Pi ) = p, i = 1, 2, that is G has distinct Sylow p-subgroups.
We have P1 = NG (P1 ) as P1 is non-normal, and so P1 = Z(NG (P1 )) as P1
is Abelian. Hence the condition of Burnsides theorem applies, and therefore
P1 has a normal complement of order q. This provides a second derivation of
Theorem 6.11.
Some consequences of Burnsides theorem are given now, more will follow
in the problem section. The first is concerned with the smallest prime dividing
the order of a group.
Theorem 6.24 Suppose G is a group, p0 is the smallest prime dividing
o(G), and P is a cyclic Sylow p0 -subgroup of G, then P has a normal complement in G.
Proof. We have
(a) by the N/C-theorem (Theorem 5.26), NG (P )/CG (P ) is isomorphic to a subgroup of Aut P ;
(b) by Theorem 4.23 and later comments, o(Aut P ) = pn1
(p0 1)
0
as P is cyclic; and
(c) CG (P ) P as P is Abelian (cyclic).
Now as P is a Sylow p0 -subgroup, (c) implies
p0 - o(NG (P )/CG (P )),

and so

o(NG (P )/CG (P )) | p0 1

## by (b). But p0 is the smallest prime dividing o(G), hence

o(NG (P )/CG (P )) = 1.
Therefore NG (P ) = CG (P ), and by Problem 5.17, this shows that the
condition for Burnsides theorem (Theorem 6.23) applies, hence P has
a normal complement.
2
In Problem 2.19 we showed that if G has a subgroup H with index 2,
then H / G. The theorem above shows that H always exists if its order is
odd. Reader: What happens if o(H) is even?
Corollary 6.25 If o(G) = 2m where m is odd, then G has a normal
subgroup K with o(K) = m.
Proof. This follows immediately from Theorem 6.24, as the Sylow
2-subgroup of G is necessarily cyclic.
2

365

## This result can be extended to show that if G is simple and non-Abelian,

then either 8 or 12 divides o(G) as we show now.
Theorem 6.26 If G is a non-Abelian simple group and p0 is the smallest
prime dividing o(G), then either p30 | o(G), or 12 | o(G).
Proof. Let P be a Sylow p0 -subgroup of G. By Theorem 6.24, it is not
cyclic, and so
(a) either p30 | o(G), or
(b) P is a non-cyclic group of order p20 , that is P ' Cp0 Cp0 , see
Section 7.2.
If (a) holds the result follows, and if (b) holds P is an elementary
Abelian p0 -group (Problem 4.18(i)). In this case, by Problem 4.18(iii)
we have
o(Aut P ) = p0 (p0 + 1)(p0 1)2 = t,
say. By the N/C-theorem (Theorem 5.26), o(NG (P )/CG (P )) is a divisor
of t which is larger than 1 (by Burnsides theorem and the hypothesis).
Also p0 - o(NG (P )/CG (P )) as P CG (P ) and P is a Sylow subgroup.
Hence, as p0 is the smallest prime divisor of o(G), it follows that p0 +1 | t.
If p0 is odd this gives a contradiction because the smallest prime divisor
of t is at least p0 + 2. Hence p0 = 2, then t = o(Aut P ) = 6, which shows
finally that 12 | o(G) as required.
2
The Feit-Thompson Odd Order Theorem states that every group of composite odd order contains a proper non-neutral normal subgroup. This together with Theorem 6.26 shows that the order of every non-Abelian simple
group is divisible by 8 or 12. In fact, this can be improved to: The order of
every such group is divisible by 12, 16 or 56. There exists one class of simple
groups, the so-called Suzuki groups Sz(22n+1 ) with n > 0 (Web Chapter 14),
whose orders are divisible by 8 but not by 3.
Our next application provides another method for proving that groups
of certain orders cannot be simple.
Theorem 6.27 If G is simple, o(G) = pm > p, p - m, and P is a Sylow
p-subgroup of G, then CG (P ) < NG (P ) < G and [NG (P ) : CG (P )] | p 1.
Proof. By Burnsides and the N/C theorems (Theorems 6.23 and 5.26)
we have CG (P ) < NG (P ) and, by Sylow 3, NG (P ) < G, both as G is
simple. Further P CG (P ) because P is Abelian, and o(Aut P ) = p1
as o(P ) = p. Hence the N/C-theorem gives the second result.
2
Example.

## There are no simple groups of order 396.

We have 396 = 22 32 11, and so a group of order 396 will have a Sylow
11-subgroup P1 , say. If G is simple, then n11 = 12 and o(NG (P1 )) = 33 by
Sylow 3 and 4. But by Theorem 6.27, o(CG (P1 )) = 11, as o(CG (P1 )) is at
least 11 because P1 CG (P1 ), and so [NG (P1 ) : CG (P1 )] = 3 which clearly
does not divide 10. This contradiction shows that a group of order 396 must
have a normal subgroup of order 11, and therefore cannot be simple. Some
further examples are given in Problem 6.28.

366

## Groups with Cyclic Sylow Subgroups

As a further application of Burnsides theorem (Theorem 6.23) we prove the
following Classification Theorem. Classification theorems are important in
the quest to describe all groups, amongst other consequences this particular
result will determine (that is, give representations of) all groups with squarefree order. There is a unique Abelian group for each fixed square-free order,
that is the cyclic group with this order; see Section 7.2. This uniqueness does
not carry over to the non-Abelian case as will be seen in the example at
the end of this section. Although this classification result is a consequence
of Burnsides theorem, it also relies on results proved in Chapter 11; there is
no circularity here because these (solubility) results follow directly from the
work presented in Chapters 2 and 4.
We begin with
Definition 6.28 A group is called metacyclic, or sometimes Frobenius
(Web section 14.3), if it can be represented as an extension (Definition 6.19)
of one cyclic group by another cyclic group.
The cyclic and dihedral groups are examples of metacyclic groups. Reader:
Give the cyclic subgroups in the dihedral case.
Let G be a finite group all of whose Sylow subgroups are cyclic; note
that all subgroups and all factor groups of finite cyclic groups are themselves
finite and cyclic by Theorem 4.20. We also have in this case:
(a) If G is Abelian, then G is cyclic, this follows from the Sylow theory
and Problem 4.15(ii), this also follows from the direct product theory.
(b) All Sylow subgroups of subgroups of G are cyclic; by Sylow 5, every
p-subgroup of G is contained in a Sylow p-subgroup of G.
(c) All Sylow subgroups of factor groups of G are cyclic. For if K / G,
a Sylow subgroup of G/K has the form P K/K where P is a Sylow
subgroup of G (Problem 6.10(iii)), and by the Second Isomorphism
Theorem (Theorem 4.15), P K/K ' P/(P K), but P is cyclic and so
P K/K is also cyclic.
The last preliminary fact we need is
Lemma 6.29 If G is finite and all of its Sylow subgroups are cyclic, then
both G0 and G/G0 are cyclic, where G0 denotes the derived subgroup of G.
This result, which is due to Zassenhaus, implies that G is metacyclic if it
satisfies the conditions of the lemma. The proof relies on Theorem 6.23 and
some basic work given in Problems 11.12 and 11.13. For a different proof see
Issacs [2008], page 160. As noted above there is no circularity here because
all of the facts concerning solubility used in these proofs are elementary consequences of the isomorphism theorems given in Chapter 4. But it should be
noted that the main result used in the proof of Lemma 6.29 is Burnsides
Normal Complement Theorem (Theorem 6.23).

## 6.5 Further Applications

367

Using these preliminary facts we can now show that a finite group with
cyclic Sylow subgroups is metacyclic. In fact we have the following stronger
result due to H
older, Burnside and Zassenhaus which involves four numbertheoretic conditions.
Theorem 6.30(18) If G is a finite group all of whose Sylow subgroups are
cyclic, then G has the presentation
G ' ha, b | am = bn = e, b1 ab = ar i,
where
(i) (m, n(r 1)) = 1,

(iii) 0 r < m,

(iv) m is odd.

## If G is a p-group, or if it is Abelian, then m = r = 1 and a = e in the

representation above, and G is cyclic. Also the converse of this theorem clearly
follows from the preliminary results (b) and (c) given on the previous page.
The condition is necessary. For example the order of A5 , that is 22 3 5,
satisfies the conditions (i) to (iv) above with m = 5 , but the theorem does
not apply because A5 has a non-cyclic Sylow subgroup.
Proof. By Lemma 6.29 we may suppose
G0 = hai / G and G/G0 = hb G0 i,

(6.11)

## for suitably chosen a, b G. Let o(G0 ) = m and o(G/G0 ) = n, and so

by Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27), o(G) = mn and o(a) = m. We
will show below that (m, n) = 1. By (6.11) we have
G = ha, bi and b1 ab = ar ,

(6.12)

## for some r satisfying 0 r < m as o(a) = m. The second equation in

(6.12) gives [a, b] = a1 b1 ab = ar1 . Let
J = har1 i.
We show next that J = G0 . By Problem 4.22(v), J char G0 , and so as
G0 / G (Problem 2.16) we have J / G by Problem 4.22(iv). By (6.12)
this shows that G/J = haJ, bJi, and
[aJ, bJ] = (aJ)1 (bJ)1 (aJ)(bJ) = [a, b]J = J,
as [a, b] J. This proves that G/J is generated by two elements which
commute, hence it is Abelian. Therefore, by Problem 4.6(ii), we have
G0 J and so J = G0 because J G0 by definition. Therefore as
o(a) = m we have
har1 i = J = G0 = hai which gives

(r 1, m) = 1.

(6.13)

368

## Next we show that hbi is a complement of G0 in G. As o(G/G0 ) = n

we have bn G0 and so bn = as for some integer s. Therefore, as
b1 ab = ar ,
as = bn = b1 (bn )b = b1 (as )b = ars

bn = e

with o(b) = n,

## as G/G0 = hb G0 i and o(G/G0 ) = n. Further, as G = hbiG0 we have

using the Second Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem 4.15)
G/G0 = hbiG0 /G0 ' hbi/(hbi G0 )
and, as o(G/G0 ) = o(hbi), this shows that
hbi G0 = hei.
Therefore hbi is a complement of G0 in G.
Lastly we prove that (m, n) = 1. Suppose not, so there exists a prime
q dividing both m and n, and
o(am/q ) = q = o(bn/q ).
Now ham/q i / G because J = hai / G, so if we let
L = ham/q ihbn/q i,

## By Sylow 5, L Q where Q is a Sylow q-subgroup of G. By hypothesis

Q is cyclic, and so it has a unique subgroup of order q by Theorem 4.20.
This is impossible because both ham/q i and hbn/q i are subgroups of Q
of order q. Hence (m, n) = 1. The reader should now check that the
conditions (i) to (iv) are satisfied.
2
As noted above an important special case of this result is:
Every group with square-free order is metacyclic,
for in this case all Sylow subgroups are necessarily cyclic. But note that
several non-isomorphic groups may be involved; that is there may be several
distinct solutions to the number-theoretic conditions (i) to (iv) in Theorem
6.30 for a group of given order. Let
Fm,n,r = ha, b | am = bn = e, b1 ab = ar i.
We usually drop the suffix r when there is only one value, so we have F1,n,1 =
F1,n ' Cn and Fm,2,m1 = Fm,2 ' Dm . Consider for example groups of order
42 = 237, and let m, n and r satisfy conditions (i) to (iv) in Theorem 6.30. In
this case m = 1, 3, 7 or 21; so as just noted we only need to consider the cases

6.6 Problems 6W

369

## m = 3 or 7. If m = 3, then n = 14, and 2 is the only possible value for r; hence

we obtain the group F3,14 . If m = 7, then n = 6 and by Fermats Theorem
(Theorem B10) r = (1), 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, suggesting possibly five new groups.
But only three are non-isomorphic, they are F7,6,2 ' F7,6,4 , F7,6,3 ' F7,6,5
and F7,6,6 ; the reader should check these facts by looking at their centres.
Therefore there are six non-isomorphic groups of order 42, they are C42 , D21
and the four Frobenius groups listed above, all of which are metacyclic. Some
further examples are given in Problem 6.31.

6.6

Problems 6W

Problem 6.24 The Abelianness condition in Brodkeys Theorem (Theorem 6.20) is essential, prove this using the following example. Let J = C3 C3 .
The automorphism group Aut J of J is isomorphic to GL3 (2) with order 48,
and this group has a Sylow 2-subgroup A, say, of order 16. Form the semidirect product of J by A, show that its 2-radical is neutral, and so complete
the proof.
Problem 6.25
are not simple.

## (a) A group of order 12p where p > 12.

(b) A group of order p2 q 2 where q > p.
(c) All groups of order 1764, 2205 and 2352.
(ii) Prove that if Op (G) = hei, then Sylow p-subgroups P1 and P2 of G
exist satisfying Z(P1 ) Z(P2 ) = hei.
Problem 6.26 (i) Suppose p is odd and it is the smallest prime dividing
o(G). Show that if p3 - o(G), then G has a normal p-complement.
(ii) Suppose G is simple and it has an Abelian Sylow 2-subgroup of order
8, prove that 7 | o(G). The groups L2 (8) and J1 are examples (Chapter 12
including its Web section).
Problem 6.27 (i) Show that the normal complement of the Sylow psubgroup P given by Burnsides Theorem can be taken as Op0 (G) where p0
denotes the set of primes dividing o(G) except p itself.
(ii) Prove that a Sylow 2-subgroup of a finite simple group cannot be
cyclic.
Problem 6.28
or 3864.

Show that there are no simple groups with orders 264, 945

Problem 6.29 Prove that a group of order p3 q is not simple using the
following method. First show that p < q, then use the Sylow theory and
Burnsides Theorem (Theorem 6.23) to obtain nq = p2 , and lastly deduce
p = 2 and q = 3. Note that np need not equal 1, give an example.

370

## Problem 6.30 Suppose o(G) = p2 qr where p, q and r are distinct primes.

Show that if G is simple, then G ' A5 . One method is as follows.
First show we may assume that p < q < r;
If P is a Sylow p-subgroup, show that P ' Cp Cp , and
[NG (P ) : CG (P )] equals q or r;
Deduce p = 2 and q = 3, and so prove that G ' A5 .
Problem 6.31
page 294.

Find all groups of order 105, 210 and 474, see the table on

## Problem 6.32 Prove that no group of composite square-free order can

be simple. Use this to show that if o(G) is square-free, and p? is the largest
prime factor of this order, then G has a normal Sylow p? -subgroup.
Problem 6.33 (i) Let p be the smallest prime dividing o(G). Suppose P
is a cyclic Sylow p-subgroup of G, show that G has a normal complement.
(ii) Use (i) to prove that if all of the Sylow p-subgroups of G are cyclic,
then G is soluble (Chapter 11). Further show that if n | o(G), then G has a
subgroup of order n, and any two such subgroups are conjugate in G.
Problem 6.34 Suppose G is a finite group with the property that for all
of its Abelian subgroups J we have NG (J) = CG (J). Show that G is Abelian.
Problem 6.35 Suppose G is simple, 2r | o(G) and 2r+1 - o(G). Show that if
r = 1 or 2, then 3 | o(G). Note that for the only simple groups where 3 - o(G),
the Suzuki groups Sz(22n+1 ), we have r 6.
Problem 6.36 Let p be a prime. If p2 | o(G), show that p | o(Aut G). (Hint.
Use Corollary 5.27, Burnsides Theorem, and Theorems 7.12, 4.23 and 3.15.)
Problem 6.37 Classify all groups of order pqr where p, q and r are primes
and p < q < r. (Hint. Use Problem 6.32.)
Problem 6.38
property

## Suppose H be a Hall subgroup of G (Chapter 11) with the

H Z(NG (H)).

Prove that G has normal p-complements for all primes p dividing o(H). (Hint.
Use induction. Prove first that if P is a Sylow subgroup of H and NG (P ) < G,
then P Z(NG (P )). Secondly prove that if P / G and Q is a Sylow subgroup
of H which satisfies NG (Q) < G, then P Z(NG (Q)).

371

## 7.5 Infinite Abelian Groups

The printed text is mainly concerned with finite groups. Infinite groups like
the rational numbers Q have many important properties, and so some mention of them is needed. This Web Section lists the basic facts in the Abelian
case, no proofs will be given; the reader who wishes to discover more should
consult Kaplansky (1969), Fuchs (1970, 1973), Chapter 8 of Rose (1978), or
Chapter 10 of Rotman (1994).
We begin by extending the notion of direct product to the case where an
infinite number of factors is involved. There are two types which we call the
cartesian product and the direct product. Suppose I = {. . . , i0 , i1 , . . . } is an
index set and for each in I we are given a group Gin . As in the finite case
we first form the set-theoretic cartesian product of the underlying sets of the
groups Gin :
G = Gi0 Gi1 . . . ,
we call the elements of G vectors. Secondly we introduce an operation on
G using the same procedure as in Definition 7.1.
Definition 7.19 (i) If a = ( . . . , ai0 , ai1 , . . . ) and b = ( . . . , bi0 , bi1 , . . . ) are
vectors in G, then we define
a b = ( . . . , ai0 bi0 , ai1 bi1 , . . . ),

(7.13)

where ain , bin Gin for all n. The collection of all vectors of G with this
operation forms a group called the cartesian product which is denoted by
O
Gin .
in I

(ii) Let H be the subset of G of those vectors that have only a finite
number of non-neutral entries. The set H with the operation (7.13) forms a
group called the direct product which is denoted by
Y
Gin .
in I

Note that

Y
in I

Gin /

O
in I

Gin ,

as the reader can easily check. The properties listed in Lemma 7.5 for finite
direct products also apply to both the cartesian and the (infinite) direct
product.
From now on all groups discussed in this section are Abelian.
Our first result concerns the extension of the Fundamental Theorem of
Abelian Groups (Theorem 7.12) to the infinite case. A group is said to be
finitely generated if it has a presentation (Section 3.4 and Web Section 4.7)
with a finite number of generating elements. The Fundamental Theorem extends to this case for we have

372

## Theorem 7.20 A finitely generated Abelian group can be expressed as a

direct product of cyclic groups of prime power and/or infinite order.
The proof of this result is similar to the second proof of the finite case given
in Section 7.2.

Divisibility
Many infinite Abelian groups are not finitely generated, for instance the rational numbers Q (Problem 3.17). But this group has another important
property it is divisible; that is for each positive integer m and each rational
number a/b Q, there exists another rational number c/d Q with the property m(c/d) = a/b (put c = a and d = mb). In the standard multiplicative
notation:
For all positive integers m, every element in Q has an m-th
With torsion to be defined below, divisibility plays a major role in the Abelian
theory.
Definition 7.21 An Abelian group G, with as usual its operation expressed
multiplicatively using concatenation, is called divisible if for all g G and all
positive integers m, there exists another element h G satisfying
hm = g.
Examples. The following are divisible groups: hei, Q (as above), R, C (in
these two cases it is the additive group that is divisible), the multiplicative
group of the non-zero complex numbers,7 and Cp (Problem 6.7). A factor
group of a divisible group is divisible, and if Gn , n = . . . , 0, 1, . . . is a collection of divisible groups, then both the cartesian and the direct products of
the Gn are divisible. A subgroup of a divisible group need not be divisible;
for example Z Q, and Z is not divisible.
Further we set
Definition 7.22 (i) Given a group G, the subgroup generated by all elements of all divisible subgroups of G is denoted by dG, it is called the divisible
subgroup of G.
(ii) A group G is called reduced if, and only if, dG = hei.
Clearly G is divisible if, and only if, dG = G. It is not difficult to prove that
Theorem 7.23
tion

## Every Abelian group G has the direct product decomposiG = dG R

where R is reduced.
7

Corollary 7.24
group.

373

## It is possible to give a characterisation of divisible groups as follows.

Theorem 7.25 Every divisible group can be expressed as a direct product
of copies of Q, and copies of Cp for suitably chosen primes p.
The groups Cp for p = 2, 3, . . . were defined in Problem 6.7. One consequence of this theorem implies that the real numbers R can be expressed as
a direct product of copies of Q, but uncountably many copies are needed.
This is related to a topic in real analysis called the Hamel Basis; see for
example Introductory Real Analysis by Kolmogorov and Fomin (Dover, New
York, 1970). No similar characterisation of reduced groups exists, some are
direct products of cyclic groups but many others are not. The next topic will

Torsion
The second major distinction in the Abelian theory is between torsion and
torsion-free or; in our previous terminology, between finite and infinite order.
Definition 7.26 (i) The torsion subgroup tG of a group G (with operation
expressed multiplicatively using concatenation) is given by
tG = {g G : g m = e for some positive integer m}.
(ii) A group G is called torsion if tG = G, and torsion-free if tG = hei.
It is easy to prove that tG G for all G. Every finite group is torsion,
Q is an example of a torsion-free group, whilst R , the non-zero reals with
multiplication, is neither torsion nor torsion-free; reader, why?
The following result is easily proved.
Theorem 7.27
free.

## To put this another way: Every Abelian group is an extension of a torsion

group by a torsion-free group. But this is not as strong as Theorem 7.23 for
there exist groups whose torsion subgroups are not direct factors. One such
example is the cartesian product over all primes p of the cyclic groups Cp .
Properties of both torsion and torsion-free groups have been investigated,
a fairly clear characterisation of torsion groups has been given, but only
limited information is available on the structure of torsion-free groups. In
1945 the Russian mathematician Kulikov proved
Theorem 7.28 Every Abelian torsion group G can be expressed as an
extension of a direct product of cyclic groups by a divisible group.
This result is derived using so called basic subgroups, we shall define these
now. First we need (remember that Gn = {g n : g G})

374

Definition 7.29

J Gn = J n

for all

n Z.

## We always have J Gn J n , so it is the reverse inequality that is important

here. The following facts are not difficult to prove.
(a) In a direct product G = H J, both H and J are pure in G.
(b) If J G and G/J is torsion-free, then J is pure in G. Hence the
torsion subgroup tG of G is pure in G.
(c) If J is pure in G and J H G, then H/J is pure in G/J if, and
only if, H is pure in G.
(d) A non-divisible p-group contains a pure non-neutral cyclic subgroup.
(e) Suppose G is a p-group, X is an independent subset of G (Problem
7.14), hXi is pure in G, and no proper superset of X has these properties (so X is a maximal pure-independent subset of G), then G/hXi is
divisible.
We can now define basic by
Definition 7.30 A subgroup J of an Abelian torsion group G is called
basic if the following three conditions hold.
(i) J is a pure subgroup of G,
(ii) J is a direct product of cyclic groups,
(iii) the factor group G/J is divisible.
Using Problem 7.14 and the properties (a) to (e) above it is relatively easy
to prove that all torsion groups possess basic subgroups and, using this,
Kulikovs Theorem (Theorem 7.28) follows directly.
There are two important corollaries.
Corollary 7.31 (i) If G has finite exponent (Definition 2.19), then G is
isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups.
(ii) If G is indecomposable, that is it cannot be expressed as a direct product
with non-neutral factors, then G is either torsion or torsion-free.
The first of these corollaries shows that an elementary Abelian p-group (Problem 4.18) can be represented as a direct product of copies of Cp and, by
Corollary 2.12, all groups with exponent 2 have this property. The rational
group Q is an example of an indecomposable group, it is torsion-free. But
R is an example of a group which is neither torsion nor torsion-free, so by
the second corollary it can be expressed as a direct product, in this case the
factors are isomorphic to R+ and C2 .
Lastly in this brief survey we shall consider one aspect of the theory of
torsion-free groups. Every torsion-free group can be treated as a subgroup of
the multiplicative group of a vector space over Q, see Corollary 7.24. Hence
we make the following

375

## Definition 7.32 For a torsion-free group G, the rank is the number of

elements in a maximal independent subset (Problem 7.14) of the vector space
over Q of which G is a subgroup.
There are many unanswered questions about rank n groups for large n,
but the case n = 1 is well known. In this case it is the subgroups of Q that
are being investigated. We noted in Problem 2.11(ii) that the following are
subgroups of Q:
(i) Z,
(ii) the set of all rational numbers of the form a/2n where a, n Z,
a is odd and n 0, the so-called dyadic rationals,
(iii) the set of all rational numbers with square-free denominators.
Many variations on these examples exist hence we make the following
Definition 7.33 If a/b Q\{0} with (a, b) = 1, p is a prime, a = pr a0 , b =
ps b0 and (a0 , p) = (b0 , p) = 1, then the p-height hp (a/b) of a/b equals s r;
and we set hp (0) = 0.
So the p-height of an integer is less than or equal to zero, the 2-height of the
dyadic rational a/2n is n, and the p-height of a rational with a square-free
denominator is at most 1.
We also make
Definition 7.34 (i) A sequence (a0 , a1 , . . . ) where each ai denotes a nonnegative integer or the symbol is called a characteristic.
(ii) Two characteristics are said to be equivalent if
(a) the symbol occurs in the same position in each characteristic,
and
(b) the finite entries differ (that is they are replaced by other finite
entries) at only finite many positions.
It is clear that Definition 7.34 defines an equivalence relation on the set
of characteristics. We can attach a characteristic to each subgroup of Q as
follows. If H Q, let hp (H) denote the least upper bound (which may be
) of hp (a/b) for a/b H, then the characteristic of H is defined as
(h2 (H), h3 (H), . . . , hpi (H), . . . ).
For the group Q itself the characteristic is (, , . . . ) because the numbers 1/pn belong to Q for all primes p and all positive integers n. Also the
characteristic of Z is (0, 0, 0, . . . ), the characteristic of the dyadic rationals
is (, 0, 0, . . . ), and the characteristic of the rationals with square-free denominators is (1, 1, 1, . . . ); the reader should check these statements. It is
easily shown that the characteristic of two elements of a subgroup H of Q
are equivalent. For instance in Z the characteristic of 0 is (0, 0, 0, . . . ) whilst
the characteristic of 432, say, is (4, 3, 0, 0, . . . ).
For the rank 1 case we have

376

## Chapter 7 Products and Abelian Groups

Theorem 7.35 (i) Two subgroups of Q are isomorphic if, and only if, they
have equivalent characteristics.
(ii) For each equivalence class of characteristics there exists a subgroup of Q
with a characteristic in this class.
It follows from this result that the group Q has uncountably many subgroups
as there are uncountably many inequivalent characteristics. As an exercise
write down as many subgroups of Q as you can.
For further developments, proofs of the theorems given above, examples,
and problems the reader should read one or more of the references given at
the beginning of this section.

Schur-Zassenhaus Theorem

377

## 9.4W Schur-Zassenhaus Theorem

In this Web Section we establish one of the most important theorems of
finite group theory the Schur-Zassenhaus Theorem which gives a condition
under which complements of Hall subgroups exist. A Hall subgroup H of a
finite group G, is one whose order has no common factor (except 1) with its
index, that is
(o(H), [G : H]) = 1.
Sylow subgroups are examples of Hall subgroups, also S4 is isomorphic to
a Hall subgroup of S5 for we have o(S4 ) = 24 and [S5 : S4 ] = 5. We shall
consider these subgroups in more detail in Chapter 11. The Schur-Zassenhaus
Theorem says that if H is a normal Hall subgroup of G, then H always has
at least one complement in G, see Definition 6.19, and secondly, all such
subgroups are conjugate. For example, it shows that if P is a normal Sylow
subgroup of G, then P has a complement J and G = P J. The normality
condition is essential as the following example shows. Let G = A5 and J =
h(1, 2, 3)i ' C3 , then o(J) = 3, [G : J] = 20 and (20, 3) = 1, but A5 does not
contain a subgroup of order 20, and so no complement of J can exist.
The main point to note here is that if G has a normal Hall subgroup K,
then G is isomorphic to a semi-direct product of K by a subgroup isomorphic
to G/K; we sometimes say that G is split over K. In this case the extension
which passes from K to G is of a fairly straightforward and well-understood
type; the situation can become much more complicated if o(K) and o(G/K)
have common factors. The theorem was proved by Schur about a century ago
in the case when G/K is cyclic, and the full result was proved by Zassenhaus
in 1937 using some ideas from cohomology theory for the Abelian case which
we shall introduce in the latter part of the proof. We also give a second proof
of this case using so-called crossed homomorphisms.
Theorem 9.19 (Schur-Zassenhaus Theorem) Suppose G is a finite group,
o(G) = mn, (m, n) = 1, K / G and o(K) = m, then K has a complement H
in G with G = KH and o(H) = n.
The derivation of this result is quite long and introduces some new notions,
it has been split into a number of manageable stages and relies on many of
the results proved earlier. As noted above we give two proofs for the main
Abelian case.
Proof. Stage 1 It is sufficient to show G has a subgroup H that has
order n.
We have K / G and o(K) = m. If H exists with o(H) = n then, by
Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27) K H = hei (no non-neutral element in K has an order dividing n, and vice versa), and so by Theorem
5.8, o(KH) = o(H)o(K) = o(G) which shows that KH = G.
The main proof is by induction on o(G), so if o(G1 ) < o(G) and G1 has a
normal Hall subgroup K1 , then K1 has a complement in G1 .

378

Chapter 9 Jordan-H
older Theorem and the Extension Problem

## Stage 2 We may assume that K has a normal Sylow subgroup P .

Suppose P is a Sylow subgroup of K (Theorem 6.7). As K / G, the
Frattini Argument (Lemma 6.14) shows that G = NG (P )K. Also by
Problem 5.13(iii) and the normality of K we have
NK (P ) = NG (P ) K / NG (P ),
and so by the Second Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem 4.15),
G/K = NG (P )K/K ' NG (P )/(NG (P ) K) = NG (P )/NK (P ).
By hypothesis this shows that [NG (P ) : NK (P )] = n. Further, as
NK (P ) K we have o(NK (P )) | o(K). These two statements imply that
NK (P ) is a normal Hall subgroup of NG (P ). Now if NG (P ) < G, the
inductive hypothesis provides a subgroup J of NG (P ) with o(J) = n,
and by subgroup transitivity, J is also a subgroup of G of order n. The
result follows in this case, and so we may assume that NG (P ) = G, that
is P / G.
Stage 3 We may assume that K is a Sylow subgroup P .
By Stage 2 we may suppose P / G. As K / G, the Correspondence
Theorem (Theorem 4.16) gives K/P / G/P , and so [G/P : K/P ] = [G :
K] = n. Now o(K/P ) | o(K) by Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27),
and o(G/P ) < o(G), hence the inductive hypothesis again provides a
subgroup of the form L/P with order n and where P / L G (note we
are assuming that P / G). Now L K is a subgroup of both L and K,
and so o(L K) divides both o(L) and o(K). But
o(L) = n o(P )

and

(n, o(K)) = 1,

## On the other hand, P L and P K, and so P L K. Together

these show that L K = P which in turn gives L < G. Hence as o(P )
and o(L/P ) are coprime and o(L/P ) = n, the inductive hypothesis
provides a subgroup of L with order n which is also a subgroup of G.
Therefore we may assume that K = P .
Stage 4 The case when K is a non-Abelian p-group.
By Lemma 5.21, hei 6= Z(K) / K, and by Problem 4.16, Z(K) / G.
Further by the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16), K/Z(K) is
a normal subgroup of G/Z(K) with order n. Therefore the inductive
hypothesis provides a subgroup of the form
M/Z(K) of G/Z(K) with order n, and where Z(K) / M G.
As in Stage 3, we have M K = Z(K), the reader should check
this, and so M < G. Also o(Z(K)) and o(M/Z(K)) are coprime, and
o(M/Z(K)) = n, hence using the inductive hypothesis again we see
that M has a subgroup of order n, and so this is also true for G.
Therefore we may assume that K is Abelian.

Schur-Zassenhaus Theorem

379

## Stage 5 The case when K is Abelian

For this main part of the derivation we shall give two proofs. In some ways
they are fairly similar, but they introduce distinct new ideas the cocycle
identity and the crossed homomorphism and so it seems worthwhile to give
both. In some ways the second is more in line with the rest of the work in
the book and this web section.
First proof in the Abelian case
The group K is a p-group but this fact will play no role in what follows. To
aid clarity we have reintroduced the dot notation when referring to the
group operation in the Abelian subgroup K.
Stage 5.1 Cocycle identity.
In this stage we define a new action and derive one of its properties
called the cocycle identity, for a similar identity see Lemma 9.12. Let
C = G/K and let c C, so c is a coset of K in G. (Note that here
we are not following our usual convention where we use upper case
letters for sets.) If g, g 0 c, then by Lemma 2.22, g 1 g 0 K, and so
gkg 1 = g 0 k(g 0 )1 for all k K as K is Abelian in this Stage. Hence
we can define an action of C on K by
k\c = gkg 1

for

k K, c C = G/K, and g c.

(9.16)

This action has two further properties which the reader should check:
(kk 0 )\c = k\c k 0 \c and

(k 1 )\c = (k\c)1 .

(9.17)

## Choose a transversal T = {tc : c C} for C, see Web Section 4.6.

So o(T ) = n and tc is a representative in G of the coset c in C. Using
basic coset and transversal properties we have
1
1
1
t1
= (c1 c2 )1 = c1
K,
c1 c2 K = (tc1 c2 K)
2 c1 = (tc1 tc2 )

## where c1 and c2 are cosets of C = G/K. By Lemma 2.22 this gives

tc1 tc2 t1
c1 c2 K.
Hence we can define a function : C C K by
tc1 tc2 = (c1 , c2 ) tc1 c2 .

(9.18)

## Now using (9.16) and (9.18) we obtain

tc1 (tc2 tc3 ) = tc1 (c2 , c3 ) tc2 c3 = tc1 (c2 , c3 ) t1
c1 tc1 tc2 c3

= (c2 , c3 )\c1 (c1 , c2 c3 ) tc1 c2 c3 ,
and
(tc1 tc2 )tc3 = (c1 , c2 ) tc1 c2 tc3 = (c1 , c2 ) (c1 c2 , c3 ) tc1 c2 c3 .

380

Chapter 9 Jordan-H
older Theorem and the Extension Problem

Combining these equations and using associativity we obtain the socalled cocycle identity
(c2 , c3 )\c1 (c1 , c2 c3 ) = (c1 , c2 ) (c1 c2 , c3 ),

(9.19)

## which holds for all c1 , c2 , c3 C.

Stage 5.2 An extension of the cocycle identity, see (9.21) below.
First we define a map : C K by
Y
d =
(d, c),
cC

## for d C. Working in the Abelian group K we have, where n = o(C),



Y
((c1 , c2 ))n c1 c2 =
(c1 , c2 ) (c1 c2 , c3 )
c3 C


Y
((c2 , c3 ))\c1 (c1 , c2 c3 )
=
c3 C

Y
cC

## using the cocycle identity (9.19)


Y
(c2 , c) \c1
(c1 , c)
cC

= c2 \c1 c1

(9.20)

using (9.17) and Theorem 2.8 in the penultimate line, and the definition
of in the last line.
As K is Abelian and (n, o(K)) = 1, the n-th power map: k k n
for k K is an automorphism of K (Use the fact that if 0 r < n,
then there exists, by the Euclidean Algorithm and GCD condition, an
integer s with the property sn r (mod o(K)).). Hence as the inverse
of an automorphism is also an automorphism, the n-th root map on
K: k k 1/n is again an automorphism of K as also is the map on K
sending k to k 1/n . Therefore, if we define : C K by
c = (c)1/n

for c C,

## we have, by (9.20) and as K is Abelian,

(c1 c2 ) = c1 (c2 )\c1 (c1 , c2 )

(9.21)

## our extension of the cocycle identity.

Stage 5.3 Completion of the argument.
First, using (9.21) we define an injective homomorphism from C to
G, its image will be the required subgroup of G. By (9.21) we have
(c1 c2 ) tc1 c2 = c1 (c2 )\c1 (c1 , c2 ) tc1 c2
= c1 tc1 c2 t1
c1 tc1 tc2
by (9.16) and (9.18)
= c1 tc1 c2 tc2 .

Schur-Zassenhaus Theorem

381

Therefore if we define : C G by
c = c tc

for c C

and tc T,

## the calculation above shows that is a homomorphism from C to G.

This homomorphism is injective by definition of the transversal, for if
c C and c 6= e, then tc 6 K, and so c tc 6= e which shows that
ker = hei. Finally as o(C) = o(G/K) = n, we see that im is a
subgroup of G of order n as required.
2
Second proof in the Abelian case
We begin by introducing crossed homomorphisms.
Definition 9.20 (i) Let K / G. A mapping : G K is called a crossed
homomorphism G to K if
(ab) = b1 (a)b(b)

for all a, b G.

(9.22)

## (ii) The kernel of , ker , equals {a G : a = e}.

By definition, a K for all a G, so in examples this fact needs to be
checked. Clearly if G is Abelian then a crossed homomorphism is just a
b K and define b by
ab = [a, b]

for all a G.

## Clearly ab K as K is normal in G, and it is easily checked that [aa0 , b] =

a01 [a, b]a0 [a0 , b], and so b is an example of a crossed homomorphism; its
kernel equals CG (b), a subgroup of G. In the next lemma we show that the
kernel of a general crossed homomorphism is always a subgroup of G, it is
usually not normal.
Lemma 9.21

## Suppose K / G and is a crossed homomorphism G to K.

(i) e = e.
(ii) ker G.
(iii) For a, b G, we have a = b if, and only if, Ka = Kb.
(iv) o(G) = [G : K] where as usual G = {g : g G}.
Proof. We shall derive (ii) and leave the remaining parts as an exercise
for the reader, see Problem 9.16. By (i) ker is not empty. Secondly if
j ker , then by (i)
e = e = (jj 1 ) = j(j)j 1 (j 1 ) = j 1 ,
and so we also have j 1 ker . (Note, by definition j K and K / G.)
Similarly by (9.22) we have (ab) ker provided a, b ker , and
(ii) follows by Theorem 2.13.
2

382

Chapter 9 Jordan-H
older Theorem and the Extension Problem

## We shall now construct a new crossed homomorphism using transversals;

see Definition 4.24 on Web page 331. Note that we also used transversals
in the first proof of the Schur-Zassenhaus Theorem. Suppose K is a normal
Abelian subgroup of the finite group G. Let T denote the collection of all
transversals of K in G, as K is Abelian left and right transversals are identical. For a, b G we write a b if, and only if, a and b belong to the same
coset of K in G. So as K is both normal and Abelian
a b if and only if Ka = Kb if and only if aK = bK.
If T1 , T2 T , then the relation defined above is a bijection between T1 and
T2 . We define a mapping : G K by
Y
(T1 , T2 ) =
a1 b
Q
where the product
is taken over all pairs of elements {a, b} in G such that
a T1 , b T2 and a b. As K is Abelian, the mapping is well-defined
because in this case the order of the terms in the product is immaterial.
Example. Let G = D4 = hg, h | g 4 = h2 = (gh)2 = ei and H = hg 2 i / G.
The cosets are {e, g 2 }, {g, g 3 }, {h, g 2 h}, {gh, g 3 h}, and two of the possible 16
transversals are
T1 = {e, g, h, gh}

and T2 = {g 2 , g 3 , g 2 h, gh}.

## Here we have e g 2 , g g 3 , h g 2 h and gh gh, and so

(T1 , T2 ) = g 2 g 2 hg 2 h e = g 2 .
We also have T2 h = {g 2 h, g 3 h, g 2 , g}, and (T2 , T2 h) = e g 2 e g 2 = e = h4 ;
see the lemma below.
Lemma 9.22 Suppose G is finite, K is a normal Abelian subgroup of G,
and T, Ti , i = 1, 2, 3, are transversals of K in G.
(i) (T1 , T2 )(T2 , T3 ) = (T1 , T3 ).
(ii) If a G, then (T1 a, T2 a) = a1 (T1 , T2 ) a.
(iii) For a K we have (T, T a) = a[G:K] .
Proof. Straightforward using Lemma 9.21. For example in (i) note that
(a1 b)(b1 c) = a1 c. And for (iii) if k K then aK = akK, and so
a ak. The reader should fill in the details.
2
We can now give the second proof of the Abelian case of the SchurZassenhaus Theorem.
Second proof of the Abelian case.
G. Define a map : G K by

## Let T be some transversal of K in

a = (T, T a) for a G.

(9.23)

Schur-Zassenhaus Theorem

383

## By Lemma 9.22(iii), is a map from G into K. It is also a crossed

homomorphism, for by Lemma 9.22 again
(ab) = (T, T ab) = (T, T b)(T b, T ab)
= (T, T b)b1 (T, T a)b = b1 (a)b(b),
as K is Abelian. Further by Lemma 9.22(iii), if c K, then
c = (T, T c) = c[G:K] .
But by hypothesis, [G : K] and o(K) are coprime, and so there exists
an integer r satisfying r[G : K] 1 (mod o(K)). This implies that the
map defined by
c cr
is the inverse of . Hence is surjective, and so G = K. Now let J =
ker , by Lemma 9.21(ii) J G. We also have o(K) = o(G) = [G : K]
by Lemma 9.21(iv). This gives
o(J)o(K) = o(G)

## Therefore J is the required complement subgroup and the theorem is

proved.
2
The reader should note the similarities and differences between these two
proofs of the Abelian case.
As we commented above this result can be extended as follows.
Theorem 9.23 If K is a Hall normal subgroup of G and if at least one of
K and G/K is soluble, then all conjugates of K in G, that is all subgroups
proved to exist by Theorem 9.19, are conjugate in G.
Notes. (a) Note the comparison with the Sylow theory, Theorem 6.9.
(b) The solubility condition can be removed using the Feit-Thompson Odd
Order Theorem. This result states that all groups of odd order are soluble,
and we cannot have both o(K) and o(G/K) divisible by 2 when K is a Hall
subgroup.
(c) A proof in the Abelian case of Theorem 9.23 is given in Problem 9.19, and
a proof in the general case can be found in Issacs [2008], page 82, or Scott
[1964], Chapter 9.
Gasch
utz proved the following related result.
Theorem 9.24 If K is a Abelian normal subgroup of a finite group G, the
the following statements are equivalent.
(a) K has a complement in G,
(b) If P is a Sylow subgroup of G, then K P has a complement in P .
A proof is given in Problem 9.26. This result may be false if K is not Abelian,
see page 225 in the third reference below.

384

Chapter 9 Jordan-H
older Theorem and the Extension Problem

More details concerning these results can be found in Scott [1964] Chapter 9, Rose [1978] Chapter 10, Rotman [1994] Chapter 7, and Issacs [2008]
Chapter 3.

9.5

Problems 9W

Problem 9.16 Give proofs of the remaining parts of Lemma 9.21 and of
the three parts of Lemma 9.22.
Problem 9.17 (i) Let F be a finite field whose characteristic is not equal
to 2, and let G be the group of 3 3 matrices of the form


A O
=M
v 1
where A GL2 (F ), v is a element of the 2-dimensional vector space over F ,
and O is the 2-dimensional zero column vector. Further let J be the subgroup
of G consisting of those matrices whose submatrix A in the definition above
has the form 1c 10 , and let H be the subgroup of J of those matrices with
c = 0.
(i) Show that H / G.
(ii) Prove that G is isomorphic to a semi-direct product of H by GL2 (F ).
(iii) Further prove that J possesses a complement of H which is not
contained in any complement of H in G. This result is false if o(F ) = 2.
(Hint. Show that if L J, J = HL, H L = hei and L is contained in a
complement of H in G, then CG (L) contains an element of order 2.)
Problem 9.18 Suppose p > q. Show that every group of order p2 q has a
normal Sylow p-subgroup, and classify all such groups.
Problem 9.19 Prove Theorem 9.23 in the Abelian case using the following
method based on the second proof of the Abelian case of the Schur-Zassenhaus
Theorem (Theorem 9.19).
Method. Let H be a complement of K in G, then H is a transversal for K,
and let c = (H, T ) K. By Theorem 9.22(iii) and as is surjective, find
d K to satisfy: d = c. Now show that d1 Hd is the required complement.
To do this we will need to show that (d1 hd) = h1 ch h c which gives
(d1 hd) = e.
Problem 9.20 Suppose K / G, (o(K), [G; K]) = 1, J G, o(J) | [G : K]
and either J or K is soluble. Prove that J is contained in a complement of
K in G.
Problem 9.21 Let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of G which is contained in
Z(G), and let the set of elements of G whose orders are not divisible by p be
denoted by C. Show that C is a subgroup of G, and G ' C P .

Schur-Zassenhaus Theorem

385

## Problem 9.22 Suppose K/ G, [G : K] = m, K is Abelian, and all elements

of K can be uniquely expressed as m-powers. Prove that K has a complement
in G.
Problem 9.23 Suppose K1 and K2 are normal subgroups of G. Show that
if, for i = 1, 2, Ki has a complement Hi in G, and K2 H1 , then K1 K2 also
has a complement in G.
Problem 9.24 Give an example of a group G with a normal subgroup K
with the following properties. (a) G can be expressed as a semi-direct product
over K and (b) the conjugates of K do not form a single conjugacy class.
Problem 9.25 Suppose G is a soluble group, K / G, and H is a Hall
subgroup of K. Show that G ' KNG (H).
Problem 9.26 (i) Suppose K / G and H is a Sylow p-subgroup of G. Show
that H K is a Sylow p-subgroup of K.
(ii) Give a proof of Gasch
utzs result Theorem 9.24 using the following
method.
(a) implies (b). By (i) P K is a Sylow p-subgroup of K, also as K is Abelian,
there exists L K with the property: K = (K P )L, and by (a) there exists
J G with the properties: G = JK and J K = hei. Now use Problem 2.18
to show that JL is the required complement in P .
(b) implies (a). As usual let Gp denote the subgroup of the p-elements of G.
If p | o(G), then Kp / G and Kp Pp . By (b) Kp has a complement in Pp , and
by the Schur-Zassenhaus
Theorem (Theorem 9.19) Kp has a complement Mp
T
in G. Let M = p Mp . Now use Problem 2.15 and Theorem 5.8 to complete
the proof.
Problem 9.27 Let G be a soluble group, and let H be a proper subgroup
of G with smallest possible index. Prove that H / G, a result due to Berkovich.

387

## 12.6 Further Topics on Simple Groups

This Web Section has three parts (a), (b) and (c). Part (a) gives a brief
descriptions of the 56 (isomorphism classes of) simple groups of order less
than 106 , part (b) provides a second proof of the simplicity of the linear
groups Ln (q), and part (c) discusses an ingenious method for constructing
a version of the Steiner system S(5, 6, 12) from which several versions of
S(4, 5, 11), the system for M11 , can be computed.

## 12.6(a) Simple Groups of Order less than 106

The table below and the notes on the following five pages lists the basic facts
concerning the non-Abelian simple groups of order less than 106 . Further
details are given in the Atlas (1985), note that some of the most interesting
and important groups, for example the Mathieu group M24 , have orders in
excess of 108 and in many cases considerably more.
Simple
group

Order

A?5
A?6
A7
A?8
A9
L2 (4)?
L2 (5)?
L2 (7)?
L2 (9)?
L2 (8)
L2 (11)
L2 (13)
L2 (17)
L2 (19)
L2 (16)
L2 (23)
L2 (25)
L2 (27)
L2 (29)
L2 (31)
L2 (37)
L2 (32)
L2 (41)
L2 (43)
L2 (47)
L2 (49)
L2 (53)
L2 (59)
L2 (61)
L2 (67)
L2 (71)

60
360
2520
20160
181440
60
60
168
360
504
660
1092
2448
3420
4080
6072
7800
9828
12180
14480
25308
32736
34440
39732
51888
58800
74412
102660
113460
150348
178920

## Prime Schur Outer

Min
factor multi. auto. simple or
count group group N-group
4
6
7
10
12
4
4
5
6
6
5
5
7
6
7
6
7
7
6
8
6
8
7
6
7
9
7
6
6
6
8

C2
C6
C6
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C6
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
hei
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
hei
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2

C2
C22
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C22
C3
C2
C2
C2
C2
C4
C2
C22
C6
C2
C2
C2
C5
C2
C2
C2
C22
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2

m-s
N-g
N-g
m-s
m-s
m-s
N-g
m-s
N-g
m-s
m-s
N-g
N-g
m-s
N-g
m-s
N-g
N-g
m-s
m-s
N-g
m-s
m-s
N-g
m-s
N-g
N-g
m-s
N-g

Simple
group

Order

Prime
factor
count

L2 (73)
L2 (79)
L2 (64)
L2 (81)
L2 (83)
L2 (89)
L2 (97)
L2 (101)
L2 (103)
L2 (107)
L2 (109)
L2 (113)
L2 (121)
L2 (125)
L3 (2)?
L3 (3)
L3 (4)
L3 (5)
L4 (2)?
U3 (3)
U3 (4)
U3 (5)
U4 (2)?
S4 (3)?
S4 (4)
Sz(8)
M11
M12
M22
J1
J2

194472
246480
262080
265680
285852
352440
456288
515100
546312
612468
647460
721392
885720
976500
168
5616
20160
372000
20160
6048
62400
126000
25920
25920
979200
29120
7920
95040
443520
175560
604800

7
8
11
10
6
8
9
7
7
7
8
8
8
9
5
8
10
10
10
9
10
10
11
11
13
9
8
11
12
8
13

Schur
multi.
group

Outer
auto.
group

C2
C2
C2
C2
hei
C6
C2
C2 C4
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2 C2
C2
C6
C2
C2
hei
C2
C3 C42
D6
hei
C2
C2
C2
hei
C2
hei
C4
C3
D3
C2
C2
C2
C2
hei
C4
C2 C2
C3
hei
hei
C2
C2
C12
C2
hei
hei
C2
C2

Min
simple or
N-group
m-s
N-g
N-g
N-g
m-s
N-g
m-s
N-g
m-s
m-s
N-g
m-s
N-g
N-g
m-s
m-s
N-g
m-s
N-g
-

388

## Chapter 12 Simple Groups of Order less than 106

Notes. (a) The outer automorphism and Schur multiplier groups (Columns
4 and 5 above) are considered at the end of this subsection. Thompson (1968)
defined an N-group, N-g, to be a group in which the normalisers of all of its
non-neutral soluble subgroups are themselves soluble, and a group is called
minimum simple, m-s, if all of its proper subgroups are soluble. As a development of his, and Feits, work on the odd order problem published in 1963,
he was able to determine those simple groups that have the properties m-s
and/or N-g. His Main Theorem is as follows:
Each non-soluble N -group is isomorphic to a group G which satisfies:
Inn H G Aut H where H is one of the following N -groups
L2 (q) (q > 3), Sz(22n+1 ) (n 1), A7 , L3 (3), U3 (3) and M11 ,
see Sections 12.3 and 12.4, and (c) below (for the Suzuki groups Sz). As a
corollary to this theorem, Thompson was also able to list the minimal simple
groups: If p denotes an odd prime they are
L2 (2p ), L2 (3p ), L2 (p), Sz(2p ), and L3 (3),
where in the third case p > 3 and p 3 or 7 (mod 10). Column 6 of the
table on the previous page lists this data for the groups under discussion. As
an exercise the reader should consider why the second list above is smaller
than the first, see Problem 12.16W. Note that both A5 and A6 occur in the
second list, see (b) below.
(b) The stars (?) in Table 1 overleaf indicate that the isomorphism class
of the group listed contains more than one group in the table; we have
A5 ' L2 (4) ' L2 (5)
A6 ' L2 (9)
A8 ' L4 (2)
L2 (7) ' L3 (2)
U4 (2) ' S4 (3),
see Problems 6.16, 12.4, 12.6, 12.7 and 12.17, and the Atlas. The group A8
is not isomorphic to L3 (4) even though these groups have the same order. For
instance the group A8 contains elements of order 15 whilst L3 (4) contains no
element of order larger than 7, a number of other distinctions have been found;
see Problem 12.13. Infinitely many pairs of non-isomorphic simple groups
with the same order exist, but there are no triples. This is a consequence of
the classification given by CFGS.
(c) The Suzuki groups Sz(22n+1 ), n = 1, 2, . . . were discovered by Muchio
Suzuki in 1959. Later it was realised that they can also be treated as the
(twisted) Chevalley groups 2 B2 (22n+1 ). One definition is as a set of 4 4
matrices over F22n+1 which preserve a collection of vectors whose coordinates
satisfy a special quadratic condition; we shall consider these groups in Web
Section 14.3. They are the only non-Abelian simple groups whose orders are
not divisible by 3, another result due to Thompson.

## 12.6 Further Topics on Simple groups

389

(d) Below we give brief descriptions of the groups in the table not
so far mentioned in the text, or discussed in Web Chapter 14; they are
S4 (4), M22 , J1 and J2 . The unitary groups U3 (4) to U4 (2) have similar definitions to that given for U3 (3) on pages 265 to 267. The following data gives
a partial list of their maximal subgroups, full details can be found in the
Atlas. U3 (4) : A5 C5 , S3 o C52 and F13,3 ; U3 (5) : A7 , C2 S5 and M10 which
is isomorphic to the group D defined on page 268; and U4 (2) : A5 o C24 , S6
and S4 o C33 .
One definition of the Mathieu group M12 was given on page 268 and its
connection with the Steiner system S(5, 6, 12) will be considered on page 395.
With M24 it is the only group that is 5-transitive if we exclude the symmetric
and alternating cases. Several definitions are given in the Atlas including
the following presentation
M12 ' ha, b, c | a11 = b2 = c2 = (ab)3 = (ac)3 = (bc)10 = a2 (bc)2 a(bc)8 = ei.
The maximal subgroups are isomorphic copies of M11 , an extension of T2 by
A6 , C2 S4 o C32 , C2 S5 , an extension of an Extra Special group of order 32
by S3 , D6 o C42 , and A4 S3 .
S4 (4) The symplectic group of order 4 defined over F4 The definition of the group Sn (q) is similar to that for the unitary group Un (q). As
before we work over the field Fq2 , the dimension n must now be even. The
hermitian form fixed by matrices in Un (q) is replaced by an alternating form
of the type
x1 ym+1 + x2 ym+2 + + xm y2m xm+1 y1 xm+2 y2 x2m ym
and matrices
in S2m (q) where n = 2m fix a form of this type. If we have

A B
C D S2m (q) where A, B, C and D are m m, then
A>C = C >A, B >D = D>B, A>D C >B = I2m ,
where > denotes the transpose. All matrices have determinant 1, and S2m (q)
is obtained by factoring out the scalar matrices as in the linear and unitary
cases, the centre has order (q1, 2) in this case. We have S2 (q) ' L2 (q) for all
prime powers q, S4 (2) ' S6 , and as noted on page 388 we have S4 (3) ' U4 (2).
Also
2

## o(S2m (q)) = q m (q 2m 1)(q 2m2 1) . . . (q 2 1)/(q 1, 2).

The group S4 (4) C2 has a presentation as follows:
ha1 , . . . , a5 | a21 = a22 = a23 = a24 = a25 = (a1 a2 )5 = (a1 a3 )2 = (a1 a4 )2 = (a1 a5 )2
= (a2 a3 )5 = (a2 a4 )2 = (a2 a5 )2 = (a3 a4 )3 = (a3 a5 )2 = (a4 a5 )3 = (a1 a2 a3 )4 = ei
The order of S4 (4) is 28 32 52 17, and its maximal subgroups are isomorphic
copies of (A5 C3 )oC26 , C2 oL2 (16) and S6 . See the Atlas for further details.

390

tion. Let
1
2
3
4

## = (4, 15)(6, 18)(7, 8)(9, 13)(10, 16)(11, 21)(12, 19)(20, 22),

= (4, 10)(6, 11)(7, 12)(8, 19)(9, 22)(13, 20)(15, 16)(18, 21),
= (4, 20)(6, 8)(7, 18)(9, 16)(10, 13)(11, 19)(12, 21)(15, 22),
= (4, 8)(6, 20)(7, 15)(9, 21)(10, 19)(11, 13)(12, 16)(18, 22),
= (3, 4)(5, 22)(6, 18)(7, 12)(8, 21)(11, 19)(13, 14)(16, 17),

## = (2, 3)(6, 18)(9, 21)(10, 12)(11, 13)(14, 17)(16, 19)(20, 22),

= (1, 2)(6, 15)(7, 10)(8, 11)(9, 19)(14, 17)(16, 22)(20, 21).

The permutations 1 , . . . , 4 generate an isomorphic copy of C24 (an elementary Abelian 2-group of maximal order in the group). If we add to
1 , . . . , 4 we obtain a group H1 of order 960 isomorphic to a semi-direct
product A5 o C24 , then if we add to H1 we obtain a group H2 , of order
20160, isomorphic to L4 (3), and finally if we add to H2 we obtain the group
M22 , with order 443520 = 48 20 21 22, and defined as a subgroup of A22 .8
Secondly, let = 2 3 , = 1 2 and = 1 3 , and let
H3 = h1 , . . . , 4 , , , i.
Then o(H3 ) = 384, H3 ' S4 o C24 ' CM22 (). Janko has shown that M22 can
be defined as the unique group containing a so-called 2-central involution a
such that CM22 (a) ' H3 . A number of presentations have been given, the
following can be found in the Atlas (1985)
M22 ' ha1 . . . , a5 | a21 = a22 = a23 = a24 = a25 = (ai aj )2 []
= (a1 a2 )3 = (a2 a3 )5 = (a3 a4 )3 = (a1 a5 )4 = (a3 a5 )3
= (a1 a2 a5 )3 = (a1 a2 a3 )5 [= (a2 a3 a5 )5 ]
= (a1 a5 a3 a4 )4 = (a1 a2 a3 a5 )8 = ei.
The first square brackets [] indicates that i and j range from 1 to 5 when this
relation does not contradict one given in the following line (for instance i = 1
and j = 2), and the second square brackets imply that this condition is not
strictly necessary. The group M22 is also closely related to the Steiner system
S(3, 6, 22), that is the automorphism group of this system is isomorphic to an
extension of M22 by C2 note not M22 itself. Maximal subgroups of M22 are
isomorphic copies of L4 (3) (the group H2 mentioned above), A6 o C24 , A7 ,
S5 o C24 (one of these subgroups and H1 , defined above, give a generating set
for the whole group), L3 (2) o C23 , and L2 (11).
J1 The first Janko Group Z. Janko (1965) defined J1 as the unique
group with the properties: (i) its Sylow 2-subgroups are (elementary) Abelian,
8

If we define = (1, 23)(5, 17)(6, 8)(7, 12)(9, 15)(11, 19)(16, 22)(18, 21) and =
(23, 24)(6, 10)(7, 15)(9, 21)(12, 18)(14, 17)(16, 22)(19, 20), then we have h1 , . . . , , i '
M23 and h1 , . . . , , , i ' M24 ; so M23 is isomorphic to a subgroup of A23 and M24
is isomorphic to a subgroup of A24 . Also o(M23 ) = o(M22 ) 23 and o(M24 ) = o(M23 ) 24.

391

## (ii) it has no subgroup of index 2, and (iii) it contains an involution a such

that CJ1 (a) ' A5 C2 ; see page 103. It can also be generated by two matrices
defined over GL7 (11), and as a subgroup of A266 . One of its presentations is
ha1 , . . . , a5 | a21 = a22 = a23 = a24 = a25 = (a1 a2 )3 = (a2 a3 )5 = (a3 a4 )3
= (a4 a5 )5 = (ai aj )2 [] = (a1 a2 a3 )5 = e, a1 = (a3 a4 a5 )5 i,
(for [] see the presentation for M22 ). It has order 23 3571119 and, in 1965,
it was the first sporadic group discovered in nearly 100 years, that is after
Mathieu discovered his groups in the 1860s and 1870s. See Jankos remarkable
1965 paper and the Atlas for further details. The maximal subgroups of J1
are isomorphic copies of L2 (11), A5 C2 , F19,6 , F11,10 and F7,6 .
J2 The second Janko Group, sometimes also known as the HallJanko Group or the Hall-Janko-Wales Group This group can be
defined as a subgroup of A100 generated by three elements, of orders 7, 8 and
2, respectively; see Hall and Wales (1968). Janko defined it as the unique
group satisfying the following conditions: (i) it is simple, (ii) it has order
604800, (iii) it has exactly two conjugacy classes of involutions, and (iv) it
contains an involution a such that CJ2 (a) is isomorphic to an extension of N
by A5 where N is a so-called central extension (of total order 32) of Q2 and
D4 . One presentation of J2 is
ha, b | a2 = b3 = y 15 = (y(y 3 z 2 )2 z)2 = (y 3 z(y 2 z 2 )2 )2 = ei,
where y = ab and z = ab2 . See the paper quoted above for further details.
The maximal subgroups of J2 are isomorphic copies of the following groups
U3 (3) (page 265), an extension of P GL2 (9) by C3 , A5 o N,
A5 A4 , A5 D5 , C2 o L3 (2) and A5 .
(P GLn (p) is defined in a similar manner to Ln (p), that is as GLn (p) factored
by its centre, see page 170.)

## Outer Automorphism and Schur Multiplier Groups

The outer automorphism and Schur multiplier groups are important in the
character theory of simple groups, and they have connections with certain
well-behaved extensions which we consider now. The outer automorphism
group out(G) = H of a group G was defined on page 82. If the order of H
is larger than one, then the theory discussed in Section 9.2 guarantees the
existence of an extension group J of G by H. Also there is a close relationship
between the character tables of G and J, once the character table for G has
been constructed, there is a fairly automatic procedure for the construction
of the table for J when H is relatively small. For example if G = A5 , then
out(G) ' C2 and there exists an extension of A5 by C2 which, of course, is
isomorphic to S5 . Secondly, if G = U3 (3), where again out(G) ' C2 , we gave
a presentation of the semi-direct product of U3 (3) by C2 on page 266.

## Chapter 12 Simple Groups of Order less than 106

392

The Schur multiplier deals with the reverse situation, that is when the
group G is isomorphic to a factor group of the extension. And again there is
a close connection between the character tables of the groups involved. The
multiplier can be defined as follows. An extension J of H by G is called central
if H Z(J) and G ' J/H.9 One example is given by taking H to be an
arbitrary Abelian group and J = G H. To avoid this rather straightforward
case we also require H to belong to the derived subgroup of J. Hence given
G we are looking for H and J satisfying
H Z(J) J 0

## and G ' J/H,

see Theorem 10.18; note this implies that H is Abelian. It can be shown that
there always exists a unique maximal solution H. This subgroup H is called
the Schur multiplier of G and it is usually denoted by M (G), some examples
are given in the table on page 387. It can also be shown that if G is simple
(in fact we only need G to be perfect) and H = M (G), then J is unique (up
to isomorphism). It is called the cover or the Schur representation group of
the group G.
Two further definitions have been given. First M (G) can be defined as
the cohomology group H 2 (G, C ), see the references quoted below. Secondly,
if G is given by the presentation
G = ha1 , . . . , ak | x1 = = xl = ei,

(12.12)

where each xj is a word using the letters a1 , . . . , ak , then the extension J can
be given a presentation in the following form. Using a1 , . . . , ak , c1 , . . . , cl and
x1 , . . . , xl given in (12.12), the relations of J are
xj = cj

and ai cj = cj ai

for all

1 i k and i j l,

and the Schur multiplier M (G) equals hc1 , . . . , cl i J 0 . As with the outer
automorphism group case there is a close connection between the character
tables of G and J.
These two constructions can sometimes be combined to form double
extensions H by G by J, but in this case we lose uniqueness. For an example
consider the group SL2 (5). Its centre is isomorphic to C2 which also equals
its derived subgroup, and as we have seen previously
A5 ' SL2 (5)/C2 ,
that is M (A5 ) ' C2 . (To be more precise this only shows that M (A5 ) C2 ,
further arguments are needed to establish the isomorphism.) Also two distinct
groups arise which are extensions of the type C2 by A5 by C2 . A similar result
holds for An if n > 7, but the situation is more complicated for A6 and A7 :
see Sections 4 and 6 of the Atlas (1985), and Chapter 2, Section 7, in Suzuki
(1982).
9 Refer to Definition 9.11. In a central extension the maps in the factor set satisfy
a
a = e for all a A. Hence the cocycle identity has a simplified form.

393

## 12.6(b) A New Proof of the Simplicity of Ln (q)

In this section we give a second proof of the simplicity of the groups Ln (q)
(when q > 3 if n = 2) using Iwasawas Lemma which was proved in Web
Section 5.4, page 357. This proof has the advantage that it deals with all
cases in one go and shows clearly where the conditions are needed but, compared with the first proof, it requires more preliminary material. Iwasawas
Lemma only applies to permutation groups which are both perfect and primitive but this is sufficient for a good proportion of the classical groups. We
begin the proof by showing that the groups SLn (q) have these properties
(with two exceptions).
In Section 12.2 we defined a transvection Eij (r) as the identity matrix In
with the additional entry r in the (i, j)th place where r 6= 0 and i 6= j. We
showed there that
Eij (r)1 = Eij (r).
(12.13)
Lemma 12.15

## The group SLn (q) is generated by its transvections.

Proof. See Lemmas 12.8 and 12.11. The proof is straightforward using
the elementary operations, and the fact that an elementary operation
can be performed by pre- or post-multiplying the given matrix by a
transvection. As the determinant of a transvection is 1, this can all be
carried out in SLn (q).
2
Lemma 12.16

## The group SLn (q) is perfect provided q > 3 when n = 2.

Note that neither SL2 (2) (' D3 ) nor SL2 (3) is perfect, see Section 8.2.
Proof. By Lemmas 12.8 and 12.11 it is sufficient to show that each
transvection can be written as a commutator. Suppose first n > 2 and
1 i, j, k n where i, j and k are distinct (and so we need n to be at
least 3). Using (12.13) it is easy to check that
[Eik (1), Ekj (r)] = Eij (r),
and this proves the result in this case.
For the case n = 2 we argue as in the last part of the proof of Theorem
12.10. Let a, b Fq \{0}, and let




1 b
a1 0
A=
and B =
.
0 1
0 a
Then we have

## Now as q = o(Fq ) > 3 we can choose a to satisfy 1 a2 6= 0. Hence

for an arbitrary c Fq we can choose a and b to satisfy c = b(1 a2 )
which gives the result in this case. For the remaining case note that
E21 (c) = [(B 1 )> , (A1 )> ].
2

394

## Next we introduce some further linear algebra properties. If V is an

n-dimensional vector space defined over the field Fq , then the elements of
GLn (q), or SLn (q), transform V to itself, and so we can say that GLn (q) or
SLn (q) act on V the natural action; note that this action obeys the basic
action axioms (5.1) given in Section 5.1. (They do, of course, also depend on
the basis chosen for V .)
Lemma 12.17 Suppose V is an n-dimensional vector space defined over
Fq , and n 2. The natural action of SLn (q) on the set of 1-dimensional
subspaces of V defined above is doubly transitive.
Proof.
A matrix in SLn (q) maps the set of 1-dimensional subspaces to itself. As n 2 we can ask if this action is doubly transitive. Let u1 , u2 , w1 , w2 V where u1 6= u2 and w1 6= w2 , and let
the 1-dimensional subspaces containing these vectors be denoted by
U1 , U2 , V1 , V2 , respectively. (So for instance U1 = {cu1 : c Fq }.) As
u1 6= u2 and w1 6= w2 we can find u3 , . . . , wn so that both {u1 , . . . , un }
and {w1 , . . . , wn } are bases for V , and there exists a matrix A in GLn (q)
which transforms the first of these bases to the second. Is A in SLn (q)?
If not, suppose its determinant det A equals a. Now w1 /a, w2 , . . . , wn is
also a basis for V , and if we repeat the above procedure with this new
basis, then the corresponding matrix A will have determinant 1, and so
it will belong to SLn (q). This shows that the group SLn (q) is doubly
transitive.
2
We come now to Ln (q), that is SLn (q) factored by its centre Z, the set
of scalar matrices. As Z acts neutrally on the set of 1-dimensional subspaces
of V , the natural action on SLn (q) is also an action of Ln (q).
Lemma 12.18
group.

## (i) If n 2, then Ln (q) is a doubly transitive permutation

(ii) The degree of the group, that is the order of the set upon which Ln (q)
acts, equals (q n 1)/(q 1).
Proof. (i) This follows from the discussion above. (ii) We leave this as
an exercise for the reader, note that (q n 1)/(q 1) is the number of
1-dimensional subspaces in the underlying vector space.
2
We are now ready to prove our main result.
Theorem 12.19

## Proof. We shall use Iwasawaa Lemma (Theorem 5.40) given in Web

Section 5.4. The first condition is that Ln (q) should be a primitive
permutation group, this follows from Lemma 12.17 and Corollary 5.37
in Web Section 5.4. The second condition is that the group should be
perfect, and this follows from Lemma 12.16 using the Correspondence
Theorem (Theorem 4.16). This is the only point where the exceptions
in the theorem apply.
Let vi be an element of a basis for the underlying n-dimensional vector
space V (1 i n), see Lemma 12.17, and let Ui be the 1-dimensional
subspace containing vi (so Ui = {cvi : c Fq }). Further let

395

## Hi = stabSLn (q) (Ui ).

Now Hi acts on the vector space V /Ui , and induces a group homomorphism from Hi to the group of invertible linear maps on V /Ui . Let Ki
be the kernel of this map, so Ki is the group of all matrices that stabilise Ui in SLn (q), and act neutrally on V /Ui . Hence if A Ki , then
det A = 1. Further, the linear map induced on V /Ui by A is the identity
map, and it has determinant 1. Hence we can take the matrix of this
map in the form

..

## A = ci . . . ci1 1 ci+1 . . . cn for cj Fq ,

..

.
1
with zeros at all other entries. The collection of all matrices of type A
forms an Abelian subgroup of SLn (q) (reader, check), and this subgroup
is normal as it is the kernel of a homomorphism.
Further, as SLn (q) acts on the set of 1-dimensional subspaces of V
and Ki is determined by the vector vi , we see that the collection of
groups Ki are conjugate in SLn (q). But each transvection Ejk (r) belongs to one of the Ki (1 i n), and so, by Lemma 12.15, the normal
closure of K1 is SLn (q). (Note that we could have taken any one of the
groups Ki in place of K1 .)
Lastly we use the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16). The
factor group H1 /Z(H1 ) is a point stabiliser of the permutation group
Ln (q), and K1 /Z(K1 ) is an Abelian normal subgroup of H1 /Z(H1 ).
Also the normal closure of K1 /Z(K1 ) is Ln (q). Hence we have satisfied
all of the conditions in Iwasawaa Lemma, and so the result follows. 2
This method can also be applied to establish the simplicity of a number
of other classes of groups including the Unitary, Sympletic and Orthogonal
Groups, and some other individual groups.

## 12.6(c) Constructing S(5, 6, 12) and S(4, 5, 11)

The following procedure constructs a version of the Steiner system S(5, 6, 12).
Versions of S(4, 5, 11) can be read off directly; in fact it gives several versions
of two types, see below. For further details on this construction see Curtis
(1984); the author called it a pocket calculator for M12 . Chapter 11 in
Conway and Sloane (1993) is also of revelance here. We work on the projective
line modulo 11, which we take as
P = {, 0, 1, . . . , 9, 10},

396

## and we consider 3 3 arrays of elements in P of the form

a1 a2 a3
b1 b2 b3
c1 c2 c3
We need to define three types of subsets of these arrays. First, a line (or
triple) is one of the twelve 3-element subsets listed below. Think of an array
as a torus, that is identify the top and bottom edges, and then the left and
right edges. The first diagram below illustrates these lines. So for example
{a1 , b3 , c2 } is a line, one of the three anti-diagonals, see the second entry in
the second column of the diagram below. The lines are
{a1 , a2 , a3 }, {b1 , b2 , b3 }, {c1 , c2 , c3 }, {a3 , b2 , c1 }, {a1 , b3 , c2 }, {a2 , b1 , c3 },
{a1 , b2 , c3 }, {a3 , b1 , c2 }, {a2 , b3 , c1 }, {ai , bi , ci } for i = 1, 2, 3.
s s s
s

s s s

s s s

s
s

s
s

s
s
s

s
s
s
s

s
s

s
s
s

## Secondly, a cross is a union of two perpendicular lines (horizontal and vertical

lines are perpendicular, as are diagonal and anti-diagonal lines), there are 18
as follows.
{a1 , a2 , a3 , b1 , c1 }
{a1 , b1 , c1 , c2 , c3 }
{a2 , b2 , c1 , c2 , c3 }
{a1 , a3 , b2 , c1 , c3 }
{a3 , b1 , b2 , c1 , c2 }
{a1 , a2 , b3 , c1 , c2 }

{a1 , a2 , a3 , b3 , c3 }
{a1 , a2 , a3 , b2 , c2 }
{a1 , b1 , b2 , b3 , c1 }
{a1 , a2 , b1 , b2 , c3 }
{a2 , a3 , b2 , b3 , c1 }
{a1 , a3 , b1 , b3 , c2 }

{a3 , b3 , c1 , c2 , c3 }
{a3 , b1 , b2 , b3 , c3 }
{a2 , b1 , b2 , b3 , c2 }
{a2 , a3 , b2 , b3 , c1 }
{a2 , b1 , b3 , c1 , c3 }
{a2 , a3 , b1 , c2 , c3 }.

Four of these crosses, marked with an asterisk above, are illustrated in the
second diagram below.
e e e
e
e

e
e

e
e

e e
e e

e
e

e
e

## 12.6 Further Topics on Simple groups

397

The third collection contains the squares which are the complements of the
crosses in the array on page 396, so again there are 18 and each have four
elements. For example the first is {b2 , b3 , c2 , c3 }.
The algorithm is constructed using the following three arrays. These arrays were produced using the fact that if we select from the system S(5, 6, 12)
those hexads that contain a fixed triple then we obtain a version of the Steiner
system S(2, 3, 9). We take {0, 1, } as the fixed triple, see Rows 19 and 20 in
Table 3 on page 398; but note that we could have taken an arbitrary triple
from P as the fixed triple reader, try one. Each line in these arrays belongs
to this smaller system defined on the set {2, 3, . . . , 10}. The arrays are
6 10 3
2 7 4
5 9 8

2 6 5
10 9 7
8 4 3

-array

10 2 8
6 4 9
3 7 5

0-array

1-array

These three arrays can be combined into one triangular array called the
kitten. A similar device called MOG (Miracle Octad Generator) has been
constructed for M24 , hence the name! In fact the kitten can be embedded in
MOG, see the paper quoted above and the Atlas (1985) for further details.
Each of the three arrays above form part of this triangular array. For example
the -array can be obtained from the diagram below by simply ignoring the
two lower outer triangles and rotating.

2
5
6

10
7

10

3
4

10

1
Calculator for M12 the Kitten

The elements of the Steiner system S(5, 6, 12) (hexads of six elements
in P) consist of the following sets:
(a) and a cross from the -array; 0 and a cross from the 0-array;
and 1 and a cross from the 1-array; there are 54 in total, see Columns
1 to 3 in Table 3.

## Chapter 12 Simple Groups of Order less than 106

398

(b) , 0 and a square from the 1-array; , 1 and a square from the
0-array; and 0, 1 and a square from the -array; there are again 54 in
total, see Columns 4 to 6 in Table 3.
(c) The union of {, 0, 1} and a line, and the union of two parallel lines;
24 in total, the last four rows in Table 3. Parallel is defined in a similar
manner to perpendicular, for instance: {a3 , b1 , c2 } and {a2 , b3 , c1 } are
parallel, see the third column of the first diagram on page 396.
These hexads are listed in the table below, the bold entries will be explained
on page 399.
,2,3,4,6,9
,2,3,4,7,8
,2,3,5,6,10
,2,3,5,7,9
,2,3,8,9,10
,2,4,5,6,7
,2,4,5,8,10
,2,4,7,9,10
,2,5,6,8,9
,2,6,7,8,10
,3,4,5,7,10
,3,4,5,8,9
,3,4,6,8,10
,3,5,6,7,8
,3,6,7,9,10
,4,5,6,9,10
,4,6,7,8,9
,5,7,8,9,10

,1,2,3,4,10
,1,2,3,5,8
,1,2,3,6,7
,1,2,4,5,9
,1,2,4,6,8
,1,2,5,7,10
,1,2,6,9,10
,1,2,7,8,9
,1,3,4,5,6
,1,3,4,7,9
,1,3,5,9,10
,1,3,6,8,9
,1,3,7,8,10
,1,4,5,7,8
,1,4,6,7,10
,1,4,8,9,10
,1,5,6,7,9
,1,5,6,8,10

0,1,2,3,4,6
0,1,2,3,5,10
0,1,2,3,7,8
0,1,2,4,5,8
0,1,2,4,9,10
0,1,2,5,7,9
0,1,2,6,7,10
0,1,2,6,8,9
0,1,3,4,5,9?
0,1,3,4,7,10
0,1,3,5,6,8
0,1,3,6,7,9
0,1,3,8,9,10
0,1,4,5,6,7
0,1,4,6,8,10
0,1,4,7,8,9
0,1,5,6,9,10
0,1,5,7,8,10

,0,1,2,3,9
,0,1,2,4,7 , 0, 1, 2, 5, 6 ,0,1,2,8,10
,0,1,3,6,10 ,0,1,4,5,10 ,0,1,4,6,9
,0,1,5,8,9

,0,1,3,4,8
,0,1,6,7,8

,0,1,3,5,7
,0,1,7,9,10

2,3,4,5,6,8
2,4,6,8,9,10

2,3,6,7,8,9
3,5,6,8,9,10

2,4,5,7,8,9
4,5,6,7,8,10

0,2,3,4,7,9
0,2,3,4,8,10
0,2,3,5,6,7
0,2,3,5,8,9
0,2,3,6,9,10
0,2,4,5,6,9
0,2,4,5,7,10
0,2,4,6,7,8
0,2,5,6,8,10
0,2,7,8,9,10
0,3,4,5,6,10
0,3,4,5,7,8
0,3,4,6,8,9
0,3,5,7,9,10
0,3,6,7,8,10
0,4,5,8,9,10
0,4,6,7,9,10
0,5,6,7,8,9

2,3,4,5,9,10
2,5,6,7,9,10

1,2,3,4,5,7
1,2,3,4,8,9
1,2,3,5,6,9
1,2,3,6,8,10
1,2,3,7,9,10
1,2,4,5,6,10
1,2,4,6,7,9
1,2,4,7,8,10
1,2,5,6,7,8
1,2,5,8,9,10
1,3,4,5,8,10
1,3,4,6,7,8
1,3,4,6,9,10
1,3,5,6,7,10
1,3,5,7,8,9
1,4,5,6,8,9
1,4,5,7,9,10
1,6,7,8,9,10

2,3,4,6,7,10
3,4,5,6,7,9

,0,2,3,4,5
,0,2,3,6,8
,0,2,3,7,10
,0,2,4,6,10
,0,2,4,8,9
,0,2,5,7,8
,0,2,5,9,10
,0,2,6,7,9
,0,3,4,6,7
,0,3,4,9,10
,0,3,5,6,9
,0,3,5,8,10
,0,3,7,8,9
,0,4,5,6,8
,0,4,5,7,9
,0,4,7,8,10
,0,5,6,7,10
,0,6,8,9,10

2,3,5,7,8,10
3,4,7,8,9,10

## Table 3 A Version of the Steiner System S(5, 6, 12)

The reader should choose an arbitrary pentad (5-tuple) in P and check that
it occurs in exactly one hexad in the table above. As noted in Section 12.4,
several versions of the Steiner system S(4, 5, 11) can now be read off this
table. For example, take the 66 entries above which include 0 (columns 2,
4 and 6, and rows 19 and 20), delete the entry 0 from each hexad, and the
resulting set is a version of S(4, 5, 11) defined on {, 1, 2, . . . , 10}; again the
reader should choose a 4-tuple and check that it occurs in only one pentad.
There is nothing special about 0, for example we could take the 66 entries
which include 3, say, delete 3 in each case and then we have a version of
S(4, 5, 11) on {, 0, 1, 2, 4, . . . , 10}.
Table 3 can also be constructed by starting with 0 and the five quadratic
residues modulo 11, that is the hexad {0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 9} marked with a star in
Table 3 above, and applying the following two procedures:

399

## : {a1 , . . . , a6 } = {a1 + 1, . . . , a6 + 1} modulo 11; and

: interchange 0 and 1, 2 and 10, 3 and 5, 4 and 9, and leave 6, 7, 8 and
fixed (the mirror reflection about the line through the point and
the mid-point of the line (0, 1) in the kitten diagram on page 397),
then we obtain a version of the Steiner system for M11 defined on the set
{0, 1, . . . , 10} (and so leaving fixed); that is and generate M11 as a
subgroup of M12 . Also if we apply and where
: interchange 1 and , 4 and 7, 5 and 8, 6 and 10, and leave 0, 2,
3 and 9 fixed (the mirror reflection about the line through the lower
left-hand point 0 and the mid-point of the line (1, ));
then we obtain the 22 hexads set bold in Table 3 on page 398. This provides
another way to obtain M11 , this time 3-transitive on a 12-element set; see
the note at the end of Section 12.4. This system has 22 members and each
triple of integers in the chosen range occurs in exactly two members of the
system.
It is also of interest that if we apply and the procedure where
: cyclically permute 0, 1 and ; 2, 10 and 6; 3, 5 and 8; and 4, 7
and 9 (this corresponds to the map x (1 x)1 modulo 11),
then we obtain a copy of L2 (11) as a subgroup of M12 . The permutation
can be formed by rotating anticlockwise all of the triangles in the kitten
diagram on page 397.
New Book At about the time the main text of this book appeared in print,
another was published (also by Springer) which provides an introduction to
the theory of finite simple groups:
Wilson, R. A. [2009], The Finite Simple Groups.
This book gives detailed descriptions of all finite non-Abelian simple groups
alternating, classical (linear, symplectic, unitary and orthogonal), exceptional (Suzuki, and both small and large Ree), and sporadic (partitioned as
the Suzuki chain including J2 , the Fischer groups, the Monster and its subgroups, and the Pariahs (!) including the remaining Janko groups). It concentrates on the code-theoretical and more purely-algebraic aspects of the
theory (for example by introducing the octonians and Jordan algebras when
discussing the Ree groups). It also gives a detailed account of the maximal
subgroups of all finite simple groups. Read in conjunction with the Atlas
[1985], this new work provides the reader with a good introduction to the
whole area covered by CFGS.

12.7

Problems 12W

Problem 12.16 Explain why the list of minimal simple groups given on
page 388 is smaller than the list of N-groups.

400

## 12 Simple Groups of order less than 106

Problem 12.17 Show that A8 ' L4 (2). This can be done directly by
finding six matrices in L4 (2) which satisfy the relations in the presentation
for A8 given on page 249. Or one can argue as follows. Note that L4 (2) ('
GL4 (2)) is isomorphic to the automorphism group of the elementary Abelian
group C24 , then work in a group which has a subgroup of this type, for example
Problem 12.18 (i) Show that the normaliser of a Sylow 13-subgroup of the
group L3 (3) has order 39, and it is a maximal subgroup of the group. Use the
work in Section 12.2, the Sylow theory, and Burnsides Normal Complement
Theorem (Theorem 6.17(20)). You can take for granted that the centraliser
of the Sylow 13-subgroup has odd order.
(ii) Using Burnsides pr q s -theorem, deduce L3 (3) is minimal simple.
Problem 12.19 Derive the simplicity of M11 using the following method.
Let K be a proper non-neutral normal subgroup of M11 of minimal order.
Use Theorem 5.38 in Web Section 5.4. to show that K is transitive, and so
prove that its order is divisible by 11. Now note that K contains a Sylow
11-subgroup P which is cyclic and transitive. Next show that P = CM11 (P ).
Further note that [NM11 (P ) : P ] = 1 or 5. To do this you will first need to
show that o(NM11 (P )) is odd, then use the N/C-theorem (Theorem 5.26).
Next show that P is self-normalising in K. Finally apply the Burnside Normal
Complement Theorem (Theorem 6.17) to obtain a contradiction.
Problem 12.20 This problem refers to the work discussed at the end of
this section (Subsection (c)). On P let
: interchange 0 and , 2 and 6, 3 and 8, 7 and 9,
and leave 1, 4, 5 and 10 fixed.
What group do you obtain using (as defined on page 399) and ?
Problem 12.21 For each of the Mathieu groups we have: if G is a simple group with order o(Mj ) where j = 11, 12, 22, 23 or 24, then G ' Mj .
Investigate what is needed to prove this in the case when j = 11.

Chapter 13

## Representation theory has formed an integral part of the theory of finite

groups since Frobenius, Schur and others did their pioneering work over a
century ago. The solution of CFSG would not have been possible without it.
In this theory the ideas, methods and theorems of linear algebra are applied
to establish essential group properties, one of which is the famous result of
Feit and Thompson which states that all groups of odd order are soluble
a major first step in the solution of the simple group problem. Character
theory is an important part of representation theory where the representing
matrices are replaced by complex numbers which are easier to work with.
We shall see that every finite group G has a character table which is a square
array of complex numbers and, using this table, a number of properties of G
can be read off; for instance we can use the table for G to list the normal
subgroups of G.
This chapter and the next should be treated as a single piece of work,
together they provide an introduction to some aspects of representation and
character theory. Unlike others in the book, this chapter is mostly theoretical developing enough basic material for the applications to be discussed in
Chapter 14. These applications include
The construction of character tables for some small groups including
all those with order not more than 12, A5 , the Chapter 8 groups, and
some others;
A proof of Burnsides pr q s -theorem first discussed in Chapter 11; and
Some development of the theory of Frobenius Groups; a non-Abelian
group of order pq being an example (Theorem 6.11). This work will introduce a number of new groups including the Suzuki Groups discussed
briefly in Section 12.4.
A summary of the main character properties is given at the end of the chapter,
this is sufficient for the reader who only needs to study the applications. For
a more extensive review of character theory the reader is recommended to
consult the following texts as the author has done on many occasions:
Huppert, B. (1991) Character theory of finite groups. de Gruyner.
Issacs, I. M. (1976, reprinted 2006) Character theory of finite groups.
AMS Chelsea
401

402

## James, G. and Liebeck, M. (1993) Representations and characters

of groups. Cambridge University Press.
Here and in Chapter 14 we shall assume that the reader has a working knowledge of basic linear algebra including
(a) vector spaces, subspaces, bases, and dimension;
(b) linear maps and their representation by matrices. Also both Jordan
and rational canonical forms will be used in the examples;
(c) direct sums of vector spaces,1 the notions here are of course closely
related to those presented in Section 7.2 relating to direct products of
Abelian groups;
(d) the basic facts about inner and Hermitian products.
The books by Halmos (1974a), Finkbeiner, D. (1966, Introduction to matrices and linear transformations. Freeman, San Francisco), or Rose (2002),
amongst many others, will provide all that is needed.
All vector spaces and matrices discussed are defined over the complex
number field C. We use this field because at some essential points in the theory
we require our ground field to have characteristic zero, and be algebraically
closed. Hence all polynomial equations with rational coefficients have at least
one real or complex root.

13.1

## Representations and Modules

In this chapter and the next G always denotes a finite group, and we write
GLn for GLn (C) the group of all non-singular n n matrices defined over
the complex field C; this is our representing group. We begin by giving the
basic
Definition 13.1 (i) A representation of G is a homomorphism : G
GLn . The degree of is n.
(ii) The kernel of the representation is ker , the kernel of the homomorphism .
(iii) A representation is called trivial if, and only if, the homomorphism
is trivial (see Definition 4.2), and it is called faithful if, and only if, ker = hei.
(iv) Two representations 1 and 2 of the same group G are called equivalent if there exists a non-singular matrix A GLn with the property
g2 = A1 (g1 )A

for all g G.

(13.1)

## The relation defined by (13.1) is an equivalence relation (see Definition A1

in Appendix A), the reader should check this.
1

In vector space theory the term direct sum is normally used instead of direct product,
see Chapter 7.

403

## Example. We give below four representations of the dihedral group D3 =

ha, b | a3 = b2 = e, bab = a2 i.
(a) The homomorphism which maps every element of D3 to I4 , the 4 4
identity matrix, is the trivial representation of D3 of degree 4.
(b) If we map a 7 (1) and b 7 (1), then the corresponding representation is non-faithful (reader, why?) and it has degree 1.
(c) Let = e2i/3 (so C and 3 = 1), and let the representation 1
be given by




0
0 1
and b1 =
,
a1 =
1 0
0 2
with an extension to all of D3 using the homomorphism equation. It is faithful
and has degree 2.
(d) The mapping 2 from D3 to GL2 given by






2(1 )
1 0
2 2( 1)
2
e 7
a 7
a

7
0 1
0
2
0







2
2 5
2 (4 + )
2 (4 + 1)
2
b 7
ab 7
a b 7
,
1 2

2
2
2 2
provides another faithful degree 2 representation of D3 which is equivalent
to

the representation 1 defined in (c) above. In fact, if we let A = 10 21 , then
g2 = A1 g1 A for all g D3 as the reader can check.

Introduction to G-modules
We usually discuss representations of a group G via G-modules. A G-module
V is a hybrid system in which G acts on the vector space V , and these
actions are also linear maps on V . In the theorems in this section we show
that a representation of G can be interpreted as a G-module and vice versa,
and equivalent representations are associated with the same G-module.
Definition 13.2 A vector space V defined over C is called a G-module2 if a
product of the form vg is defined which satisfies the following five conditions
for all u, v V, c C and g, h G:
(i) vg V,
(ii) (u + v)g = ug + vg, (iii) (cv)g = c(vg),
(iv) ve = v, and (v) v(gh) = (vg)h.
By (i), (ii) and (iii) the map v 7 vg is a linear map on the vector space V ,
and (iv) and (v) give an action of G on the set V .
Examples. (a) The vector space hvi generated by v with vg = v for g G
and v V is clearly a G-module, it is called a trivial G-module.
2

404

## 13 Representation and Character Theory

(b) The 0-dimensional vector space h0i, with 0g = 0 for all g G also
clearly forms a G-module which we call the zero G-module.
(c) The standard example Let V = Cn with a representation : G
GLn . Define the product vg by
vg = v(g).
The properties (i) to (v) above follow immediately as V is a vector space and
is a homomorphism.
(d) Permutation module Let G = S3 and let V be a 3-dimensional
vector space with basis {v1 , v2 , v3 }. For g S3 (g is a permutation of {1, 2, 3})
define
vi g = vig , for i = 1, 2, 3.
Clearly vi e = vi , and for g, h S3
vi gh = vi(gh) = v(ig)h = (vi g)h.
By linearity this can be extended to give a S3 -module. Similar examples can
be constructed for Sn , n = 4, 5, . . . , and their subgroups.
(e) The regular G-module CG Construct the vector space W with basis
{g1 = e, . . . , gn } where gi G and o(G) = n, the elements of W have the form
v = ci1 gi1 + + cik gik where cij C, gij G, and {i1 , . . . , ik } {1, . . . , n}.
(Think of v as the vector (ci1 , . . . , cij ) where the elements of G determine the
position of its entries.) Using Theorem 2.8, the module product is given by
vh = ci1 gi1 h + + cik gik h where

h G.

Check that the module axioms (Definition 13.2) hold, see Problem 13.1.
Different matrices can represent the same linear map on V, this is related
to the choice of bases for V . Hence we need to bring these bases into our
theory. Using G-modules avoids this, but in some cases we need to consider
the underlying spaces, see Definition 13.1(iv) and Theorem 13.4. Given a Gmodule V , the map v 7 vg is a linear map by definition, and so if V has a
basis B, this map is represented by a matrix depending on B. We denote this
n n matrix (where n = dim V ) by
(g; B).
Theorem 13.3 (i) Suppose : G GLn is a representation of G. Let
V = Cn be a copy of the n-dimensional vector space over C. The space V
becomes a G-module if we define the module product vg by
vg = v(g) for v V and g G.

(13.2)

## Also there is a basis B for V which satisfies

g = (g; B) for all g G.

(13.3)

405

## (ii) Conversely, if V is a G-module with basis B, then the map

g 7 (g; B) where g G
defines a representation of G.
Proof. (i) We need to verify the five conditions in Definition 13.2. The
first follows by definition, the second and third follow using matrix addition and scalar multiplication, and the last two follow because the representation is a group homomorphism. Hence V is a G-module with the
product given by (13.2). If we take B = {(1, 0, . . . , 0), . . . , (0, . . . , 0, 1)}
as the basis for V , then (13.3) also follows.
(ii) As V is a G-module with basis B, we have v(gh) = (vg)h for
g, h G and v B. Hence by linearity
(gh; B) = (g; B)(h; B)

and so

## for g G. But ve = v for v V , and so (e; B) = In , the n n identity

matrix. This shows that (g; B) is invertible, and so it belongs to GLn ;
that is the map g 7 (g; B) gives a representation of G.
2
We now consider equivalent representations, see Definition 13.1(iv), and
Examples (c) and (d) on page 403.
Theorem 13.4 Suppose V is a G-module with basis B and : G GLn
is a representation of G.
(i) If B1 is another basis for V , then the representation 1 of G given by
g1 = (g; B1 ) for all g G
is equivalent to .
(ii) If 2 is a representation of G which is equivalent to , then there exists a
basis B2 of V which satisfies
g2 = (g; B2 )

for all

g G.

## Proof. (i) Let C be the non-singular matrix which transforms the

basis B (of V ) to the basis B1 . Then we have
(g; B) = C 1 (g; B1 )C
for all g G (see (13.3)) which shows immediately that and 1 are
equivalent.
(ii) As and 2 are equivalent, we can find a non-singular matrix C 0
to satisfy
g = (C 0 )1 (g2 )C 0
for all g G. Now let B2 be the basis of V formed by applying C 0 to the
basis B. Then the equation in (i) gives (g; B) = (C 0 )1 (g; B2 )C 0 , from
which we obtain g2 = (g; B2 ) for all g G.
2

406

## 13 Representation and Character Theory

See Example
(d) on page 403, here if we take B = {(1, 0), (0, 1)} and C =

1 2
,
then
B
2 = {(1, 2), (0, 1)}.
0 1
Subsystems of G-modules are given by the following
Definition 13.5 A subset U of a G-module V is called a G-submodule of
V if (a) U is a (vector) subspace of V , and (b) ug U for u U and g G.
We shall see below that G-submodules of a G-module behave much like normal subgroups in a group. Some examples are given after the next definition.
We look now at the natural maps between modules.
Definition 13.6 (i) A map : V1 V2 , where V1 and V2 are G-modules, is
called a G-homomorphism if it is a linear map between V1 and V2 (considered
as vector spaces), and for all v V1 and g G we have
(vg) = (v)g.
The kernel and image are defined as for group homomorphisms, that is ker =
{v V1 : v = 0} and im = {v : v V1 }.
(ii) A G-homomorphism is called a G-isomorphism if is an invertible
linear map; in this case we write V1
= V2 .
Examples. (a) Let V be a G-module and c C. The map 1 given by
v1 = cv, for v V , is a G-homomorphism. The reader should check this and
find the kernel and image; see Problem 13.1.
(b) Let V be the permutation module given in Example (d) on page 404
and let U = hui be a trivial G-module; see Example (a) given at the bottom
of page 403. Define 2 by
(c1 v1 + c2 v2 + c3 v3 )2 = (c1 + c2 + c3 )u,

where

ci C.

## So vi 2 = u for i = 1, 2 and 3. Clearly 2 is linear, and if v =

g S3 , then
(vg)2 = (c1 v1g + c2 v2g + c3 v3g )2 = (c1 + c2 + c3 )u,
(v2 )g = (c1 + c2 + c3 )ug = (c1 + c2 + c3 )u.

P3

i=1 ci vi

and

and

In the first line above (1g, 2g, 3g) is a permutation of (1, 2, 3) as the group is
S3 in this example. Hence 2 is a S3 -homomorphism, the kernel is {c1 v1 +
c2 v2 + c3 v3 : c1 + c2 + c3 = 0}, and the image is U . We shall return to this
useful example later.
The following result is important, note that unlike normal subgroups in
the group case, both the kernel and the image of are G-submodules.
Theorem 13.7 Suppose V1 and V2 are G-modules and : V1 V2 is a
G-homomorphism.
(i) ker is a G-submodule of V1 , and im is a G-submodule of V2 .
(ii) If is a G-isomorphism, then the map 1 : V2 V1 is also a Gisomorphism.

407

## Proof. (i) Both ker and im are (vector) subspaces as is a linear

map. Secondly, if v ker and g G, then using Definition 13.6 we
have
(vg) = (v)g = 0g = 0 and so vg ker ,
that is ker is a G-submodule of V1 . Further if v 0 im , then we can
find u V1 to satisfy v 0 = u, and
v 0 g = (u)g = (ug) im ,
that is im is a G-submodule of V2 .
(ii) 1 is a non-singular linear map by definition (see Appendix A).
Also for v V2 and g G we have, as is a G-homomorphism,
((v1 )g) = ((v1 ))g = vg = ((vg)1 ).
But is a G-isomorphism, and so the result follows.

## For an example see (b) on page 406.

The following will be useful later, it shows that representations are equivalent if, and only if, the corresponding modules are isomorphic.
Theorem 13.8 Suppose V1 and V2 are G-modules.
(i) V1
= V2 if, and only if, there are bases Bi for Vi , i = 1, 2, which satisfy,
for all g G,
(g; B1 ) = (g; B2 ).
(13.4)
(ii) If V1 has basis B and V2 has basis B 0 , then the representations
1 : g 7 (g; B)

and 2 : g 7 (g; B 0 )

## are equivalent if, and only if, V1

= V2 .
Proof. (i) Suppose : V1 V2 is a G-isomorphism, and {v1 , . . . , vn }
is the basis B1 . For g G and i = 1, . . . , n we have
vi g = ci1 v1 + + cin vn .
Let wi = vi where cij C and wi V2 . Then
wi g = (vi )g = (vi g) = (ci1 v1 + + cin vn )
= ci1 v1 + + cin vn = ci1 w1 + + cin wn .
As this holds for each i the result follows by linearity.
Conversely, suppose B1 = {v1 , . . . , vn } is a basis for V1 and B2 =
{w1 , . . . , wn } is a basis for V2 both of which satisfy (13.4) for all g G.
Further, suppose is the non-singular linear map given by vi = wi
for i = 1, . . . , n. Now using (13.4) we have (vi g) = (vi )g for each
i = 1, . . . , n and g G. Hence is a G-isomorphism, and (i) follows.
(ii) This follows by (i) and Theorem 13.4.
2

408

13.2

## Theorems of Schur and Maschke

We begin with
Definition 13.9 A non-zero G-module V is called irreducible, or sometimes
simple, if it contains no G-submodules apart from h0i and V , otherwise it is
called reducible.
A vector space V (with dim V = n) defined over a field F is isomorphic
to F n , the direct sum of n copies of the field F it is isomorphic to a direct
sum of n subspaces each with dimension 1. A similar result holds for Gmodules except that the summands often have dimension larger than one
because the summands in question are irreducible (Definition 13.9), and so
they have no proper non-zero submodules. There is an analogy here with
integer unique factorisation. The module result follows from the theorems of
I. Schur and H. Maschke to be proved in this section. We begin with Schurs
Lemma which characterises irreducible modules. We use the symbol V to
denote the identity (linear) map on V (vV = v for all v V ).
Theorem 13.10
G-modules.

(Schurs Lemma)

## (i) A G-homomorphism : V1 V2 is either a G-isomorphism or the trivial

homomorphism: v = 0, for all v V1 .
(ii) A G-isomorphism : V1 V1 is a scalar multiple of the identity map
V1 .
Proof. (i) Suppose is not the trivial homomorphism. So there exists
v V satisfying v 6= 0 which implies im 6= h0i. Hence by Theorem
13.7, and as V2 is irreducible, we have im = V2 . Using Theorem 13.7
again, this shows that ker 6= V1 , and so ker = h0i as V1 is irreducible;
that is is a G-isomorphism, see Definition 13.6.
(ii) A non-singular linear map on V1 has at least one eigenvalue c in
the complex field C. This follows because C is algebraically closed, and
as a consequence a non-zero eigenvector also exists. This shows that
ker( c v1 ) 6= h0i. The module V1 is irreducible, and so by Theorem
13.7, ker( c V1 ) = V1 which gives the result.
2
Both the the matrix version and the converse of this result are given in
Problem 13.4.
Example. We apply the matrix version of Schurs result given in Problem
13.4. Let C4 = ha : a4 = ei, and define a representation : C4 GL2 by


i 0
a =
.
0 1

0
Now the matrix 0i i
commutes with g for all g C4 , and so by the matrix
version of Schurs Lemma it follows that the C4 -module associated with is
reducible. This also follows from the theorem below or by direct calculation
using the subspaces h(1, 0)i and h(0, 1)i.

## 13.2 Theorems of Schur and Maschke

409

An almost immediate consequence of Schurs result shows that all irreducible representations of a finite Abelian group have degree 1 as we prove
now.
Theorem 13.11
mension 1.
Proof.

## If V is an irreducible G-module and a G, then

(vg)a = (va)g

for all

gG

as G is Abelian. Hence the non-singular linear map v 7 va is a Ghomomorphism (Definition 13.6), and so by Schurs Lemma
va = c v for some suitably chosen c C depending on a.
But V is irreducible, and so dim V = 1; for if not V would contain a
1-dimensional submodule.
2
Using this result we can list the irreducible representations of a cyclic
group as follows: Let G = Cn = hai, let = e2i/n , and let r satisfy 1 r < n,
then the r-th irreducible representation r of G is given by
as r = rs

for

0 s < n.

## These equations do indeed give the irreducible representations of G as each

have degree 1. Using this and the Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Groups
(Theorem 7.12) all irreducible representations of a finite Abelian group can
be given. Theorem 13.11 is sufficient for our purposes, more details can be
found in the references quoted at the beginning of this chapter.

Maschkes Theorem
If V is a G-module and U1 is a submodule, we can always find another
submodule U2 so that V = U1 U2 , the direct sum of U1 and U2 . We give
this remarkable result now, it was first proved by Maschke in 1898. The proof
is constructive providing a method for building U2 given U1 and V .
Theorem 13.12 (Maschkes Theorem) If U1 is a G-submodule of the
G-module V , then we can find another G-submodule U2 of V to satisfy
V = U1 U2 .
Note that Maschkes result is invalid if the group G is infinite, or if o(G) is
finite AND we work over a field of positive characteristic p where p | o(G).
Proof. Note first that U1 is a subspace (of V ), let {u1 , . . . , ur } be
a basis. By a standard property of vector spaces we can find vectors
ur+1 , . . . , un V \U1 so that {u1 , . . . , ur , ur+1 , . . . , un } is a basis for V .
Let W be the subspace of V generated by the set {ur+1 , . . . , un }. Then

410

## 13 Representation and Character Theory

V = U1 W,

(13.5)

that is the vector space V is isomorphic to the direct sum of the subspaces U1 and W . To prove the theorem we adjust W so that it forms
a submodule whilst insuring that (13.5) still holds.
If v V , then v can be expressed in the form v = u + w where
u U1 , w W , and both u and w are unique; this follows because the
sum in (13.5) is direct. Hence the map : V V given by v = u
where v V is well-defined and linear, it has kernel W and image U1 .
The adjustment mentioned above is constructed using the map on
V which is defined as follows. If g G and v V , let
v =

1 X
vgg 1 .
gG
o(G)

(13.6)

Note that (a) by our convention, vgg 1 = ((vg))g 1 using the product in V , and (b) if is a G-homomorphism then = . In general
is not a G-homomorphism, but it is a linear map on V whose image
is contained in U1 . On the other hand is a G-homomorphism as we
show now.
If j G, we have (vj)gg 1 = v(jg)g 1 j 1 j = (vhh1 )j provided h = jg by (v) in Definition 13.2. Hence
(vj) =

1 X
1 X
(vj)gg 1 =
(vhh1 )j = (v)j
gG
hG
o(G)
o(G)

## by Theorem 2.8, that is is a G-homomorphism. The map is also

idempotent, that is it satisfies
2 = .

(13.7)

## For if u U1 and g G, then ug U1 (as U1 is a G-module), and so

(ug) = ug and ((ug))g 1 = u. Hence
u =

1 X
1 X
ugg 1 =
u = u.
gG
gG
o(G)
o(G)

(13.8)

## Now if v V , v U1 (by definition of U1 and (13.6)), and so (v) =

v by (13.8). This holds for all v V , hence (13.7) follows. By Problem
A4(iii) in Appendix A, this shows that is a projection of V onto U1 .
As it is also a G-homomorphism, we can now define U2 = ker , then
U2 is a G-submodule by Theorem 13.3, and so finally V = U1 U2 , a
direct sum of two G-submodules.
2
Example. We extend Examples (d) on page 404 and (b) on page 406 concerning the permutation module V for S3 . We showed in the second of
these examples that U1 = hv1 + v2 + v3 i is a G-submodule of V , so by
Maschkes Theorem above, there exists another G-submodule U2 with the
property V = U1 U2 . Following the procedure given in the proof above, let

411

## W = hv2 , v3 i. As subspaces V = U1 W , but W is not a G-submodule. The

projection map from V to U1 given by
v1 = v1 + v2 + v3 , v2 = 0, v3 = 0
is a G-homomorphism, see Problem 13.1. Again following the proof of
Maschkes Theorem above let be defined by
vi =

1
(v1 + v2 + v3 )
3

for i = 1, 2, 3.

This is a G-homomorphism, and its kernel is a G-submodule of V (by Theorem 13.3) which we can take to be U2 . In fact we can set
U2 = ker = hv2 v1 , v3 v1 i.
Our first application gives the following important theorem, to state it
we need
Definition 13.13 A G-module is called completely reducible, or sometimes
semi-simple, if it can be expressed as a direct sum V = U1 Un where
each Ui is irreducible and n 1.
Theorem 13.14

## Every non-zero G-module is completely reducible.

As with Maschkes Theorem this result fails if we change our underlying field
C to one with positive characteristic p where p | o(G), even if it is algebraically
closed.
Proof. If V is irreducible, there is nothing to prove. Hence we may
suppose V contains a proper non-zero G-submodule U1 . By Maschkes
Theorem (Theorem 13.12) we can find another G-submodule U2 to satisfy V = U1 U2 . If both U1 and U2 are irreducible then we are done,
if not we can use induction on the dimension of V as both U1 and U2
have smaller dimension than dim V .
2
Our second application of Maschkes Theorem shows we can sometimes
assume that the matrices (g; B) used in Theorem 13.3 are diagonal provided
we choose the right basis B. But note this result only applies to individual
elements g in G.
Theorem 13.15

## (i) We can find a basis B for V so that (g; B) is diagonal.

(ii) The diagonal entries of the matrix given in (i) are m-th roots of unity
where g has order m in G.
Proof. Let J be the cyclic subgroup of G generated by g with order
m, and let W be a non-zero J-module. By Theorem 13.14 we can write
W as
W = U1 Ut ,

412

## where each Ui is irreducible. As J is Abelian we have by Theorem 13.11,

dim Ui = 1 for i = 1, . . . , t; and so each Ui has a single generating
vector ui , say. Hence as Ui is a G-module of dimension 1 (and so is
automatically irreducible). Further, by Schurs Lemma (Theorem 13.10)
we can find integers rj to satisfy
uj g = rj uj

(13.9)

for each i where = e2i/m . Note ri Z, this follows from the comment
below the proof of Theorem 13.11. Therefore if we take {u1 , . . . , ut } as
the basis B for W , then (13.9) gives

r1

0 ... 0
r2
0 ... 0
.
(g; B) =

...
rt
0
0 ...
Both parts of the theorem now follow.

## 13.3 Characters and Orthogonality Relations

Characters will be introduced now and their basic orthogonality properties
will be established. The work is of a similar level to that of the previous
sections, but some proofs are quite long and involved, so time will be needed
to assimilate them; writing them out in detail in the 2 2 case can sometimes
help. The trace of a matrix A, tr(A) is defined as
sum of the main diagonal
Pthe
n
elements of A: If A = (aij ), then tr(A) =
i=1 aii . We have, for square
matrices A and B, see Problem 13.7,
(a) tr(A + B) = tr(A) + tr(B), (b) tr(cA) = c tr(A) for c C,
(c) tr(AB) = tr(BA),
(d) tr(B 1 AB) = tr(A).
These properties are used widely in the sequel. In both linear algebra and our
representation theory it is surprising how much information about a matrix
is retained by the trace. Below we define the character of a representation as
the trace of the corresponding matrix, and we call a character irreducible if
its corresponding G-module is irreducible. Each group G has attached to it
a collection of irreducible characters, and many of the properties of G can be
obtained by studying this collection.
Definition 13.16

## (i) A class function on G is a function mapping the elements of G into

C which takes the same value for each element of a conjugacy class of G:
If j = h1 gh and g, h, j G, then (j) = (g). The collection of all class
functions on G is denoted by CF (G).

413

## (ii) If V is a non-zero G-module and is a corresponding representation

(Theorem 13.3), then the function mapping elements of G to C defined by
(g) = tr(g)

for

gG

is called the character of the G-module V , and of the representation (Theorem 13.17(ii)). The degree of the character is the degree of the corresponding
representation, if g is an n n matrix then the degree of is n.
(iii) The character of the trivial representation of G, 1G , is called the
principal character,3 and 1G = 1 for all g G. In character tables 1G is
usually written as 1 .
Example. Consider the representation given in Example (c) on page 403.
The character of this representation of D3 (' S3 ) is calculated as follows.
We have (e) = tr(I2 ) = 2, and




0
0 1
2
(a) = tr
=

=
1,
(b)
=
tr
= 0.
1 0
0 2
Similar calculations which the reader should check show that (a2 ) = 1
and (ab) = (a2 b) = 0. Note that (a) is constant on the conjugacy classes
of D3 , and (b) we obtain the same values for if we use the equivalent
representation for D3 given in Example (d) on page 404; reader check. This
character for D3 is called the minor permutation character (Problem 13.16).
We shall see later that CF (G) can be treated as a vector space over C,
and the irreducible characters to be defined below act as a basis for this space.
The simplest character properties are as follows, note particularly (ii) below,
it shows that equivalent representations have the same character.
Theorem 13.17

## (i) A character for G is a class function for G.

(ii) If V1 and V2 are isomorphic G-modules, then their characters are equal.
(iii) If Vi are G-modules with characters i , where 1 i m, and V =
V1 Vm , then the character of V is given by
Xm
=
i .
i=1

## Proof. (i) Let be a representation of G corresponding to the G-module

V , and suppose g = (g; B), see Theorem 13.4, then for a, g G we
have using properties of the trace function given opposite and the fact
that is a homomorphism,
(a1 ga) = tr(a1 ga) = tr((a)1 ga)
= tr((a; B)1 (g; B)(a; B)) = tr(g; B) = tr(g) = (g).
3 Some authors use the term trivial character but this gives the wrong impression for it is
the only character which is attached to every group, and so it plays a more important role
in character theory than the trivial homomorphism does in group theory as a whole.

414

## 13 Representation and Character Theory

(ii) By Theorem 13.8 we can find bases B1 for V1 and B2 for V2 with
the property (g; B1 ) = (g; B2 ) for all g G. Now if we take the trace of
each of these matrices we obtain the result.
(iii) We can choose a basis for V so that the matrix of the representation associated with the G-module V is in diagonal block form where
the i-th block is the matrix corresponding to the G-module Vi . It is now
clear that the trace of the matrix for V is the sum of the traces of the
individual blocks.
2

Orthogonality Relations
The orthogonality relations are amongst the most important tools in character theory, we shall develop them now. We use the following standard conventions: (a) the notation (aij ) stands for the matrix whose (i, j)th entry is
aij , a complex number, and (b) the delta function ij stands for the function
which takes the value 1 if i = j, and 0 if i 6= j.
The first orthogonality relation is given by the following
Theorem 13.18 Suppose 1 and 2 are irreducible representations of G
with corresponding G-modules V1 and V2 , and degrees n1 and n2 , respectively.
Further suppose their representing matrices are given by
g1 = (aij (g))

## and g2 = (bij (g))

for g G.

If 1 and 2 are not equivalent, and so V1 6' V2 , then for all i, j, k and l
X
(i)
aij (g)bkl (g 1 ) = 0,
gG
X
(ii)
aij (g)akl (g 1 ) = jk il o(G)/n1 .
gG

## Proof. Let C = (cjk ) be an arbitrary n1 n2 matrix, and let

X
D(C) =
(aij (g))C(bkl (g 1 )).
gG

## This is also an n1 n2 matrix. We show first that D(C) represents a

G-homomorphism, a consequence of the following calculation. We have,
for all h G,
X
(aij (h))D(C) =
(aij (h))(aij (g))C(bkl (g 1 ))(bkl (h1 ))(bkl (h))
gG
X
=
(aij (hg))C(bkl ((hg)1 ))(bkl (h))
gG

= D(C)(bkl (h))

(13.10)

## by Theorem 2.8 as (bkl (h))1 = (bkl (h1 )) by Theorem 13.3. Hence

D(C) defines a G-homomorphism.

## 13.3 Characters and Orthogonality Relations

415

(i) By Schurs Lemma (Theorem 13.10), as both V1 and V2 are irreducible and inequivalent, and as D(C) : V1 V2 is a G-homomorphism,
we have D(C) = O (the zero matrix) for all choices of the coefficients
cij of C. Hence if we set crs = rj sk (and so crs depends on j and k),
then the (i, l)th entry of D(C) gives
X
X
X
0=
air (g)rj sk bsl (g 1 ) =
aij (g)bkl (g 1 ),
gG

r,s

gG

and (i) follows. Note that the inner sum of the middle expression above
is the (i, l)th term of the triple matrix product (air (g))(crs )(bsl (g 1 )).
(ii) Using Schurs Lemma again, if V1 = V2 (and so n1 = n2 ), then
D(C) = tC In1

(13.11)

## for some complex constant tC depending on C. This gives

X

tC n1 = tr(D(C)) = tr
(aij (g))C(akl (g 1 )) = o(G)tr(C)
gG

applying the trace properties (a) and (d) on page 412 to establish the
last equation. Now using the same values of crs as in (i), and writing
C = Cjk , we see that tr(Cjk ) = jk , and so tCjk n1 = o(G)jk . (Note
1j 1k + + nj nk = jk .) Combining this with equation (13.11) we
obtain
X
(aij (g))Cjk (akl (g 1 )) = (jk o(G)/n1 )In1 .
gG

## Taking corresponding individual entries of these matrices we have finally

X
aij (g)akl (g 1 ) = jk il o(G)/n1 .
2
The following character version of this theorem is due to Frobenius.
Theorem 13.19 Using the notation given in Theorem 13.18, let i be the
character of the G-module Vi and so also of the representation i , for i = 1, 2.
If V1 6' V2 , then
X
1 (g)2 (g 1 ) = 0, and
gG
X
1 (g)1 (g 1 ) = o(G).
gG

Proof.

## As 1 (g) = tr((aij (g))) and 2 (g 1 ) = tr((bij (g 1 ))) we have

X
gG

1 (g)2 (g 1 ) =

X
gG

i,j

X
i,j

gG

aii (g)bjj (g 1 )
aii (g)bjj (g 1 ) = 0.

416

## using Theorem 13.18. A similar argument gives the second equation, in

this case matrices are n1 n1 .
2
The next lemma collects together some further basic character properties.
Lemma 13.20 Suppose is a character of a G-module V with degree n,
and suppose is a corresponding representation.
(i) (e) = dim V .
(ii) If g G and o(g) = r, then (g) is a sum of r-th roots of unity.
(iii) (g 1 ) = (g) for all g G.
(iv) For all g G
|(g)| (e),
and equality occurs if, and only if, g = cIn for some c C.
(v) ker = {g G : (g) = (e)}.
P
(vi) gG (g)(g 1 ) > 0.
Proof. (i) Suppose dim V = n, and B is a basis for V . Then (e; B) = In ,
see the proof of Theorem 13.3, and so (e) = tr(e; B) = trIn = n.
(ii) By Theorem 13.15 we can find a basis B for V so that the matrix
(g; B) is diagonal. Then (g)r = g r = e = In . Each diagonal element
of (g; B) is an r-th root of unity, and the result follows as (g) equals
the sum of these diagonal elements.
(iii) Following on from (ii) suppose the diagonal elements of (g; B)
are 1 , . . . , n . The diagonal elements of (g 1 ; B) are 11 , . . . , n1 , and
i1 = i (as the are roots of unity). The result follows using some
elementary complex number properties.
(iv) By (ii), (g) is a sum of the form 1 + +n , say, where |i | = 1
for all i. Hence
|(g)| = |1 + + n | |1 | + + |n | = n = (e).
Now note that equality can only occur if 1 = = n in which case
(g; B) = 1 In . Conversely, if g = cIn for some c C, then c is an r-th
root of unity and (g) = nc. Hence by (i) |(g)| = n = (e).
(v) If g ker then g = In , and so (g) = n = (e). Conversely
if (g) = (e), then by (iv) g = cIn for some c C and all g G
including g = e. Hence c = 1 and g ker .
(vi) This follows immediately from (ii) as (g)(g 1 ) = (g)(g) =
|(g)|2 0, and (g) 6= 0 for at least one element g in G.
2
In Example (e) on page 404 we introduced the regular module of G denoted by CG. We can now use this module to obtain some more character
properties for G. By Theorem 13.14 we can express this module as a direct
sum of the form

## 13.3 Characters and Orthogonality Relations

CG = r1 V1 rt Vt ,

417

(13.12)

where t, r1 , . . . , rt are positive integers, and V1 , . . . , Vt are irreducible Gmodules non-isomorphic in pairs.

418

## Theorem 13.21 Suppose CG is expressed as in (13.12) and has character

, and for i = 1, . . . , t suppose Vi has character i .
(i) i (e) = ri = dim Vi for i = 1, . . . , t.

Pt
o(G) if g = e,
(ii) i=1 i (e)i (g) = (g) =
0
if g =
6 e.
Pt
(iii) i=1 ri2 = o(G).
(iv) Every irreducible G-module V occurs in the sum (13.12).
Proof. By definition the elements of G form a basis for the regular
G-module CG. Hence by (13.12), and Theorems 2.8 and 13.17(iii)

Xt
o(G) if g = e
ri i (g) = (g) =
(13.13)
i=1
0
if g 6= e
Now suppose is a character of an irreducible G-module. If we multiply
equation (13.13) throughout by (g 1 ), and sum over all g G, we
obtain
X
Xt
X
o(G)(e) =
(g)(g 1 ) =
ri
i (g)(g 1 ).
gG

i=1

gG

(Note that as there is only one non-zero term on the right-hand side of
(13.13) the equation above starts with a single term.) If we set = j
in this equation (i) follows by Theorem 13.19 and Lemma 13.20(i).
(ii) This follows using the same theorem, and (iii) follows from (i)
and (ii).
(iv) If we assume that the irreducible character does not equal i
for all i in the range 1 i t, then (e) = 0 which is impossible by
Lemma 13.20(i); hence (iv) follows.
2
We now bring conjugacy classes into our theory and, as we shall see, they
play an important role. Let C`1 = {e}, . . . , C`h(G) be a list of the conjugacy
classes of G; where as usual h(G) denotes the class number. We set C`1
=
i
{g 1 : g C`i }; it is another conjugacy class of G (Problem 5.7). For each
i in the range 1, . . . , h(G), let i be given by: C`i = C`1
i . Further, for the
regular module CG we define bi , i = 1, . . . , h(G), and Z(CG) by
X
bi =
g,
gC`i

and
Z(CG) = {a : a CG and ac = ca for all c CG};
see Problem 13.6. Note the similarity with the centre of a group.
Lemma 13.22

## Using the notation set out above we have

(i) The set B = {b1 , . . . , bh(G) } forms a basis for Z(CG) over C.

419

## (ii) Non-negative integers sijk can be found to satisfy

bi bj =

Xh(G)
k=1

sijk bk

(iii)


sij1 =

for 1 i, j, k h(G).

(13.14)

0
if j =
6 i
o(C`i ) if j = i

## where i was defined on the previous page.

P
Proof. (i) Suppose a Z(CG). As a CG we can write a =
ag g
for suitably chosen integers ag depending on a. Now a Z(CG) if, and
only if, a = h1 ah for all h G. Hence the integers ag are constant as
g ranges over the conjugacy classes C`i . Therefore we can write
a=

Xh(G)
i=1

ri bi

where

ri Z+ .

The integers ri are positive and depend on the terms of ag , and the
bi were defined on page 417. So Z(CG) is generated by B. Further, as
conjugacy classes are pair-wise disjoint, this equation shows that the
elements of the set B is linearly independent over C, and so form a
basis for Z(CG).
(ii) By (i) each element of Z(CG) can be expressed as a linear combination of basis elements, hence sijk Z and (13.14) holds. These
integers are non-negative, for by (13.14) the integer sijk counts the
number of pairs (c1 , c2 ) where c1 C`i , c2 C`j and c1 c2 C`k , and
so being a counting function it must be non-negative.
(iii) Note first C`1 = {e}. Using the notation in (ii), if j 6= i then
c1 c2 6= e for all c1 C`i and c2 C`j ; hence sij1 = 0. But if j = i ,
then for every c1 C`i there is a unique c2 C`j with the property:
c1 c2 = e; so in this case sijk = o(C`i ).
2
The following rather technical lemma will be used to establish our second
set of orthogonality relations (Theorem 13.24). Part (ii) will also be used in
the proof of Lemma 14.1.
Lemma 13.23 (i) Suppose is a character of an irreducible G-module,
and ti = o(C`i ) for 1 i h(G).
ti (gi )/(e) tj (gj )/(e) =

Xh(G)
k=1

## sijk tk (gk )/(e).

(ii) The complex number ti (gi )/(e) is an eigenvalue of the matrix whose
(j, k)th entry is sijk as given in Lemma 13.22.
Proof. Let be a representation associated with , that is a homomorphism from G to GLn . We can extend to a homomorphism from
CG to GLn by setting
(a1 g1 + + am gm ) = a1 (g1 ) + + am (gm )

420

## where m = o(G). By Lemma 13.22, the elements bi belong to the centre

of CG, and so commute with all g G. Therefore if ci Z(CG) then
ci g = gci for all g G. By Problem 13.6 we have
ci = qi In

for some

qi C,

(13.15)

## where n equals the degree of . Now taking traces we obtain

X

qi (e) = tr(qi In ) = tr
g = ti (gi ),
gC`i

## or qi = ti (gi )/(e) where ti = o(C`i ). But by Lemma 13.22 and as

is a homomorphism we obtain
ci cj =

Xh(G)
k=1

sijk ck .

## (i) now follows using (13.15).

(ii) If Si = (sijk ) is the matrix whose (j, k)th entry is sijk , and
v = (r1 , . . . , rh(G) ), then we have vSi = qi v. Hence v is an eigenvector
for Si ; note that r1 = 1, and so v is not the zero vector.
2
Using this result we can now derive the second set of orthogonal relations,
now summed over characters rather than elements. As usual we let C`{g}
denote the conjugacy class of G that contains g.
Theorem 13.24 (Column Orthogonality Relations) Suppose 1 , . . . , l
are the characters of the irreducible G-modules, then

Xl
0
if h 6 C`{g}
(13.16)
r (g)r (h1 ) =
r=1
o(CG (g)) if h C`{g}
Proof. By Lemma 13.23 applied to r and using the notation set up
there we have
Xh(G)
ti r (gi ) tj r (gj ) =
sijk tk r (gk )r (e).
k=1

ti tj

Xl
r=1

r (gi )r (gj ) =

Xh(G)
k=1

sijk tk

Xl
r=1

r (gk )r (e)

## = sij1 t1 o(G) = sij1 o(G)

as t1 = o(C`{e}) = 1. Now by Lemma 13.22(iii) and Problem 5.7,
sij1 = 0 if gj1 6 C`{gi }, and sij1 = o(C`{gi }) = ti , if gj1 C`{gi }.
Therefore
Xl
tj
k (gi )k (gi1 ) = ij o(G).
r=1

The first part of the theorem follows. The second part also follows using
Theorem 5.19.
2

## 13.3 Characters and Orthogonality Relations

421

The set of all class functions CF (G) of a group G can be given the
structure of an Hermitian vector space. It is a space of dimension h(G) over
C with an Hermitian product h , iG defined as follows.
Definition 13.25 For f1 , f2 CF (G) the function h , iG : CF (G)
CF (G) C is given by
hf1 , f2 iG =

1 X
f1 (g)f2 (g).
gG
o(G)

## Example. Suppose G = C4 ' hai where a4 = e. Let class functions

and be given by e = 3, a = i, a2 = 1, a3 = i and e = 2, a =
1 + i, a2 = 0, a3 = 1, then
h, iC4 = (1/4)(32 + i(i) + 12 + (i)i) = 3
h, iC4 = (1/4)(3 2 + i(1 i) + 1 0 + (i) 1) = 7/4
h, iC4 = (1/4)(22 + (1 + i)(1 i) + 0 + 12 ) = 7/4.
Reader, repeat this calculation by replacing the last equation by a3 = 1 i.
The following useful Hermitian and related properties follow easily from
the orthogonality relations proved above.
Theorem 13.26
isomorphism).

## (ii) For i = 1, . . . , h(G), if i is the character of the i-th irreducible G-module

given by (i) then {1 , . . . , h(G) } is an orthonormal basis for CF (G).
(iii) hi , j iG = ij for 1 i, j h(G).
Ph(G)
(iv) i=1 i (e)2 = o(G).
Proof. (i) Let 1 , . . . , l be a list of the characters of the irreducible
G-modules. By Definition 13.25, Lemma 13.20(iii) and Theorem 13.19
we have
X
X
i (g)j (g 1 ) = ij o(G).
o(G)hi , j iG =
i (g)j (g) =
gG

gG

(13.17)
This shows that the set {1 , . . . , h(G) } is linearly independent in
CF (G), and so
l dim CF (G) = h(G).
Suppose now l < dim CF (G), and let A denote the l h(G) matrix
whose (i, j)th entry is i (gj ) where gj C`{j}, the j-th conjugacy class
of G. By assumption
rank of A l < h(G),
that is the h(G) rows of A are linearly dependent; hence we can find
complex numbers r1 , . . . , rh(G) at least one of which is non-zero to satisfy

422

Xh(G)
j=1

rj i (gj ) = 0

for

i = 1, . . . l.

## Using these equations and Theorem 13.24 we obtain

0=
=
=

Xl

 Xh(G)

i=1

Xh(G)
j=1

Xh(G)
j=1

j=1

rj


rj i (gj ) i (gk1 )

Xl
i=1

i (gj )i (gk1 )

## Hence as o(G)/o(C`{gk }) 6= 0, we have rk = 0 for k = 1, . . . , h(G) which

contradicts our assumption above. Therefore l = h(G), and (i) follows.
(ii) and (iii) follow directly from (i), and (iv) follows from the last
equation in (13.17) by putting g = e and i = j.
2
This result enables to make the following
Definition 13.27 (i) A character for G is called irreducible if, and only if,
it is the character of an irreducible G-module.
(ii) The kernel ker of a representation of a group G with character
is called the kernel of , and it is denoted by ker .
(iii) The character table of G is the h(G) h(G) matrix whose (i, j)th
entry is i (gj ) where i is the i-th irreducible character of G, and gj is a
representative of the j-th conjugacy class of G where 1 i, j h(G).
Two points. (a) By Theorem 13.26 a group G has exactly h(G) irreducible
characters.
(b) The wording in (iii) suggests that there exists some kind of canonical
ordering of the irreducible characters, but this is not so they form an unordered set. The ordering of the rows of a character table is more or less
random, although it is usual to place the principal character at the top, and
order them by the size of their values for the neutral element.
Example. We shall construct the character table for S3 , more examples are
given in Section 14.1. The conjugacy classes of S3 are
{e}, {(1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3)} and {(1, 2, 3), (1, 3, 2)}.
Hence as h(S3 ) = 3, the character table is 3 3 and S3 has three irreducible
characters i , i = 1, 2, 3 (by Theorem 13.20(i)). The first 1 is the principal
character where 1 (g) = 1 for all g S3 , and for the second we can take the
character we constructed in the Example on page 413. If we let the values of
3 be given by:
3 (e) = r,

3 ((1, 2)) = s,

423

2-cycle

3-cycle

1 (g)
2 (g)
3 (g)

1
2
r

1
0
s

1
1
t

## To complete the table we need to calculate r, s and t. By Theorem 13.26(iv)

we have, working on the first column, 12 + 22 + r2 = o(S3 ) = 6, hence
r = 1, but by Theorem 13.21(i) r > 0, and so r = 1. Now using the Column
Orthogonality Relations (Theorem 13.24), working on the first and second
columns we obtain 1 1 + 2 0 + r s = 1 + s = 0, and so s = 1, and working
on the first and third columns we obtain 1 1 + 2 1 + r t = 1 + t, and
so t = 1. The second character 2 is called the minor permutation character,
see Problem 13.16, and for the third character see Problem 13.18.
Finally in this section we give a useful condition for irreducibility:
Theorem 13.28

## Proof. By Theorem 13.26, if = n1 1 + + nh(G) h(G) where ni is a

non-negative integer, and i is a character of an irreducible G-module,
for each i = 1, . . . , h(G), then by Theorem 13.21(iv)
h, iG =

Xh(G)
i=1

n2i .

## So is irreducible, that is we have = i for some i if, and only if,

h, iG = 1.
2
Example. Using this condition we can see that the three characters given
in the example above are irreducible. By Theorems 3.6 and 5.19 the orders
of the centralisers of S3 are 6, 2 and 3, respectively. Hence for 1 we have
12 /6 + 12 /2 + 12 /3 = 1,
similarly for 2 and 3 we have
22 /6 + 02 /2 + (1)2 /3 = 1

and

12 /6 + (1)2 /2 + 12 /3 = 1,

13.4

## Lifts and Normal Subgroups

In this, the last of the theoretical sections, we give some further easily
developed character properties. Each of the main elementary group constructions subgroups and extensions, factor groups and direct products provide
important developments in character theory. We shall mainly be concerned
with properties associated with factor groups, the so-called lifts, and some
products as these are sufficient for the material to be presented in Chapter

424

## 13 Representation and Character Theory

14. We shall see that given a character of a factor group G/K, we can almost
immediately write down a character for G, and irreducibility is preserved. We
shall also be able to determine the linear characters of a group, that is those
with degree 1. For further properties the reader should consult the references
quoted in the introduction to this chapter.
We begin with the basic facts about lifts. First we have
Lemma 13.29 Suppose K is a normal subgroup of G, and is a character
of G/K. Let the class function
b on G be defined by

b(g) = (gK)

for g G.

Then
b is a character for G, and it has the same degree as .
Proof. Let : G/K GLn be a representation (homomorphism)
of G/K with character . Also let be the natural homomorphism
(Definition 4.13) mapping G into G/K. The composition : G
G/K GLn is a homomorphism, and so it is also a representation of
G. Its character satisfies
(g) = tr(g) = tr((gK)) = (gK) =
b(g)

for all

g G,

and so =
b. Further (K) =
b(e), hence and
b have the same
degree by Lemma 13.20.
2
Definition 13.30 The character
b of G given in Lemma 13.29 is called
the lift to G of the character of G/K.
The next result shows the close relationship between a character and
its lift
b.
Theorem 13.31

Suppose K / G.

## (i) There is a one-to-one correspondence between the characters of G/K and

the characters
b of G which satisfy K ker
b.
(ii) In the correspondence given in (i) an irreducible character of G/K corresponds to an irreducible character of G which contains K in its kernel.
Proof. (i) Let be a character of G/K and let
b be its lift to G. We
have (K) =
b(e) and, if k K, and so kK = K, then

## b(k) = (kK) = (K) =

b(e).
Hence K ker
b. Conversely, let
b be a character of G with K ker
b.
Further, let
b be the representation of G corresponding to
b where

## b(e) = n. If g1 , g2 K and g1 K = g2 K, then g21 g1 K and so

(g21 g1 )b
= In which gives g1
b = g2
b. Hence if we define by
(gK) = gb

it is well-defined. Further

for g G,

425

## ((gK)(hK)) = (ghK) = ghb

= gb
hb
= (gK)(hK)
for g, h G. Now if is the character of , a representation of G/K,
we have (gK) =
b(g) for all g G, hence
b is the lift of to G. This
establishes the one-to-one correspondence.
(ii) Irreducibility. If W is a subspace of the vector space Cn , we have
w(g
b) W for w W

## if and only if w(gK) W for w W.

This shows that W is a G-submodule of Cn if, and only if, W is a G/Ksubmodule of Cn . Hence
b is irreducible if, and only if, is irreducible,
and so the same holds for the characters.
2
Example. The group E was described on pages 177 to 183. It has a normal
subgroup J = ha2 i / E, and o(J) = 2. The character 2 of J satisfies 2 (e) =
1, 2 (a2 ) = 1. This character lifts to E as follows: Those conjugacy classes
which involve even powers of a lift to 1, and those involving odd powers lift
to 1; see the character table (second row) on page 457.

Normal Subgroups
As we have commented several times before, given a group G it is important
to be able to construct its normal subgroups. We show now that we can use
the character table for G to do this easily. For a character of G we have
ker = {g G : (g) = (e)} / G,
see Definition 13.27. Also the intersection of several character kernels of G
forms a normal subgroup of G (Theorem 2.30). A vital fact in the theory is
the fact that the converse is also true as we show in the next result.
Theorem 13.32 Suppose K/ G. There exist irreducible characters 1 , . . . , r
of G with the property
\r
K=
ker i .
i=1

## Proof. We note first that if g ker for all irreducible characters ,

then (g) = (e) for all , and so g = e by Problem 13.17. Now suppose
1 , . . . , s is a list of the irreducible characters of G/K, then
\s
i=1

ker i = {K}

## the neutral element of G/K. For 1 j s let ij be the lift to G of

the character j . If g ker ij then
j (K) = ij (e) = ij (g) = j (gK),
Ts
Ts
and so gK ker j . Hence if g j=1 ker ij , then gK j=1 ker ij =
{K} which implies that g K. This gives the result.
2

426

## 13 Representation and Character Theory

The reader should check that in the case G/ G the corresponding intersection
only contains the principal character.
Corollary 13.33

(g) 6= (e)

## for all g G where g 6= e, and all non-principal irreducible characters .

Proof. If is irreducible and (g) = (e) for some g 6= e, then g ker
by definition and ker 6= hei. Also if is the representation associated
with , then ker = ker and ker 6= G as is non-principal and
irreducible. Hence G is not simple. Conversely if K / G and K is proper
and non-neutral, then by Theorem 13.32, K is the intersection of some
character kernels, the result follows.
2
For an example see the character table for A5 on page 439.

Linear Characters
We begin with
Definition 13.34

## Two facts follow immediately if is a linear character for G.

(a) is a representation (homomorphism) of G by definition.
(b) (e) = 1 by Theorem 13.21(i).
When constructing a character table for a group G it is best to find the
linear characters first, and usually this is straightforward as the following
result shows.
Theorem 13.35

## (ii) Each linear character of G is the lift of an irreducible character of G/G0 .

(iii) If G has t linear characters, then t | o(G).
Proof. (i) By (a) above we have, for g, h G,
(g 1 h1 gh) = (g 1 )(h1 )(g)(h) = 1,
as is a homomorphism in this case, and so G0 ker .
(ii) Let t = o(G/G0 ). As G/G0 is Abelian (Problem 4.6), its irreducible characters all have degree 1 (Theorem 13.11). Suppose they are
1 , . . . , t , and their lifts to G are
b1 , . . . ,
bt . By Lemma 13.20 they are
also linear, and G0 ker i for i = 1, . . . , t. This gives the result.
(iii) This follows from (ii) by Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27). 2
Example. Again we consider the group E (as in the example opposite). Here
E/E 0 ' C2 C2 , and so by Theorem 13.35, E has four linear characters, the
lifts of the four (linear) characters of C2 C2 ; see pages 177ff, 435 and 457

427

## As noted earlier we shall not discuss general character products (they

are defined using so-called tensor products, see the references quoted at the
beginning of this chapter), but products where one factor is linear can be
dealt with easily and are useful.
Theorem 13.36 Suppose and are characters of a group G and is
linear. If we define by
(g) = (g)(g)

for g G,

## then is a character of G, and is irreducible if, and only if, is also

irreducible.
Proof. Let be a representation of G with character , and define
by
g() = (g)(g) for g G,
that is g() is the square matrix g multiplied by the complex number
(g). Both and are homomorphisms, and so is also a homomorphism, and the trace of the matrix g() is given by
tr(g()) = (g) tr (g) = (g)(g).
Therefore is a representation of G with character .
For the second part note that (g) is a root of unity, and so
(g)(g) = 1, and hence
X
h, iG = (1/o(G))
(g)(g)(g)(g)
gG
X
= (1/o(G))
(g)(g) = h, iG .
gG

## Therefore h, iG = 1 if, and only if, h, iG = 1, and the theorem

follows by Theorem 13.28.
2
Example. Let G = S4 with conjugacy classes: {e}, 2-cycles, 3-cycles, 2-cycles
2-cycles, and 4-cycles. By Problem 13.16 the minor permutation character
for this group has values {3, 1, 0, 1, 1}, and by Problem 13.18 a linear
character (using even and odd permutations) has values {1, 1, 1, 1, 1}. So
Theorem 13.36 provides another character with values {3, 1, 0, 1, 1} which
can easily be checked to be irreducible using Theorem 13.28.

## Summary of Character Properties

We end this chapter with a resume of the basic character properties. Suppose
we are given a group G with class number h(G). We always work over the
complex field C.
(a) There are h(G) irreducible representations 1 , . . . , h(G) of G.
(b) To each representation we associate a character , its values are
the traces of the corresponding matrices used in this representation.

428

## (c) By (a) there are h(G) irreducible characters 1 , . . . , h(G) , their

values are sums of roots of unity.
(d) A character is a class function, and so is constant on a conjugacy
class of G.
(e) An Abelian group of order n has n irreducible characters all of which
have degree 1.
Ph(G)
(f) Column Orthogonal Relations: The sum r=1 r (g)r (h1 ) equals
zero if h 6 C`{g}, and equals o(CG (g)) if h C`{g}.
(g) We associate with G a square h(G) h(G) array, or matrix, its
character table. The (i, j)th entry is i (gj ) where gj is a representative
of the j-th conjugacy class of G, and i is the ith irreducible character. (Note that the order in which the characters and/or the conjugacy
classes are presented is more or less arbitrary.)
(h) Irreducible characters of a factor group G/K can be lifted to irreducible characters of G.
(i) The linear characters of G are the lifts of the characters of G/G0 .
(j) The normal subgroups of G are determined by its character table.
Note that different groups can have identical character tables, for example
with D4 and Q2 , see page 436 and Problem 14.4.

13.5 Problems 13
Problem 13.1

## (ii) Show that projections are G-homomorphisms.

(iii) Let C2 = ha : a2 = ei. Show that the map of the regular module
CC2 to itself defined by
(c1 e + c2 a) = (c1 c2 )(e a)

for c1 , c2 C,

## is a C2 -homomorphism, and deduce 2 = 2.


1
Problem 13.2 (i) Let C3 = ha : a3 = ei and B = 1
1 0 , and define
: C3 GL2 by: ar = B r for r = 0, 1, 2. Show that this defines a representation of the group C3 .
(ii) Let V be the 2-dimensional C3 -module with basis {v1 , v2 } where
v1 a = v1 v2

and v2 a = v1 .

## Use (i) to show that this defines a C3 -module. Is it irreducible?

Problem 13.3 Continuing the previous problem, let B denote the V -basis
{v1 , v2 }, and let B 0 denote the basis {u1 , u2 } where u1 = v1 and u2 = 2v1 v2 .
Show that

13.5 Problems 13

429

(e; B 0 ) = I2 , (a; B 0 ) =

1 1
3 2

, (a2 ; B 0 ) =

2 1
3 1


,

## and find a 2 2 matrix C to satisfy (g; B) = C 1 (g; B 0 )C for all g C3 .

Problem 13.4 
(i) Suppose V is a non-zero G-module, and every Ghomomorphism mapping V to itself is a scalar multiple of the map 1V . Show
that V is irreducible. This is of course the converse of Schurs Lemma (Theorem 13.10), and it can be derived using Maschkes Theorem.
(ii) Suppose : G GLn is a representation of G. Show that is
irreducible if, and only if, all matrices C which satisfy
(g)C = C(g)

for all

gG

## have the form C = cIn for some c C.

(iii) Give an example of a group G, a G-module V , and a G-homomorphism
: V V with the property V 6= ker im .
Problem 13.5
dihedral group.

## (i) Let 1 be given by 1 (a) = 1, 1 (b) = 1. Show that 1 is a representation of Dn of degree 1.

(ii) Give an example of a faithful representation of D4 with degree 3.
(iii) Define the 2 2 matrices A, B, C and D by
 i/3



e
0
0 1
A=
,
B
=
,
1 0
0 ei/3





1/2
3/2
1
0

C=
, D=
.
0 1
3/2 1/2
Secondly, define the functions i : D6 GL2 , i = 1, . . . , 4, by
1 : a r bs
7 Ar B s ,
2 : ar bs 7 A3r (B)s ,
r s
r s
3 ; a b
7 (A) B , 4 : ar bs 7 C r Ds ,
where 0 r < 6 and 0 s < 2. Show that each i is a representation of D6 ,
and determine which are faithful and which are equivalent.
(iv) Show that there is a representation of D4 with the properties




7 10
5 6
a =
, b =
.
5 7
4 5
Calculate all matrices A which satisfy A(g) = (g)A for all g D4 , and
determine whether is irreducible; see Problem 13.4(ii). Secondly do the

5 6
same calculation for the representation where a = 54 6
5 and b = 4 5 .

430

## 13 Representation and Character Theory

Problem 13.6 
This problem concerns the entity Z(CG) which was
defined on page 417.
P
(i) Show that if K / G, then kK k Z(CG).
(ii) Suppose V is an irreducible G-module, and h Z(CG). Using Schurs
Lemma (Theorem 13.10) prove that there exists c C with the property
vh = cv

for all v V.

## (iii) If there exists a faithful irreducible G-module, deduce Z(G) is cyclic.

(iv) Use (iii) to give an example of a group G with no faithful irreducible
G-module. (Hint. One example has order 4.)
(v) Suppose G is finite and all of its irreducible G-modules have dimension
1. Show that G is Abelian. (Hint. Use Theorem 13.14.)
Problem 13.7 
Prove the trace properties (a) to (d) given on page 412,
and give an example to show that trAB need not equal trA trB.
Problem 13.8 
a group G, then

## (i) Show that if is a faithful irreducible character of

Z(G) = {g G : |(G)| = (e)}

where the vertical bars denote the complex absolute value function.
(ii) Prove that if a G and a 6= e, then (a) 6= (e) for at least one
irreducible character of G.
(iii) If 1 , . . . , r is a list of the irreducible characters of a group G, show
that
Xr
Z(G) = {g G :
i (g)i (g) = o(G)}.
i=1

## Problem 13.9 Suppose G is finite and : G GL2 is a 2-dimensional

representation. Suppose further there exist g, h G with the property: g
and h do not commute. Use a consequence of Maschkes Theorem (Theorem
13.12) to show that is irreducible.
Problem 13.10 Show that h, iG = (e) where is the regular character
for G and is an arbitrary character for G.
Problem 13.11 In this problem you should use the character table for
S3 given on page 422. This group has three conjugacy classes, they are
{e}, {(1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3)} and {(1, 2, 3), (1, 3, 2)}. Define the following class
functions on S3 with the values given as follows: 1 : {1, 0, 0}, 2 : {0, 1, 0}, 3 :
{0, 0, 1}, 4 : {15, 5, 9} and 5 : {15, 5, 6}. Express each of these class
functions as linear combinations of the irreducible characters of S3 , and determine which form characters of the group S3 .
Problem 13.12 Suppose CG is the matrix formed by the entries of the
character table for G.

13.5 Problems 13

431

(i) Show that det CG is nonzero, and it takes either a real, or a pure
imaginary, value.
(ii) If ci is a representative of the ith conjugacy class of G, prove that
(det CG )2 =

Yr
i=1

## (iii) Find det(CG ) when G is (a) C3 , (b) C2 C2 , and (c) A5 . In each

case what determines the sign?
Problem 13.13 Using Problem 3.6 find the character table for the group
F7,3 . (Hint. This group has a cyclic subgroup of order 7 and a cyclic factor
group of order 3.)
Problem 13.14 A group of order 12 has six conjugacy classes with class
representatives e, g2 , . . . , g6 , and irreducible characters 1 , 2 which take the
values 1, 1, i, 1, 1, i and 2, 2, 0, 1, 1, 0, respectively. Using Theorem
13.36 complete the character table for the group in question.
Problem 13.15 A group G of order 8 has five conjugacy classes with orders
1, 1, 2, 2, 2 and class representatives R = {e, g2 , . . . , g5 }, respectively. Three of
the irreducible characters of G take the following values on R: 1, 1, 1, 1, 1;
1, 1, 1, 1, 1: and 1, 1, 1, 1, 1. Find the remaining two irreducible characters.
Problem 13.16 
(i) Let G Sn , let V be an n-dimensional vector space
defined over C with basis {v1 , . . . , vn }, and for g G define
vi g = vig

for

g G.

Using linearity show that this procedure defines a G-module. You should refer
to Example (d) on page 404.
(ii) Let be the character of the G-module defined in (i). Show that, if
g G,
(g) = o({i : 1 i n and ig = i}).
The character is called the permutation charcater of G
(iii) Define : G Z by
(g) = (g) 1

for g G.

## Show that is a character of G which we call the minor permutation character

of G. (Hint. See Example (c) on page 403.)
(iv) Calculate the minor permutation characters for the groups A4 and
S5 , and determine if either is irreducible?
Problem 13.17 (i) Show that the irreducible characters of a group G
form a basis of the vector space of all class functions CF (G) of G. (Hint. Use
Theorem 13.26.)

432

=

Xh(G)
i=1

ci i

## where ci is a complex number given by ci = h, i iG for i = 1, . . . , h(G).

(iii) Let g, h G. Show that h is conjugate to g in G if, and only if,
(h) = (g) for all characters of G. (Hint. Use (ii).)
(iv) Deduce g 1 is conjugate to g in G if, and only if, (g) is real for all
characters of G.
Problem 13.18 
(i) For the group Sn define by: () = 1 if is even,
and () = 1 if is odd, where in each case Sn . Show that is an
irreducible character of Sn .
(ii) Show that if n > 1 then Sn has exactly two linear characters, and list
them.
(iii) For n > 2 how many linear characters does An have?
(iv) If a non-Abelian group G has only one linear character, does it necessarily follow that G is simple?
Problem 13.19
character of G.

(Restriction to a subgroup)

Suppose H G and is a

## (i) Let H be the function with its domain restricted to H. Show

that H is a character of H, it is called a restricted character.
(ii) Using the character table for S4 given on page 455 construct five
characters for S3 using restriction, and determine which are irreducible.
(iii) Suppose is irreducible, and 1 , . . . , r is a list of the irreducible
characters for H. Show that
H = s1 1 + + sr r
where each si is a non-negative integer. Further show that
Xr
s2i [G : H].
i=1

## (Hint. Use Theorem 13.26.)

(iv) Using (iii), express each restricted character constructed in (ii) as a
sum of irreducible characters for S3 , and so obtain again the character table
for S3 .
(v) Do the same calculations as in (ii) and (iv) for the alternating groups
A5 (see page 439 for its character table) and A4 . Do you obtain the complete
character table for A4 in this way?
Details concerning the last three problems given below which are of a
more challenging nature can be found in Huppert (1998).

13.5 Problems 13

433

## Problem 13.20? Suppose o(G) is odd, and 1G , 2 , . . . , r is a list of the

irreducible characters of the group G where h(G) is the class number of G.
(i) Prove that i 6= i for i = 2, . . . , r. (Hint. Use orthogonality and the
fact that 1/2 is not an algebraic integer.)
(ii) Show that h(G) o(G) (mod 16), a result due to Burnside. (Hint.
Pair off the non-principal characters and use orthogonality again.) What does
this imply for groups of odd order less than 16?
Problem 13.21? A famous result of Frobenius and Schur states: If is
an irreducible character of G, then
(e) | [G : Z(G)],
see Huppert (1998), page 68. Use this to show that if G is a non-Abelian
simple group, then (e) 6= 2 for all irreducible characters of G. (Hint.
Assume the contrary, and so G has a faithful representation of degree 2, and
note that G = G0 in this case.) The result of Frobenius and Schur is not
strictly necessary here, but this problem has given us the opportunity to
introduce this important result to you, the reader.
Problem 13.22? One of Burnsides many results states that if is an
irreducible character of a finite group G and (e) > 1, then (G) = 0 for
some g G. Investigate what is needed to prove this result. Also check that
it is correct for the character tables given in this chapter and the next.

Chapter 14

## Character Tables, and Theorems of

Burnside and Frobenius

Representation and character theory has proved to be extremely useful in answering questions about finite groups. It is also widely used of other branches
of mathematics and beyond, see for example James and Liebeck (1993), Chapter 30. The solution of a number of the most important theorems in the subject would not exist without it, for example it played a vital role in the proof
of the Feit-Thompson Theorem and in CFSG. In this chapter we give three
applications. First, using the theory developed in Chapter 13 we construct a
number of character tables, these include the tables for most groups of order
12 or less, S4 (in the problem section), and A5 . A number of properties of a
group can be read off its character table once it has been constructed, for
example its normal subgroup structure; see Theorem 13.32. Also these tables
can be used to determine nilpotency and/or solubility, but note there exist
pairs of groups with identical character tables and distinct second derived
subgroups (Hubbert (1998), page 44). It is a convenient fact that many of
the more interesting larger groups have relatively small character tables (because their element conjugacy classes are large), so for example the character
table for M11 (with order 7920) is only 10 10.
Secondly, we give a proof of Burnsides pr q s -theorem using character
theory. This was probably the first major success of the theory published
in 1903. It enables us to deduce that if only two distinct primes divide the
order of a group, then it is soluble. Non-character-theoretic proofs have been
found recently by H. Bender but they are much longer, see for example Issacs
(2008), Chapter 7.
Our final application is to the so-called Frobenius theory. We noted several times in the book that a result which asserts the existence of a normal
subgroup is important and, under certain conditions, this is exactly what
Frobeniuss result does. It was first developed in terms of permutation groups,
nowadays a more direct approach is used and we shall follow this here. We
give four applications, the last allows us to define the Suzuki groups first
discussed in Chapter 12.

433

434

## 14.1 Character Tables

As noted on the previous page in this section we construct the character
tables for a number of familiar groups of small order, and we shall begin with
the cyclic groups.

## Character Tables for Cyclic Groups

In Theorem 13.11 we showed that all irreducible representations of cyclic
groups have degree 1, and so all irreducible characters of cyclic groups have
degree 1. Also in an Abelian group each conjugacy class has order one. Hence
a cyclic group of order n has n irreducible characters. Suppose Cn ' hai and
an = e. Let be a primitive n-th root of unity, so n = 1, and no smaller
positive power satisfies this equation. Define a series of characters r by
r (ak ) = rk

for k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1,

## where r is some fixed integer in the range 0 r < n. Hence we obtain

n irreducible characters for Cn , that is one for each r in the given range.
As an example
we write down the character table for C3 as follows, here
= (1 + 3)/2.
g

a2

1
2
3

1
1
1

1
2

Table 1

## Character Table for C3

If we take = (1 3)/2, then we obtain the same table except that the
second and third rows are interchanged. Similar tables can be constructed for
all cyclic groups, the reader should write down the tables for C2 and C4 , see
Problem 14.1. We shall not give the tables for the remaining Abelian groups
in our chosen range. Roughly speaking the character table for Cn Cm can
be constructed by multiplying together the tables for Cn and Cm .1 As an
example we shall construct the table for C2 C2 . The method we use is nonstandard, that is we do not obtain the table by multiplying together two
copies of the table for C2 .
Let C2 C2 ' ha, b | a2 = b2 = e, ab = bai = G. This group is Abelian
and so all of its irreducible characters have degree 1, and there are four of
them. Also hai / G, so the two irreducible characters for C2 can be lifted,
see Theorem 13.31, to characters of G. Hence this character table for G has
the following form where we still need to justify the entries in the third and
1

This procedure involves the use of the tensor product, see the references quoted in the
Introduction to Chapter 13.

## 14.1 Character Tables

435


fourth rows. (Note that this table contains three copies of the array 11 11
multiplied by 1, and one copy multiplied by 1 corresponding to the entries
in the table for C2 .)
g

ab

1
2
3
4

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

Table 2

## Character Table for C2 C2

The first column is correct as each character has degree 1 (see Lemma
13.20(i)), that is i (e) = 1 for i = 1, . . . , 4. To justify the remaining entries
in the third and fourth rows we first rewrite them as
3 : 1, r1 , r2 , r3

and 4 : 1, s1 , s2 , s3 .

## Then using the Column Orthogonality Relations (Theorem 13.24) on the

second column, and then on the first and second columns, we obtain
12 + (1)2 + r12 + s21 = 4 = o(C2 C2 )

and

1 1 + 1 1 + 1 r1 + 1 s1 = 0,

## so r12 + s21 = 2 and r1 = s1 , which in turn give r1 = 1 and s1 = 1. At

this stage in the calculation there is a choice of sign, so we choose r1 = 1 and
s1 = 1. If we make the other choice then rows 3 and 4 in the table would
be interchanged. Exactly similar calculations using Theorem 13.24 again will
give the remaining entries; see Problem 14.2.

## Character Tables for Dihedral Groups

We shall construct the character tables for the groups Dm . In Problem 14.3
we give the case when m is odd, and here we treat the case when m is even.
Let n = m/2 throughout, so m = 2n. The dihedral group D2n (of order 4n)
has a presentation
D2n ' ha, b | a2n = b2 = e, bab = a2n1 i.
Our first step is to list the conjugacy classes, there are n + 3 of them:
{e}, {an }, {a, a2n1 }, {a2 , a2n2 }, . . . , {an1 , an+1 },
{b, a2 b, . . . , a2n2 b}, {ab, a3 b, . . . , a2n1 b}.

(14.1)

In each case we take the first entry of the sets in (14.1) as the conjugacy
class representatives. The orders of these classes are 1, 1, 2, 2, . . . , 2, n, n, respectively, with n 1 of order two.

436

## We can construct several degree 2 representations (over C) of this group

as follows. Let n = ei/n , and let Ar and B be given by



 r
n
0
0 1
.
and B =
Ar =
1 0
0 n2nr
Then for each fixed r = 1, 2, . . . , n 1 we have
2
A2n
r = B = I2

## and BAr B = A2n1

,
r

that is hAr , Bi is a matrix representation the group D2n over C for r in the
range 1, . . . , n 1. The question arises: Are these representations irreducible
(Definition 13.9)? The answer is yes provided r is in the given range, and this
follows from Problem 13.5. Hence by taking traces we obtain n1 irreducible
characters for our group, and they all have degree 2; see the table below. We
need to find the remaining four. We have ha2 i / D2n , and
D2n /ha2 i = {ha2 i, aha2 i, bha2 i, abha2 i}.
This factor group is isomorphic to C2 C2 whose character table was given
in Table 2 above. Hence the four remaining irreducible characters can be
constructed as lifts to D2n of the characters in Table 2; see Theorem 13.31.
If a conjugacy class in (14.1) involves even powers of a, that is a member of
the collection
e, {a2 , a2n2 }, {a4 , a2n4 }, . . . ,
then we lift the first column of Table 2 to the columns for the conjugacy
classes in this collection. Similarly if a conjugacy class involves odd powers
of a, we lift the second column of Table 2 to the columns for the odd power
conjugacy classes. Note that the second class in (14.1) will lift to the first
column if n is even, and to the second if n is odd. Further for the penultimate
class in (14.1) we lift the third column in Table 2 to the last but one column
in Table 3, and for the last class we lift the last column in Table 2 to the last
column of Table 3. These procedures provide n + 3 irreducible characters,
and so we obtain the character table for D2n when n > 1 as given below.

o(CD2n (g))

e
4n

an
4n

a
2n

...
...

an1
2n

b
4

ab
4

1
2
3
4
5
6

n+3

1
1
1
1
2
2

1
(1)n
1
(1)n
2
2

(2)n

1
1
1
1
n + n2n1
n2 + n2n2

nn1 + nn+1

...
...
...
...
...
...

...

1
(1)n1
1
(1)n1
nn1 + nn+1
nn2 + nn+2

n + n2n1

1
1
1
1
0
0

1
1
1
1
0
0

Table 3

437

## For non-Abelian groups it is usual to include the second row in Table 3

giving the orders of the centralisers of the corresponding elements so that the
Column Orthogonality Relations can be readily applied. Note also that the
(r + 4, s + 2)th entry in this table, for 1 r n 1 and 1 s n 1,
is nrs + nrs where n2n = 1. Reader: how many normal subgroups does the
group have?

## Character Table for A4

In Problem 3.3 we showed that A4 , treated as a permutation group, has four
conjugacy classes with class representatives
e, (1, 2)(3, 4), (1, 2, 3), (1, 3, 2),
and orders 1, 3, 4, 4; respectively. Now A04 ' C2 C2 , see Problem 3.10,
and so the factor group A4 /A04 ' C3 . Hence A4 has three linear irreducible
characters, the lifts of the three irreducible characters of C3 ; see Table 1
above and Theorem 13.31. Also the minor permutation character for A4 ,
see Problem 13.16, is irreducible. This follows from Theorem 13.28 and the
simple calculation
h, iA4 = 32 /12 + (1)2 /4 + 0/3 + 0/3 = 1.
Hence we can write down directly the character table for this group as
g
o(CA4 (g))

e
12

(1, 2)(3, 4)
4

(1, 2, 3)
3

(1, 3, 2)
3

1
2
3
4

1
1
1
3

1
1
1
1

2
0

1
2

Table 4

## Here 4 = . As an exercise check that the Column Orthogonality Relations

apply in this example.

## Character Table for Dicyclic Group Q3

The dicyclic group Q3 has the presentation ha, b | a3 = b2 = (ab)2 i; it has six
conjugacy classes with class representatives:
e, a3 , a, a2 , b, ab.
Their orders are 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, respectively; see page 159. Hence Q3 has six
irreducible characters. Referring again to page 159 we see that ha2 i / Q3 and

438

## 14 Character Tables, and Theorems of Burnside and Frobenius

o(ha2 i) = 3, hence Q3 /ha2 i ' C4 where this factor group has the elements
ha2 i, bha2 i, aha2 i = b2 ha2 i and abha2 i = b3 ha2 i.
By Theorem 13.31, as Q3 /ha2 i is cyclic of order 4 we can immediately
write down four irreducible linear characters for Q3 as lifts of the corresponding characters for C4 given in Problem 14.1. Further, as 12 = 4 1 + 22 + 22
is the only solution in integers larger than one of an equation of the type
12 = 4 + x2 + y 2 , by Theorem 13.26(iv) we see that the two remaining
irreducible characters both have degree 2. Hence the character table for Q3
can be taken in the following form
g
o(CQ3 (g))

e
12

a3
12

a
6

a2
6

b
4

ab
4

1
2
3
4
5
6

1
1
1
1
2
2

1
1
1
1
2
2

1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

1
i
1
i
0
0

1
i
1
i
0
0

Table 5

## Character Table for Q3

where we need to justify the entries in the last two rows. The first four entries
of the first and fourth columns are lifts of the first column of the table for
C4 , the second and third are lifts of the third column for C4 , the fifth is a lift
of the second column for C4 , and the sixth is a lift from the fourth column
for C4 . To establish rows 5 and 6 we first rewrite them as
5 : 2, r1 , r2 , r3 , r4 , r5

and 6 : 2, s1 , s2 , s3 , s4 , s5 .

## Then using the Column Orthogonality Relations (Theorem 13.24) first on

row two, and then on rows one and two, we obtain
4 + r12 + s21 = 12

and

0 + 2r1 + 2s1 = 0

## which imply that r1 = 2 and s1 = 2. As these characters have the same

degree we can choose the signs so that r1 = 2 and s1 = 2. Using the
orthogonality relations (Theorem 13.24) again now applied to the relevant
columns we obtain the equations
2r2 + 2s2
2r3 2s3
2r4 + 2s4
2r5 + 2s5

= 0,
= 0,
= 0,
= 0,

4 + 2r2 2s2 = 0,
4 + 2r3 + 2s3 = 0,
2r4 2s4 = 0,
2r5 2s5 = 0,

and the values given in the table above follow easily. We can deduce from the
table that Q3 has three proper non-neutral normal subgroups, see pages 424

439

## Character Table for A5

As a final example we construct the character table for A5 . Different constructions of this table can be found in, for example, James and Liebeck
(1993) and Huppert (1998). In some ways these are more natural compared
with the construction given below, but they both use aspects of the theory
that we have not covered in Chapter 13. In Problem 3.3 we showed that A5 ,
treated as a permutation group, has five conjugacy classes, and we can take
the following as class representatives:
e, (1, 2)(3, 4), (2, 4, 5), (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), (1, 3, 5, 2, 4).
Note that (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)(1, 2)(3, 4) = (2, 4, 5), all 3-cycles are conjugate in A5
(see the proof of Lemma 3.13), and (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)2 = (1, 3, 5, 2, 4). By Theorem 13.26 this shows that A5 has five irreducible characters i , i = 1, . . . , 5.
We can write two down immediately: the principal character 1 , and the
minor permutation character 2 , see the table below, and Problem 13.16.
Reader: you need to check that this second character is irreducible. Further
by Theorem 13.21, and as 1 (e) = 1 and 2 (e) = 4, we have
60 = o(A5 ) =

X5
i=1

2i (e) = 17 +

X5
i=3

2i .

The only solution in integers ri larger than one of the equation 43 = r12 + r22 +
r32 is r1 = r2 = 3 and r3 = 5 where some rearrangement of the suffixes may be
necessary. This shows that two of the remaining three irreducible characters
have degree 3 and the last has degree 5, that is 3 (e) = 4 (e) = 3 and
5 (e) = 5. In Problem 3.27W we gave a 3-dimensional representation of A5
over C. By taking traces (see (ii) in the quoted problem) we can immediately
write down the two degree 3 irreducible characters. We obtain two irreducible
characters because there are two distinct primitive fifth roots of unity. Hence
the character table for A5 is given by
g
o(CA5 (g))
1
2
3
4
5

e
60
1
4
3
3
5

(1, 2)(3, 4)
4
1
0
1
1
1
Table 6

(2, 4, 5)
3
1
1
0
0
1

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
5
1
1

(1 + 5)/2
(1 5)/2
0

(1, 3, 5, 2, 4)
5
1
1

(1 5)/2
(1 + 5)/2
0

## Character Table for A5

To see that the last row of this table is correct we argue as follows. Rewrite
this row as 5, r, s, t, u. Using Column Orthogonality (Theorem 13.24) we have
3 + r2 = 4 (using column 2) and 5r 5 = 0 (using columns 1 and 2), hence
r = 1. Similarly we have 2 + s2 = 3 and 5 + 5s = 0, hence s = 1. We leave
the remaining two cases for the reader to evaluate. Note that, by Corollary
13.33, this construction provides a new proof of the simplicity of A5 for using

440

## 14 Character Tables, and Theorems of Burnside and Frobenius

the table above we see immediately that the only proper normal subgroup of
A5 is hei, in each of the remaining rows the first entry is not repeated.
Further examples are given in the problem section, these include the
character tables for the three groups discussed in Chapter 8.

14.2

Burnsides pr q s -Theorem

We come now to one of the early successes of representation theory: Burnsides pr q s -theorem first proved in 1903. In Theorem 6.5 we showed that,
amongst other facts, all p-groups are soluble. Burnsides result extends this
to show that every group whose order has at most two distinct prime factors is
soluble. Note that p-groups satisfy the stronger condition of being nilpotent,
but this does not hold in the pr q s case; an example is S3 . Also Burnsides
result does not extend to three primes; the group A5 is an example.
The proof uses some of the character theory results that were proved
in Chapter 13. It also uses some properties of the algebraic integers in an
essential way as is shown in the next lemma, the basic facts are discussed in
the appendix to this chapter.
Lemma 14.1 (i) If is a character of G and g G, then (g) is an
algebraic integer.
(ii) If is an irreducible character of G, g G and C`{g} is the conjugacy
class of G which contains g, then
o(C`{g})(g)/(e) is an algebraic integer.
Proof. (i) By Lemma 13.20, (g) is a sum of roots of unity. Clearly a
root of unity is an algebraic integer, and so (i) follows by Theorem B19
(Appendix to this chapter).
(ii) By Lemma 13.23(ii), o(C`{g})(g)/(e) is an eigenvalue of a nonsingular n n matrix C with integer entries, and so it is a root of the
equation
det(C xIn ) = 0.
But this is a monic polynomial equation in the variable x with integer
coefficients. By definition its roots are algebraic integers, and so the
result follows.
2
The next lemma, which uses Lemma 13.20(iv), is essential for both of
Burnsides results below.
Lemma 14.2 Suppose is an irreducible representation of G with character , g G, and C`{g} is the corresponding conjugacy class of G. If
((e), o(C`{g})) = 1 then either
(i) |(g)| = (e),

or

(ii) (g) = 0.

## 14.2 Burnsides pr q s -Theorem

441

Proof. As ((e), o(C`{g})) = 1, using the Euclidean Algorithm (Theorem B2) we can find integers r and s to satisfy r(e) + s o(C`{g}) = 1,
this gives, multiplying by (g)/(e),
r(g) + s o(C`{g})(g)/(e) = (g)/(e).
By Lemma 14.1, both (g) and o(C`{g})(g)/(e) are algebraic integers, hence
(g)/(e) is an algebraic integer.
(14.2)
By Lemmas 13.20(i), (ii) and (iv), (g) is a sum of roots of unity of the
form:
(g) = w1 + + wt and |(g)| (e),
(14.3)
where t = (e). So either |(g)| = (e), that is (i) holds, or |(g)| <
(e). This second possibility implies (g) = 0 as we show now. Using
(14.2) let
f (x) = xn + r1 xn1 + + rn

where

ri Z for i = 1, . . . , n

## be the (unique) monic polynomial of minimal degree with root (g)/(e).

As the conjugate of a root of unity is another root of unity, we have by
(14.2), each conjugate of (g)/(e), that is each root of f (x) = 0, can
be written in the form
(w10 + + wt0 )/t
where wi0 is a root of unity for i = 1, . . . , t. Using the same procedure
as in the proof of (14.3), it follows that the modulus of each of these
expressions is less than or equal to 1. Hence if y denotes the product of
all of these moduli, then we have
0y<1

and y = rn Z,

using standard monic polynomial properties. The only possible conclusion from these facts is: y = 0, and then f (x) = x with a single root 0.
The result follows.
2
The first of Burnsides theorems is as follows. Conjugacy classes were defined in Chapter 5 where we proved that the order of a conjugacy class always
divides the order of the corresponding group (Theorem 5.19). Burnsides result shows that if the order of a conjugacy class is a power of a prime, then
the group cannot be simple provided it is not cyclic. The proof uses character theory and some properties of algebraic integers. Also, the pr q s -theorem
follows directly from it.
Theorem 14.3 Suppose C` is a conjugacy class of G not equal to {e}. If
for some prime p and non-negative integer n we have o(C`) = pn , then G
cannot be a non-Abelian simple group.
Proof. Suppose G is a non-Abelian simple group. Let C` = C`{g} =
{a1 ga : a G} where g 6= e. If o(C`) = 1 then g Z(G), and so

442

## 14 Character Tables, and Theorems of Burnside and Frobenius

Z(G) 6= hei. If Z(G) = G then G is Abelian, otherwise Z(G) is a nonneutral proper normal subgroup of G, and so G is not simple. Both of
these cases are ruled out by our supposition, and so we may assume
that o(C`) = pn > 1.
Let 1 , . . . , h(G) be a list of the irreducible characters of G with
1 (g) = 1 for all g G. We make the following hypothesis:
For some i > 1 and g G,

i (g) 6= 0

and p - i (e).

(14.4)

The theorems conditions give (o(C`), i (e)) = 1 and so, by Lemma 14.2,
|(g)| = (e). If i is the representation of degree ni of G corresponding
to the character i , and r C, then by Schurs Lemma (Theorem 13.10)
gi = rIni .
There are two possibilities:
(a)

## hei < ker i / G and ker i 6= G,

(b) i is faithful.
If (a) holds then G is not simple, and if (b) holds then g Z(G) where
g 6= e, and again G is not simple as we argued above. Therefore (14.4)
is false and so we may assume that i (g) = 0 for all i > 1 subject to
the condition p - i (e). But by Theorem 13.24 we have
0=1+

Xh(G)
i=2

i (e)i (g) = 1 + p

Xh(G)
i=2


i (e)/p i (g).

## Each term in the second sum is either 0 (when i (g) = 0), or is an

integer multiple of i (g) (by the above argument p | i (e) when i (g) 6=
0). Rewriting we have
Xh(G)
i=2


i (e)/p i (g) = 1/p.

But this is impossible because the left-hand side is a sum of integer multiples of algebraic integers, and so is itself an algebraic integer, whereas
1/p is not an algebraic integer. Hence our original supposition (G is
simple) is false and so the result follows.
2
Using this we can now deduce Burnsides famous 2-prime result.
Theorem 14.4 (Burnsides pr q s -Theorem) If o(G) = pr q s where p and
q are primes, and r and s are non-negative integers, then G is soluble.
Proof. If G is Abelian, or p = q, or either r or s equals 0, then the result
follows from Theorem 11.6 (in each of these cases the group is nilpotent).
Also, by Problem 11.6, it is sufficient to show that G is not simple and
non-Abelian. Let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of G, and let g Z(P ). By
Lemma 5.21 we may assume that g 6= e. This gives CG (g) P , as g
commutes with every element of P . So by Theorem 5.19

## 14.2 Burnsides pr q s -Theorem

443

o(C`{g}) = [G : CG (g)] = q t
for some integer t with 0 t r. If t = 0 then g Z(G), and so G is
not simple, and if t > 0 then Theorem 14.3 applies, and again G is not
simple.
2

## Some comments and extensions of Burnsides results

(a) Although Burnsides theorems are important applications of character
and representation theory, attempts have been made to give purely grouptheoretic derivations. Bender has given a proof of the pr q s -theorem which
does not use character theory, it is long and quite difficult; versions are given
in Huppert and Blackburn III (1982b) and Issacs (2008). No non-character
theory proof of the first Burnside Theorem (Theorem 14.3) is known.
(b)

## If g G, g 6= e and o(C`{g}) = pr where p is prime and r > 0, then the

set C`{g} generates a soluble normal subgroup of G.
For a proof see Huppert (1998).
(c) Burnsides pr q s -theorem is best possible in the sense that there exist
(infinitely many) non-soluble groups whose orders have three distinct prime
factors. There are eight simple groups (up to isomorphism) in this class, see
Chapter 12 and the Atlas (1985). Further SL2 (5), S5 and S6 are examples of
non-soluble non-simple groups whose orders have three distinct prime factors
(that is 2, 3 and 5), and so also a direct (or semi-direct) product of any
of these groups with a 2-, 3- or 5-group (or with themselves!) would form
another non-soluble non-simple group with order having three distinct prime
factors.
(d) With the completion of the proofs of Burnsides theorems we have also
completed the proof of Halls Second Theorem (Theorem 11.14), the twoprime case of Halls theorem follows directly from the Sylow theory (Theorem
11.4).
(e) As in (b) attempts have been made to establish some properties of the
normal subgroup(s) postulated by the pr q s -theorem. An important one is as
follows. Suppose o(G) = pr q s and pr > q s , then G has Sylow p-subgroup(s)
Pi . If there is more than one then we can define the p-radical Op (G) by
Op (G) = i Pi ,
where the intersection runs over all Sylow p-subgroups of G, and it forms a
normal subgroup of G; see Problem 6.9(vi). The question arises:
When is

Op (G) 6= hei?

Burnside, with some later corrections, showed that this holds in most cases.
The exceptions make use of some primes which arise in elementary number

444

## 14 Character Tables, and Theorems of Burnside and Frobenius

theory and are somewhat surprising. (We need to consider cases when the
Qs1
integer o(P ) (= pr ) divides o(GLs (q)) (= i=0 (q s q i )).) It can be shown
that Op (G) > hei if pr > q s except possibly in one of the following three
cases:
(i) p = 2 and q = 2n + 1 where this number is a Fermat prime (and
so n is a power of 2), only five of which are known at the present time;
they are 3, 5, 17, 257 and 65537.
(ii) p = 2m 1 and q = 2. Here p must be a Mersenne prime (and so
m is also prime), at the present time 40 are known.
(iii) p = 2 and q = 7. In this case an example has been given for a group
with order 223 78 .
Further details can be found in Burnside (1904), Rose (1978), Huppert (1998),
and Problem 14.13.

## 14.3 Frobenius Groups

Frobeniuss theorem gives a method for constructing certain groups with
designated normal subgroups and, as we have seen previously, a result that
postulates the existence of normal subgroups is always of importance in the
theory. We begin by considering an easy example. Let G = S3 and H =
h(1, 2)i S3 . We have (1, 3)(1, 2)(1, 3) = (2, 3) = (1, 3, 2)(1, 2)(1, 2, 3) and
(2, 3)(1, 2)(2, 3) = (1, 2) = (1, 2, 3)(1, 2)(1, 3, 2) et cetera. These show that
H g 1 Hg = hei for all

g G\H.

(14.5)

## Frobenius now defines a set (in fact a normal subgroup) K by

[
K = G\
g 1 (H\hei)g = S3 \ {(1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3)}.
gG

## Clearly in this case

K = {e, (1, 2, 3), (1, 3, 2)} / S3 ,
and we do not need any deep theory to prove this. Frobeniuss theorem states
that a similar construction can always be undertaken provided a condition
similar to (14.5) holds. We prove this result now making extensive use of the
character theory developed in Chapter 13. A non-character theory proof
exists (see Huppert 1998), but it only works if we assume that the FeitThompson Theorem (all odd order groups are soluble) has been established,
but the proof (which is very difficult) of this result uses representation theory
in an essential way. Frobenius originally derived his theorem using permutation groups, we shall discuss this approach once we have proved the main
theorem. We begin with the following
Lemma 14.5 Suppose H G, H satisfies condition (14.5), h H and
h 6= e. If g G and g 1 hg H, then g H.

445

## Proof. As g 1 hg H, we have g 1 hg H g 1 Hg. So if g 6 H, then

by (14.6) we have H g 1 Hg = hei. This implies that g 1 hg = e, and
so also h = e. But h 6= e, hence our assumption is false and g H. 2
We now state and prove our main theorem.
Theorem 14.6
(Frobeniuss Theorem)
Suppose H is a proper nonneutral subgroup of G and (14.5) holds, that is
H g 1 Hg = hei for all g G\H.

(14.6)

Let K be defined by
K = G\

[
gG

g 1 (H\hei)g.

(14.7)

## Then K / G, G = KH and H K = hei.

The proof of this result given below is due to Weilandt. It is quite long, and
so we have split it up into a number of more manageable parts. In the main
part, Sublemmas 2 to 5, we show that K can be treated as the kernel of a
character, and so its normality will follow.
Sublemma 1

## Proof. Suppose not, that is suppose for some g, h G we have g K

and h1 gh 6 K. Using (14.6) this gives h1 gh j 1 (H\hei)j for some
j G. But then g (jh1 )1 (H\hei)(jh1 ), and g 6 K. This is a
contradiction, and so Sublemma 1 follows.
2
Clearly e K and K is closed under inverses (Problem 14.15). Hence we
need to show that K is closed under its operation which is the main part of
the proof. We proceed as follows. Let be an arbitrary irreducible character
for H which is not the principal character 1H , and define by

(e)
if g K
(g) =
1
(a ga) if a1 ga H\hei where a G.
Sublemma 2

## Proof. Suppose a1 ga, b1 gb H\hei. Then b1 gb (a1 b)1 H(a1 b)

and so
e 6= b1 gb H (a1 b)1 H(a1 b).
But by our main assumption (14.6) this implies that a1 b H and so
(b1 gb) = (b1 aa1 gaa1 b) = (a1 ga) as is a class function; that
is is well-defined.
2
Our next task is to show that
Sublemma 3

446

## 14 Character Tables, and Theorems of Burnside and Frobenius

Proof. There are two cases to consider corresponding to the two lines
in the definition of above. First suppose g K, then by (i) a1 ga K
for a G, and so
(a1 ga) = (e) = (g).
Secondly suppose g G\K, so g 6= e and g = c1 hc for some h H
and c G. Now if b G
b1 gb = b1 c1 hcb (cb)1 H(cb)

and so

2

## Now suppose 1 = 1G , . . . , h(G) is a list of the irreducible characters of

the group G. Set
= (e)1 .
(14.8)
In the next sublemma we provide an evaluation of this function.
Sublemma 4

=

Xh(G)
i=1

ri i

## where ri Z, i = 1, . . . , h(G), and r1 = (e).

Later we show that ri 0, and rj = 0 for all but one value of j. Before
Proof. First note that (k) = 0 for k K by definition and as 1 (e) =
1, so we can argue as follows.
ri = h, i iG
X
= 1/o(G)

gG\K

(g)i (g

## by Definition 13.25 and

as is zero on K
X
1 o(G)
=
(h)i (h1 ).
hH\{e}
o(G) o(H)
This last equation follows from Lemma 14.5 as class functions are constant on conjugacy classes. Hence as (e) = 0
X
ri = 1/o(H)
(h)i (h1 )
hH

= h, i iH

by Definition 13.25

= h (e)1 , i iH

by definition of .

Now note that the restriction (Problem 13.19) of i to H can be expressed as a linear combination, with coefficients in Z of the irreducible
characters of H, hence ri Z for i = 1, . . . , h(G). Also repeating the
above argument we have
r1 = h, 1G iG = h (e) 1H , 1H iH = (e).

447

Sublemma 5

## Proof. Using an argument similar to that above we have

Xh(G)
i=1

ri2 = h, iG
=

by Theorem 13.28

1 o(G) X
|(h)|2 as above
hH\{e}
o(G) o(H)

= h, iH

as

= h (e) 1H , (e) 1H iH

by definition

= 1 + (e)2 = 1 + r12

by Theorem 13.21.

(e) = 0

## By Sublemma 4 each ri is an integer, and so each ri2 is a non-negative

integer. Hence the only possibility is that rj = 1 for some j, and rl = 0
if l 6= j. Therefore
= (e)1 = j (e)1
where j is irreducible. But by definition (e) = (e) > 0, hence =
j (e)1 .
2
For the final part of the proof let i , for i = 1, . . . , h(H), be a list of the
irreducible characters of H where 1 = 1H , and let be the regular character
of H (see page 404), that is
=

Xh(H)
i=1

i (e)i .

## Sublemmas 2 to 5 can now be applied to each i in turn. So for i = 1, . . . , h(H)

we have i (k) = i (e), if k K, and i (g) = i (a1 ga) where a1 ga
H\{e} for some a G. Define by
= 1 +

Xh(H)
i=2

i (e)i ,

this gives
(e) = 1 +

Xh(H)
i=2

(e)2 = o(H)

by Theorem 13.21(iii)

## We also have using the equation above

ker = {g G : (g) = (e) = o(H)}.
We can now prove our main subresult which is given overleaf.

448

Sublemma 6

K = ker .

## Proof. We show first that

K ker

(14.9)

as follows. If k K we have
(k) = 1 +

Xh(H)
i=2

i (e)i (k) = 1 +

## i (e)2 = o(H) = (e)

which proves the inclusion (14.9). For the reverse inclusion suppose
h H, then
(h) = 1 +

Xh(H)
i=2

i (e)i (h) =

Xh(H)
i=1

i (e)i = (h)

## where is the regular character; see above. This gives

H ker = hei

(14.10)

as ker = hei and is faithful. We also have using (14.7) and Lagranges
Theorem (Theorem 2.27)
o(K) = o(G) [G : H](o(H) 1) = [G : H].

(14.11)

## Now using Theorem 5.8 we obtain

o(H ker ) =

o(H)o(ker )
= o(H)o(ker )
o(H ker )

o(H)o(K)

by (14.10)
by (14.9)

= o(G)
by (14.11). This gives o(ker ) = o(K), and so by (14.9) K = ker / G.
2
Proof of Theorem 14.10 Sublemma 6 shows that K is a normal subgroup of G. Also (14.10) shows that
G = KH

and K H = hei,

## Bender has given an elementary non-character theoretic proof of the result,

but it only applies in the case when o(H) is even; see for example Kurzweil
and Stallmacher (2004), page 83.
Definition 14.7 A group G with subgroup H satisfying the conditions of
Theorem 14.6 is called a Frobenius group with respect to H, and the normal
subgroup K given by the theorem is called the Frobenius kernel of G. The
subgroup H is called a Frobenius complement.

449

## In the example G = S3 with respect to H = h(1, 2)i given at the beginning

of this section, the Frobenius kernel is the normal subgroup h(1, 2, 3)i, and
we have the same kernel with respect to each of the three subgroups of S3
with order 2, so each can act as a Frobenius complement in this case.

Fixed-point-free automorphisms
A Frobenius group G with respect to H having Frobenius kernel K is clearly
a semi-direct product of K by H; see the last line in the proof above and
Chapter 7. It has another property related to the notion of fixed-point-free
automorphisms which we discuss now. We begin with
Definition 14.8 Suppose is an automorphism of a group G which is not
the identity map. The map is called fixed-point-free on G if, and only if,
g 6= g for all g G where g 6= e.
For an example we return to the group S3 discussed above. We can define an
automorphism h of K by
gh = h1 gh for

and g K\{e}.

## This is fixed-point-free on K for we have (1, 2)(1, 2, 3)(1, 2) = (1, 3, 2) 6=

(1, 2, 3) and (1, 2)(1, 3, 2)(1, 2) = (1, 2, 3) 6= (1, 3, 2).
The relationship between Frobeniuss Theorem and fixed-point-free automorphisms is given by the following
Theorem 14.9

## (i) The group G is Frobenius with Frobenius complement H and Frobenius

kernel K.
(ii) If H < G, K / G, H 6= hei, G = KH and h H\hei, then the automorphism h defined by
h (k) = h1 kh
is fixed-point-free on K.
Proof. (i) implies (ii). We only need to show that the automorphism
is fixed-point-free. Suppose not, that is suppose h (k) = h1 kh = k for
some k K\{e} and h H\{e}. This gives h1 k 1 h = k 1 , and so
k 1 hk = hh1 k 1 hk = hk 1 k = h H.
Hence h H k 1 Hk, and so, as h 6= e, Frobeniuss Theorem implies
that k = e is the only fixed-point of h .
(ii) implies (i). For the converse we first need to show that K H =
hei. Suppose k K H and k 6= e. The equation k 1 kk = k provides
a fixed-point for k , and so, as k H, the hypothesis gives k = e,
and K H = hei follows. Secondly, suppose h1 H g 1 Hg for some
g G\H; we need to show that h1 = e. As G = KH (given) we can
find k K and h H to satisfy: g = kh and k 6= e. We also have

450

## h1 g 1 Hg, and so combining these we can find h2 H to satisfy:

h1 = k 1 h2 k H k 1 Hk.
Also h1 h1
2 H and, as K / G by hypothesis,
1
h1 h1
h2 kh1
2 =k
2 K.
1
These give h1 h1
h2 k, or rewriting
2 K H = hei, and so h2 = h1 = k

k = h1
2 kh2

and k 6= e.

## This is only possible if h2 = e, then also h1 = e, and H g 1 Hg = hei

follows.
2
Below we give some examples, but first we list some of the more important
auxiliary properties of Frobenius groups.

## Main Properties of Frobenius Groups

Suppose G is a Frobenius group with Frobenius complement H and Frobenius
kernel K. The following facts have been established.
(a) o(H)|o(K) 1. This gives ([G : K], o(K)) = 1, and so K is a
characteristic subgroup of G; see Problem 4.24.
(b) All complements of K in G are conjugate to H.
(c) The Frobenius kernel K is nilpotent; this important fact is due to
Thompson, indeed he proved it in his Ph.D. thesis!
(d) The Sylow subgroups of H are either cyclic or have the form Q2n ,
a dicyclic group. This second case only arises for 2-subgroups. Hence if
2 - o(H), then all Sylow subgroups of H are cyclic which implies that
H is soluble (Section 11.1 and Theorem 6.18).
(e) If 2 | o(H), then H has only one involution, j say, and j 1 kj = k 1
for all k K which in turn implies that K is Abelian. If H is not soluble,
see (d), and H (r) is the last non-neutral term in the derived series for
H (so H (r) = H (r+1) 6= hei, see page 234), then H (r) ' SL2 (5); a
remarkable result which is due to Zassenhaus.
Derivations of most of these properties can be found in Huppert (1998).
Finally we give four examples to illustrate the important results discussed
in this section.
Example 1.

Groups of order pq

## In Problem 6.14 we showed that a non-Abelian group G with o(G) = pq

where p and q are prime and p | q 1, has a presentation of the form

## 14.3 Frobenius Groups

451

G ' ha, b | aq = bp = e, b1 ab = ar i
where rp 1 (mod q) and rt 6 1 (mod q) for 0 < t < p. We show now that if
K = hai / G and H = hbi G, then G is Frobenius with respect to H, and
has Frobenius kernel K. We have G = KH by Lagranges Theorem, and so
we need to show that H g 1 Hg = hei provided g 6 H, that is g = bt au for
some t and u with u 6= 0. Let bm = h H, then
g 1 hg = (bt au )1 bm (bt au ) = au bm au = bm au(1r

6 H

## because u 6= 0 and rm 6 1 (mod q) if 0 < m < p. This gives the required

condition, and so G is Frobenius with respect to H and it has kernel K. Note
that in this case both the Frobenius complement and kernel are cyclic. It is
likely that it was this example, or similar, which led Frobenius to develop
his theory. See Problem 3.6 where a permutation version is given; as noted
above Frobenius first presented his theorem in terms of permutation groups.
Example 2.

## In (c) on page 450 we stated that the kernel of a Frobenius group is

always nilpotent, we give here an example whose Frobenius kernel has a
large nilpotency class. We work over the field F11 , and let K = IT3 (11), see
Problem 3.15, and A be the 3 3 diagonal matrix with diagonal entries 1, 3
and 4. Note that 15 = 35 = 45 = 1 in F11 , and neither 3m nor 4m equal 1,
if 0 < m < 5. (There is nothing special about 1, 3 or 4, we could use any
three distinct members of the set {1, 3, 4, 5, 9}, quadratic residues modulo
11.) Lastly let H = hAi; we have A5 = I3 and H is a cyclic group of order 5.
Now H acts fixed-point-freely on K, for if
!
!
!
!
!
1 t u
1 0 0 m 1 t u
1 0 0 m
1 3m t 4m u
m
0 1 v = 0 3 0
0 1 v
0 3 0
= 0 1 5 v ,
0 0 1
0 0 4
0 0 1
0 0 4
0 0
1
and 0 < m < 5, then t = u = v = 0. Hence by Theorem 14.9, the group
KH, a subgroup of GL3 (11) with order 5 113 = 6655, is Frobenius, and by
Problem 3.15 the kernel K is nilpotent with class 2.
Similar examples exist using the groups ITn (p), provided the prime 5 in
the above calculation is replaced by another prime q with q > n, and we work
over Fp where p is again prime and q | p 1. The Frobenius group then has
a kernel with nilpotency class n 1.
Example 3.

## A Frobenius group whose complement is not soluble

As noted above Zassenhaus has shown that a non-soluble Frobenius complement will always involve the group SL2 (5), see (e) on page 450, and Passman (1968), page 202. Here we give an example of a Frobenius group whose
complement is this group. It can be shown that 2
2

We have shown that SL2 (5)/Z(SL2 (5)) ' A5 (see Problem 3.19), and so the presentation
on page 452 can be constructed using Problem 3.26W which gives a presentation of A5 ;
see Passman (1968), page 202 for details.

452

(14.12)

## We work over F29 ; we choose 29 because it is larger than 5, both 1 and

5 are quadratic residues modulo 29, and it is the smallest prime satisfying
these conditions. Define the following three matrices in GL2 (29)






28 1
0 17
28 0
A=
, B=
, C=
.
28 0
17 23
0 28
A straightforward series of matrix calculations using the relations in (14.12)
shows that if we set a 7 A, b 7 B and c 7 C, then the group hA, B, Ci '
SL2 (5). Now
if

then r = s = 0

for all

D hA, B, Ci.

(14.13)

## If we let K = C29 C29 , and we treat K as the 2-dimensional vector space

over F29 , then (14.13) gives a fixed-point-free automorphism of K. Hence
(C29 C29 )SL2 (5) is Frobenius with a non-soluble complement.

Suzuki Groups
For our last example we consider some Frobenius groups which are subgroups
of GL4 (22m+1 ) for m = 1, 2, . . . , some extensions will give an important class
of simple groups Suzuki groups. For the first of these we work over the field
F8 (so m = 1), and begin by defining the matrices

1
0
A(a, b) =
0
0
and

a
1
0
0

b a6 + ab + b4

a4
a5 + b
,
1
a
0
1

c3 0
0 c2
B(c) =
0
0
0
0

0
0
c2
0

0
0
,
0
3
c

## where a, b, c F8 and c 6= 0. The following three properties are easily proved:

(i) A(a0 , b0 )A(a, b) = A(a0 + a, a0 a4 + b0 + b),
(ii) B(c)B(d) = B(cd) provided c, d 6= 0,
(iii) B(c)1 A(a, b)B(c) = A(ac, bc5 ).
(Use the facts that in F8 we have (a + c)6 = a6 + a4 c2 + a2 c4 + c6 and
(b4 c)4 = b2 c4 as the multiplicative group of this field has order 7.) Let
K = hA(a, b) | a, b F8 i and H = hB(c) | c F8 \{0}i.

453

## First we note that K is a non-Abelian 2-group with exponent 4 and order

64, and
K 0 = Z(K) = {A(0, b) | b F8 },
as the reader can easily check, note that K has nilpotency class 2. Now KH is
Frobenius with order 64 7 = 448. This follows because K / KH by (iii), and
H acts fixed-point-freely on K because, by (iii) again, A(a, b) = A(ac, bc5 ) is
only possible if c = 1.
We use this group to construct the first Suzuki group Sz(8). Let

0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
,
C=
0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
and define
Sz(8) = hA(a, b), B(c), C | a, b F8 , c F8 \{0}i.
It can be shown that this group is simple and has order 65 448 = 29120;
see Huppert and Blackburn III (1982b). Also it is possible to give a (finite)
geometrical description as follows. We work in the 3-dimensional projective
space over F8 , which we label P3 . (The space P3 has coordinates of the form
(a : b : c : d) where at least one of a, b, c and d is non-zero, and if t 6= 0 then
(a : b : c : d) = (ta : tb : tc : td). Also points with coordinates (0 : b : c : d) are
said to lie on the plane at infinity.) Let O denote the set of points
P (r, s) = (1 : r : s : r6 + rs + s4 ) for r, s F8 ,

and P () = (0 : 0 : 0 : 1).

## The object O is called an ovoid which means that it is sphere-like or convex.

To be more precise, no line in P3 meets O in more than two points. For
example the points on the line through P (0, 0) and P () have coordinates
a(1 : 0 : 0 : 0) + b(0 : 0 : 0 : 1) = (a : 0 : 0 : b), and this point only lies on O
if a = 0 or if b = 0, so is either P (0, 0) or P (); the reader should check the
remaining cases. The relationship with Sz(8) is given by
Theorem 14.10 (i) The group of collineations (this is the name given to a
linear map in projective space) which map O to itself is isomorphic to Sz(8).
(ii) The order of Sz(8) equals 65 times the order of the Frobenius group KH,
that is 65 448 = 29120 = 26 5 7 13.
(iii) The group Sz(8) is simple.
(iv) If p is odd, then all Sylow p-subgroups of Sz(8) are cyclic.
For a proof see Huppert and Blackburn III (1982b), pages 182 to 194, and
for (iv) see Theorem 6.18. Note that
(a) the factor 65 in (ii) arises because o(O) = 65,
(b) The simplicity result in (iii) is a consequence of (i),
(c) The prime 3 does not divide o(Sz(8)), and

454

## (d) the Sylow 2-subgroups of Sz(8) are isomorphic to K, and so are

not cyclic. (It has been shown that the only non-Abelian simple groups
with this property are L2 (2n ), L2 (p), Sz(22n+1 ), and the Janko group
J1 (web page 390) where n > 1 and p > 3.)
The construction given above is only the first of an infinite family. In the
general case we work over the field F22n+1 , n = 1, 2 . . . . The matrix A(a, b) is
replaced by

1 a b aa2 + ab + b
0 1 a

aa + b
An (a, b) =
, for a, b F22n+1 ,
0 0 1
a
0 0 0
1
where is the automorphism of the multiplicative group of F22n+1 defined by
n+1
a = a2
(so a 2 = a2 ), and the matrix B(c) is replaced by Bn (c) which
n
n
n
n
is again diagonal with diagonal entries c12 , c2 , c2 and c1+2 . Now we
define
Sz(22n+1 ) = hAn (a, b), Bn (c), C | a, b, c F22n+1 and c 6= 0i.
The main properties of these groups are as follows.
(i) Sz(22n+1 ) is simple for n = 1, 2, . . . . This is proved as before by first
showing that an ovoid similar to that defined above is invariant under
collineations associated with the group.
(ii) The order of Sz(22n+1 ) is q 2 (q 1)(q 2 + 1) where q = 22n+1 . It is
easily seen that this order is not divisible by 3. Note that both q and
q 2 + 1 are congruent to 2 modulo 3. Thompson has shown that the
order of every non-Abelian simple group is divisible by 3 or 5, and it is
known that the order must be even (the Feit-Thompson Theorem). It
can be also be shown that the only simple groups whose orders are not
divisible by 3 are the Suzuki groups. There is a whole range of groups
whose orders are not divisible by 5, see Problem 14.23 and the Atlas.
(iii) For odd primes p, all Sylow p-subgroups of all Suzuki groups are
cyclic.
(iv) If g Sz(q) and g 6= e, then the centraliser CSz(q) (g) is nilpotent. The only other non-Abelian simple groups with this property are
L3 (4), L2 (2n ), L2 (9) and L2 (p) where p is a Fermat or Mersenne prime;
see page 444.
(v) The only outer automorphisms of Sz(q) are those generated by field
automorphisms of Fq .
(vi) When first discovered in 1960, these groups were thought to be new.
But it was soon realised that they had been studied in another guise
some years previously by Chevalley, for the Suzuki group Sz(22n+1 ) is
in fact isomorphic to the so-called Twisted Chevalley Group 2 B2 (22n+1 ).
For further details see the Atlas (1985) page xv.
(vii) Amongst the Suzuki groups Sz(8) has a number of individual properties; for instance (a) it is the only one involved (is a factor group of

14.4 Problems 14

455

## a subgroup of the group in question) in a sporadic group the Rudalis

group Ru (and possibly the friendly giant M , an open problem); and
(b) it is the only Suzuki group with a non-neutral Schur multiplier
C22 ; see web page 391.
Some proofs and more details can be found in the reference quoted above.
But finally we ask: How did these groups arise in the first place? In the
1930s Zassenhaus and others were studying permutation representations of
the groups L2 (p); see Chapter 12. He noted that they have three particular
properties:
(a) they are doubly transitive,
(b) each non-neutral element has at most two fixed points, and
(c) they do not possess a regular normal subgroup.
For a definition of regular see Problem 3.8. Note that if G is a permutation
group on X, and H is a regular normal subgroup of G, then o(H) = o(X),
also in Forbeniuss Theorem (Theorem 14.6), the Frobenius kernel is a regular normal subgroup. Nowadays groups whose permutation representations
satisfy properties (a), (b) and (c) are called Zassenhaus groups. Zassenhaus
tried to show that the only groups satisfying (a) to (c) are the linear groups
L2 (p), but he did not succeed because it is not true. In 1960 Suzuki discovered his class of groups Sz(q), and he was able to show that each Sz(q) is
in fact Zassenhaus, and he and several other group-theorists proved finally
that there are no other examples. And this illustrates one of the main methods in the theory the classification method which can be stated as follows:
Introduce a collection of properties, like (a), (b) and (c) above, find some
groups with these properties, and then show that and this is usually the
hardest part to establish no other groups satisfy these properties. CFSG
was solved using this and similar strategies on several sets of properties, and
showing finally that these sets cover all possibilities!

14.4

Problems 14

Problem 14.1

## Write out the character tables for the groups C2 and C4 .

Problem 14.2 (i) Complete the character table calculations for the group
C2 C2 started on page 435.
(ii) Confirm directly that the Column Orthogonality Relations hold for
the group A4 using Table 4 on page 437.
Problem 14.3 
n is odd.

## Construct the character tables for the groups Dn when

Problem 14.4 Construct the character table for the quaternion group Q2 .
8 (D4 ) in Section 14.1.

456

Problem 14.5 
then

## (i) You are given the result: If is an n-th root of unity

X
i
is an integer.
1in, (i,n)=1

Using Theorem 13.15 and Corollary B20 on page 460, show that if g
G, o(g) = n and g is conjugate to g i for all i in the range 1 i n with
(i, n) = 1, then (g) is an integer for all characters of G.
(ii) Use (i) to show that all character values of all symmetric groups Sn
are rational integers.
Problem 14.6 Using the previous problem show that the character table
given for the permutation group S4 below is correct.
g
o(CS4 (g))
1
2
3
4
5

e
24
1
1
2
3
3

(1, 2)
4
1
1
0
1
1

Table 7.

(1, 2, 3)
3
1
1
1
0
0

(1, 2, 3, 4)
4
1
1
0
1
1

(1, 2)(3, 4)
8
1
1
2
1
1

## Character Table for S4

Problem 14.7 
Using the theory of tensor products (see for example
James and Liebeck (1994), Chapter 19) it can be shown that if is a character
of a group G, then so are S and A where, for g G,
S (g) = (2 (g) + (g 2 ))/2

## Neither of these new characters need be irreducible even if is irreducible.

Use these, and the fix (Problem 13.16) and linear characters to construct the
character table for S5 . (Hint. The character table is 7 7.)
Problem 14.8 The character table for the group SL2 (3) is given below
where = e2i/3 . Show that this table is correct using Section 8.2, and one
of the tables given in Section 14.1.
g
o(CSL2 (3))
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

e
24
1
1
1
3
2
2
2

Table 8.

a3
24
1
1
1
3
2
2
2

a2
6
1

2
0
1

b2
6
1
2

0
1
2

ab
4
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

a
6
1
2

0
1
2

b
6
1

2
0
1

14.4 Problems 14

Problem 14.9

457






0
0 1
a 7
and d
7
1 0
0 1

## gives a 2-dimensional representation of the group E discussed in Section 8.3;

use the presentation (8.8) of E given on page 182. Apply this to calculate all
of the irreducible representations of E.
(ii) Use (i) to justify the character table for E given below.
g
o(CE (g))
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

e
24
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2

a2
24
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2

b
12
1
1
1
1
0
2
2
0
0

Table 9.

c
12
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1

a2 c
12
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1

bc
12
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

i 3
i 3

bc2
12
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

i 3
i 3

a
4
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

ab
4
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

## Character Table for E

Problem 14.10 Use Burnsides first theorem (Theorem 14.3) to show that
no group of order 1200 can be simple.
Problem 14.11 
Prove that if H is an Abelian subgroup of a nonAbelian simple group G, then [G : H] has at least two prime factors. (Hint.
Consider a centraliser of an element of H and use Theorem 14.3.)
Problem 14.12

## If G is finite and every maximal subgroup has prime or prime-squared

index, then G is soluble.
Method. Let G0 be a counter-example with smallest possible order and let
p0 be the largest prime factor of o(G0 ). Consider P0 , a Sylow p0 -subgroup of
G0 , and treat the cases P0 normal, and P0 not normal, separately, choose a
maximal subgroup H of G0 which contains NG0 (P0 ), and use Problem 6.10(i)
and Burnsides Theorem.
Problem 14.13

## (i) Suppose o(G) = pr q s where p and q are primes. Let P1 , . . . , Pm be

a list of the Sylow p-subgroups of G, and suppose m > 1. Show that if
Pi Pj = hei if i 6= j, then each Pi is cyclic.
(ii) It was stated in Note (e) that the situation described in (i) can only
arise in three particular cases. Give examples for the first two.

458

## Problem 14.14 Show that a group G with a subgroup H which is nilpotent

and has prime power index is soluble.
Problem 14.15 Show that in the statement of Frobeniuss Theorem (Theorem 14.6) the set K is closed under inverses and contains the neutral element.
(Hint. See the proof of Sublemma 1 on page 445.)
Problem 14.16 Prove that the centre of a Frobenius group is isomorphic
to the neutral subgroup.
Problem 14.17 Let n > 1. Show that the dihedral group Dn is Frobenius
if, and only if, n is odd.
Problem 14.18 Show that Q2 can act fixed-point-freely on C3 C3 . (Hint.
Think of this latter group as a vector space of dimension 2 over F3 ). Hence
show how to construct a Frobenius group of order 72.
Problem 14.19

## (i) Show that the mapping given by a 7 a2 c, b 7 b2 , c 7 c4 defines an

automorphism of H of order 3.
(ii) Show that the semi-direct product C3 o H provides an example of a
Frobenius group with a non-Abelian Frobenius kernel.
Problem 14.20

## (i) Show that if (m, n) = 1 then m is also fixed-point-free.

(ii) Let be given by g = g 1 (g). Show that is an isomorphism.
(iii) Show that if g and g are conjugate in G, then g = e.
(iv) Further show that if g G, then g g g n1 = e.
(v) If n = 2, prove that g 1 = g for g G, and deduce G is Abelian.
Problem 14.21 Suppose H GLm (F ) and o(H) = pq where p and q are
primes which can be equal. Prove that H is cyclic.
Problem 14.22 Let G = GL2 (7). Show that G has a subgroup of order 12
which has no fixed points when it is applied to the vector space of dimension
2 defined over the field F7 .
Problem 14.23 Give examples to show that there are infinitely many
simple groups whose orders are not divisible by 5, see (ii) on page 454.
Problem 14.24 (i) Suppose G is a Frobenius group with Frobenius kernel
K and complement H. Show that if J / G, then J K or K J.
(ii) Prove that o(H) | o(K) 1, and so deduce (o(K), [G : K]) = 1. This
shows that K is a characteristic subgroup of G, see Problem 4.22.
(iii) Using Thompsons Theorem (see (c) on page 450) show that K =
F(G), the Fitting subgroup of G.

B2 Algebraic Integers

459

Appendix B2

Algebraic Integers

## A character of a group G is a function from G into the ring of algebraic

integers A. Here we describe the basic properties of the elements of A. For
further details see, for example, Stewart, I. N. and Tall, D. O. Algebraic Number Theory, Chapman and Hall, London, 1979. This subsection is intended
as an addition to Appendix B.
Definition B17 An algebraic integer is a complex number which satisfies a
monic (that is the leading coefficient is 1) polynomial equation with rational
integer coefficients.

For example 7, 1+i, 3 and (1+ 3)/2 are all algebraic integers. The reader
should check this.
For our purposes the main facts we need to know about the set of algebraic
integers A is that it is closed under addition, subtraction and multiplication.
Addition and multiplication are clearly associative and there exists a multiplicative identity 1, hence A forms an integral domain. We need to prove one
lemma before we can derive our main result.
Lemma B18 Let z1 , . . . , zm be a set of complex numbers, and let Z denote
the collection of all sums of the form
Xm
ri zi where ri Z.
i=1

## If y C and yz Z for all z Z, then y is an algebraic integer.

Proof. The set Z is clearly closed under addition and scalar multiplication by elements of Z. As yzi Z for 1 i m by hypothesis, we
can find rational integers rij to satisfy
yzi =

Xm
j=1

rij zj

for i = 1, . . . , m.

## Rewriting this equation we have

Xm
(rij ij y)zj = 0
j=1

for i = 1, . . . , m,

## where ij = 0 if i 6= j, and ii = 1. Hence this set of m homogeneous

equations in m variables has a nonzero solution (by hypothesis and
because the result clearly holds if y = 0), and so
det(rij ij y) = 0.
The result follows because this equation can be rewritten as a polynomial equation in y with integer coefficients (as rij Z) and leading coefficient 1. The only term in the sum defining the determinant
n
above
Qm which involves y is the product of its diagonal elements, viz:
(r

y),
and
the
coefficient
of y in this product is 1.
2
i=1 ii

460

Appendix B

Number Theory

Theorem B19 The set of algebraic integers is closed under addition and
multiplication, and so forms an integral domain.
Proof. Let y1 and y2 be algebraic integers satisfying monic polynomial
equations (with integer coefficients) of degrees n1 and n2 , respectively.
Further, define
zij = y1i y2j

for

0 i < n1

and

0 j < n2 ,

Xn1 1 Xn2 1
i=0

j=0

rij zij ,

## where rij Z. The elements of Z1 are clearly complex numbers, and

set Z1 is closed under addition and scalar multiplication by elements of
Z, and so that it satisfies the conditions set out in Lemma B18. It is
now a simple matter to check that
yk zij ,

(y1 + y2 )zij

and y1 y2 zij

## all belong to Z1 for 0 i < n1 , 0 j < n2 and k = 1, 2. Note that

if yknk occurs in a calculation, then it can be replaced by a polynomial
expression in lower powers of yk using its defining equation. Hence by
Lemma B18, both y1 + y2 and y1 y2 are algebraic integers. The result
now follows as the remaining properties are inherited from the complex
numbers.
2
Note that the two proofs above work in a module over Z. A module is similar
to a vector space except that the underlying field is replaced by an integral
domain which in this case is Z.
The following corollary is used in both Chapters 13 and 14.
Corollary B20 If a complex number y is both an algebraic integer and a
rational number, then it belongs to Z.
Proof. By hypothesis y satisfies a polynomial equation of the form
y n + r1 y n1 + + rn = 0

where ri Z for i = 1, . . . , n.

## Suppose n > 1. Now y is also a rational number, and so y = a/b for

some a, b Z where b 6= 0 and (a, b) = 1. Substituting this value of y
in the equation above and multiplying by bn we obtain
0 = an + r1 an1 b + + rn bn = an + b(r1 an1 + + rn bn1 ).
This is impossible if n > 1 because (an , b) = 1 by definition.

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

Answers, hints and/or sketch solutions to most of the problems are given
below. If a problem has wide applicability then a fuller solution is provided.
Note that in some cases other methods will exist; you may find better, clearer
and/or shorter solutions compared with those given below. It is important to
note that a number of these solutions are incomplete, there are often details
for you to fill in. Please notify the author about any errors or omissions.

Solutions 2
Problem 2.1 (i) Let X = {g : g G} and, for a G, let Ya = {ag :
g G}. By closure Ya X, and for each g G, g = a(a1 g) and so
X = {a(a1 g) : g G} Ya ; hence X = Ya . Secondly, if Z = {g 1 : g G},
then Z X as G is closed under inverses, but g = (g 1 )1 and so X =
{(g 1 )1 : g G} Z, hence Z = X.
(ii) Use induction on n for the term g = g1 g2 gn when n > 2. For
n = 3 the associativity axiom applies. Secondly, assume that the result holds
for all bracketings of expressions with m elements where m < n. Consider
two bracketings of g:
(g1 gj ) (gj+1 gn ) and (g1 gk ) (gk+1 gn ) (2.1)
where j k. If j = k use the inductive hypothesis on the terms in the round
brackets, and if j < k, use the inductive hypothesis again to rewrite (2.1) as

(g1 gj ) (gj+1 gk ) (gk+1 gn ) and

(g1 gj ) (gj+1 gk ) (gk+1 gn ).
Now use associativity. A similar argument applies if j > k. A further inductive
argument is needed if more pairs of brackets are involved.

462

Solution Appendix

## Problem 2.2 (i) The operation is closed by definition, it is associative as

Z has this property, the neutral element is 0, and the inverse of a is 7 a,
for 0 a 6. Abelian.
(ii) The operation is closed and associative as in (i), the neutral element
is 1, and the inverses are given by: 1 1 2 4 3 5 6 6 1 (mod 7).
Abelian.
(iii) The operation is closed and associative as in Q, the neutral element
is 3, and the inverse of a is a 6. Abelian.
(iv) Matrix
multiplication
the neutral element is

 is closed1and associative,

1 0
a b
d b
I2 = 0 1 , and if A = c d , then A = c a / det A. Not Abelian.

0
(v) We have A2 = B 2 = 1
Q, and so A4 = B 4 = I2 . Also BA =
0
1

i 0
3
2
3
6
2
0 i = A B, and so BA = (BA)A = (A B)A = A B = A B; similarly
i 0
3
2
2
BA = AB = 0 i . As A = B , these equations show that the group has
eight elements: I2 , A, A2 , A3 , B, AB, A2 B and A3 B. The group axioms follow
using (AB)1 = BA = A3 B et cetera. Not Abelian, for example AB 6= BA.
This is a representation of the quaternion group Q2 ; see page 118.
(vi) f1 acts as the neutral element. To establish closure all cases have to
be checked separately, for instance, if x R,
f3 (f4 (x)) = 1 f4 (x) = 1 (1/(1 x)) = x/(1 x) = f5 (x), and
f3 (f4 ()) = 1 f4 () = 1 (1/) = 1 = f5 ().
We have f1 , f2 , f3 and f5 are self inverse, f41 = f6 and f61 = f4 . The group
is isomorphic to the dihedral group D3 ; for example map f4 to and f2 to
in the definition on page 3. Not Abelian.
(vii) If and are isometries, then
d(x, y) = d((x), (y)) = d(((x)), ((y))),
and so the set is closed under composition because composition of two bijections is a bijection. Composition is also associative, and the neutral element
is the identity function (x) = x for all x. Lastly, if is an isometry (and so
is a bijection), then 1 is a bijection (see page 281), and
d(1 (x), 1 (y)) = d((1 (x), (1 (y))) = d(x, y),
hence 1 is also an isometry. Not Abelian, for example try rotation by /3
and reflection in the x-axis..
Problem 2.3 (i) Associativity fails because (a b) c 6= a (b c) in
general.
(ii) There is no neutral element and closure fails.



(iii) Not closed, for instance 10 11 11 01 = 21 11 .
(iv) 0 Q but it has no inverse.

Solutions 2

463

## Problem 2.4 (i) Let a S, so there exist c and c0 satisfying ac = a

and c0 a = a. Show first c = c0 . For if b S, there exist d and d 0 satisfying
ad = b = d 0 a, so
bc = (d 0 a)c = d 0 (ac) = d 0 a = b,
that is, c is a right neutral element. This holds for all b S, and so for b = c0 ,
hence c0 c = c0 . Similarly using ad = b we have c0 c = c, and so c = c0 .
Uniqueness follows because we have shown that all solutions x of bx = b
equal c, a solution of xb = b. Therefore the neutral element properties hold,
so let c = c0 = e. Using the given conditions again, for a S, there exist a0
and a00 satisfying aa0 = e = a00 a, and then a00 = a00 e = a00 (aa0 ) = ea0 = a0 .
Lastly uniqueness can be proved as above.
(ii) First note that aa and a a are idempotents because the given equation
shows that
aa aa = aa and a aa a = a a.
(2.2)
Now the given equation (twice) shows that (aa a)(a a a ) = aa , hence by
(2.2) we have
(aa )a a aa = (aa aa )a a aa = (aa a)(a a a )aa = (aa )aa = aa ,
which by the given uniqueness property proves
a a = (aa ) .

(2.3)

## By (2.2) we also have aa aa aa = aa , and so applying the uniqueness

property again we obtain (aa ) = aa . Combining this with (2.3) gives
a a = aa , and using the given equation again we obtain a = a (a a ) =
a (aa ), hence by the uniqueness property
a = a

and aa = (aa )

by (2.3). Now continue, you need to show that aa = bb so that you can
take aa as the unique neutral element.
Problem  2.5 (i) Apply Theorem 2.13; note that H G, and so H is
not empty.
(ii) H J = H is equivalent to H J, so apply (i).
(iii) By Theorem 2.34, both H and J are cyclic. Suppose H = hai and
J = hbi. If HJ 6= hei, then there exists integers k and l satisfying 1 k, l < p
and ak = bl . As (k, p) = 1 we can find an integer m to satisfy km 1 (mod p).
Then a = akm = blm and so H J; reversing this argument gives H = J.
Problem 2.6 SS = {s1 s2 : s1 , s2 S}, so SS S by group closure, also
S SS because se SS for s S. Secondly suppose T T = T , so T is
closed under the group operation (for if t1 , t2 T , then t1 t2 T T = T ) and
it is non-empty by definition. Since T is not empty, we use Theorem 2.7(iii)
for inverses and the neutral element; hence T G. False if G is infinite, an
example is G = Z and T is the non-negative integers.

464

Solution Appendix

## Problem  2.7 (i) If (gh)n = e, then e = h(gh)n h1 = (hg)n . If o(gh) is

finite, this shows that o(hg) | o(gh); now reverse argument to obtain equality.
This also shows that if o(gh) is finite, so is o(hg); hence take contrapositive
in the infinite case.
(ii) Suppose m > 0. We have
m

n
m
m
n
=n
and
,
Z,
(m, n)
(m, n)
(m, n) (n, m)

so (g m )n/(m,n) = e which gives o(g m ) | n/(m, n). If not equal reverse argument
to obtain a contradiction as in (iv) below. If m = 0, then (m, n) = n and
g 0 = e, and if m < 0 use g n = e.
(iii) Use (ii) and the Euclidean algorithm.
(iv) Suppose first (m, n) = 1, then LCM(m, n) = mn. We have (gh)mn =
m n n m
(g ) (h ) = e, and so o(gh) = m1 n1 where m1 | m and n1 | n. If m1 < m.
We have
(g m1 n1 hm1 n1 )n/n1 = e, so g m1 n hm1 n = e,
and so g m1 n = e as o(h) = n. There exist integers r and s with rm + sn = 1
or snm1 = m1 rmm1 , hence e = g snm1 = g m1 as g m1 n = e which implies
that o(g) m1 < m, a contradiction. If m and n have a common factor,
remove it first and repeat this argument.
(v) By Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27), the order of each element
of G divides o(G), hence g o(G) = e for all g G. Second part follows by
definition.
(vi) By (iv) we have g mn = e. Also by the Euclidean Algorithm (Theorem
B2), as (m, n) = 1, there exist r, s Z satisfying rm + sn = 1. Put a = g sn
and b = g rm , then ab = g = ba and am = e = bn . Suppose also a0 b0 = g = b0 a0
and (a0 )m = e = (b0 )n , then (a0 )m (b0 )m = (a0 b0 )m = (ab)m = am bm which
gives (b0 )rm = brm . But rm = 1 sn, and so b = b0 . Using a similar argument
we have a = a0 .


0 1
(vii) For example let A = 10 1
and B = 1
. Then A4 = B 3 = I2 ,
0
1


1 1
but AB = 0 1 which has infinite order in GL2 (Q) as (AB)r = 01 1r .
Problem 2.8 (i) As o(G) < we can pair off elements ai of order larger
1
1
than 2 (so ai 6= a1
i ) by {(a1 , a1 ), (a2 , a2 ), . . . }. Hence if o(G) is even, there
are an even number of elements of order 1 or 2 in G, but there is exactly one
element e of order 1.
(ii) We have o((Z/pZ) ) = p 1 (every positive integer less than p is
coprime to p), so by Problem 2.7(v), if g (Z/pZ) then o(g p1 ) = e.
(iii) Use (i) as p 1 is the only element of order 2 in (Z/pZ) , hence
(p 2)! 1 (mod p) as inverses are unique.
Problem 2.9 We have g1 = e, and so the table has the following form,
where the operation is defined by elements in the top row times elements in
the left-hand column,

Solutions 2

465

e
g2

gn

e
e
g2

gn

g2
g2

...
...
...
...
...
...

gn
gn

and each row and each column inside the box is a permutation of {g1 , . . . , gn }
with determined first entry, see Theorem 2.8. The converse does not hold
as the example T below shows. The operation given by T is closed and it
has a neutral element and inverses. But it is not associative, and left and
right inverses are not always equal. For instance (g3 g4 )g2 = g5 g2 = g3 and
g3 (g4 g2 ) = g3 g5 = g4 , also g2 g4 = e and g3 g2 = e.
T
e
g2
g3
g4
g5

e
e
g2
g3
g4
g5

g2
g2
g4
g5
e
g3

g3
g3
e
g2
g5
g4

g4
g4
g5
e
g3
g2

g5
g5
g3
g4
g2
e

## Problem 2.10 (i) Use (1)2 = 1, normal as R is Abelian.

(ii) Clearly e X as e fixes all elements. If and are perms. which fix 3,
so do and 1 , see page 43. Not normal, eg: (2, 3, 4)(2, 4)(2, 4, 3) = (3, 4)
which moves 3; for cyclic notation see page 44.
(iiia) A normal subgroup. For det I2 = 1, if det A = det B = 1 then
det A1 B = 1, and det C 1 AC = 1, for all C GL2 (Q).
(iiib) A subgroup. For In is upper triangular, and if A and B are upper
triangular, so areAB andA1 (Lemma 3.16). Not normal. For example the
conjugate of 10 11 by 21 11 has lower left entry 1.
(iv) |1| = 1, and if |x|, |y| = 1 then |xy| = |x1 | = 1; normal as group is
Abelian.
(v) The set Z is not empty as the identity function , where (x) = x for all
x, is differentiable. If f and g are differentiable, so is f g as (d/dx)(f (g(x))) =
f 0 (g(x))g 0 (x) where the primes denote differentiation, also as f 1 (f (x)) = x
we have (d/dx)(f 1 (x)) = 1/(f 0 (f 1 (x)). Normal.
Problem 2.11 (i) Suppose H C and o(H) = n, then if h H we
have hn = 1, the neutral element of C , by Problem 2.7(v). Hence h is an
n-th root of unity, and so must belong to the set of all n-th roots of unity
{e2ir/n : r = 0, 1, . . . , n 1} which has n members. But H also has n members, and so H = he2i/n i, the cyclic group generated by e2i/n .
(ii) The group Q has infinitely many subgroups, examples are: hei; Z;
set of rational numbers with square-free denominators; {a/pn : a, n
Z, p a prime, n 0}; and set of rationals with a finite decimal expansion.
For further details see Web Section 7.5 where we show that Q has uncountably many subgroups which can be characterised in detail.

466

Solution Appendix

Problem 2.12

## (i) {a, a}, one for each a R+ .

(3)

(3)

(ii) Left cosets are (3, n)S5 , and right cosets are S5 (3, n), for n =
(3)
1, . . . , 6, where S5 is the subgroup (' S5 ) of the group of all permutations on {1, . . . , 6} which fix 3; see Chapter 3.
(iiia) {A : det A = t}, one coset for each t Q .



## (iiib) The left coset of zx wy is set of matrices of the form ax

az where
a 6= 0, similar for right cosets.
(iv) {sei : R}, one for each positive real number s; they form concentric circles in the complex plane with centre the origin and radius s.
(v) Cosets relate to the cardinality of the set of points where the functions are continuous but not differentiable, so one coset for each finite integer
and many infinite cases. This is hard and requires a knowledge of transfinite
ordinals!!
Problem 2.13 (i) No, see Lemma 2.22. If H, J G and sH = tJ, then
t sH, and so sH = tH which gives tH = tJ and t1 H = t1 J. Hence
H = t1 HtH = t1 JtJ = J.
(ii) Suppose a G\H. We claim hai = G. For if not, there exists a maximal
subgroup J satisfying hai J < G, with possibly J = hai. But there is only
one maximal subgroup by hypothesis, and so J = H and hai H which
contradicts our assumption that a 6 H. Note that the converse is false.
Problem  2.14 (i) We have K H and g 1 kg K for all g G and
k K, so h1 kh K for h H and k K (as H G), hence K / H.
(ii) If J Z(G) / G, then J G by Corollary 2.14. Also as J Z(G),
for g G and j J, we have gj = jg or g 1 jg = j J. Hence J / G.
T
T
(iii) Ki G by Theorem 2.15. Suppose g G and k Ki . Then
1
k Ki for
T all i, and as Ki / G, we have g kg Ki , again for all i, hence
g 1 kg Ki .
(iv) Note first e KH and KH J H as K J. Hence KH J H
by Corollary 2.14. For normality we have j 1 kj K, for j J and k K
(by hypothesis), so this also holds for j J H and k K H. Further,
under the same conditions j, k H, and so j 1 kj H (as H G). Hence
j 1 kj K H and K H / J H.
Problem  2.15 (i) By Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27), o(G) =
o(J)[G : J] = o(H)[G : H] and o(J) = o(H)[J : H], so use substitution.
(ii) As H J H G we have by (i) [G : H J] = [G : H][H : H J],
and similarly [G : H J] = [G : J][J : H J]. These show that the LCM of
[G : H] and [G : J] divides [G : H J]. Now if [G : H] and [G : J] are coprime,
then these equations give [G : H] = [J : H J] and [G : J] = [H : H J].
Problem  2.16 (i) We have [e, e] = e G0 and [a, b]1 = [b, a], so
G0 G as closure is given by definition. Also
g 1 [a, b]g = g 1 a1 gg 1 b1 gg 1 agg 1 bg = [g 1 ag, g 1 bg]

Solutions 2

467

## which gives normality.

(iia) Z0 = hei, the derived subgroup of an Abelian group is hei.
(iib) If D3 = ha, b | a3 = b2 = e, bab = a2 i, then a1 b1 ab = a and
1 1
b a ba = a2 et cetera; hence D30 = ha | a3 = ei.

0
(iic) We have [A, B] = [B, A] = 1
0 1 = C; so derived subgroup is hCi.
(iii) For a, b G, we have a1 b1 ab J (as G0 J), and so if a G and
b1 J then a1 bab1 = j J, hence a1 ba = jb J, that is J / G.
(iv) If K 6 Z(G), then there exist g G and k, k 0 K with g 1 kg = k 0
and k 6= k 0 . But then [g, k 1 ] = k 0 k 1 6= e, so K G0 6= hei.
(v) As K / G, g 1 kg K for g G and k K. Now if k 1 g 1 kg J and
g1 G, then g11 (k 1 g 1 kg)g1 = (g11 k 1 g1 )(g11 g 1 g1 )(g11 kg1 )(g11 gg1 )
[K, G] = J. Hence J / G as J G by definition, and J K follows similarly. This property also be established by using the Correspondence Theorem
(Theorem 4.16).
Problem 2.17 (i) [a, b]1 = (a1 b1 ab)1 = b1 a1 ba = [b, a].
(iia) Use induction several times. We have if r > 0, [ar+1 , b]
= a1 ar b1 ar (bb1 )ab = a1 [ar , b]b1 ab = a1 [a, b]r b1 ab = [a, b]r+1 ,
by Theorem 2.7(iv) and the hypothesis. Similarly for s > 0 we have
[a, bs ] = [a, b]s . For negative powers use [a1 , b] = [a, b]1 et cetera, because
[a1 , b][a, b] = a[a, b]b1 a1 b = e using given conditions.
(iib) Use induction, there is nothing to prove if t = 1. Main step:
(ab)t+1 = ab(ab)t = abat bt [b, a]t(t1)/2
= at+1 at bat b1 bt+1 [b, a]t(t1)/2
= at+1 [at , b1 ]bt+1 [b, a]t(t1)/2
= at+1 bt+1 [b, a]t(t+1)/2 .
Note that by (i) and (iia) [b, a]t = [at , b1 ], and we use the given conditions
for the last equation.
(iii) (b1 [a, c]b)[b, c] = b1 a1 c1 acbb1 c1 bc = b1 a1 c1 abc = [ab, c].
Second part similar.
(iv) Expand out and cancel terms as in (iii).
(v) Use induction. First let m = 1. Clear if n = 1, so suppose true for
n > 1. We have, using (g 1 [h, j]g)1 = g 1 [j, h]g et cetera,
[a1 , b1 bn+1 ] = [a1 , bn+1 ](b1
n+1 [a1 , b1 bn ]bn+1 ),
and by the inductive hypothesis this is a product of conjugates of commutators (note bn+1 H). The general case follows similarly.
(vi) Let hi H, ji J. By the results above we have

468

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

1
h1
[H, J],
2 [h1 , j1 ]h2 = [h1 h2 , j1 ][h2 , j1 ]

## j21 [h1 j1 ]j2 = [h1 , j2 ]1 [h1 , j1 j2 ] [H, J].

If g [H, J], then g = c1 . . . cn where ci = [ai , bi ]s for s = 1, ai H
and bi J. The equations above show that d1 cd [H, J] if d H or
d J. Hence as G = hH, Ji, we see that g 1 cg [H, J] for all g G giving
normality.
Problem  2.18 (i) Show first A(BC) B(AC). For if gh A(BC)
where g A and h B C, then gh AB = B as A B and gh AC,
and so gh B (AC). Conversely, if j B (AC), then j = ac AC where
a A and c C. This gives a1 j = c B C (as A B and j B).
Hence j A(B C) because a1 A. Result follows as this holds for all
j B (AC).
(ii) Use (i).
(iii) We have B = B(BC) [as B BC] = B(AC) = A(BC) [by (i)] =
A(A C) = A [as A C A]. Note that if G is finite this result can also be
proved using Problem 2.27 or Theorem 5.8.
(iv) This follows from (i), for using the given conditions we have ABCD =
A(B CD) = AC(B D).
Problem  2.19 (i) If [G : H] = 2, there are two cosets, one of which is
H. So G = H aH = H Hb with disjoint unions, for all a, b G\H, hence
aH = G\H = Hb for all a, b 6 H; that is H / G.
Second part. Choose a 6 H, so a bH for some b 6 H. If a2 6 H
then a2 bH, hence ab1 = h1 and a2 b1 = h2 where hi H. These give
a = h2 h1
1 H, a contradiction, see Lemma 2.22.
(ii) By Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27), o(H) | o(G), hence o(G)/o(H)
2 if H 6= G. For second part use (i).
(iii) Let G = D4 = ha, b | a4 = b2 = e, bab = a3 i. By (i) H = ha2 , bi / G
and J = hbi / H. But J is not normal in G because a1 ba = a2 b 6 J.
(iv) The result is obvious if H J or J H. Suppose all elements
of G belong to H or J. Let h H\J and j J\H. Now hj G, so
hj H or hj J by supposition. If the former case holds, hj = h0 H so
j = h0 h1 H, impossible; argue similarly in the second case. If G is finite,
then a second proof is: o(H), o(J) o(G)/2 by (ii). As e H and e J, we
have o(H J) < o(G), hence there is an element in G not in H J.
(v) As HJ = JH, every term hj, h H and j J can be written in the
form j 0 h0 where j 0 J and h0 H. Now use Theorem 2.13.
Problem 2.20 (i) o(G) = 4. By Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27), if
e 6= a G, then o(a) = 2 or 4. If o(a) = 4 then the elements of G are
a, a2 , a3 and a4 = e, and the group is cyclic with generator a. Otherwise all
non-neutral elements have order 2, and so the group is Abelian by Corollary
2.20. Hence if a and b are two of these elements, the third is ab where ba = ab,
and the group is isomorphic to T2 , a product of two cyclic groups of order 2.

Solutions 2

469

## (ii) o(G) = 6. As above the non-neutral elements have orders 2, 3 or 6.

Also, by Problem 2.8(i), G contains at least one element of order 2, a say. If
all non-neutral elements have order 2, then as in the second part of (i), G is
Abelian and there exist order two elements b, c G. But then ab, ac, bc and
abc all belong to G, and are distinct, which gives at least eight elements in
G which is impossible.
Hence G contains an element of order 3 or 6, but if o(b) = 6 then o(b2 ) = 3;
therefore G contains an element c, say, of order 3. If G does contain an
element of order 6, then G is cyclic (see (i)). Hence we may suppose, if G is
not cyclic, then G contains e, a (of order 2), and c, c2 (both of order 3). By
Problem 2.19(i), hci / G, and so
a1 ca = aca hci which gives aca = e, c or c2 .
If aca = e then c = a2 = e which is impossible. If aca = c then ac = ca,
o(ac) = 6 (note acac = c2 , (ac)3 = a, et cetera), and G is cyclic as above.
Hence we may assume that aca = c2 , or equivalently ca = ac2 . This further
shows that c2 a = cac2 = ac4 = ac. Therefore G contains the 6 elements
e, a, c, c2 , ac = c2 a and ac2 = ca, and G is isomorphic to the dihedral group
D3 .
Problem 2.21 Suppose first n = 2. Define a map from the set of left
cosets of H1 H2 in G to the set of pairs whose first entry is a left coset of
H1 , and second entry is a left coset of H2 by
(x(H1 H2 )) = (xH1 , xH2 ).
This is well-defined by Lemma 2.22, and if (xH1 , xH2 ) = (yH1 , yH2 ) then
xH1 = yH1 , xH2 = yH2 , so x1 y H1 and x1 y H2 , and hence x1 y
H1 H2 and x(H1 H2 ) = y(H1 H2 ) by Lemma 2.22 again. Therefore
is injective which gives result as [G : H1 H2 ] is the number of left cosets of
H1 H2 in G. The general result follows from this by induction. Note that
by Problem 2.15 we have equality in this expression if [G : H1 ] and [G : H2 ]
are coprime integers.
Problem 2.22

## Problem  2.23 (i) e = g 1 eg g 1 Hg, so the set is not empty. Also

if a, b g 1 Hg, then a = g 1 hg, b = g 1 jg for h, j H, and a1 b =
g 1 h1 jg g 1 Hg, so the subgroup conditions are satisfied.
(ii) Define a map : H g 1 Hg by h = g 1 hg for h H, this is a
bijection which gives result.
(iii) If j g 1 Hg, then j = g 1 hg for some h H and so gjg 1 = h H.
This shows that
g 1 Hg {j G : gjg 1 H}.
For the converse, if k belongs to the RHS then gkg 1 = h H which
gives k = g 1 hg, and so the opposite inclusion also follows.

470

Problem  2.24

Solution Appendix

\
core (H) =
g 1 Hg G.
gG

## Normality. Suppose x G and a core(H), so a g 1 Hg for all g G.

We have x1 ax = (gx)1 h(gx) for h H, that is x1 ax equals a conjugate
of
an element (gx) in G. This holds for all g G, and so x1 ax
T h by1
Hg, and hence core(H) / G.
gG g
(ii) Note core(H) H by definition. If J H and J / G then g 1 Jg
g Hg, for all g G, hence J core(H).
(iii) This follows from (ii) for if there were two distinct maximal normal
subgroups we could form their join which would contain both of them; see
Theorem 2.30.
1

## Problem 2.25 (i) This follows from Problem 2.14(iii).

(ii) Let K = hg 1 Hg | g Gi. As H H and H / G, if g G and
h H, then g 1 hg H , hence K H by closure in H . Conversely note
first that K / G. For K G by definition, and if j G, then for i = 1, 2, . . . ,
gi1 hi gi K, and so j 1 (gi1 hi gi )j = (gi j)1 hi (gi j) K as gi j G; this
gives normality. But H is the intersection of all normal subgroups containing
H, hence H K and equality follows.
(iii) Use the same method as in the proof of Theorem 2.17.
Problem 2.26 (i) Z(Z) = Z, the centre of an Abelian group is the group
itself.
(ii) Suppose D4 = ha, b | a4 = b2 = (ab)2 = ei. Neither a nor a3 commute
with b, so a, a3 , b 6 Z(D4 ), but a2 commutes with a and b. Hence Z(D4 ) =
{e, a2 }, a cyclic group of order 2.
(iii) Z(D5 ) = hei, no power of a commutes with b.


(iv) If A = ac db Z(GL2 (Q)), X = xz yt GL2 (Q), then

 

ax + bz ay + bt
xa + yc xb + yd
AX =
=
= XA,
cx + dz cy + dt
za + tc zb + td
and so ax + bz = xa + yc or bz = cy, for all y, z Q, which gives b = c = 0.
We also have ay + bt = xb + yd, or y(a d) = b(x t) = 0, which gives a = d.
Hence Z(GL2 (Q)) is the set of scalar matrices a0 a0 where a Q and a 6= 0.
(v) Z(S3 ) = hei, no non-neutral element commutes both with two and
with three cycles.
Problem 2.27 Let Y = {(ha, a1 j) : a H J}. As haa1 j = hj = g,
we have g1 Y . Now if (hi , ji ) g1 , i = 1, 2 and h1 j1 = g = h2 j2 ,
1
then h1
= a, say, where a H J. This gives h2 = h1 a and
1 h2 = j1 j2
1
j2 = a j1 , and so g1 Y . Also (ha, a1 j) = (hb, b1 j) implies a = b by
cancellation. Therefore o(g1 ) = o(H J), that is o(g1 ) is independent
of g. The result follows.

Solutions 2

471

## Problem  2.28 Let J be the subgroup of G generated by all involutions

in G, we have o(J) > 1 by the quoted problem. If g G and o(J) = 2, then
(g 1 jg)2 = g 1 j 2 g = e, and so g 1 jg has order 2 and therefore belongs to J.
Secondly if o(j1 ) = o(j2 ) = 2, then g 1 j1 j2 g = (g 1 j1 g)(g 1 j2 g), a product
of elements of order 2. Hence J / G, but G is simple, and so J = G. Note
that the result also applies for infinite groups.
Problem 2.29 (i) and (ii) Clearly a HaJ, and if b HaJ, then b = haj
(h H, j J) and HbJ = HhajJ = HaJ.
(iii) Use: If Haj1 = Haj2 , then h H exists satisfying aj1 = haj2 (ji J)
or j1 j21 = a1 ha a1 Ha as j1 j21 J clearly holds.
(iv) Use (ii) and (iii).
(v) Two double cosets: h(1, 2, 3)i(1, 2)h(1, 2, 3, 4)i =
{(1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3), (1, 2, 4), (1, 3, 4), (1, 4)(2, 3), (1, 3, 2, 4), (1, 4, 2, 3), (2, 4),
(1, 4, 3), (2, 4, 3), (1, 2)(3, 4)},
and
h(1, 2, 3)i(1, 2)h(1, 4)(2, 3)i = {(1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3), (1, 4), (1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 3, 2, 4)}.
Problem 2.30 (i) e J1 so e J; if j J, then for some i we have
j Ji , so j 1 Ji J; and if j, k J, then j Ji1 and k Ji2 , so if
i = max(i1 , i2 ), then j, k Ji J.
(ii) Suppose K / J and Ji is simple. By Problem 2.14(iv) we have K Ji / Ji ,
so either K Ji = hei which can only happen if K = hei, or Ji K. But as
Ji is simple for infinitely many i, this gives J K.

472

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

Solutions 3
Problem  3.1 (i) We have (1, k)(1, j)(1, k) = (j, k) if j 6= k and j, k 2,
now use Lemma 3.5.
(ii) For j > 1, use (1, j)(j, j + 1)(1, j) = (1, j + 1), induction, and (i); see
Problem 3.21.
(iii) For j > 1 we have (1, 2, . . . , n)1 (1, j)(1, 2, . . . , n) = (2, j + 1) and
(2, j + 1)(1, 2)(2, j + 1) = (1, j + 1), now use (i) and induction.
(iv) If i, j, k and l are distinct, use (i, j)(k, l)(i, j)(k, m) = (k, l, m) and
Theorem 3.12.
Problem 3.2

## If = (1, 2, 3)(4, 5, 6) and = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) then

1 = (1, 5, 6)(2, 3, 4) = .

## There are 17 further solutions to = , they are:

(1,4), (2,5)(3,6), (1,2,3,4), (1,3,2,4), (1,4,5,6), (1,4,6,5), (1,5,2,6,3),
(1,6,3,5,2), (2,5,3,6,4), (2,5,4,3,6), (2,6)(1,5,4,3), (3,5)(1,6,4,2),
(1,5,3)(2,6,4), (1,6,2)(3,5,4), (1,2,3,4,5,6), (1,3,2,4,5,6),
(1,2,3,4,6,5), and (1,3,2,4,6,5).
Problem  3.3 Use Theorem 3.6. (i) We have S3 (' D3 ) has three classes:
{e}, {(1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3)} and {(1, 2, 3), (1, 3, 2)}.
(ii) S4 has five classes: {e}, six 2-cycles, eight 3-cycles, six 4-cycles, and
three 2-cycle by 2-cycles.
(iii) S5 has seven classes: {e}, ten 2-cycles, twenty 3-cycles, thirty 4-cycles,
twenty-four 5-cycles, fifteen 2-cycle by 2-cycles, and twenty 2-cycles by 3cycles making 120 elements in all.
For the alternating groups we argue as follows. We have, for example,
(1, 2, 3)(1, 2)(3, 4)(1, 3, 2) = (1, 3)(2, 4)
and (3, 4, 5)(1, 2)(3, 4)(3, 5, 4) = (1, 2)(3, 5); these and similar identities show
that products of two distinct 2-cycles are conjugate in alternating groups An
for n 4. Hence we have:
(iv) As A3 is Abelian, it has three singleton conjugacy classes: {(1, 2, 3)},
{(1, 3, 2)} and {e}.
(v) A4 has four conjugacy classes: {e}, two, each containing four 3cycles, and one containing three 2-cycle by 2-cycles (see above). Theorem 5.19 shows that the number of conjugates of an element in G divides o(G), and so the eight 3-cycles cannot form a single conjugacy class.
By direct calculation the classes are: {(1, 2, 3), (1, 4, 3), (1, 2, 4), (2, 4, 3)} and
{(1, 3, 2), (1, 3, 4), (1, 4, 2), (2, 3, 4)} (note 4 | 12).
(vi) A5 has five classes: {e}, twenty 3-cycles, fifteen 2-cycle by 2-cycles,
and two classes each containing twelve 5-cycles. All 3-cycles are conjugate by
Theorem 3.12 (n > 4 in this result). The third claim follows as above, and

Solutions 3

473

the last statement is best proved using results from Section 5.2. But by direct
calculation we see that the first class contains
(1,2,3,4,5), (1,2,4,5,3), (1,2,5,3,4),
(1,3,4,2,5), (1,4,2,3,5) and (1,4,5,2,3),
and their inverses (so 12 in all), and the second class contains the remaining
twelve 5-cycles. Note that for each pair of conjugate 5-cycles there are five
conjugating elements, so for example the conjugating elements for the pair
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) and (1, 2, 4, 5, 3) (that is : 1 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) = (1, 2, 4, 5, 3)) are
(1, 3, 2), (3, 4, 5), (1, 4)(3, 5), (1, 2, 4, 3, 5) and (1, 5, 4, 2, 3).
(vii) A normal subgroup is a union of conjugacy classes one of which must
be {e} (Theorem 2.29(ii)), also the order of a subgroup divides the order of
the group by Lagranges Theorem. By (ii) possible orders for proper nonneutral normal subgroups are 1+3 (the neutral element and three 2-cycle by
2-cycles) and 1+3+8 (the even permutations). Both of these form subgroups
of S4 because they are closed under products and inverses, and therefore are
normal.
(viii) Similarly the conjugacy classes of A4 have orders 1, 3 and 4 (twice),
and o(A4 ) = 12, hence A4 has a normal subgroup of order 4 as in S4 above, it
is often denoted by V . This is the only non-neutral proper normal subgroup
of any alternating group.
Problem 3.4 (i) As and are disjoint, they apply to disjoint subsets of
the underlying set N = {1, . . . , n} upon which Sn is acting. But 1 = and
so if the cycle (a, b, . . . ) occurs in , the cycle (. . . , b, a) occurs in which
(ii) No. For example let = (1, 2)(3, 4), = (5, 6) and = (1, 3); here
= (1, 2, 3, 4) and = (4, 3, 2, 1).
(iii) has the form (i, i, i 2 , . . . ) and has the form (i, i, i 2 , . . . ). So
corresponding entries are equal, but do they have the same length? Yes, for
if the length of is k and of is l, and k < l. Then i k = i whilst i k 6= i, a
(iv) By Theorem 3.4 suppose = 1 . . . r where the i are disjoint cycles
which commute in pairs. So = p = 1p . . . rp , and hence sp = for 1 s r.
If o(s ) = m < p, then we can find integers t, u to satisfy tp + um = 1
(Euclidean Algorithm (Theorem B2)), and s = stp+um = . In this problem
e and are synonymous.
Problem 3.5 If Sn , then = 1 2 . . . r where each i is a cycle of
length ti , say, and t1 + + tr = n; note, some may be 1-cycles. Now the
order of a k-cycle is k, the order of a k-cycle by l-cycle is LCM(k, l) provided
k + l n, et cetera. So the order of is LCM(t1 , . . . , tr ). For S7 , the orders
are 1, 2, . . . , 7 (cycles and others, for example a 2-cycle 2-cycle 3-cycle
has order 6), 10 (2-cycle 5-cycle), and 12 (3-cycle 4-cycle).
For An we need the extra condition: 2 | ((t1 1) + + (tr 1)). For A7 the
orders are 1, 3, 5, 7 (cycles), 2 (2-cycle 2-cycle), 3 again (3-cycle 3-cycle),
4 (2-cycle 4-cycle), and 6 (2-cycle 2-cycle 3-cycle).

474

Solution Appendix

## Problem 3.6 As q is prime it has a primitive root, m say. Let r = m(q1)/p ,

then rp 1 (mod q) and rt 6 1 (mod q) for 0 < t < p. With this choice of
r we have
1rt rt (mod q),
so the first p-cycle in r is (1, r, r2 , . . . , rp1 ). Now suppose c is the smallest
integer not in this cycle, then (c, cr, cr2 , . . . , crp1 ) is the second p-cycle disjoint from the first. Continue. Note that r maps q to q. Now q = rp = e.
Also r1 r maps kr k k + 1 (k + 1)r, so it maps q 1, 1 r + 1,
t
et cetera, that is r1 r = r , which in turn gives t ru = ru r u . So every
element of the group can be expressed as a power of r followed by a power
of . Therefore, changing symbols, the group has the presentation
ha, b | aq = bp = e, b1 ab = ar i.
There are a number of choices for r but they all give rise to isomorphic groups.
For example if we replace r by ru (modulo q), then we should also replace b
by bu . Groups of this type are called Frobenius or metacyclic, see page 130.
Problem  3.7 (i) In An+2 the set of permutations X which leave n + 1
and n + 2 fixed forms a copy of An (and so half of Sn ) in An+2 . Secondly,
if is an odd permutation in Sn then (n + 1, n + 2) is an even in An+2 . Let
Y = { (n + 1, n + 2) : Sn , odd}, then X Y An+2 . Show this by
noting that disjoint cycles commute (Theorem 3.4), and (n + 1, n + 2)2 = e.
(ii) Use the quoted facts and Problem 2.14(iv); note that the only subgroup
of Sn with index 2 is isomorphic to An .
Problem 3.8 (i) We have n/r = (a1 , . . . , ar ) . . . (d1 , . . . , dr ) = . Also, if
= (c1 , . . . , cn ) and k | n, n/k = (c1 , ck+1 , . . . c(nk)+1 ) . . . (ck , c2k , . . . , cn ).
This only works for divisors k of n.
(ii) This follows from (i), if n = p the only divisors are 1 or p.
Problem 3.9 (i) The problem is badly worded, it should ask for an estimate of the number of copies of Sk that occur in Sn . Let Y be a k-element
subset of X = {1, . . . , n}, k n. The set of permutations which fix all ele-
ments in X\Y clearly forms anisomorphic copy of Sk in Sn . There are nk
choices for Y and so at least nk copies of Sk in Sn .
(ii) By (i) SY and SZ are subgroups of Sn (isomorphic to Sk and Snk ,
respectively). If 1 and 2 are perms. of Y , and 1 and 2 are perms. of
Z, then by Theorem 3.4 (1 1 )1 (2 2 ) = 11 2 11 2 SY SZ . As
SY SZ is not empty, it forms a subgroup of Sn . [By Theorem 7.3, it is
also a direct product. For SY SZ = e, and if , SY and SZ , then
( )1 ( ) = 1 ( 1 ) = 1 SY by Theorem 3.4 again. This
shows that SY / SY SZ et cetera.] For maximality show that the set generated by SY , SZ and a suitably chosen 2-cycle in fact contains all 2-cycles,
and then use Theorem 3.4 (note k 6= n k).
(iii) By (ii), Sn Sn is isomorphic to a subgroup of S2n of products of
perms. where is a perm. on Y = {1, . . . , n}, and is a perm. on
Z = {n + 1, . . . , 2n}. Let = (1, n + 1)(2, n + 2) (n, 2n) S2n .

Solutions 3

475


=

n
n + 1 2n
(n + 1) (2n) 1 n


.

## This shows that the group generated by and the elements of Sn Sn is a

subgroup of the group of all perms. on Y Z, that is S2n . It is proper as
this subgroup has order 2(n!)2 < (2n)! when n > 1; note also this subgroup
preserves the partition of Y and Z whilst S2n does not. For example see
Section 8.1 where S4 is discussed, the subgroup generated by the order 2
elements (1, 2), (3, 4) and (1, 3)(2, 4) has order 8, and is isomorphic to D4 in
this case; see page 156.
Problem  3.10 (i) First consider the permutation representation. It
has three elements of order 2: (1, 2)(3, 4), (1, 3)(2, 4), (1, 4)(2, 3), and eight elements of order 3: (1, 2, 3), (1, 3, 2), (1, 3, 4), (1, 4, 3), (2, 3, 4), (2, 4, 3), (1, 4, 2),
(1, 2, 4) (written as inverse pairs). By direct calculation we see that any set
containing an element of order 2 and an element of order 3 generates the
whole group, see Theorem 3.3.
Secondly we have, again by direct calculation, the elements of ha, b | a2 =
b3 = (ab)3 = ei are
e; a, bab2 , b2 ab; b, b2 , ab, b2 a, ab2 , ba, aba, bab,
the second, third and fourth have order 2, and the last eight have order 3.
(For this use babab = a and ababa = b2 to show that abab = ab2 = b2 a....)
Hence both groups have order 12, and if we map a 7 (1, 2)(3, 4) and b 7
(1, 2, 3), then we obtain an isomorphism. In this correspondence the two lists
above agree, so for example bab 7 (1, 2, 4), and the isomorphism gives
(ab2 )(bab) = b and (2, 3, 4)(1, 2, 4) = (1, 2, 3) et cetera.
Note that in this problem by symmetry group we mean the rotational
symmetry group; see Web Section 2.6. For the third group if we map a
rotation by about the centres of opposite edges to a, and rotation by 2/3
about a line through a vertex and the centre of its opposite face to b, we
obtain a one-to-one correspondence between groups (b) and (c). The reader
should try this with a model of a tetrahedron.
(ii) By Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27), non-neutral proper subgroups
of A4 can only have orders 2, 3, 4 or 6. It cannot have a subgroup of order
6 as this would be normal, see Problems 3.3 and 2.19(i). It also cannot have
a cyclic subgroup of order 4 as it contains no element of order 4. So the
possibilities are C2 , C3 and T2 . As A4 contains exactly three elements of order
2, it has three subgroups of type C2 , one for each element of order 2, and one
of type T2 . This last subgroup is normal by Theorem 3.6. By Problem 3.3,
A4 has four subgroups of type C3 . None is normal, use Theorem 3.6 again,
and see the Sylow theory in Chapter 6.
Problem 3.11 (i) In H we have a5 = b4 = e and ba2 = ab. So ba4 =
ba2 a2 = aba2 = a2 b, ba = ba6 = ba4 a2 = a2 ba2 = a3 b, and ba3 = ba8 =
a3 ba2 = a4 b; hence bar = a3r b. Similarly b2 a = bba = ba3 b = a4 b2 et cetera.

476

Solution Appendix

## Hence bs ar = a3 r bs which shows that the group has 20 elements because

each expression in a and b can be replaced by one of the form ar bs where
0 r < 5 and 0 s < 4, and ar bs = e implies r = s = 0. Construct a copy
which is a subgroup of S5 as follows. Let a 7 = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), so 5 = e.
Now look for a 4-cycle to satisfy = 2 . We have a2 7 (1, 3, 5, 2, 4), and
so if we let b 7 2r 3s t4 u5 , then
=

1 2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5 1
r s t u 1

!
=

1 2 3 4 5
1 r s t u
3

!
= 2 ,

## This gives 1 2 = 3, so r = 3 (bottom left-hand entries in the matrices above).

As 3 2 = 5 we have s = 5, and continuing we obtain t = 2 and u = 4. Hence
: b 7 (2, 3, 5, 4), and the representation is complete. Similar constructions
give maximal subgroups of order 2n(2n + 1) in S2n+1 . There is a maximal
subgroup of order 42 in S7 with presentation h, | 7 = 6 = e, = 3 i
where
7 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), 7 (2, 4, 3, 7, 5, 6).
The reader should also refer to the last part of Web Section 6.5.
(ii) A5 has fifteen cyclic subgroups of order 2 (h(1, 2)(3, 4)i, . . . ), ten of
order 3 (h(1, 2, 3i, . . . ), and six of order 5 (h(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)i, . . . ); also five of
type T2 ' C2 C2 . By Problem 3.7, S3 A5 , for instance the subgroup
generated by (1, 2, 3) and (4, 5); there are ten copies of S3 in all; C6 is not a
subgroup because A5 contains no elements of order 6. There are no subgroups
of order 7, 8 or 9 as these integers do not divide o(A5 ).
Problem 3.12 (i) Each row has one 1 and n 1 zeros by definition, same
for columns as is a bijection on {1, 2, . . . , n}.
(ii) By definition det((ai,j )) is a sum of terms of form a1,1 a2,2 . . . an,n ,
one for each Sn . Each term is zero except when = , and this term
equals 1, and so the determinant equals 1.
(iii) The inverse of a matrix in Pn is its transpose; In corresponds to the
identity permutation; and Pn is closed under
 matrix
 multiplication.

 Hence
2 3
=
Pn GLn (F ). Not normal, for instance 10 21 01 10 102
1
1 2 6 P2 .
(iv) A matrix corresponding to a 2-cycle is In with one pair of rows interchanged, so it has determinant 1. Hence, if is a product of an even
number of 2-cycles (that is, it is even), then the determinant of the matrix
corresponding to is an even power of 1, that is 1.
Problem 3.13 (i)

(ii) D = 0i 0i .

1 0
0 1

, I2 and

5 0
0

## (iii) The elements of the group are C t Du for 0 t 5 and 0 u 1,

twelve in all. The group has the presentation hc, d | c6 = e, c3 = d2 , d1 cd =
c5 i and this can be rewritten as hc, d | c3 = d2 = (cd)2 i; a presentation of
dicyclic group Q3 , see pages 59 and 159.

Solutions 3

477

Problem 3.14 Suppose the 4-element field consists of {0, 1, c, c + 1} where
c2 = c + 1 and we work modulo 2 (so 1 = 1). Let A = 01 11 , then A2 =

1 1
3
1 0 and A = I2 giving an order 3 cyclic subgroup in GL2 (2). Secondly,
for each 2 2 matrix C GL2 (4) we define a 4 4 matrix C  GL4 (2) as
follows: if 0 occurs in C replace it by the 2 2 zero matrix 00 00 , if 1 occurs
in C replace it by I2 , if c occurs in C replace it by the 2 2 matrix A defined
above, and if c + 1 = c2 occurs in C replace it by A2 . This defines a map
from GL2 (4) to GL4 (2), you need to check that all matrices C constructed
in this way have determinant 1.
Using the methods given in Chapter 4 we can show that this map is an
injective homomorphism, or the subgroup condition (Theorem 2.13) can be
applied. Note that we have o(GL4 (2)) = 20160 and o(GL2 (4)) = 180; see
Chapter 12, especially Problem 12.13.
Problem  3.15 If A = (aij ), B = (bij ) U Tn (F ), then aij = bij = 0 if
i > j, and the (i, j)th term of AB is
aii bij + + aij bjj ,

(3.1)

## if i j. Also the subdiagonals of A1 consist entirely of zeros, and the

diagonal is
1
(a1
(3.2)
11 , . . . , ann );
note that as A is non-singular, aii 6= 0, for i = 1, . . . , n. The first superdiagonal of A1 is
(a12 /a11 a22 , . . . , an1,n /an1,n1 ann ),
the second superdiagonal is

(a12 a23 a13 a22 )/a11 a22 a33 , . . . ,

(3.3)

(3.4)


(an2,n1 an1,n an2,n an1,n1 )/an2,n2 an1,n1 ann ,

(note det( ac db ) = ad bc) with similar expressions for the remaining superdiagonals.
(i) By (3.1) above the diagonal of AB is (a11 b11 , . . . , ann bnn ), so use (3.2),
and Theorems 2.13 and 2.29.
(ii) By (3.3), (3.4), . . . above, if the first r superdiagonals of A consist
entirely of zeros, this also holds for A1 , so use again Theorems 2.13 and
2.29.
(iii) If A ITn (F ) and a is an entry in A above the main diagonal, then it
can equal an arbitrary element in F . So in this case there are p choices, and
as there are n(n 1)/2 such entries, the order of ITn (F ) is pn(n1)/2 . Now
use Theorem 3.15(iii) with q = p.
(iv) If the (r + 1)st superdiagonal of IZTn,r (F ) (that is the first with nonzero elements) is a1,r+1 , a2,r+2 , . . . , anr,n , then the (r +1)st superdiagonal of

478

Solution Appendix

## IZTn,r (F )1 is a1,r+1 , . . . , anr,n . Use this to show by direct calculation

that the (r +1)st superdiagonal of the commutator mentioned in the problem
consists entirely of zeros.
Problem 3.16 The conjugacy classes of A5 have orders 1 (e), 12 (5-cycles,
two classes), 15 (2-cycles 2-cycles) and 20 (3-cycles). Including 1 the only
divisors of 60 we can make using these integers are 1 and 60.
Problem 3.17 Suppose T = {a1 /b1 , . . . , ak /bk } is a generating set for Q
(with addition). As this set is finite there exists a prime p which does not
divide b1 , . . . , bk1 or bk , and it easily follows that 1/p cannot be expressed
as a sum of integer multiples of the elements of T .
Problem 3.18 One representation is as follows. Map a 7 (1, 2, 3, 4) and
b 7 (1, 4, 2), then ab = (2, 3) and a4 = b3 = (ab)2 = e and so the given group
is a homomorphic image of S4 because we can construct all 2-cycles in S4
using (1, 2, 3, 4) and (1, 4, 2). Now the given group is a copy of S4 as it only
has 24 elements.
Using the relations a4 = b3 = e, a3 = bab and b2 = aba we see that the
elements are
e (neutral element);
ab, ba, b2 ab2 , ab2 a2 b, a2 ba3 , a3 ba2 (2-cycles);
a2 , ba2 b2 , b2 a2 b (2-cycle by 2-cycles);
b, b2 , a2 b, a2 b2 , ba2 , b2 a2 , aba, ab2 a (3-cycles); and
a, a3 , ab2 , a3 b, ba3 , b2 a (4-cycles).
For the second part we have, for example, if a = (1, 2, 3, 4) and b = (1, 2)
then ab = (2, 3, 4), if a = (1, 2, 3) and b = (3, 4) then ab = (1, 2, 4, 3), if
a = (1, 2, 3) and b = (1, 3, 2, 4) then ab = (1, 4), if a = (1, 2) and b = (2, 3, 4)
then ab = (1, 3, 2, 4), and if a = (1, 2) and b = (1, 4, 3, 2) then ab = (2, 4, 3).
Hence all six permutations of the powers are possible.

Problem 3.19 (i) Let A = ac db SL2 (p) and A2 = I2 . Then
a2 + bc = bc + d2 = ad bc = 1
and so a(a + d) = 2, that is a + d 6= 0. But also
b(a + d) = c(a + d) = 0,
hence b = c = 0 and a2 = d2 = 1. Now also a = d, and the equation a2 = 1
has exactly two solutions a = 1 and a = p 1 (see Theorem B10) which give
the scalar matrices in SL2 (p). Note all equations are modulo p > 2.
(ii) Nine classes. We give a class representative followed in bracketsby the
order of elements in the class and the size of the class: I2 (1,1), 40 04 (1,1),






0 1
0 1
(4,30), 04 12 (5,12), 02 22 (5,12), 04 11 (6,20), 04 13 (10,12),
4 4 (3,20),
4
0

and 02 23 (10,12). Note two classes of order 5 and two of order 10, each with
twelve elements.

Solutions 3

479

## (iii) Use the same method as in the solution of Problem 3.16.





(iv) If A = 04 11 , B = 12 20 , C = 21 11 and D = 04 10 , then hA, Bi '
SL2 (3), hC, Di ' Q5 and hB, Di ' Q3 .
Problem  3.20

## (i) As c2 = d2 = e, the elements of D have the form

cdc . . . c = (cd)r1 c,

cdc . . . d = (cd)r2 ,

## dcd . . . c = c2 dcd . . . c = c(cd)r3 c or dcd . . . d = c2 dcd . . . c = c(cd)r4

for suitable choices of the ri . The first and fourth are self-inverse, whilst
the inverse of the second is c(cd)r2 c, and the inverse of the third is (cd)r3 .
Hence D is generated by c and cd. Clearly A, K D, and K / D because
c1 (cd)r c = (dc)r = (cd)r et cetera. Also A K = hei for if c = (cd)r , then
d(cd)r1 = e which gives d = e and D = hci, a group of order 2.
(ii) Suppose o(cd) = n. If n = 1 then D = hci ' C2 , if n = 2 then D is
Abelian and so is isomorphic to T2 , if 3 n < then D is a new presentation
of the dihedral group Dn , and if n is infinite we obtain a new infinite group
D called the infinite dihedral group.
Problem 3.21 (ia) Using Pj , Pk and Qjk we have e = aj ak aj ak and so
aj ak = a2j ak aj a2k = ak aj for k < j 1.
(ib) Also, using Rl , Pl and Pl+1 , we have al al+1 al al+1 al al+1 = e and so
al+1 al al+1 = al al+1 al .
(ii) Consider Hy. If y = e, then Hai = H if i < n (by definition of H),
and Han Z. Secondly consider (Han . . . ar )ai , where 1 r n, there are
four cases.
(a) i < r 1. By (ia) ai commutes with aj if j > i 1, and so
(Han . . . ar )ai = Hai an . . . ar = Han . . . ar
as ai H.
(b) i = r 1. Here (Han . . . ar )ar1 = Han . . . ar1 .
(c) i = r. By Pr we have (Han . . . ar )ar = Han . . . ar+1 .
(d) i > r. By (ia) and (ib) and moving ai to lie between ai1 and ai2 ,
(Han . . . ar )ai = Han . . . ai+1 (ai ai1 ai )ai2 . . . ar
= Han . . . ai+1 (ai1 ai ai1 )ai2 . . . ar = Hai1 an . . . ar
= Han . . . ar .
Now count up to check that a permutation of Z has been constructed.
(iii) Using Pi , Qjk , (ia) and (ib) it follows that every element of G belongs
to one of the cosets in Z, and so [G : H] n + 1 as Z has n + 1 elements.
By the inductive hypothesis if we assume that o(H) (n)!, it follows by
Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27) that o(G) (n + 1)!.
(iv) Finally let ai 7 (i, i + 1), for 1 i n. By Problem 3.1, the set

480

Solution Appendix

## of perms. {a1 , . . . , an } generates Sn+1 . Now a2i = e as ai is a 2-cycle; if

k < j 1, (ak aj )2 = (k, k + 1)(j, j + 1)(k, k + 1)(j, j + 1) = e as disjoint cycles
commute; and if l < n, (al al+1 )3 = (l, l + 1, l + 2)3 = e. This shows that G is
a homomorphic image of Sn+1 . But by (iii) o(G) o(Sn+1 ), hence we have
equality.

0
Problem 3.22 (i) The matrices satisfy Am = B 2 = (AB)2 = 1
0 1 .
(ii) In Qm we have o(ar b) = 4 for all r, so look at the powers of a.
(iii) Use the fact that the relations of Dm are am = b2 = (ab)2 = e.
Problem 3.23
The non-neutral elements are a, b, c, aba = cbc, bab =
cac, aca = bcb, abab = bcbc = caca = (1, 2)(3, 4)(5, 6)(7, 8) (order 2),
and ab, bc, ca, ba, cb, ac, abc = bca = cab = (1, 8, 2, 7)(3, 6, 4, 5), acb =
(1, 7, 2, 8)(3, 5, 4, 6) = bac = cba (order 4), so o(F ) = 16. There are 23 subgroups, 17 normal. The proper non-neutral subgroups are hababi = F 0 ' C2 ;
six further subgroups isomorphic to C2 not normal hai, . . . ; four isomorphic to C4 , habi, . . . including habci = Z(F ); three isomorphic to C2 C2 ,
ha, ababi, . . . ; three isomorphic to C4 C2 , hab, ci, . . . ; three isomorphic to
D4 , hab, ai, . . . ; and one isomorphic to Q2 consisting e, abab and the six elements of order 4. All are normal except those indicated. A presentation is as
follows, it is not unique,
ha, b, c : a2 = b2 = c2 = e, abc = bca = cabi.
See Problem 8.12.
Problem 3.24 The following matrices generate GL2 (3) and have orders
8, 2 and 3, respectively.

 
 

1 0
2 0
0 1
.
,
,
1 1
2 1
1 1
Also in S8 we can set a 7 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8), b 7 (2, 4)(3, 7)(6, 8) and c 7
(2, 7, 8)(3, 4, 6). As noted in the statement of the problem, these solutions are
in no way unique. For the presentation you need to show that each of its
elements can be written in the form ar bs ct for 0 r < 8, 0 s < 2, and
0 t < 3, and if ar bs ct = e then r = s = t = 0.

Solutions 4

481

Solutions 4
Problem 4.1 (ia) We have a = cos a+i sin a = eia , so (a+b) = ei(a+b) =
eia eib = ab. (ib) Same as (ia), isomorphism as (ln2 a)2 = 2ln2 a = a, for
all a R+ . (ic) (a + b)3 = a b = a3 + b3 , an automorphism.
(ii) As a = e for all a G, (a + b) = e = ee = ab.
(iii) Use Lemma 3.8.
(iv) This follows as det(AB) = det A det B for A, B GL2 (F ).
(v) The map f : R2 R given by f (x, y) = x satisfies f (x1 +x2 , y1 +y2 ) =
x1 + x2 = f (x1 , y1 ) + f (x2 , y2 ).



Problem 4.2 (i) GL2 (2) = {I2 = 10 01 , A1 = 01 10 , A2 = 10 11 , A3 =



1 0
0 1
1 1
We
1 1 , B1 = 1 1 , B2 = 1 0 } with matrix multiplication modulo 2.

0 1
2
2
2
3
3
have A1 = A2 = A3 = B1 = B2 = I2 . Define 1 : GL2 (2) S3 by 1 1 1 =

(1, 2, 3) and 01 10 1 = (1, 2), and check by cases that (AB)1 = A1 B1 for
the map is clearly bijective.
(ii) We have F1 = F \{1} with operation a b = a + b ab. It is closed, for
if a + b ab = 1 then (1 a)(1 b) = 0 but 1 6 F1 ; the neutral element is 0;
the inverse of a is a/(a 1); and it is associative because
(a + b ab) + c (a + b ab)c = a + b + c ab ac bc + abc
= a + (b + c bc) a(b + c bc).
Define 2 : F F1 by a2 = 1 a. This is clearly bijective and (a b)2 =
1 (a + b ab) = (1 a)(1 b) = a2 b2 .
(iii) A polynomial f (x) has the form a0 + a1 x + + ak xk where ai Z,
and an element m Q+ has the prime factorisation pa0 0 pa1 1 . . . pakk again with
ai Z, and where pi is the i-th prime number with p0 = 2. So we can
define a map 3 from polynomials f (x) to rational numbers m by: The zero
polynomial is mapped to 1, and (a0 + a1 x + + ak xk )3 = pa0 0 pa1 1 . . . pakk . If
f1 (x) = a00 + , then
(f (x) + f1 (x))3 = ((a0 + a00 ) + . . . )3
a +a0

a0

= p0 0 0 = pa0 0 . . . p0 0 . . .
= f (x)3 f1 (x)3 .
Problem 4.3 (i) If g, h G, (g h)() = ((gh)) = (gh) [ is a
homomorphism] = (g)(h) [ is a homomorphism] = (g())(h()).
(ii) As e = e, e im(), and if a, b im() there exist a1 , b1 satisfying
1
1
a1 = a and b1 = b. This gives a1
and a1 b = a1
1 =a
1 b1 = a1 b1 ,
1
that is a b im().
(iii) We have ab = ab when a, b H, and so ab H, that is 0 is
well-defined, and it is a homomorphism because is a homomorphism.

482

Solution Appendix

## (iv) The map is an isomorphism, and so it is a bijection, hence

1 is also a bijection, see Appendix A. If a = a1 and b = b1 then
a1 1 = a, b1 1 = b and ab = a1 1 b1 1 . But ab = ab = a1 b1 so
ab = (a1 b1 )1 .
(v) Each element x X can be written in the form x = g for some
g G, and different g give rise to different x. Define an operation on X by: If
x1 = g1 and x2 = g2 , then x1 x2 = g1 g2 = g1 g2 . This gives the set X a
group structure, and the four basic axioms for this new group follow directly
from those for G.


Problem 4.4 (i) If C = ac db , X = zx wy and CX = XC for all matrices
X, then b = c = 0 and a = d = 1 or 2; hence o(Z(G)) = 2.
(ii) A transversal (that is a list
 of coset representatives)

 is I2 and {C
 i }, for
i = 2, . . . , 12, where C2 = 02 10 , C3 = 02 11 , C4 = 02 12 , C5 = 11 01 , C6 =






1 0
1 1
, C8 = 11 12 , C9 = 12 10 , C10 = 10 21 , C11 = 11 20 , and
2 1 , C7 =
0
1

C12 = 12 22 .

2
(iii) If C1 = 20 02 , then C22 = C82 = C12
= C1 , C43 = C53 = C63 = C73 =
3
3
3
3
C10 = I2 , and C3 = C9 = C11 = C1 . Three elements of order 2 and eight of
order 3.
(iv) If C is the coset containing C2 and D contains C5 , then using coset
product we have: C 3 = D2 = (CD)3 = I2 where CD is the coset containing
C9 , now use Problem 3.10(b) and see Section 7.3.
Problem  4.5 (i) If is a homomorphism, g = g 1 and h = h1 , then
g 1 h1 = gh = (gh) = (gh)1 = h1 g 1 . This holds for all g, h G, so
G is Abelian; now reverse argument.
(ii) Let X = {a1 (a) : a G}. Suppose a1 (a) = b1 (b). This gives
ba1 = b(a)1 = b(a1 ) = (ba1 ), as is a homomorphism. By conditions (a) and (b) this shows that ba1 = e, that is a = b. Hence o(X) = o(G),
so X = G, as G is finite, and each element of G can be written in the form
of the product a1 (a) for some a G.
Let g G, so by above there exists a G such that g = a1 (a).
Now g = (a1 (a)) = (a1 )a2 = (a1 )a (by hypothesis), and g 1 =
(a1 (a))1 = (a)1 (a1 )1 = (a1 )a (as is a homomorphism). Hence
g = g 1 for all g G, and so by (i) G is Abelian.
Problem  4.6 (i) As G is Abelian, if a, b G then aHbH = abH =
baH = bHaH. This also follows from the Third Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem 4.17).
(ii) See Problem 2.16. G/K exists as K / G. If G/K is Abelian and a, b G,
then abK = aKbK = bKaK = baK and [a, b] = a1 b1 ab K. This gives
G0 K. Now reverse the argument for the converse using K / G.
(iii) As Sn /An is Abelian, Sn0 An by (ii), and for the converse note that
each 3-cycle can be written as a commutator: (i, j, k) = [(i, k), (i, k, j, l)]. A
separate adhoc argument is needed when n < 4.

Solutions 4

483

(iv) We have
J/G
0

and H2 / H1 .
1

0 0

(4.1)
1

1 0

## For j, j J and h, h H2 we have (jh) (j h ) = h (j j )h , by (4.1) and

there exists h00 H2 satisfying h1 (j 1 j 0 ) = (j 1 j 0 )h00 . Now use Theorem
2.13. So JH2 JH1 G.
For normality we need to show that a = (jh1 )1 j 0 h2 (jh1 ) JH2 where
h1 H1 , h2 H2 and j, j 0 J. By (4.1) if g G and j J we can find
j1 J to satisfy gj = j1 g, and so applying this twice, first with g = h1
1 ,
then with g = h1
1 h2 , we have
1
1 0
a = (h1
j h2 )jh1 = j1 (h1
1 j
1 h2 )jh1 = j1 j2 h1 h2 h1 ,

for suitably chosen j1 and j2 in J. Hence JH2 / JH1 follows by (4.1). Now
JH1 /JH2 = JH2 H1 /JH2 [as H2 H1 ] = H1 /(H1 JH2 ) [by the Second
Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem 4.15)] = (H1 /H2 )/((H1 JH2 )/H2 ), by the
Third Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem 4.17). Now use (i).
Problem 4.7 (i) We have g n K = (gK)n = K, so g n K.
(ii) Integers r and s exist satisfying rm + sn = 1, so g = g rm g sn but
n
g K by (i) and g m K by hypothesis, hence g K.
Problem 4.8 (i) Use Problem 4.6(ii).
(ii) Use the definition.
Problem  4.9 (i) For n > 0 use induction as an+1 = an a, and for
n < 0 use Lemma 4.4.
(ii) First show 0 is well-defined using: If aK = bK then a1 b = e,
so a = b. The factor group G/K exists by definition, and (aKbK)0 =
(abK)0 = ab = ab = (aK)0 (bK)0 .
(iii) Use [j1 , j2 ] = (j11 j21 j1 j2 ) = [j1 , j2 ] for j1 , j2 J, and Lemma
4.3(ii).
Problem 4.10 (i) Define : G G by g = g n , g G, this is a homomorphism by given condition. The kernel is Gn = {g G : g n = e} / G, and
the image is Gn = {g n : g G} G, see Lemma 4.3 and Theorem 4.2(ii).
Also
g 1 an g = g 1 agg 1 ag . . . g 1 ag = (g 1 ag)n
for all a, g G, so Gn / G. By the First Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem
4.11), we have G/Gn ' Gn , hence o(Gn ) = o(G/Gn ) = [G : Gn ] by Theorem
2.27.
(ii) If n = 2 then abab = a2 b2 , or ba = ab. If n = 3 then ababab = a3 b3 ,
and so (ba)2 = a2 b2 . This gives
a3 b2 = a(a2 b2 ) = ababa = (ab)2 a = b2 a3 .
But o(a) is not divisible by 3, as 3 - o(G), and so we can choose c G to
satisfy c2 = a3 . Now use first part as this applies for all a, b G.

484

Solution Appendix

Problem  4.11
there is k K1 \K.
Theorem (Theorem
morphism Theorem

## Suppose K, K1 / G, o(K)(= o(K1 )), and K 6= K1 . So

Using the natural map G G/K, the Correspondence
4.16) gives G/K KK1 /K > hei. But the Second Iso(Theorem 4.15) gives

hence

## If K 6= K1 , then o(K1 /(K K1 )) is a proper divisor of o(K1 ) = o(K), that is

o(K) and [G : K] have a common factor larger than 1 contrary to assumption.
Problem 4.12

## For g, h G, using the coset and direct products we have

gh = (ghK1 , . . . , ghKn )
= (gK1 hK1 , . . . , gKn hKn ) = (gK1 , . . . , gKn )(hK1 , . . . , hKn )
= gh.
Tn
The kernel is the set of g which satisfy gKi = Ki for all i, that is g i=1 Ki ,
and so the result follows by Corollary 4.12.
Problem  4.13 (i) Theorem 4.16(ii). We have H G2 by (i) of
Theorem 4.16. As K / G1 , if g G1 and k K, we have g 1 kg = k1 K
and g 1 kg = (g)1 kg = k1 . But is surjective, so every element of G2
has the form g for some g G1 , hence H / G2 .
Secondly, define a map : G1 G1 /H by g = (g)H for g G1 .
The map is surjective because is surjective, and it is a homomorphism
because
gh = (gh)H = (g)(h)H = (g)H(h)H = gh.
The kernel is H, for if h H then h H. Hence by the First Isomorphism
Theorem (Theorem 4.11)
G1 / ker = G1 /H ' G2 /H.
(i) Theorem 4.16(iii). If a, b J1 , there exist x, y J satisfying
x = a and y = b. Now J G2 so x1 y J, (a)1 b J, (a1 b) J,
and so finally a1 b J1 . Hence J1 G1 as e J1 . Clearly K J1
therefore K J1 by Corollary 2.14.
(ii) Let be the natural homomorphism G G/K, it is surjective with
kernel K; so the Correspondence Theorem applies. Now G/K is simple, so G
has no normal non-neutral subgroup J satisfying K < J < G. Conversely, if
no such J exists, then G/K has no non-neutral proper normal subgroup.
(iii) By (ii) G/H is simple. Suppose it is not cyclic of prime order, so
there exists J/H such that hei < J/H < G/H, and by the Correspondence
Theorem H < J < G which is impossible as H is maximal. For the required
example let G = S5 and H = h(1, 2, 3, 4, 5), (2, 3, 5, 4)i; see Problem 3.11. Now
H is maximal (use a computer check, or see Problem 3.9) and [G : H] = 6,
but H is not normal; for example (1, 2)(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)(1, 2) = (1, 3, 4, 5, 2) 6 G,
and also 6 is not prime!

Solutions 4

485

## (iv) If homomorphism exists with = , then K = e and so K

ker . Conversely is well-defined by Lemma 2.22, and it is a homomorphism
(use coset product and the fact that is a homomorphism). This gives ker =
G/K. Now using the First Homomorphism Theorem we have
G/ ker = G ' (G/K) ' (G/K)/(ker /K).
Problem 4.14 (i) The map is well-defined, for if aJ = bJ then a bJ
bK, and so aK = bK by Lemma 2.22. Now is surjective by definition, and
it is a homomorphism because
(aJbJ) = (abJ) = abK = aKbK = (aJ)(bJ)
using coset product. Also ker = {aJ : (aJ) = aK = K}, that is aJ ker
if, and only if, a K. Hence as J K we have ker = K/J.
(ii) Use (i) and the First Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem 4.11).
Problem 4.15 (i) o(G) = pn. If n = 1 the result follows by Lagranges
Theorem (Theorem 2.27), so suppose it holds for Abelian groups of order pm
where m < n. Let a G with o(a) = t. If p | t, then o(at/p ) = p, so we may
suppose p - t.
Now hai / G and G/hai is an Abelian group of order pn/t. As p - t, we
have t | n, so n = tn1 for some integer n1 < n, and o(G/hai) = pn1 . By the
inductive hypothesis G/hai contains an element c of order p. This shows, using
the Correspondence Theorem, that G contains an element b whose order is a
multiple of p. Now apply the first case again.
(ii) If H = hai and J = hbi, we have o(ab) = mn and so G ' habi.
(iii) Example. Let G = D3 = ha, b | a3 = b2 = (ab)2 = ei, H = hai and
J = hbi. The subgroups H and J are prime order cyclic, and G is not cyclic.
But of course J is not normal.
Problem  4.16 (i) Example. Let G = S5 , H ' S3 defined on the set
{1, 2, 3} and J be the group generated by H and the 2-cycle (4, 5), so J '
S3 C2 see Chapter 7. Here Z(H) = Z(G) = hei but Z(J) = h(4, 5)i ' C2 ;
see Problem 7.4(i).
(ii) Suppose G/Z(G) is cyclic, so left cosets have the form at Z(G) for t Z
and some fixed a G. Hence every element g G has the form g = at c for
some t Z and c Z(G). Now if gi = ati ci , i = 1, 2, then
g1 g2 = at1 c1 at2 c2 = at2 +t1 c2 c1 [as c1 Z(G)] = at2 c2 at1 c1 = g2 g1 ,
as c2 Z(G). This shows that G is Abelian, now take the contra-positive.
(iii) Suppose K = {e, k} with k 2 = e. If g G then by normality g 1 kg
K, so g 1 kg = e or k. If the former, k = e, and if the latter, kg = gk for all
g G; hence K Z(G).
(iv) This is another extension of the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem
4.16). We have J = G and hg = gh for all g G and h H, hence
hg = gh; that is H Z(G).

486

Solution Appendix

## (v) HZ(G) G by Lemma 4.14, and if hi H and zi Z(G), then

h1 z1 h2 z2 = h1 (h2 z2 )z1 [as z1 Z(G)] = h2 h1 z2 z1 [as H is Abelian] =
h2 z2 h1 z1 [as z2 Z(G)].
(vi) Use Problem 4.22. Second part: No For example, let G = S3 and
K = h(1, 2, 3)i ' C3 . K / G (as the index is 2) and Z(K) = K (as K is
Abelian), but Z(G) = hei, see Problem 2.26(iv).
(vii) We have [J, G] K gives j 1 g 1 jg K for j J and g G, or
jg = gjk for g G, j J and some k K. Hence jKgK = jgK = gjkK =
gKjK, that is J/K Z(G/K). Now reverse argument.
(viii) Using the Second Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem 4.15) we obtain
Z(G)/(Z(G) K) ' Z(G)K/K. Further Z(G)K/K Z(G/K) if and only
if zkKz 0 k 0 K = z 0 k 0 KzkK, or zkz 0 k 0 K = z 0 k 0 zkK, for all z, z 0 Z(G) and
k, k 0 K. But both z and z 0 commute with all elements of G, and kk 0 K =
k 0 kK for all k, k 0 K.
P
P
Problem 4.17
If x =
m g and y =
gG ng g, then x + y =
P
PgG g
(m
+
n
)g
and
rx
=
rm
g
for
m
,
n
,
r
F . Also (x + y)h =
g
g
g
g
g
gG
gG
xh + yh , (rx)h = r(xh ), hj = h j and e is the identity map on U . Now
if h ker , then x = x for all x U , so gh = g giving h = e.
Problem  4.18 (i) Check the vector space axioms. The new addition
+ forms an Abelian group (as G is Abelian), G is closed under the new
scalar multiplication, the vector space zero is e (as x1 = x), and (xa )b = xab ,
c(x + y) = (xy)c = xc y c = cx + cy and (c + d)x = xc+d = xc xd = cx + cy.
(ii) The rules for subgroups exactly follow those for vector subspaces.
(iii) An endomorphism of G corresponds to a linear map in G and vice
versa. For in G we have xy = xy, and so in G we have (x + y) = x + y
and (cx) = (xc ) = (x)c = c(x). This argument reverses. A linear map
can be represented by a non-singular matrix, that is by a member of GLm (p),
and a non-singular linear map is an automorphism of G.
Problem 4.19 (ia) Z is cyclic. An automorphism maps generators to generators, and so as this group has only two generators, 1 and 1, there can
only be two automorphisms; the first is the identity map and the second maps
1 7 1 and so maps n 7 n for all n Z. Hence Aut (Z) ' C2 .
(ib) Aut T2 ' S3 . If L = T2 \{e} then as o(L) = 3 all permutations of L
are automorphisms of T2 provided we set e = e because all elements of L
have order 2. See problem 4.18(iii).
(ic) Aut S3 ' S3 . As in (ib) all permutations of the elements of order 2 in
S3 generate automorphisms as the elements of order 3 can be expressed as
products of elements of order 2.
(id) Aut C4 ' C2 . There is only one element of order 2, so all automorphisms map this element to itself. Hence there are two automorphisms, the
first is the identity map, and the second interchanges the two elements of
order 4.
(ie) By Theorems 4.23 and B16, Aut (Cpn ) ' Cpn1 (p1) .

Solutions 4

487

## (ii) No. Suppose D8 = ha, b | a8 = b2 = e, bab = a7 i, then as in the

example on page 83 there is an automorphism : a 7 a, b 7 ab which
satisfies 8 = . But for this group there are four elements of order 8, that is
a, a3 , a5 and a7 , and so there are four automorphisms
i : a 7 a2i+1 , b 7 b

for i = 0, 1, 2, 3.

Hence using the methods in the example quoted above, there are 32 automorphisms and the automorphism group is isomorphic to an extension of D8 by
C2 ; the copy of D8 is obtained if we only consider the automorphisms 0 , 2
and and there powers and products.
(iii) If o(G) = 1 or 2, the only automorphism is the identity map as automorphisms map e to e. Conversely suppose Aut G = hei. So consequently
all inner automorphisms equal the identity map, that is a1 ga = g for all
a, g G, and hence G is Abelian. Now the map defined by a = a1 is an
automorphism (for (ab) = b1 a1 = a1 b1 = ab), and so all elements
of G have order at most 2, that is G is an elementary Abelian 2-group, see
Problem 4.18 above. But by (iii) in this problem if G has order larger than 2,
then there exists a non-identity automorphism (that is a non-singular linear
Problem 4.20 (i) Use Problem 3.1 and check that (1, j) 2 = (1, j) for
j = 2, . . . , 6. Begin with
(1, 2) 2 = (1, 5)(2, 3)(4, 6)
= (1, 5)(1, 2)(1, 3)(1, 2)(1, 4)(1, 6)(1, 4)
= (1, 2)(3, 6)(4, 5) . . . (1, 3)(2, 4)(5, 6) = (1, 2).
(ii) The symmetric group S6 has six subgroups isomorphic to S5 , each of
which contains the set of permutations that fix a particular element of the
set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. This is typical of all symmetric groups. But because of
the facts given in (i) S6 has a further set of six subgroups isomorphic to S5
obtained by looking at collections of products of four 2-cycles. For instance
the elements
(1, 4)(2, 6)(3, 5), (1, 2)(3, 4)(5, 6), (1, 4)(2, 5)(3, 6) and (1, 5)(2, 6)(3, 4)
generate a copy of S5 . To see this we note that these four elements in S6 satisfy the relations in the presentation of S6 given in Problem 3.21 with n = 4.
For example if we label these four permutations a, b, c, d respectively, then
ab, bc, cd have order 3, and ac, ad, bd have order 2. The remaining five subgroups can be obtained by permuting the entries 4, 5 and 6. Note that each
subgroup contains ten of the fifteen products of three 2-cycles, but four are
sufficient to generate the subgroup. Two notable facts about these new subgroups are: They contain no 2-cycles, and unlike the first set of six subgroups
they are transitive on the six-element set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
Problem 4.21 Conjugations by even elements define inner automorphisms
in A5 , but by Theorem 3.3, conjugation by odd elements (that is members

488

Solution Appendix

## of S5 \A5 ) also define automorphisms of A5 . This can be extended to show

that the automorphism group of A5 is isomorphic to S5 . And in fact this also
applies if 5 is replaced by an integer larger than 6.
Problem  4.22 (i) If is an automorphism, so is 1 , that is H1 H
as H is characteristic. So H = (H1 ) H, but H H and equality
follows.
(ii) If H / G, then g 1 Hg H for all g G, but if is an inner automorphism then for some g G we have h = g 1 hg, that is H H; this
argument reverses.
(iii) If K char G and is an automorphism of G, then K = K by (i).
Hence if we restrict the domain of to K, the resulting map |K is an automorphism of K. But H char K and so H = H(|K ) = H, that is we have
H char G.
(iv) If a G and is the inner automorphism given by g = a1 ga, then
as K / G we have |K is an automorphism of K. But J char K, and so
J|K J; that is, if j J then a1 ja = j J. For a counter example
to the last part let G = A4 , H = V = h(1, 2)(3, 4), (1, 3)(2, 4)i (with order
4), and J = h(1, 2)(3, 4)i (with order 2). We have H char G as H contains
all of the elements of order 2 and automorphisms map elements of order 2
to elements of order 2, and J / H as the index is 2, but J is not a normal
subgroup of G.
(v) If G = hai, o(a) = n and is an automorphism, then a = am for
some m satisfying (m, n) = 1; see the proof of Theorem 4.23. Also if H G,
then H = hat i for some t | n by Theorem 4.20. Hence (t, m) = 1, and so
maps H to itself, that is H is a characteristic subgroup of G.
(vi) Let be an automorphism of G and a Z(G), then for all g G we
have ag = ga. If we set h = g1 (note 1 is also an automorphism),
then this equation gives ah = ha for all h G, that is Z(G) Z(G).
(vii) We have, for a, b G,
[a, b] = (a1 b1 ab) = (a)1 (b)1 (a)(b) = [a, b] G0 .
Therefore G0 G0 .
(viii) Let G = ha, b : a2 = b2 = e, ab = bai be the 4-group T2 , and let
the automorphism be given by e = e, a = b, b = a and ab = ab. Now
hai / G, but it is not characteristic because hai = hbi 6 hai.

Solutions 5

489

Solutions 5
Problem 5.1 (i) Two orbits: {1, 2, 3}, {4}; stab(x) = hei if x = 1, 2, 3, and
is G if x = 4.
(ii) and (iii) One orbit, and all stabilisers equal hei.
(iv) Two orbits: {1, 2}, {3, 4}; stab(1) = stab(2) = {e, (3, 4)} and stab(3) =
stab(4) = {e, (1, 2)}.
(v) One orbit. Given x and y there is an even permutation mapping
x to y; stab(j) equals set of elements of A4 which fix j. For instance
stab(1) = {e, (2, 3, 4), (2, 4, 3)} ' A3 ' C3 .
(vi) If v V , orbit of v is {w : w = v\a for a F } = {va : a F }. Also
stab(v) = {1} if v 6= 0, and stab(v) = F if v = 0.
(vii) Note first f (x1 , . . . , xn )\ = f (x1 , . . . , xn ) is a polynomial in
x1 , . . . , xn ; so maps Q [x1 , . . . , xn ] into itself. If is the identity permutation then f \ = f , and for , Sn using associativity of composition we
have
f (x1 , . . . , xn )\ = f (x1( ) , . . . , xn( ) )
= f (x(1) , . . . , x(n) )
= f (x1 , . . . , xn )\
= (f (x1 , . . . , xn )\)\ ;
this gives an action. Hence the orbit of f is the set of all polynomials obtained
by replacing some of the variables with others. For example, if f = x1 +c then
the orbit of f is the set {xi + c : i = 1, . . . , n}, and if f = x21 + + x2n then
the orbit of f is f itself. The stabiliser of f is the subgroup of all elements
of Sn such that f \ = f ; for example, the stabiliser of x1 + c is hei, and the
stabiliser of x21 + + x2n is Sn .
By the Orbit-stabiliser Theorem (Theorem 5.7) we have o(Of ) = [Sn :
stab(f )], also o(Sn ) = n!, hence o(Of ) is a divisor of n! by Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27).
Problem 5.2 Suppose o(G) = pr q s , o(H) = pt q u , o(J) = pv q w , where
t, v r and u, w s. The hypothesis implies either (a) t = r and w = s, or
(b) v = r and u = s. Suppose (a), the proof is the same for (b) and can be
extended if more primes are involved. Now H J H, so o(H J) | pt q u ,
and H J J, so o(H J) | pv q w . Hence
o(H J) | pv q u

## By hypothesis and Theorem 5.8 we have

o(HJ)o(H J) = o(H)o(J) = pt+v q u+w = o(G)pv q u .
Combining these statements shows that o(HJ) o(G), therefore HJ = G.
For the second part use Theorem 5.8 again. See also Problem 2.18.

490

Solution Appendix

##  Problem 5.3 (i) Suppose the orbits are X1 , . . . , Xk . Now o(G) = pt ,

and the Orbit-stabiliser Theorem (Theorem 5.8) gives o(Xi ) | o(G), hence
for each i, we have o(Xi ) = pui for some ui = 0, 1, 2, . . . If o(Xi ) = 1 for
i = 1, . . . , r, and o(Xi ) = psi > 1 for i = r + 1, . . . , k relabelling if necessary,
then as o(X) = o(X1 ) + + o(Xk ), we have o(X) = r + ps1 + . The result
follows as r = o(fix(G, X)).
(ii) By Lemma 5.21, Z(G) 6= hei. Also as J is a disjoint union of its
conjugacy classes (it is normal) C1 = {e}, C2 , . . . . If J Z(G) = hei, then
o(Ci ) > 1 for i = 2, 3, . . . , this follows from the Class Equation (Theorem
5.20). Therefore o(J) = 1 + o(C2 ) + 1 (mod p) which is impossible as
p | o(J) by hypothesis.
Problem 5.4 (i) Use: g stabG (x\h) iff (x\h)\g = x\h iff x\hgh1 = x
iff hgh1 stabG (x) iff g h1 stabG (x)h; and apply Problem 2.23(ii). Or
we can argue as follows: If y O{x} then O{y} = O{x}, and therefore by
Theorem 5.7 [G : stab(x)] = [G : stab(y)] which gives the result.
P
(ii) The sum (o(fix(g, X)) counts each x X a total of stabG (x) times
by definition of the stabiliser. Also if y O{x}, we have by (i) o(stabG (x)) =
o(stabG (y)). Now use Theorem 5.7 to show that each orbit contributes o(G)
to the sum, and so counts the number of orbits. This is sometimes called
Burnsides Counting Lemma.
(iii) By transitivity m = 1, also o(fix(e, X)) = o(X) > 1, so o(fix(g, X))
cannot be positive for all g G.
Problem 5.5 (i) If o(G) = n, then the two given conjugacy classes have
order 1 (for the class {e}) and n 1 (for the rest), and both of these integers
divide n by Theorem 5.19.
(ii) Suppose G is simple and [G : H] = 2, 3 or 4, then by Theorem 5.15
core(H) = hei, and G is isomorphic to a (transitive) subgroup of S2 , S3 or
S4 , respectively.
(iii) Fix a G. The set of b such that ab = ba is the centraliser CG (a),
and we have o(CG (a)) = o(G)/o(C`{a}). If c C`{a} then C`{c} = C`{a},
and so o(CG (c)) = o(CG (a)). Hence the number of pairs {a, b} with ab = ba
as a ranges over its conjugacy class is o(C`{a}) o(CG (a)) = o(G). We can
now sum over the h(G) conjugacy classes of G.
Problem  5.6 Use Theorem 5.15 and Problem 2.24 to show that K =
core(K); note that o(G) has no prime factor smaller than p0 .
Problem 5.7 (i) Use: If h = a1 ga then h1 = a1 g 1 a.
(ii) If D4 = ha, b : a4 = b2 = e, bab = a3 i, the conjugacy classes are
{e},{a2 }, {a, a3 }, {b, a2 b} and {ab, a3 b}; all self-inverse. The conjugacy classes
for A4 are {e}, {(1, 2)(3, 4), (1, 3)(2, 4), (1, 4)(2, 3)}, {(1, 2, 3), (1, 4, 2), (1, 3, 4),
(2, 4, 3)} and {(1, 3, 2), (1, 2, 4), (1, 4, 3), (2, 3, 4)}. The first two are self-inverse,
the inverse of third is the fourth and vice versa. For SL2 (3), see Section 8.2.
In the table on page 172 (here rows correspond to conjugacy classes) the first,
second and fifth rows give self-inverse classes, the inverse of row three is row
four, and the inverse of row six is row seven.

Solutions 5

491

Problem 5.8 (i) Use Theorem 2.13. If gx = xg, for x X and g CG (x),
then xg 1 = g 1 x et cetera.
(ii) Use Definition 2.32.
(iii) If h H, then CG (H) CG (h) by definition, now use the fact that
this holds for all h H.
(iv) We have H CG (J), so hj = jh for all h H and j J. As H J
this shows that j Z(H) for all j J; the result follows.
(v) For first part use the definition and for second part we have a
g 1 CG (H)g, iff gag 1 CG (H), iff gag 1 commutes with h for all h H, iff
gag 1 h = hgag 1 for all h H, iff ag 1 hg = g 1 hga for all h H, and so
iff a CG (g 1 Hg).
(vi) g CG (H) iff ghg 1 = h for all h H, and g NG (H) iff ghg 1 H
for all h H.
(vii) If CG (H) = hei, there is h H such that ah 6= ha for all a G\hei
which implies Z(J) = hei for all J in the given range. If CG (H) 6= hei, there
exists b G satisfying b 6= e and bh = hb for all h H. This shows that
hbiH G and b Z(hbiH), impossible by hypothesis.
Problem 5.9 (i) If D6 = ha, b | a6 = b2 = (ab)2 = ei, then C(e) = C(a3 ) =
D6 , C(at ) = hai if 3 - t, and C(bat ) = hbat , a3 i, so the centraliser of each
element of order 2 has order 4.
For S4 see Problem 5.26. Similarly for (ii).
(iii) We have A5 is the disjoint union of five conjugacy classes, they are
{e}, twenty 3-cycles, twelve 5-cycles, twelve 5-cycles, and fifteen 2-cycles 2cycles; see Problem 3.3. So the numerical Class Equation (Theorem 5.20(ii))
for A5 gives
60 = 1 + 20 + 12 + 12 + 15.
The centralisers of the 3- and 5-cycles are the cyclic groups they generate (of
orders 3 and 5, respectively), and
CA5 ((1, 2)(3, 4)) = {e, (1, 2)(3, 4), (1, 3)(2, 4), (1, 4)(2, 3)}.
Problem 5.10 Note that a permutation on the set {m + 1, . . . , n} commutes with , also any power of commutes with . Now check that there is
nothing else in CSn ( ).
Problem 5.11 (i) As Z(G) / G, we have haiZ(G) G if a G (Lemma
4.14(ii)), and if h Z(G) then ah = ha. Now note that a 6 Z(G).
(ii) As H is Abelian, H CG (H). Use (i) to show that if a CG (H)\H
then H is not maximal Abelian.
Problem 5.12 (i) Use definition.
(ii) If a CG (CG (A)) then ay = ya for all y CG (A), that is for all y
such that yc = cy for all c A. This is true for all a A.

492

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

(iii) By (i) and (ii) we have CG (A) CG (CG (CG (A))), and for the reverse
inclusion substitute CG (A) for A in (ii).
Problem  5.13 (i) Suppose H / K and NG (H) < K. There exists
k K\NG (H), and for h H, k 1 hk H. But k 6 NG (H) = {g G :
g 1 Hg = H} which is a contradiction.
(ii) We have, where h, h0 H,
g 1 NG (H)g = {x : x = g 1 ag and for all h there exists h0 with a1 ha = h0 }
= {x : x = g 1 ag and for all h there exists h0
with gg 1 a1 gg 1 hgg 1 agg 1 = h0 }
= {x : for all h there exists h0 with gx1 g 1 hgxg 1 = h0 }
= {x : for all h there exists h0 with x1 g 1 hgx = g 1 h0 g}
= NG (g 1 Hg).
(iii) NJ (H) = {g J : g 1 Hg = H}, so NJ (H) J, and NJ (H)
NG (H) as J G; hence NJ (H) NG (H) J. But if k NG (H) J then
k J and k 1 Hk = H. This gives k NJ (H) and equality follows.
(iv) If [H, K] H, then for h H and k K we have [h, k] = h1 k 1 hk
H, and so k 1 hk H and k 1 Hk H. We can interchange k and k 1 , and
so kHk 1 H, that is k 1 Hk = H and k NG (H). For the converse, if
k NG (H) and h H, then [h, k] = h1 (k 1 hk) H.
(v) Use the coset action, so the set X equals the collection of right cosets
of J in G, and o(X) 0 (mod p) by hypothesis. By Problem 5.3 this shows
that o(fix(J, G)) 0 (mod p). But J is fixed by this action, hence at least
two elements of X are fixed (as p 2). Suppose the second is Jg where
Jg 6= J. So g 6 J and g 1 Jg = J, but this implies that g NG (J) giving
the result. Easier arguments exist using the Sylow theory.


a12
a22 a12
Problem 5.14 (i) Let A = aa11
GL2 (Q), then dA1 = a
a
21 a22
21
11

where d = det A 6= 0. Now if A NG (D), then C = A1 x0 y0 A D, for all
non-zero x, y Q. The off-diagonal entries of C are
a11 a21 (y x)

## and a12 a22 (x y).

As these are zero we obtain either a11 = a22 = 0, or a12 = a21 = 0 (we
cannot have a11 = a12 = 0 because A is non-singular). Hence A is diagonal
or anti-diagonal, and NG (D) is the subgroup of diagonal and anti-diagonal
matrices in GL2 (Q).
(ii) In the 3 3 case NG (D) is the subgroup of all matrices with one
non-zero entry in every row and column; see Problems 3.12 and 3.15.
Problem 5.15 (i) We have H NG (H) G. Let o(H) = r, o(NG (H)) =
rs and o(G) = rst [by Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27)]. By Lemma
5.25(iii) the number of conjugates of H in G is t, so by Problem 2.23(ii) the
total number of elements of G in a conjugacy class of H is less than rt, that

Solutions 5

493

## is less than rst the order of G even if s = 1.

(ii) Let H be a maximal subgroup of G. By (i) we can find a G such
that it does not belong to H or any of its conjugates.
Now either hai = G or hai < G. If the latter, there exists a maximal J < G
with hai J < G, but J is conjugate to H, and so a 6 J, a contradiction.
Problem 5.16 (i) We have NG (K) = G and Aut K is Abelian (Theorem
4.23), so by Problem 5.8(vi) we have G = CG (K), that is each element of K
commutes with each element of G.
(ii) This is similar using Theorem 4.23 again.
(iii) We have G/CG (K) is isomorphic to a subgroup of a finite group, that
is Aut K, now argue as in (i).
Problem 5.17 (i) By (i) in Problem 5.13 H NG (K) and by (ii) of this
problem NG (K) NG (CG (K)), (a) follows. (b) Now CG (K) = NG (K), so
H CG (K) which gives K Z(H) by definition of the centraliser.
(ii) We have H Z(NG (H)) if and only if hk = kh for all h H and
k NG (H). But CG (H) = {g G : gh = hg for all h H} and NG (H) =
{g G : for all h H there exists h0 H such that gh = h0 g}. So if hk = kh
for all h H and k NG (H), the h0 in the definition of NG (H) equals h in
all cases, that is NG (H) = CG (H). This argument reverses.
Problem 5.18 If o(Z(G)) = 3, 5 or 15, then G is Abelian by Problem
4.16(ii) (as 3 and 5 are both prime). In this group conjugacy classes of order
larger than 1 have orders 3 or 5. The Class Equation (Theorem 5.20) now
shows that the only possibility is that G has three classes of order 3 and
one of order 5. The class with order 5 contains all of the elements of G with
order 3, but elements of order 3 occur in pairs: {c, c2 } with c3 = e which is a
Problem 5.19
so o(Z(G)) = 2.

## (i) Z(G) is the set of scalar matrices (Problem 2.26), and


(ii) The matrix a0 cb is non-singular provided a 6= 0 6= c, so there are two
choices for both a and c, and three for b; therefore o(H) = 12, and so by (i)
Z(G) H.


(iii) Let h1 gh H where h = ac db and g = 0r us . The lower left-hand
entry of h1 gh is 0 when ac(r u) + c2 s = 0. This holds for all non-singular
matrices h = ac db when s = 0 and r = u, or by (i) when g Z(G). Therefore
core(H) = Z(G).
(iv) By Theorem 5.15, G/core(H) = G/Z(G) is isomorphic to a subgroup
of S4 as [G : H] = 4, see (ii). But o(G/Z(G)) = 24, and so G/Z(G) ' S4 .
Problem 5.20 Let H be the normal closure of hai in G, see Problem 2.25.
As CG (a) / G, H CG (a); see quoted problem. This problem also shows
that H can be expressed as
H = hg 1 au g : g G, u Zi.

494

Solution Appendix

## We have H / G but is it Abelian? We need

(g 1 at g)(g11 au g1 ) = (g11 au g1 )(g 1 at g)

for g, g1 G, t, u Z,

## or rearranging the terms in this expression

(g1 g 1 at gg11 )au = au (g1 g 1 at gg11 ).
But this follows as H is contained in the centraliser of a in G. For a counter
example see page 103. In this example CD3 (b) is a non-normal subgroup of
D3 but hbi is Abelian.
Problem 5.21 (i) Let h1 ah = b, then the set {g G : g 1 ag = b} =
{g G : g 1 ag = h1 ah} = {g G : (gh1 )1 a(gh1 ) = a} = CG (a) for as
g ranges over G so does gh1 (Theorem 2.8).
(ii) By Theorems 2.27 and 5.19, o(CG (a))o(C`(a)) = o(G). Hence
o(CG (a)) o(G/G0 )

## if and only if o(G0 ) o(C`(a)).

Let : C`(a) G0 be given by g 1 ag = [a, g] = a1 g 1 ag where g G.
Now g 1 ag = h1 ah if and only if a1 g 1 ag = a1 h1 ah, and so is an
injective map. Hence as o(G) is finite, the number of conjugates of a in G is
less than or equal to the order of G0 .
(iii) As K / G and [G : K] = p, G/K ' Cp and there exists a G such
that if g G then g = at k for 0 t < p and k K. Hence if b = g 1 cg
then b = h1 at cat h. But CK (c) < CG (c), and so a and c commute giving
b = h1 ch.
Problem  5.22 (i) Suppose Z(G) = hei and r is the class number. So G
has one class of order 1 and r 1 classes of order at least p0 where p0 is the
smallest prime dividing o(G). Hence by the Class Equation (Theorem 5.20)
1 + (r 1)p0 o(G). But p0 | o(G), and so rp0 | o(G) giving rp0 o(G). Now
take contra-positive.
(ii) As G is not Abelian Z(G) < G, and so o(Z(G)) o(G)/2. If we have
equality, then G/Z(G) has order 2 and so is cyclic, but then by Problem
4.16(ii) G is Abelian. Hence r o(Z(G)) 1, if we have equality then there
is only one conjugacy class C of order larger than 1 and so its order is in fact
larger than o(G)/2. But by the Class Equation this would imply that the
corresponding centraliser had an order strictly between 1 and 2.
(iii) o(Z(G)) 6= 1 by Lemma 5.21, o(Z(G)) 6= p2 by Problem 4.16(ii),
and o(Z(G)) 6= p3 as G is not Abelian; hence o(Z(G)) = p. Further, as
Z(G) / G (Lemma 2.20), G/Z(G) is Abelian with order p2 (Theorem 5.22),
hence G0 Z(G) by Problem 4.6. But G0 6= hei because G is not Abelian,
therefore G0 = Z(G). Next we ask: Could G have a conjugacy class of order
p2 ? No, for if o(C`(y)) = p2 , then by Theorem 5.19 [G : CG (y)] = p2 , and so
o(CG (y)) = p. But by Problem 5.21(ii), p = o(CG (y)) o(G/Z(G)) = p2 ; a
contradiction. Hence G has p conjugacy classes of order 1 (the centre) and s,
say, conjugacy classes of order p, so c = p + s and the Class Equation gives

Solutions 5

495

p3 = o(G) = o(Z(G)) +

Xr
i=1

o(C`(yi )) = p + sp,

hence s = p2 1 and r = p2 + p 1.
Problem 5.23 (i) Suppose j 1 aj = b. Then C(b) = {g : gb = bg} =
{g : gj 1 aj = j 1 ajg} = {g : jgj 1 a = ajgj 1 } = {j 1 hj : ha = ah} =
j 1 C(a)j.
P (ii) As each element of G lies in exactly one conjugacy class, o(G) =
o(C`(xi )) where xi is a representative of the i-th conjugacy class (1 i
r), and the sum is taken over these classes. By Theorem 5.19, this gives
X
X
o(G) =
[G : CG (xi )] =
o(G)/ci where ci = o(CG (xi )),
and so 1 = 1/c1 + + 1/cr .
(iii) For fixed r the above equation only has finitely many solutions, see
Problem B4. Hence there can only be finitely many groups with r conjugacy
classes.
(iv) For r 3, the solutions are 1 = 1/1 = 1/2 + 1/2 = 1/2 + 1/3 + 1/6 =
1/2 + 1/4 + 1/4 = 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3. The solution 1/2 + 1/2 corresponds to the
group C2 ; 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 corresponds to C3 ; 1/2 + 1/3 + 1/6 corresponds
to S3 ; whilst 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/4 does not correspond to a group.
Problem 5.24 By Lemma 5.25 the number of conjugate subgroups g 1 Hg
is bounded by [G : H], and the minimum overlap between two of them is hei.
So

[
g 1 Hg 1 + (o(H) 1)[G : H],
o
gG

now use Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27). If H satisfies the given condition, then
[
g 1 Hg = G
gG

## and so [G : H] = 1. See also Problem 5.15(i).

Problem 5.25 (a) If we take = (1, 2, 3), then (4, 5) commutes with
(1, 2, 3), and so (4, 5) CSn ().
(b) This follows from the definition of the centraliser.
(c) We have [CSn () : CAn ()] = [CSn () : CSn () An ] = [An CSn () :
An ] [by Theorem 5.8] = [Sn : An ] = 2, as An contains all even perms. and
CSn () contains at least one odd perm.
(d) By Theorem 5.19 we have [An , CAn ()] = o(C`An ()). As C`An ()
C`Sn (), with (iii) this shows that o(C`Sn ()) = o(C`An ()).
Problem 5.26 For G1 = S4 the element centralisers are: C(e) = G1 ,
C((1, 2)) = h(1, 2), (3, 4)i ' T2 , C((1, 2)(3, 4)) = h(1, 2), (1, 3, 2, 4)i ' D4 ,
C((1, 2, 3)) = h(1, 2, 3)i ' C3 , and C((1, 2, 3, 4)) = h(1, 2, 3, 4)i ' C4 .
The subgroup centralisers and normalisers are:

496

Solution Appendix

## (i) C(hei) = N (hei) = G1 ;

(ii) C(h(1, 2)i) = N (h(1, 2)i) = h(1, 2), (3, 4)i ' T2 ;
(iii) C(h(1, 2)(3, 4)i) = N (h(1, 2)(3, 4)i) = h(1, 3, 2, 4), (1, 2)i ' D4 ;
(iv) C(h(1, 2, 3)i) = h(1, 2, 3)i, N (h(1, 2, 3)i) = h(1, 2, 3), (1, 2)i ' S3 ,
N/C ' C2 ' Aut (C3 );
(v) C(h(1, 2, 3, 4)i) = h(1, 2, 3, 4)i, N (h(1, 2, 3, 4)i) = h(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 3)i,
' D4 , N/C ' C2 ' Aut (C4 );
(vi) C(h(1, 2)(3, 4), (1, 3(2, 4)i) = h(1, 2)(3, 4), (1, 3)(2, 4)i,
N (h(1, 2)(3, 4), (1, 3(2, 4)i) = G1 , N/C ' S3 ' Aut (T2 );
(vii) C(h(1, 2), (3, 4)i) = h(1, 2), (3, 4)i, N (h(1, 2), (3, 4)i)
= h(1, 3, 2, 4), (1, 2)i, N/C ' C2  Aut (T2 ) ' S3 ;
(viii) C(h(1, 2, 3), (1, 2)i) = hei, N (h(1, 2, 3), (1, 2)i) = h(1, 2, 3), (1, 2)i,
N/C ' S3 ' Aut (S3 );
(ix) C(h(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 3)i) = h(1, 3)(2, 4)i, N (h(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 3)i)
= h(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 3)i, N/C ' T2  Aut (D4 ) ' D4 ;
(x) C(A4 ) = hei, N (A4 ) = G1 , N/C ' S4 ' Aut (A4 );
(xi) C(G1 ) = hei, N (G1 ) = G1 , N/C ' S4 ' Aut (S4 ).

For G2 = SL2 (3) the element centralisers are: C(e) = G2 , C( 20 02 ) = G2 ,
the centraliserof an order 3 element g is the subgroup of order 6 generated
by g and 20 02 , and the centralisers of the order 4 and 6 elements are the
cyclic groups they generate.
The subgroup centralisers and normalisers of SL2 (3) are:
(i) C(hei) =
 N (hei) = G2 ;
(ii) C( 20 02 ) = N ( 20 02 ) = G2 ;




(iii) C( 10 11 ) = N ( 10 11 ) = h 10 11 , 20 02 i,
a matrix of order 3 has centraliser and normaliser of order 6;
(iv) Centraliser of an order 4 subgroup is itself, normaliser of an order
4 subgroup is the normal subgroup isomorphic to Q2 , N/C ' C2 '
Aut (C4 );
(v) Centraliser and normaliser of a subgroup of order 6 are both themselves;

(vi) and (vii) Centraliser of both Q2 and G2 are h 20 02 i, isomorphic to
C2 , normaliser of both Q2 and G2 are G2 . In each case N/C ' A4 , and
Aut (Q2 ) and Aut (SL2 (3)) are both isomorphic to S4 , see Problem 5.19
and Section 8.2.
Finally note that Burnsides Normal Complement Theorem (Theorem 6.17)
only applies in case (iii) for the second group G
 2 , and
 in this case the subgroup
in question has the normal complement h 22 21 , 12 22 i ' Q2 . In the other cases
where o(N/C) = 1 the corresponding subgroup is not Sylow.

Solutions 6

497

Solutions 6
Problem  6.1 (i) We have K is maximal and K / G. Now as G/K is a
p-group, by Cauchys Theorem (Theorem 6.2) it contains an element of order
p, and so a subgroup of order p with the form J/K for some J satisfying
K / J G; this follows using the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16).
But K is maximal, hence J = G and [G : K] = p.
(ii) Suppose the cyclic group G has generator a. By Theorem 4.20, G has
a unique subgroup H generated by ap which has index p in G. If h H then
h is a power of ap , that is h = (ap )r = (ar )p for some r Z, and so every
element in H is a p-power. Now use Problem 2.13(ii) and see Theorem 6.6.
(iii) As G is a p-group, the conjugacy classes have orders 1, p, p2 , . . . . Also
K / G, so K is a union of conjugacy classes. But o(K) = p and {e} is
a conjugacy class in K. Therefore K consists entirely of elements whose
conjugacy classes have order 1, that is they belong to Z(G).
Problem 6.2 (i) Note automorphisms map p-elements to p-elements.
(ii) Let a, b G with ap = bp = e. By Problem 4.6, G0 Z(G), and so
[a, b] Z(G). Now e = ap = b1 ap b = (b1 ab)p = (a[a, b])p = ap [a, b]p [by
Problem 2.17(ii) with t = p] = [a, b]p . This shows that (ab)p = ap bp which
gives closure.
Problem 6.3 There are five group types, three of which are Abelian with
all of their subgroups normal and Z(G) = G. Subgroup lattice diagrams are
given on pages 547 to 551.
(i) G is cyclic, so G ' ha | a8 = ei. By Theorem 4.20, the proper nonneutral subgroups are ha2 i ' C4 , ha4 i ' C2 .
(ii) G is Abelian and all elements have order 2, that is G is elementary
Abelian (Problem 4.18). We can write G as ha, b, c | a2 = b2 = c2 = e, ab =
ba, bc = cb, ca = aci. It has 7 elements of order 2, and so 7 subgroups of order
2: hai, . . . , habci. By trial we see that it also has 7 subgroups of order 4 each
isomorphic to T2 : ha, bi, ha, ci, hb, ci, hab, bci, ha, bci, hb, aci and hc, abi. There
are 21 (unordered) subsets of a 7-element set, and each subgroup isomorphic
to T2 contains three of them; hence seven in all.
(iii) The third Abelian possibility is that G not cyclic and it has an element
of order 4, so we can write G as ha, b | a4 = b2 = e, ab = bai with elements
e (order 1), a2 , b, a2 b (order 2) and a, a3 , ab, a3 b (order 4). Hence there are
three subgroups of order 2. There are also 3 subgroups of order 4: hai, habi
(isomorphic to C4 ) and ha2 , bi ' T2 .
(iv) G = ha, b | a4 = b2 = e, ba = a3 bi ' D4 . The non-neutral elements are
2
a , b, ab, a2 b, a3 b (order 2) and a, a3 (order 4). Hence G has five subgroups
isomorphic to C2 and one isomorphic to C4 . By trial we see that it also
has two isomorphic to T2 : ha2 , bi, ha2 , abi. (A subgroup of order 4 is normal
and so contains the central involution a2 , hence adding another involution
generates a copy of T2 .) As the only non-neutral element that commutes with
both a and b is a2 we have Z(G) = ha2 i ' C2 , and so checking cosets we

498

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

deduce G/Z(G) = haZ, bZi ' T2 . The centre Z(G) and the three subgroups
of order 4 are normal (see Problem 2.19). By trial the others are not, they
do not commute with a.
(v) G = ha, b | a4 = e, b2 = a2 , ba = a3 bi ' Q2 . The non-neutral elements
are a2 (order 2) and a, a3 = ab2 = b2 a, b, ab, a2 b = b3 = ba2 , a3 b = ab3 (order
4). Hence G has only one subgroup of order 2: ha2 i, and three of order 4:
hai, hbi and habi which are all cyclic. As above only e and a2 commute with
all elements and so Z(G) = ha2 i, and checking cosets we have G/Z(G) =
haZ, bZi ' T2 . Subgroups have index 2 or equal Z(G), and so are ALL
normal a very unusual feature that is the group is called Hamiltonian,
see Problem 7.13.
Problem 6.4 (i) In G1 we have bar b = a3r for r Z, hence a = b2 ab2 =
b(bab)b = ba3 b = a9 which gives a8 = e. Similarly in G2 . Now in G1 ,
ar b = ba3r , and so all elements of G1 have the form ar bs for 0 r < 8
and 0 b < 2. Again the same is true for G2 . Check that if ar bs = e, then
r = s = 0.
(ii) Subgroups of G1 are hei; ha4 i, hbi, ha4 bi (Order 2); ha4 , bi(' T2 );
2
ha i, ha2 bi (cyclic, order 4); hai, habi (cyclic, order 8); ha2 , bi (' C4 C2 );
and G1 all normal except hbi and ha4 bi which are conjugate.
Subgroups of G2 are hei ; ha4 i , hbi, ha2 bi, ha4 bi, ha6 bi (Order 2); ha4 , bi,
4 2
ha , a bi (' T2 ); ha2 i, habi, ha3 bi (' C4 ); hai (' C8 ); ha2 , bi (' D4 );
ha2 , abi (' Q2 ); and G2 those marked are normal. Note that this
group has three non-isomorphic subgroups of order 8 only one of which is
Abelian.
(iii) Both groups have three maximal subgroups of order 8, normal subgroups of all powers of 2 dividing 16, and a five-term normal series (see
Chapter 9).
(iv) In G1 we have ha4 i = (G1 )0 < Z(G1 ) = ha2 i, and in G2 we have
ha4 i = Z(G2 ) < (G2 )0 = ha2 i.
(v) The subgroup lattices of G1 and C8 C2 are identical except for the
top group. But note that their normal subgroup lattices are not identical
because one group is Abelian whilst the other is not. The reader should draw
diagrams of these lattices; see pages 557 and 558.
Problem 6.5 (i) Let be the natural homomorphism G G/Z(G). As
G/Z(G) is Abelian and has order p2 , see Problems 5.3 and 4.16(ii), it has
a normal subgroup H/Z(G), say, of order p. The Correspondence Theorem
(Theorem 4.16) now shows that G has a normal subgroup H of order p2 .
There are two possibilities (a) H contains an element of order p2 (and so is
cyclic), and (b) all non-neutral elements of H have order p (and so H is an
elementary Abelian p-group).
2

## Case (a) H = hai where ap = e and ap 6= e. Let b G \hai. As H / G,

t
1
b ab = ar for some integer r. Now b1 as b = ars and bt abt = ar . Hence as
p
p
2
b H, we have r 1 (mod p ) which gives r = 1 + up for some integer u.
If we replace b by au b, we obtain the first group.

Solutions 6

499

Case (b) H = hai hbi where a and b have order p; see Chapter 7.
If c = [a, b], then by Problem 4.6, c Z(G), that is ca = ac and cb = bc.
If p = 2 then G is Abelian (see Corollary 2.11, in fact it is an elementary
Abelian 2-group), but it is not Abelian if p > 2.
(ii) Working over a p-element field we can take, for example,
a=

1 1 0
0 1 0
0 0 1

!
,b=

1 0 0
0 1 1
0 0 1

!
,c=

1 0 1
0 1 0
0 0 1

!
.

(iii) ES1 (3). The proper subgroups are hai, habi, hab2 i (' C9 ); ha3 , bi ('
C3 C3 ); ha3 i, hbi, ha3 bi, ha6 bi (' C3 ) and hei, all are normal except hbi, ha3 bi
and ha6 bi, and second to fifth are maximal. The centre is ha3 i.
ES2 (3). The proper subgroups are hc, ai, hc, bi, hc, abi, hc, ab2 i (' C3
C3 ); hci, hai, hbi, haci, hac2 i, hbci, hbc2 i, habi, hab2 i, ha2 bi, ha2 b2 i, habci, ha2 bc2 i
(' C3 ) and hei. Second to fifth are maximal, and first to sixth and hei are
normal, and the centre is hci.
Problem 6.6 If o(G) = p2 use Theorem 5.22 and the fact that Cp Cp
contains p subgroups of order p. If o(G) = p3 then, apart from Cp3 , each of
the groups involved (Cp2 Cp , Cp3 , ES1 (p) and ES2 (p)) have more than one
subgroup of order p; see the previous problem and Section 7.2. This fact can
also be proved directly using Theorem 10.21 and Problem 2.17(ii); see Doerk
and Hawkes [1992], page 204. Note that the result is false for p = 2, Q2 has
a unique subgroup of order 2 and it is clearly not cyclic (or Abelian).
If o(G) = pn where n > 3 then, by Theorem 6.5, we can find K to satisfy:
K / G and o(K) = p. Suppose G/K has two subgroups, H/K and J/K, of
order p. We may assume that H/K Z(G/K) (see Chapter 10). It follows
that HJ G and o(HJ) = p3 (use Theorem 5.8). Now by the case above,
this group has a unique subgroup of order p2 , and so H = J, G/K has a
unique subgroup of order p, and so is cyclic. Let G = hK, ai and A = hai. If
G A = hei, then G has two subgroups of order p, they are {c A : cp = e}
and K, which is impossible. Therefore K A and G = KA = A.
Problem 6.7 (i) The group is Abelian by definition. Using the relations
n
n+1
we have ap0 = e and apn
= apn1 = = ap0 = e, and so the order of every
generator is a power of p, hence all elements are p-elements as the group is
Abelian.
(ii) Use the equations above.
(iii) If H Cp and H contains infinitely many of the an , then H = Cp
by (ii). But if H only contains ai1 , . . . , aik , where i1 < < ik , then by (ii)
again H = haik i.
Problem 6.8 (ia) As 32 is the largest power of 3 dividing o(S6 ), by Theorem 4.22 a Sylow 3-subgroup of S6 is isomorphic to either C9 or C3 C3 .
Using the quoted problem we see that S6 contains no element of order 9. We
can also note directly that C3 C3 ' l(1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6)i is a Sylow 3-subgroup
of S6 .

500

Solution Appendix

## (ib) By Problem 3.7, S4 is isomorphic to a subgroup of A6 , and the Sylow

2-subgroups of S4 are isomorphic to D4 so the same is true for A6 .
(ic) o(SL2 (5)) = 120, so a Sylow 2-subgroup has order 8. Using the quoted
problem the only order 8 group with a single element of order 2 is Q2 , so this
is the isomorphism type of the Sylow 2-subgroups in this case.
(ii) Let Dn = ha, b | an = b2 = e, ba = an1 bi. The elements of this group
are: e, a, . . . an1 , b, ab, . . . , an1 b where o(abt ) = 2 for t = 0, . . . , n 1, and
the n Sylow 2-subgroups are habt i, all of order 2; n in all. Note that by the
Sylow theory n2 is odd and divides n. The rest are subgroups of the cyclic
subgroup hai which has odd order. Now use Theorem 4.20.
If n = 2k the result is clearly not true, also D6 has a Sylow 2-subgroup
isomorphic to T2 , et cetera.
(iii) We have H ' S3 S3 with o(H) = 36, and so H has Sylow 2subgroups of order 4 (nine in all). Let P1 = h(1, 2), (4, 5)i, P2 = h(2, 3), (5, 6)i
and P3 = h(1, 2), (5, 6)i for example.
Problem  6.9 (i) P is contained in both Q and H and so P Q H.
But Q H is a p-subgroup of H, and P is a p-subgroup of H of highest
possible power, hence we have equality.
(ii) We use Sylow 2 and 5. If P is a Sylow p-subgroup of G, then KP G
by Theorem 2.30. Also P KP , and KP is a p-group. But P is a p-subgroup
of G of maximum p-order, hence P = KP which in turn implies K P .
(iii) See Problem 5.13(v).
(iv) Let G act by conjugation on K (so k\g = g 1 kg for g G and k K),
and restrict this action to P (page 98), that is P acts by conjugation on K.
fix(K, P ) = {k K : j 1 kj = k for all j P } = K CG (P ) = hei.
This last equation holds because o(CG (P )) is a power of p and by hypothesis (o(K), p) = 1. By Problem 5.3(i), o(fix(K, P )) o(K) (mod p), hence
o(K) 1 (mod p).
(v) Automorphisms map Sylow p-subgroups to Sylow p-subgroups, so
Op (G) is a characteristic subgroup of G (Problem 4.22), the second part
follows directly from (i).
(vi) Let Pi be a Sylow p-subgroup of G. If a Pi for all i, then
g 1 ag g 1 Pi g for all i and all g G. But by Sylow 2 the set of conjugates of the set of T
Sylow p-subgroups T
is just the set of Sylow p-subgroups
itself. Hence if a Pi then g 1 ag Pi for all g G. Now use Theorem
2.15.
Problem  6.10 (i) By Sylow 4, np (G) np (H) 1 (mod p), so by
Theorem 6.8(ii) we have
[G : NG (P )] [H : NH (P )] 1

(mod p).

result follows.

Solutions 6

501

## (ii) There exists a G with h = a1 ga, and so h a1 CG (P )a =

CG (a1 P a). Also P, a1 P a CG (h) and they are Sylow subgroups of CG (h).
Hence by Sylow 2 there exists b CG (h) satisfying P = b1 (a1 P a)b, which
gives ab NG (P ) and b1 a1 gab = b1 hb = h.
(iii) P is a Sylow p-subgroup of G, o(P ) = pr and o(G) = . . . pr . . . . Then
o(KP ) = . . . ps . . . for some s r, and if o(K) = . . . pt . . . then o(K P ) = pu
for some u t. By Theorem 5.8 we have
o(K)o(P ) = o(KP )o(K P ),

and so

pr pt = ps pu ,

## which gives s = r and u = t. Hence K P is a Sylow p-subgroup of K, as

powers of p agree, and o(KP ) = . . . pr . . . .
Secondly K/ G, so K/ KP , and by the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem
4.16) as the p-powers of o(G) and o(KP ) are equal (to pr ), we see that the
p-powers of o(G/K) and o(KP/K) are also equal (to prt in this case). Now
the Second Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem 4.15) gives KP/K ' P/(K P ),
the right-hand side is a factor group of a p-group, and so is itself a p-group,
therefore the left-hand side is also a p-group and this proves that KP/K is
a Sylow p-subgroup of G/K.
(iv) One example is as follows. Let G = A6 . Note S4 A6 (see Problem
3.7) and the powers of 2 in the prime factorisation of both o(A6 ) and o(S4 )
are equal (to 23 ). Now P = h(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 3)i ' D4 is a Sylow 2-subgroup of
S4 (Chapter 8), so it is also isomorphic to a Sylow 2-subgroup of A6 by the
Sylow theory, and we can take it as h(1, 2, 3, 4)(5, 6), (1, 3)(5, 6)i. Let J be the
group of all even permutations of the set {1, 2, 3, 5, 6}, then A5 ' J A6 ,
o(J) = 60 and o(P ) = 8. Now P J = h(1, 3)(5, 6)i and o(P J) = 2, so
P J is not a Sylow 2-subgroup of J as such a group would have order 4.
Note that you could also use Problem 6.8(iii).
(v) This follows from (iii) as KP/K is just some Sylow subgroup of G.
Problem 6.11 (i) If H = hP1 , . . . , Pr i, then H G and o(Pi ) | o(H) for
i = 1, . . . , r. This shows that o(H) = o(G) and so H = G. Use Theorem 5.8
when r = 2.
(ii) First we have
(K1 P )(K2 P ) K1 K2 P.
Suppose P is a p-group, o(Ki ) = . . . pri . . . and o(K1 K2 ) = . . . ps . . . . By
Problem 6.10(iii) o(Ki P ) = pri and o(K1 K2 P ) = ps . So if o(K1 K2 ) =
. . . pt . . . , then by Theorem 5.8
o(Ki P )(K2 P ) = pr1 +r2 /pt = ps = o(K1 K2 P ),
and the result follows. For the second part use Problem 2.18 (Dedekinds
Identity).
(iii) By (i), P = P1 H and Q = Q1 H, and P and Q are distinct. As P
is a Sylow p-subgroup of H, by Sylow 5 there exists a Sylow p-subgroup P1

502

Solution Appendix

## of G with P1 P . Result follows by (ii).

(iv) Use (iii) and Sylow 5, if P is a Sylow p-subgroup of H then P is a
p-subgroup of G, and so it is contained in a Sylow p-subgroup of G.
P
(v) By the quoted problem we have [G : H] = cC [J : J c1 Hc] where
C is a set of double coset representatives. Now as H is Sylow, p - [G : H], so
there is a c C such that p - [J : J c1 Hc]. Also J c1 Hc is a p-group,
and hence it is a Sylow p-subgroup of J, now put a = c.
Problem 6.12 (i) We have o(Sp ) = p!, so a Sylow p-subgroup P has order
p and is isomorphic to Cp . But Sp contains (p 1)! permutations which are pcycles, and so (p2)! Sylow p-subgroups (see Problem 2.5(iii)). Therefore [Sp :
NSp (P )] = np = (p 2)! which gives o(NSp (P )) = p(p 1). Also P / NSp (P ),
so NSp (P ) is a subgroup of Sp of order p(p1) with a normal cyclic subgroup
P of order p. Further development will depend on the factorisation of p 1,
for an example see Problem 3.11.
(ii) Suppose np > 1 and P = NG (P ) for all Sylow p-subgroups P of G.
As G is a transitive subgroup of Sp , P ' Cp . By the Sylow theory, G has
(p 1)np = o(G) np elements of order p. None of these elements is fixed
by G (as it is transitive), so G has at most np fixed elements. Each stabiliser
stabG (i) (1 i p) has np elements which possess one fixed point. It follows
that all stabilisers have order 1, and so are equal. Now refer to the first proof
of Sylows main theorem. Hence the group has a unique Sylow p-subgroup
contrary to our assumption. Now see Problem 12.15.
Problem 6.13 (i) If n3 = 4, then G has eight elements of order 3, and so
only four elements of order 1, 2 or 4. But a Sylow 2-subgroup has order 4,
and so it must be unique.
(ii) The possible orders for G are 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30. Now n5 = 1 follows
directly from the Sylow theory in the first four cases. If n5 6= 1 in the fifth
case, then n5 = 6 and the group contains 24 elements of order 5. Further if
a is an involution in G, P is a Sylow 5-subgroup of G (and so P = NG (P )),
then conjugation of a by the elements of P gives five distinct involutions in G.
Hence G has no element of order 3 which is impossible by Cauchys Theorem
(Theorem 6.2).
(iii) Ten subgroups isomorphic to C3 generated by (1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 4), (1, 2, 5),
(1, 3, 4), (1, 3, 5), (1, 4, 5), (2, 3, 4), (2, 3, 5), (2, 4, 5) and (3, 4, 5); five subgroups
isomorphic to T2 , the first is generated by (1, 2)(3, 4) and (1, 3)(2, 4) and the
remainder are similar noting that there are five ways of choosing four elements
out of five; and six subgroups isomorphic to C5 generated by (1, 2, 3, 4, 5),
(1, 2, 3, 5, 4), (1, 2, 4, 3, 5), (1, 2, 4, 5, 3), (1, 2, 5, 3, 4), and (1, 2, 5, 4, 3).
Problem 6.14 By Theorems 6.2 and 6.11 the group G contains elements
a and b with o(a) = q, o(b) = p, where K = hai / G and H = hbi G.
t
Also by the normality of K, b1 ab = ar for some r 6= 1. So bt abt = ar and
t
as bt = bt ar s . Hence G has the presentation
G ' ha, b | aq = bp = e, b1 ab = ar i.

Solutions 6

503
p

## Further this gives a = bp abp = ar , so rp 1 (mod q). The integer r exists

by the theory of primitive roots; see Appendix B. In fact there are p 1
possibilities modulo p for r which can be written as r, r2 , . . . , rp1 . These
possibilities do not give rise to distinct groups, for if we replace r by rk , say,
then we obtain the original group if we also replace the generator b by bk , and
H is cyclic of prime order so every non-neutral element can act as a generator
of the group. This is an example of a Frobenius group, see Web Section 14.3.
Problem  6.15 Groups of order less than 60. By theorems proved in this
chapter, groups whose orders are prime powers, or have three or fewer (not
necessarily distinct) prime factors, possess normal subgroups. The remaining
cases are (a) 24, (b) 36, (c) 40, (d) 48, (e) 54, and (f) 56; we treat each of
these in turn.
(a) o(G) = 24 = 23 3. Always look at the larger primes first! We have
n3 1 (mod 8) and n3 | 8 so n3 = 1 or 4. If n3 = 4, G is simple, and H is a
Sylow 3-subgroup of G, then core(H) = hei giving an injection of G into S4
(Theorem 5.15). Comparing orders implies that G ' S4 , but A4 / S4 which
(b) o(G) = 36 = 22 32 . The group G has a Sylow 3-subgroup H (of order
9) with index [G : H] = 4. As in (a), if G is simple then Theorem 5.15
provides an injection of G into S4 which is impossible because o(G) = 36 and
o(S4 ) = 24.
(c) o(G) = 40 = 23 5. By Sylow 4 we have n5 1 (mod 5) and n5 | 8,
which gives n5 = 1 and G has a normal cyclic subgroup of order 5.
(d) o(G) = 48 = 24 3. The method given in (a) also applies here. Note
that if n3 = 16, then the group has 32 elements of order 3 which implies that
(e) o(G) = 54 = 2 33 . A Sylow 3-subgroup has index 2 and so is normal
by Problem 2.19.
(f) o(G) = 56 = 23 7. By Sylow 4 we see that n2 1 (mod 2), n2 | 7,
n7 1 (mod 7) and n7 | 8, so n2 = 1 or 7, and n7 = 1 or 8. If n7 = 8,
then G has 48 elements of order 7, the neutral element, and only seven other
elements, that is there would be only one Sylow 2-subgroup. Hence either
n2 = 1 or n7 = 1 or both.
Problem 6.16 (i) The group G has order 60 and six Sylow 5-subgroups.
Suppose K / G where 1 < o(K) < 60. If 5 | o(K), then by Problem 6.13(ii) K
contains a normal Sylow 5-subgroup P . Now P is characteristic in K and so
normal in G; see Problem 4.22. If 5 - o(K), then 5 | o(G/K), and by Problem
6.13(ii) again we have
hei < P K/K / G/K

and so

P K / G.

This shows that P K = G (as 5 | o(P K)), and so every proper non-neutral
normal subgroup K of G has order 12. But by Problem 6.13(i) we see that
K contains a normal, and so characteristic, Sylow subgroup which is normal
in G but not of order 12 which is a contradiction.

504

Solution Appendix

## (ii) Suppose G is a simple group of order 60. It has no subgroups of index

2, 3 or 4; use the same proof as for A5 on page 101. Next we show that G
does have a subgroup of index 5. Suppose not. By Sylow 4, G has 15 Sylow
2-subgroups. By Sylow 4, n2 = [G : NG (P )] where P is a Sylow 2-subgroup,
and o(NG (P )) < 12 by supposition.
Next we show that G has 45 elements of order a power of 2. Let P1 and P2
be distinct Sylow 2-subgroups of G, and let a P1 P2 where a 6= e. Since
P1 and P2 are Abelian, we see that
o(CG (a)) > 4; but 4 | o(CG (a)) as P1 < CG (a).
Hence [G : CG (a)] 5 which by the first statement implies that G = CG (a).
But in turn this implies that a Z(G), so Z(G) 6= hei, and hence G has a
proper non-neutral normal subgroup which is contrary to assumption that
G is simple. Therefore P1 P2 = hei, and so G has 45 elements of order 2
or 4. But if G is simple it also has six Sylow 5-subgroups, and so it has 24
elements of order 5. But 24 + 45 > 60, therefore our supposition is false and
G does indeed have a subgroup of index 5.
Now by Theorem 5.15, and as G is simple, there is an injective homomorphism of G into S5 . Hence we can treat G as a subgroup of S5 . Suppose G 6= A5 , so GA5 = S5 by Problem 2.19(ii). Further by Theorem 5.8,
o(G A5 ) = o(G)o(A5 )/o(GA5 ) = 30. Hence G A5 G with order o(G)/2,
and so G A5 is normal (by Problem 2.19 again) which is impossible as G is
simple. Therefore G ' A5 .
Problem 6.17 (i) 90 = 2 32 5, so if G is simple, n5 = 6 and n3 = 10. If
each pair of Sylow 3-subgroups has neutral intersection, then the group has
24 elements of order 5 and 80 of order 3 or 9 which is impossible. So suppose
P and Q are distinct Sylow 3-subgroups and o(R) = 3, then P, Q < S and
9 | o(S), so o(S) = 18, 45 or 90. If o(S) = 18, Theorem 5.15 gives an injective
homomorphism of G into S5 , but 90 - 120; if o(S) = 45, then S / G (Problem
2.19(i)); and if o(S) = 90, then R / G by Theorem 5.16.
(ii) 108 = 33 (3 + 1), we give proof for pr (p + 1) where r > 1. If G is simple,
then np = p + 1, so by Theorem 5.15, there is an injective homomorphism of
G into Sp+1 . This is not possible as o(Sp+1 ) is not divisible by pr (p + 1), the
order of G; note r > 1.
(iii) 112 = 24 7, we give the proof for pn q. Note first that the Sylow
theory implies that np = q if G is simple. If each pair of Sylow p-subgroups
has neutral intersection, then G possesses q(pn 1) elements of order a power
of p, and so only q others. These elements will form a single subgroup of order
q which must be normal by Sylow 3.
Now if S has a unique Sylow p-subgroup T contained in U , a Sylow psubgroup of G, it would also contain NP (R), and so by the given inequality,
R is a proper subgroup of P U . By the maximal property of R, this implies
that P = U . A similar argument shows that Q = U , but P and Q are
distinct. Now the Sylow theory implies that S has q Sylow p-subgroups, and
all of these contain R (use Problem 6.9(iii)).

Solutions 6

505

## Using Problem 6.9(vii) this shows that every Sylow p-subgroup of G

contains R, and by Sylow 2 this further shows that R / G. Hence by the
supposed simplicity of G we have R = hei.
(iv) 132 = 22 3 11. By Sylow 4 we have n2 = 1, 3, 11 or 33, n3 = 1, 4
or 22, and n11 = 1 or 12. If the group G simple, then n2 3, n3 4 and
n11 = 12. So G has at least six elements of order 2 or 4, eight of order 3, and
120 of order 11, totalling 134 which is impossible as o(G) = 132.
(v) 144 = 24 32 and n3 = 1, 4 or 16. If n3 = 4 use Theorem 5.15 and 36 - 24.
If n3 = 16 and all pairs of Sylow 3-subgroups have neutral intersection, then
the group has 128 elements of order 3 or 9, and so only 16 others which shows
that n2 cannot be larger than 1. If P and Q are distinct Sylow 3-subgroups
of G, R = P Q and S = NG (R), then as in (ii) o(S) = 18, 36, 72 or 144. If
o(S) = 18, use the fact that a group of order 18 has a normal subgroup of
order 9. (If P is a normal p-subgroup of S, then S NG (P ), and so n3 8;
Problem 2.19); if o(S) = 36, use Theorem 5.15; if o(S) = 72, then S / G; and
if o(S) = 144, then R / G.
As a further exercise you could now check that the only non-Abelian simple
groups of order less than 360 are of order 60 or 168. For example if o(G) = 120
begin by constructing a map into S6 using a suitable normaliser property.
Problem 6.18 Let Q2 = ha, b | a2 = b2 = (ab)2 i. The maximal subgroups
are hai, hbi and habi, note that b1 ab = a3 , a1 ba = b3 and a1 (ab)a = (ab)3
et cetera, and so there is an action of Aut (Q2 ) on the maximal subgroups
of Q2 defined by conjugation, and by Theorem 5.12 there exists a homomorphism : Aut (Q2 ) S3 (S3 because there are three maximal subgroups).
This is surjective by the equations above, for example one automorphism interchanges a and b throughout, another interchanges a and ab throughout.
Now by Corollary 5.27, Inn (Q2 ) ' Q2 /Z(Q2 ) ' C2 C2 ; see Problem 6.3.
Also ker Inn (Q2 ). One inner automorphism maps a 7 a3 and b 7 b.
Hence o(ker ) = 4, and so o(Aut (Q2 )) = 24. Which group of order 24 is it?
There are a number of ways to answer this, see page 171, for instance show
directly that Z(Aut (Q2 )) = hei or show that all subgroups of Aut (Q2 ) of
order 2 or 3 are not normal.
Problem 6.19 In S5 we have n5 1 (mod 5) and n5 | 24, so n5 = 1 or 6, by
Sylow 4. But S5 contains 24 elements of order 5, so n5 = 6, and using Sylow
4 again this gives [NS5 (P ) : P ] = 6 or o(NS5 (P )) = 20 where P is a Sylow
5-subgroup. If we take P = h(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)i, then as 1 = (1, 3, 5, 2, 4) =
2 , we have NS5 (P ). Hence both and belong to NS5 (P ), and so
J = h, i NS5 (P ). But o() = 5 and o( ) = 4, hence o(J) 20 and so
J = NS5 (P ).
Problem  6.20 (i) We have P is a Sylow subgroup of G, H / G, and
P / H. The Frattini argument (Theorem 6.14) gives G = NG (P )H. But if
P / H then H NG (P ), hence G = NG (P )H = NG (P ) and so P / G.
(ii) Suppose the number of prime factors of o(G) is t and p is the largest.
The result holds when t = 2 by Theorem 6.11. Using induction suppose the
result holds for all groups G1 where o(G1 ) is square-free and the number of
its prime factors is less than t. By the given fact there exists H / G; and o(H)

506

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

has fewer than t prime factors, as o(G) is square-free. There are two cases.
(a) If p is the largest prime factor of o(H), then the inductive hypothesis
gives P , a Sylow p -subgroup of H normal in H. By the first part P / G.
(b) Secondly, suppose p - o(H); but p | o(G), and so p | o(G/H). By
the inductive hypothesis, G/H has a normal Sylow p -subgroup P1 , say. Let
be the natural homomorphism G G/H (see Definition 4.13), and let
J = P1 1 . Using the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16) we have
[G : J] = [G/H : P1 ], and p - [G : J] as p - [G/H : P1 ];
this shows that p | o(J). Let P be a Sylow p -subgroup of J, and so P is
also a Sylow p -subgroup of G. Now by Problem 6.10(iii), P H/H is a Sylow
p -subgroup of G/H, and P H/H = P J = P1 . Hence P1 = P H/H,
and the Second Isomorphism Theorem gives P H/H ' P /(P H) ' P
as P is cyclic.
Therefore P = P1 and the result follows because these facts show that
there is a unique Sylow p -subgroup of G which is normal by Sylow 3.
(i) Using Dedekinds Law (Problem 2.18) we have, as H

Problem 6.21
K1 H,

(H K1 )(H K2 ) = H (H K1 )K2 = H,
because H (H K1 )K2 and K1 K2 = G.
(ii) Let G = S4 , K1 = V (' T2 ), K2 = h(1, 2, 3), (1, 2)i ' S3 and H =
h(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 3)i ' D4 ; see Section 8.1. Now H K1 = V , H K2 = hei and
so the RHS equals V and V < H.
(iii) Using the factor group definition we have
NG/K (KP/K) = KNG (KP )/K.
Now P is a Sylow p-subgroup of KP , as (o(K), p) = 1, and KP / NG (KP ).
Hence the Frattini Argument (Theorem 6.14) gives
NG (KP ) = KP NNG (KP ) (P ) = KP NG (P ) = KNG (P );
Use a conjugation argument for the second inequality, and P NG (P ) for
the third. Now combine identities.
(iv) Put K1 = K H. By (iii)
NH/K1 (K1 P/K1 ) = K1 NH (P )/K1 .
Using the Second Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem 4.15) this gives
K1 NG (P )/K1 = NG/K1 (K1 P/K1 ) = K1 NH (P )/K1 ,
which shows that
NH (P ) NG (P ) K1 NH (P ).
The result now follows by Problem 2.18(ii).

Solutions 6

507

## Problem 6.22 (i) Note that g 1 Pi g is a Sylow p-subgroup by Sylow 2,

and if g 1 Pi g = g 1 Pj g then Pi = Pj . Also gh = gh as g 1 (h1 Pi h)g =
(hg)1 Pi (hg), and so is a homomorphism. Now g ker if and only if g
1
is the identity perm.
T So g Pi g = Pi for all i, that is g NG (Pi ) for all i.
Therefore ker = i NG (Pi ).
(ii) Dn has n Sylow 2-subgroups (see Problem 6.8(ii)), each isomorphic to
C2 . So n2 = n, which gives NG (Pi ) = Pi , and the intersection is hei, that is
is injective and there is a copy of Dn in Sn .
Problem 6.23 (a) The group GL2 (3) has one element of order 1, thirteen
of order 2, eight of order 3, six of order 4, eight of order 6, and twelve of order
8.
(b) To show that H is a subgroup either use direct
 calculation, or note
that if we put (for example) a = 02 10 and b = 11 12 , then a2 = b2 = (ab)2
which are the defining equations of the quaternion group Q2 . It is normal
because the order of a conjugate of an element of order 2 or 4 is itself an
element of order 2 or 4.
(c) GL2 (3) has 32 elements whose orders are a power of 2, so by the Sylow
theory, this group has three Sylow 2-subgroups and, by Problem 6.8(i), H is
a subgroup of each of them. Choose an element of order 8 and its powers,
add to H, and by direct calculation show that a subgroup of order 16 results.
This can be done twice more.
(d) Now show that the group has three Sylow 2-subgroups each of which
has a presentation of the form
ha, b | a8 = b2 = e, bab = a3 i,
these subgroups

 are called
 semi-dihedral. The three values of a can
 be taken
as 12 11 , 11 10 and 01 11 , and the three values of b are then 10 02 , 10 22 and

2 0
2 1 , respectively.
(e) Three pairs of order 4 elements of K with suitably chosen elements
of order 2 give three copies of D4 , with similar calculations for copies of D3
and D6 (Problem 5.19). Hence the 55 subgroups are: hei, thirteen copies of
C2 , four of C3 , three of C4 , three of C6 , three of C8 , six of C2 C2 , eight of
D3 , three of D4 , four of D6 , one of Q2 , one of SL2 (3) (see Section 8.2), the
three semi-dihedral subgroups mentioned above, and the group itself. The
only non-neutral proper normal subgroups are the centre (isomorphic to C2 ),
H and SL2 (3) (Problem 2.19).

508

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

Solutions 7
Problem 7.1 (i) Lemma 7.5. (i) and (ii) follow from the definitions;
if h and j do not commute in H1 , say, then (h, e, . . . , e) and (j, e, . . . , e) do
not commute in the product, and vice versa. For (iii) use the isomorphism
given by the map (j, (k, l)) 7 ((j, k), l) for j J, k K and l L; a similar
argument applies in (iv). For (v) let i be defined by (h1 , . . . , hn )i = hi and
proceed as in the proof of Lemma 7.2.
(i) Theorem 7.6. Follow the proof of Theorem 7.4 by showing that if
g G, then g has the unique representation: g = h1 . . . hn where hi Hi ,
and also the order of the terms in this product is unimportant (consider each
pair {Hi , Hj } in turn). Now as in the proof of Theorem 7.4, define by
g = h1 . . . hn and proceed as before.
(ii) You only need to check condition (iii) and this follows by Lagranges
Theorem (Theorem 2.27).
Problem  7.2 (i) Expand [(a, b), (c, d)] = (a, b)1 (c, d)1 (a, b)(c, d) =
(a1 c1 ac, b1 d1 bd) = ([a, c], [b, d]), and use this to define an isomorphism.
(ii) (e, e) H J, and if (h1 , j1 ), (h2 , j2 ) H J, then (h1 , j1 )1 (h2 , j2 ) =
H J, as H G and J K. Also (g, k)1 (h, j)(g, k) =
(g hg, k jk) H J as H / G and J / K.
Secondly, define a map : G K G/H K/J by (g, k) = (gH, kJ).
It is clearly surjective and
1
(h1
1 h2 , j1 j2 )
1
1

## (g1 , k1 )(g2 , k2 ) = (g1 g2 , k1 k2 ) = (g1 g2 H, k1 k2 J) = (g1 Hg2 H, k1 Jk2 J)

= (g1 H, k1 J)(g2 H, k2 J) = (g1 , k1 )(g2 , k2 )
using coset multiplication and properties of the direct product. Hence is a
homomorphism, and its kernel is {(g, k) : (g, k) = (H, J)} = H J. The
First Isomorphism Theorem gives (G K)/(H J) ' G/H K/J.
(iii) We have J K / G, so by the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16)
we obtain J/(J K), K/(J K)/ G/(J K). Also J/(J K)K/(J K) = hei
(check elements). If g G, then g = jk for j J, k K, so
g(J K) = jk(J K) = j(J K)k(J K) (J/(J K))(K/(J K)),
and
(J/(J K))(K/(J K)) ' J/(J K) K/(J K).
Problem 7.3 (i) If H ' J, identify H with J and let D = {(h, h) : h H},
note that (h1 , e)(h, h) = (e, h). For the converse use the Second Isomorphism
Theorem (Theorem 4.15).
(ii) Use the same method as in the proof of Lemma 7.8 to show that
H (J L) is isomorphic to a subgroup of L. Then note that L = H(J L),
for if l L then l G, and so l = hj where h H and j J. But h L,
hence h1 l = j L, and so j J L and hj H(J L).

Solutions 7

509

Problem 7.4 (i) If n = 2 and hi , h0i Z(Hi ), i = 1, 2, then (h1 , h2 )(h01 , h02 )
= (h1 h01 , h2 h02 ) = (h01 h1 , h02 h2 ) = (h01 , h02 )(h1 , h2 ). Now use induction.
(ii) Again suppose first n = 2, and let jr H1 and kr H2 , all r. As we
have a direct product, each jr commutes with every ks and vice versa, so
[j1 k1 , j2 k2 ] = k11 j11 k21 j21 j1 k1 j2 k2
= j11 j21 j1 j2 k11 k21 k1 k2 = [j1 , j2 ][k1 , k2 ],
now use this identity.
(iii) We have Hi , K / G, so [Hi , K] Hi K / G. Also as in (ii) [G, K] =
[H1 , K] . . . [Hn , K], and so this is a subgroup of (Hi K) . . . (Hn K) = G? ,
say. So [K, K] G? , but K = K 0 = [K, K] which gives the result.
Q
Problem 7.5 (i) If ex(G) has prime factorisation i psi i , then for each
i there exists hi G with o(hi ) = psi i ti for some ti with (pi , ti ) = 1. Let
Q
gi = htii then o(gi ) = psi i , so let g = i gi , then o(g) = ex(G).
(ii) By Problem 2.7, the element g constructed in (i) will act as a generator
of G as its order equals o(G).
(iii) If F is the given field, let r = ex(F ) where F is the multiplicative
group of F . By (i) the polynomial xr 1 has at least r non-zero roots in the
field, but it cannot have more by assumption.
Problem 7.6 (i) Note first that there is a mistake in the statement of
the problem: The subgroup J must be normal for the result to hold as
the following example shows. Let G = h(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 2)i ' S4 and H =
h(5, 6, 7), (5, 6)i ' S3 , so GH ' S4 S3 . If J = h(3, 4)(6, 7), (2, 3, 4)(5, 6, 7)i,
then J ' S3 and so it is not Abelian, J G H but not normal, and
J G = J H = hei.
Now suppose L = GH and J / L, then [J, G] J G and [J, H] J H,
and using Problem 2.17(iii) we obtain
[J, L] = [J, G][J, H] (J G)(J H).
If either J G or J H is non-neutral then we are done, otherwise [J, L] = hei
which implies that J is Abelian.
(ii) Let G = ha1 i ha5 i, a direct product of five copies of Cp , and let
H1 = ha1 , a2 a3 i, H2 = ha2 , a3 i and H3 = ha4 , a5 i. The direct product of the
Hi has order p6 , and so not isomorphic to G.
Problem  7.7 (a) Given r and s with r s, the group Cps = hxi has
sr
a subgroup of order pr which is cyclic, and generated by xp
(by Theorem
4.20); and (b) if Hi Gi , i = 1, . . . , k, with each Gi Abelian of order psi i ,
then
H1 Hk G1 Gk .
So, if n = ps11 . . . pskk , m = pr11 . . . prkk , and ri si for i = 1, . . . , k, we obtain a
subgroup of order m by (b) and the Basis Theorem of Finite Abelian Groups
(Theorem 7.12) provided for each i we can find a subgroup Ji of order pri i in

510

Solution Appendix

## an Abelian group Ki of order psi i .

Fix pi = p, and suppose G is an Abelian group of order ps . By Theorem
7.12 G ' C1 Cv where Ci is cyclic, o(Ci ) = pui , and u1 + + uv = s.
We need to find H to satisfy: H G and o(H) = pr for some r s. Choose
x1 , . . . , xv such that for all i, 0 xi ui and x1 + + xv = r, there may
be many such solutions, and so many different H.
By (a) if Ci is cyclic with order pui , then it has a cyclic subgroup Ci0 of
order pxi , and (by (b)) C10 Cv0 C1 Cv , with o(C10 Cv0 ) = pr
and o(C1 Cv ) = ps .
Problem 7.8 (i) First 385 = 5711, and so there is only one Abelian group:
C385 . Secondly 432 = 24 33 . As 4 = 3+1 = 2+2 = 2+1+1 = 1+1+1+1, there
are five Abelian groups of order 16: C24 , C23 C2 , C22 C22 , C22 C2 C2 and
C2 C2 C2 C2 . Similarly as 3 = 2 + 1 = 1 + 1 + 1, there are three Abelian
groups of order 27: C27 , C9 C3 , and C3 C3 C3 . Hence there are 15 Abelian
groups of order 432: C16 C27 , . . . . For example C72 C6 occurs in this list
as C72 ' C8 C9 and C6 ' C2 C3 , hence C72 C6 ' C8 C2 C9 C3 .
(iia) As 891 = 34 11, the Sylow theory gives
n3 1 (mod 3), n3 | 11,

## and n11 1 (mod 11), n11 | 81,

which in turn give n3 = n11 = 1. Hence a group G with order 891 has
normal subgroups J of order 81 and K of order 11. Clearly J K = hei for J
only contains elements which have order a power of 3, and K only contains
elements of order 11. Also JK = G, for by Theorem 5.8, o(J K)o(JK) =
o(J)o(K) which shows that o(JK) = o(G). Now apply Theorem 7.4.
(iib) Here 405 = 34 5, and as above n3 = 1, but n5 = 1 or 81. If n5 = 1, we
obtain 14 direct product groups as in (i); and if n5 = 81 there is one possible
further group isomorphic to: C5 o C34 . If C5 is generated by a, then the 320
elements of order 5 are ar b where r = 1, 2, 3 or 4, and b is an element of C34
(all b have order 3 and there are 80 of them). Note that the Sylow theory
implies that n3 = 1 in this group. You need to show that if G ' C5 o H,
where H is a normal subgroup of G with order 81, then H is Abelian and all
elements have order 3. One way to do this is to use Theorem 11.11, in fact
this group only has one non-neutral proper normal subgroup.
Problem 7.9 If there is a unique maximal subgroup use Problem 2.13(ii).
If not, by Theorem 7.8 G is a direct product of its Sylow subgroups, there
cannot be more than two factors because the maximal subgroups are simple.
Now use the fact that the only simple p-groups are the cyclic p-groups.
Problem 7.10
define , by

(g, h), = (g, h)

for g G, h H.

and

Solutions 7

511

## ((g, h)(g 0 , h0 )), = (gg 0 , hh0 ) = (g, h)(g 0 , h0 )

= (g, h), (g 0 , h0 ), .
Now define : Aut G Aut H Aut (G H) by (, ) = , . This is a
homomorphism for we have
(g, h)0 ,0 = (g0 , h 0 ) = ((g)0 , (h) 0 ) = (g, h)0 ,0
= [(g, h), ]0 ,0 = (g, h)[, 0 ,0 ],
for all g G and h H. Also is easily seen to be injective as and have
this property, and for surjectivity we argue as follows. For Aut (G H)
we need 1 Aut G and 1 Aut H to satisfy (g, h) = (g1 , h1 ) for all
g G and h H. Now (g, h)o(H) = (go(H) , h o(H) ) and h o(H) = e for
all h H. But (o(G), o(H)) = 1 and so o(H) is an automorphism of G and
we can define 1 by g1 = (g, e)o(H) . The automorphism 1 can be defined
similarly which gives the required surjectivity property.
Problem 7.11 (i) Suppose c G, o(c) = m and m - n. Show that o(gc) =
LCM(m, n) > n, and so obtain a contradiction.
(ii) For example in S3 the largest order is 3, but this group also contains
elements of order 2; S4 is another example.
(iii) If g 6 J, then hJ, gi intersects non-neutrally with H giving the required
h, j and r.
(iv) The second statement follows from the first by Theorem 7.4. For the
converse, suppose H J < G, choose an element of order p in G/(H K)
and apply (iii).
(v) Let H = hgi and J be as in (iii).
Problem 7.12 Suppose G is CS and let H = {g G : g p = e} G where
p | o(G). If Aut G and h H, then (h)p = (hp ) = e and H char G. By
Cauchys Theorem (Theorem 6.2), there exists g H with o(g) = p and so
g H and H 6= hei. But G is CS and so G = H. For the converse suppose now
G is elementary. By Problem 4.18 we can treat G as a vector space over the
field Fp for some prime p. In fact G has the representation G ' Cp Cp
with a finite number of factors. If J is a non-neutral subgroup of G, j J
and l G where j, l 6= e, then there exists an invertible linear map on the
vector space G with l = j. But Aut G and J char G. Hence we have G
has the property CS.
Problem 7.13
implies

## We are given G = Q2 T O, so if H G, Lemma 7.8

H = ((Q2 T ) H) (O H).

## Now O / G (by properties of the direct product), so we may suppose G =

Q2 T , a 2-group. If Q2 H = hei, then all elements of H have order 2, and
hence H / G by Problem 4.18(iii). If Q2 H > hei, then H Q02 = G0 (as
the derived subgroup of Q2 equals its centre and has order 2) which implies
that H / G by Problem 2.16(iii).

512

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

Problem  7.14 (i) Clearly ha1 , . . . , ak i = ha1 i hak i, and the subgroups are normal because the group is Abelian. The condition
hai i ha1 , . . . , ai1 , ai+1 , . . . , ak i
is equivalent to the given condition.
(ii) All a G where a 6= e satisfy o(a) = p, so o(hai) = p, also if ai , aj G,
hai i haj i equals hei or hai i, now use (i) and Problem 4.18.
Problem 7.15 (i) Note that as G and H are elementary they can be
treated as vector spaces over Z/pZ, see Problem 4.18.
(ii) Let Dk be the direct product of all of the cyclic factors Ci of order pk
where Dk = hei if there are no such factors. So G ' D1 Dt for some
integer t, and further pk G = pk Dk+1 pk Dt . This gives pk G/pk+1 G '
pk Dk+1 pk Dk+2 /pk+1 Dk+2 , and now we can use (i).
(iii) Use (ii).
(iv) If : G H is an isomorphism, then (pk G) = pk H, and we can
apply the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16). Reverse argument for
converse.
(v) We have (a) if : G H is a homomorphism then, for all p, Gp is
a subgroup of Hp ; and (b) G ' H if and only if Gp ' Hp for all primes p.
These facts give the result; the condition is:
Up (k, G) = Up (k, H)

## For more details see Rotman [1994], pages 131 to 133.

Problem  7.16 We have K / J as K / G, AJ J and (AJ)K = hei,
as A K = hei, so (A J) o K exists and is isomorphic to a subgroup of J.
Suppose j J\(A J) o K, then j = ak, a A and k K as J A o K.
Hence a = jk 1 , but a A so a A J. Therefore as k K we have
j = ak (A J) o K; a contradiction.
Problem 7.17 (i) We have C15 ' C5 C3 , a direct product so a fortiori
a semi-direct product.
(ii) A4 / S4 , C2 ' h(1, 2)i S4 , A4 h(1, 2)i = S4 as o(A4 h(1, 2)i) > o(A4 )
(Problem 2.19), and A4 h(1, 2)i = hei; hence S4 ' C2 o A4 .
(iii) Q2 is not a semi-direct product. Each pair of non-neutral subgroups
has non-neutral intersection, because every non-neutral subgroup of Q2 contains the unique element of order 2 in Q2 ; see page 119.

(iv) Let A = h a0 10 | a Q i and K = SL2 (Q). Then we have A
GL2 (Q), K / GL2 (Q) by Theorem 3.15, A K = hei and also AK = GL2 (Q)


b/t
for if X = ac db GL2 (Q) and det X = t, then Y = a/t
SL2 (Q) and
c d

t 0
Y
=
X.
Hence
GL
(Q)
'
A
o
K.
2
0 1
(v) We gave a representation of S4 as a semi-direct product in (ii), another
is as follows. Let V = {e, (1, 2)(3, 4), (1, 3)(2, 4), (1, 4)(2, 3)} then V / S4 ; see
Problem 3.3. Also the set S of perms. on the set {1, 2, 3} forms a subgroup

Solutions 7

513

## of S4 isomorphic to S3 , that is S S4 , and clearly S V = hei. Hence

S4 ' S o V . For further examples see Chapter 8, but C15 C2 ' C5 C6 is
another, perhaps slightly trivial, example.
Problem 7.18 Let H = hai. As H = H, a and a are generators of the
same (cyclic) subgroup of Aut J. So there exist r, s Z satisfying (a)r = a
and (a)s = a. As H is cyclic and and are homomorphisms, these give
(ha ) = h and (hb ) = h for all h H. Define : H o J H o J by
(h, j) = (ha , j). Using the semi-direct product operation we have
((h1 , j1 )(h2 , j2 )) = (h1 h2 , (j1 (h2 ))j2 ) = ((h1 h2 )a , (j1 (h2 ))j2 )
= (ha1 ha2 , (j1 (ha2 ))j2 ) = (ha1 , j1 )(ha2 , j2 )
= (h1 , j1 )(h2 , j2 ).
We also have 0 : H o J H o J, defined by (h, j)0 = (hb , j), is a
homomorphism. Now 0 : (h, j) 7 (hab , j), and a = a s = (ars ), so as
is injective, ars = a and hence hrs = h for all h H. This shows that 0
is the identity map on H o J, and similarly we have 0 is the identity
map on H o J, and the result follows.
Problem 7.19 (i) Use the hint to show that G / Hol(G) from which we
also obtain Hol(G) = G Aut G. Now a Aut G if, and only if, a = e (note
a is an isomorphism only if a = e). So G Aut G = hei, and we have a
semidirect product.
(ii) Hol(Cn ) = Cn if n = 1, 2, Hol(Cn ) ' Dn if n = 3, 4 or 6, and Hol(C5 )
is isomorphic to the group of order 20 given in the quoted problem.
Problem 7.20 The group C4 has two automorphisms: the identity map,
and the map x 7 x3 which interchanges the two elements of order 4. So we
obtain two semi-direct products. The first is C4 C4 with three elements of
order 2 and twelve of order 4, and 14 proper subgroups: hei, three of order 2,
seven of order 4 (six of which are cyclic), three isomorphic to C4 C2 .
For the second group H if we take a, b as the generators, we have using
the semi-direct product construction a4 = b4 = e, ar bs = bs ar if 2 | rs, and
ar bs = b3s ar if 2 - rs. The non-neutral elements of H are:
a2 , b2 , ab, ab3 , a3 b, a2 b2 , a3 b3 [order 2], and
a, b, a3 , b3 , ab2 , a2 b, a2 b3 , a3 b2 [order 4].
There are 23 subgroups (hei, seven of order 2, four cyclic of order 4, seven
of type T2 , three of order 8, and H), all are Abelian except H itself, eleven
are normal, the centre is ha2 , b2 i, with order 4, and the three of order 8 are:
ha, b2 i, ha2 , bi (' C4 C2 ) and ha2 , b2 , abi which is elementary Abelian. One
presentations of H is
ha, b | a4 = b4 = e, b3 a = abi,
see Problem 8.12.

514

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

Problem 7.21 By the Sylow theory and Theorem 6.9, G has a unique
normal cyclic subgroup P of order q, either 1 or q cyclic subgroups of order
p each of which have intersection hei with Q. If J is a subgroup of order p,
by Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27), G = P J, and so G ' J o P . If
there is only one subgroup J, it is normal (by the Sylow theory), and so G
is the direct product of J and P and, as both of these are cyclic, G ' Cpq
by Theorem 7.6. Also by the Sylow theory, G can only have q subgroups J
if p | q 1. So you have to show that if this condition is satisfied, then there
can only be one non-Abelian group (up to isomorphism) of order pq.
Using the semi-direct product theory you need to consider the possible
homomorphisms from J ' Cp to Aut P ' Cq1 . If the condition above was
not satisfied the only possible homomorphism would be the trivial one, and
the product would be direct. As Aut P is cyclic, the image of J under is
the unique cyclic subgroup of order p. For uniqueness use Problem 7.18.
Problem 7.22 G ' C12 : hei, C2 , C3 , C4 , C6 , and G; all unique.
G ' C6 C2 : hei, C2 3 copies, C3 , T2 , C6 3 copies, and G.
G ' D6 : hei, C2 7 copies, C3 , T2 3 copies, C6 , D3 2 copies and G.
The centre is ha3 i, the derived subgroup is ha2 i, and the Fitting subgroup is
hai (note that D3 is not nilpotent),
G ' Q3 : hei, C2 , C3 , C4 3 copies, C6 , and G. The centre is ha3 i, the
derived subgroup is ha2 i, and the Fitting subgroup is hai.
See Problem 3.10 for A4 ; the centre is hei, and the derived and Fitting
subgroups are both isomorphic to the unique subgroup of order 4.
Subgroup lattice diagrams for these groups are given on pages 552 to 556.
Problem 7.23 (a) In this case hai hbi = hei, and as hbi is maximal, it is
normal (Theorem 6.5). Hence G ' hai o hbi.
(b) We have (aZ(G))p = Z(G), ap Z(G) with ap 6= e; and so ap = btp .
(c) Replacement gives ap = bp and we still have a 6 hbi. By Problem 6.5,
0
G = Z(G), and by Problem 2.17 we have (ab)p = ap bp [b, a]p(p1)/2 = e.
(d) Use (c).
(e) By the Sylow theory Aut Cp2 has a unique Sylow p-subgroup of order
p. So there is a injective homomorphism from Cp Aut Cp2 , and any two
such have the same image. Now use the quoted problem.
Problem 7.24 Follow the method given. We have 84 = 4 3 7, n3 1
(mod 3) and n | 28 by the Sylow theory. Hence by hypothesis we have n3 = 28.
But then [G : NG (P )] = 28 if P is a Sylow 3-subgroup, hence NG (P ) =
P = CG (P ) as P is Abelian. Therefore the main condition for Burnsides
Normal Complement Theorem (Theorem 6.17) applies, and P has a normal
complement J of order 28. Note also G has 56 elements of order 3, so only
28 of order different from 3. Further n7 1 (mod 7) and n7 | 12 which shows
that n7 = 1 and G has a unique (normal) subgroup K of order 7.

Solutions 8

515

Solutions 8
Problem 8.1 (a) The largest factor groups are as follows: D3 for S4 (
the smallest non-neutral normal subgroup is V with order 4); A4 for SL2 (3)
(Problem 3.4); and D6 for E, note that ha2 i / E.
(b) Centralisers. For S4 we have C((1, 2)) = h(1, 2), (3, 4)i, C((1, 2, 3)) =
h(1, 2, 3)i, C((1, 2, 3, 4)) = h(1, 2, 3, 4)i and C((1, 2)(3, 4)) = h(1, 4, 2, 3), (1, 2)i
' D4 ; for SL2 (3) we have C(a3 ) = SL2 (3) [the centre], C(a2 ) = hai [order
6], C(ab) = habi, and C(a) = hai; and for E we have C(a2 ) = E [the centre],
C(a) = C(b) = C(c) = C(bc) = ha2 , bci ' C6 C2 , C(ac) = haci and
C(abc) = habca2 i [order 4].
(c) Normalisers. In S4 we have
N (h(1, 2)i) = h(1, 2), (3, 4)i,
N (h(1, 2, 3)i) = h(1, 2, 3), (2, 3)i ' D3 ,
N (h(1, 2, 3, 4)i) = N (h(1, 2), (3, 4)i) = N (h(1, 2)(3, 4)i)
= h(1, 2, 3, 4), (2, 4)i ' D4 ,
also h(1, 2, 3), (2, 3)i and D4 are self-normalising, and the normalisers of V and
A4 are both equal to S4 . For SL2 (3) we have N (ha2 i) = hai, N (habi) = Q2 ,
hai is self-normalising, and the normalisers of ha3 i and Q2 are both equal to
SL2 (3). For E we have: all subgroups with a 1 in the diagram on page 180
have E as their normaliser, N (hbi) = ha2 , bci, N (habci) = habc, a2 i, N (haci) =
N (ha2 , abci) = hac, bi, N (hc, abi) = ha2 c, abi [order 12], N (hbci) = ha2 , bci,
and hac, bi is self-normalising.
Problem  8.2 By Sylow 4, n2 1 (mod 2) and n2 | 3, and so n2 = 1 or
3. If it equals 1 the result follows, so suppose it is 3 and let P1 , P2 and P3 be
the three Sylow 2-subgroups. By Theorem 5.8, if J = P1 P2 ,
o(P1 P2 )o(J) = o(P1 )o(P2 ),

(8.1)

## and as P1 P2 G, we have 24o(J) 64, or o(J) 4. But o(J) < 8 as

P1 6= P2 , and so o(J) = 4. Now as the indices are 2, we have J / P1 and
J / P2 (Problem 2.19). Also NG (J) is the largest subgroup of G in which J
is normal (Problem 5.13(i)), hence
P1 , P2 NG (J),

so

hP1 , P2 i NG (J).

## Further P1 P2 hP1 , P2 i (note P1 P2 is not a subgroup), and so by (8.1)

o(hP1 , P2 i) 16. But the largest proper subgroup of G has order at most 12,
and so both hP1 , P2 i and NG (J) equal G, and J / G. In the examples discussed
in this chapter V / S4 where o(V ) = 4, Q2 / SL2 (3) where o(Q2 ) = 8, and
ha2 , bi / E where o(ha2 , bi) = 4.
Problem 8.3 (i) As ab = ba2 we have ab2 = ba2 b = baba2 = b2 a4 = b2 a,
and a2 b = aba2 = ba which gives a2 b2 = bab = b2 a2 . Hence b2 commutes with
a, and the elements of the group are

516

Solution Appendix

## e; b4 [2]; a, a2 [3]; b2 , b6 [4]; ab4 , a2 b4 [6];

b, b3 , b5 , b7 , ab, ab3 , ab5 , ab7 , a2 b, a2 b3 , a2 b5 , a2 b7 [8]; ab2 , ab6 , a2 b2 , a2 b6 [12],
where the figures in square brackets denote the orders of the elements or
subgroups (see below).
(ii) Subgroups The cyclic subgroups are
hei, hb4 i [2], hai [3], hb2 i [4], hab4 i [6], hbi, habi, ha2 bi [8] and hab2 i [12].
There are no other proper non-neutral subgroups because the group has only
one element of order 2, and three of order 4, and C2 C2 , D3 , C4 C2 , C2
C2 C2 , D4 , C6 C2 , A4 , Q3 and D6 all have more than one element of order
2. Also Q2 , which has exactly one element of order 2, has six elements of
order 4.
Sylow subgroups They are hai of order three, unique so normal; and
hbi, habi, ha2 bi cyclic of order eight, so not normal. Note all other subgroups
are normal because b2 commutes with a.
(iii) Centre hb2 i with order four, and b2 commutes with a, but b does not
commute with a.
0
Derived subgroup [a, b] = a2 b7 ab = a and [b, a] = a, so F3,8
= hai.
(iv) Semi-direct product Let A = hbi and K = hai, then F3,8 = AK, A
K = hei, A F3,8 and K / F3,8 . Also Aut K ' C2 = hti, say, so there are
two homomorphisms. The first (trivial) associates the identity automorphism
with all elements of A (giving the direct product C8 C3 ), and the second ,
say, maps b2k to e and b2k+1 to t, and so br as bu av = br+u (as (bu ))av which
agrees with the product in F3,8 .
(v) Frattini subgroup The maximal subgroups are hbi, habi, ha2 bi and
hab2 i, hence (G) = hb2 i with order 4.
Fitting subgroup The maximal normal cyclic (so nilpotent) subgroup is
hab2 i with order 12.
Problem 8.4

## d(cd)12 = (dcdcd)(cdcdc)(dcdcd)(cdcdc)(dcdcd) = cdcdc = d

which gives (cd)12 = e and so c8 = d8 = e.
(ii) We have (c3 d)3 = (c2 cd)3 = (cd)12 = e, c(c3 d)c1 = (cd)8 = (c3 d)2 .
These show that the elements of G are:
e; c4 ; c3 d, d3 c; c2 , c6 ; c7 d (= d6 cd), d7 c (= c6 dc)
c, d, c3 , d3 , c5 , d5 , c7 , d7 , cdc, c3 dc, c5 dc, c7 dc; cd, dc, c5 d, d5 c.
Note that c7 d = (cd)10 (use c = dcdcd three times) so (c7 d)6 = (cd)60 = e,
and (cdc)8 = cdc2 c2 dc = cd22 c = cd6 c = c(cd)9 c = c8 = e et cetera. The
orders of the elements in this list and that given in Problem 8.3 agree.

Solutions 8

517

## (iii) Map G F3,8 by setting a 7 c3 d and b 7 c, the calculations above

give the relations of F3,8 , and as the orders agree we see that G ' F3,8 . The
reverse map F3,8 G is given by c 7 b and d 7 b5 a.
Further F3,8 S11 which follows if we set a 7 (9, 10, 11) and b 7
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)(9, 10), or c = b and d 7 (1, 6, 3, 8, 5, 2, 7, 4)(9, 11). We
also have F3,8 U3 (3), see Chapter 12.
Problem 8.5 (i) Consider involutions, S4 has two types: 2-cycles with six
in all, and 2-cycles 2-cycles with a total of three. An automorphism maps
involutions to involutions, but also as the classes are different sizes (6 and
3) an automorphism must map 2-cycles to 2-cycles. Note further by Lemma
3.5 that S4 is generated by its 2-cycles. If the automorphism maps (1, 2) to
(i, j), then this is given by the conjugation (1, i)(2, j)(1, 2)(1, i)(2, j) = (i, j)
where if, for example, i = 1 we treat (1, i) as the identity perm. This gives
the result. For the general Sn case see Rotman [1994] page 158.
(ii) Using the given substitutions and the relations of the second presentation we have a2 = (c1 a1 )2 = e, b3 = a61 = e and ab = c1 a31 = c1 which gives
(ab)4 = e. Conversely again using the given substitutions and the relations
of the first presentation we have a31 = b6 = e, c41 = (ab)4 = e, c1 a1 = ab3 = a
so (c1 a1 )2 = e,
(b1 c1 )2 = abab2 ababab2 ab = abab(bababab)bab = (ab)4 = e
as bababab = a,
(a1 b1 )2 = b2 abab2 b2 abab2 = b2 (ab)4 b = b3 = e,
and lastly
b31 = abab(babab)(babab)b = abab(ab2 a)(ab2 a)b = (ab)4 = e,
as a2 = b3 = e and babab = ab2 a.
Problem 8.6 (i) We have as above a31 = a6 = e, b1 a1 b1 = b4 a2 b4 =
ba2 b and a1 b1 a1 = a2 b4 a2 = bab6 ab = ba2 b using a2 = bab. Now using
the permutation representation we see that a1 7 (3, 7, 6)(4, 8, 5) and b1 7
(1, 4, 6)(2, 3, 5) which after some checking gives a = b21 a1 b21 and b = a1 b21 a1 .
(ii) Clearly SL2 (3) 6 S4 (as Z(S4 ) = hei). Suppose SL2 (3) S5 . A Sylow
2-subgroup of SL2 (3) is isomorphic to Q2 , and is a subgroup of a Sylow 2subgroup, P , say, of S5 by Sylow 5. But P ' D4 6' Q2 . A similar argument
applies for both S6 and S7 because in each case its Sylow 2-subgroups are
isomorphic to D4 C2 , and Q2 would form a normal subgroup of one of these.
Remember that Q2 only has one element of order 2.
Problem 8.7 We have seen that E A7 and clearly A7 A8 . We also
have A8 ' L4 (2), see Problem 12.13, hence E is isomorphic to a subgroup
of L4 (2). The three matrices at the top of the next page clearly belong to
GL4 (2) ' L4 (2) and the satisfy the relations in the definition of the group E
given by (8.6) on page 177.

518

Solution Appendix

0
1
A=
0
1

1
0
0
1

0
0
0
1

0 1
1
1
1 0
, B=
0 0
1
0 0
0

0
0
0
1

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

0 0
0
0
0 0
, C=
0 1
1
1 0
0

0
1
1
0

1
0
.
0
1

Problem 8.8 (i) We have a5 = bab and b = aba, so the elements are
ar and ar b for 0 r < 12 where bar = a12r b. This gives one element of
order 1, one of order 2, two of order 3, 14 of order 4, two of order 6 and four
of order 12. There are 18 subgroups including: has i for s = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6,
has bi for 0 s 5 all of which are cyclic, ha3 , at bi ' Q2 for t = 0, 1, 2, and
ha2 , au bi ' Q3 for u = 0 or 3. So all subgroups are either cyclic or dicyclic.
The centre is ha6 i, of order 2, and the derived subgroup is ha2 i of order 6.
(ii) Follow the method given in the question.
Problem 8.9

## One way to study this group is by its representation

A4 C2 ' h(1, 2, 3), (1, 2)(3, 4)(5, 6)i,

## a subgroup of S6 . It also has the presentation: ha, b | a3 = b2 = [a, b]2 = ei, to

see this map a 7 (1, 2, 3) and b 7 (1, 2)(3, 4)(5, 6), then [a, b] 7 (1, 3)(2, 4).
The elements are:
e order 1;
b, aba2 , a2 ba, a2 bab, aba2 b, ababa, (ab)3 order 2;
a, a2 , bab, ba2 b, (ab)2 , (ba2 )2 , (ba)2 , (a2 b)2 order 3; and
ab, ba, a2 b, ba2 , aba, a2 ba2 , babab, ba2 ba2 b order 6;
so the group has elements of order 1, 2, 3 and 6 only. The element ababab =
bababa maps to (5, 6), and the set {e, aba2 b, a2 bab, ababa} forms a normal
subgroup corresponding to V in A4 . The other normal (proper, non-neutral)
subgroups are U = h(5, 6)i, hV, (5, 6)i and A4 . The maximal subgroups are
A4 , hV, (5, 6)i and four of order six: h(5, 6), Ci where C is a 3-cycle in A4 .
There are 26 subgroups in all in twelve conjugacy classes. The centre is h(ab)3 i
with order 2, and the derived subgroup is V . Further note that
(a) the group can be represented as: C3 o C23 , see Problem 8.10;
(b) it has a second permutation representation: h(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), (1, 4)i
which is transitive a subgroup of S6 , and so it has a very different nature
compared with one fixing one element of the underlying set; and
(c) it is the only non-Abelian group of order 24 with no elements of
order 4.
Problem 8.10 Let K be the unique Sylow 3-subgroup, it is normal by
Sylow 3. The Sylow theory also implies that G has at least one subgroup H
of order 8. Clearly H K = hei and G = HK (consider the orders). Hence G
can be represented as a semi-direct product of H by K. There are five choices
for H (see Section 6.1), and Aut (K) ' C2 (Theorem 4.23). Hence we can
list all groups of order 24 with a unique Sylow 3-subgroup by listing all nonisomorphic semi-direct products of H by C3 ( ' K) where o(H) = 8. That is

Solutions 8

519

## we need to find all homomorphisms mapping H C2 = hti where o(H) = 8.

This further implies that we need to consider the (normal) subgroups of order
4 in the subgroups H. We consider each of these in turn, see Section 6.1. It
will also help to refer to Lemma 7.15 and Theorem 7.17.
H = C8 = hai. Two homomorphisms: trivial (giving C24 ' C8 C3 ),
and 1 where a2r 1 = e and a2r+1 1 = t (giving F3,8 , Problem 8.3).
H = C4 C2 = hai hbi. Three homomorphisms: trivial (giving
C12 C2 ), second mapping elements of the cyclic subgroup of order
4 (of H) to the identity automorphism (giving D3 C4 ), and third
mapping elements of the subgroup isomorphic to T2 to the identity automorphism (giving Q3 C2 ).
H = C2 C2 C2 = hai hbi hci. Four homomorphisms: trivial
(giving C6 C2 C2 ), second mapping elements of a copy of T2 to the
identity automorphism (giving D6 C2 ); as H in this case has three
subgroups all isomorphic to T2 , the third and fourth homomorphisms
are similar and give rise to the same group D6 C2 .
H = D4 = ha, b | a4 = b2 = e, ba = a3 bi. Four homomorphisms: trivial (giving D4 C3 ), second mapping elements of the cyclic subgroup
of order 4 (of H) to the identity automorphism (giving D12 ), third and
fourth both mapping a copy of T2 (note D4 has two such subgroups) to
the identity automorphism (both giving E).
H = Q2 = ha, b | a2 = b2 = (ab)2 i. Four homomorphisms: trivial (giving Q2 C3 ). Also in this case the subgroup H has three distinct cyclic
subgroups of order 4 so we have three distinct automorphisms each
mapping one of these cyclic subgroups to the identity automorphism,
and also each give rise to the group Q6 .
Problem 8.11 As the group G has four Sylow 3-subgroups, n3 = 4, so
by the Sylow theory if P is a Sylow 3-subgroup, o(NG (P )) = 6. A group of
order 6 has a unique normal subgroup of order 3, so the intersection of the
normalisers of two Sylow p-subgroups has order 1 or 2. Hence by Theorem
5.15, G/core(NG (P )) is isomorphic to a subgroup of S4 , as [G : NG (P )] = 4.
If the core has order 1, then G is isomorphic to a subgroup of S4 . But it has
order 24 and so is isomorphic to S4 .
If the core (Problem 1.24) of NG (P ) has order 2, then for a similar reason
to that above G/core(NG (P )) ' A4 because A4 is the only subgroup of S4
with order 12. Now A4 has a normal subgroup V of order 4, hence by the
Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16) G has a normal subgroup K of
order 8. Therefore we can express G as a semi-direct product G ' P o K
as P has order 3 and so has no non-neutral element in common with K. By
the given fact K can only be isomorphic to two of the five possible groups of
order 8, that is C23 or Q2 . Therefore finally we obtain two further groups of
order 24, they are C3 o C23 ' A4 C2 and C3 o Q2 ' SL2 (3). For the first
of these isomorphisms note that A4 can itself be expressed as a semi-direct
product, for we have A4 ' C3 o C22 (Section 7.3 and Problem 8.9), and for
the second we can use the results derived in Section 8.2.

520

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

Problem 8.12 The main data are given in the following table where A
stands for Abelian.

Group

C16
C4 C4
C4 oC4
C2 C8
C 2 o1 C 8
D8
C 2 o2 C 8
Q4
C4 C22
C4 oC22
D4 C2
Q2 C2
F
C24

Elts. of
No.
No.
order subgps. normal
2;4;8 A;non-A A;non-A
1;2;4
3;12;0
3;12;0
3;4;8
3;4;8
9;2;4
5;6;4
1;10;4
7;8;0
7;8;0
11;4;0
3;12;0
7;8;0
15;0;0

5;0
15;0
22;1
11;0
10;1
16;3
12;3
8;3
27;0
22;1
30;5
14;5
18;5
67;0

5;0
15;0
10;1
11;0
8;1
5;2
4;3
4;3
27;0
10;1
14;5
14;5
12;5
67;0

Max.
subgps.
All of order 8
C0
C 00 3
C 00 3
C 0 2, C 00
C 0 2, C 00
C 0, D 2
C 0 , D, Q
C 0, Q 2
C 0 4, C 00 2, C 000
C 00 2, C 000
00
C , C 000 2, D 4
C 00 3, Q 4
C 00 3, D 3, Q
C 000 15

Centre Derived
subgp.
G
G
C22
G
C4
C2
C2
C2
G
C22
C4
C4
C4
G

hei
hei
C2
hei
C2
C4
C4
C4
hei
C2
C2
C2
C2
hei

Notes. The cyclic group C16 also has eight elements of order 16. The fourth
to seventh groups are all semi-direct products of C2 by C8 ; C8 has four automorphisms i where ai = a2i+1 for i = 0, 1, 2, 3; see Problem 6.4 where
it is shown that the fourth and fifth groups have identical subgroup lattices; see diagrams on pages 557 and 558. In the maximal subgroup column,
C 0 , C 00 , C 000 , D and Q stand for C8 , C4 C2 , C23 , D4 and Q2 , respectively. Also
(a) the group C4 o C4 is discussed in Problem 7.20, (b) Q2 C2 is Hamiltonian, see Problem 7.13, and (c) the group F can be taken as C2 o D4 or
C2 o Q2 , see Problem 3.23.

Solutions 9

521

Solutions 9
Problem 9.1 Use the facts that under the equivalence relation (a) the sets
of factors are unordered and (b) two equivalent series have the same number
of factors.
Problem 9.2 (ia) hei / C2 / V / A4 / S4 , there are three different series
as there are three possibilities for the second factor; see Section 8.1. (ib)
hei / C2 / C2 C2 / A4 , again there are three possibilities; see Problem 3.10,
(ic) hei / C2 / C4 / Q2 / SL2 (3), again three possibilities; see Section 8.2. (id)
hei / C3 / C6 / D6 / E, there are six others, see the diagram on page 180.
Note that none of these series are normal series, see Problem 9.15.
(ii) C6 and S3 with factors C2 and C3 , is the smallest example, there are
many others.
Problem 9.3 Suppose the given composition series for G is hei / H1 / /
Hm = G. By Problem 2.14, the series hei K / H1 K / / Hm K = K
is a subnormal series which, after the removal of redundant terms forms a
composition series for K; use Lemma 9.2 to check this. Also hei = heiK/K /
H1 K/K / / Hm K/K = G/K can similarly be made into a composition
series for G/K. Now using the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16) on
G with normal subgroup K we can construct a subnormal series from K to
G, and combining these two series gives the result.
Problem 9.4 (i) If G is finite, use Theorem 9.3. If not, refer to the Web
Appendix to Chapter 7. If G contains infinite order elements, it cannot have
a composition series because Z does not have one (if K / Z then Z/K ' Z;
see Theorem 4.19). If the group is countable and all elements have finite
order, then infinite direct products are involved. So for example, the group
Cp Cp . . . with infinitely many factors Cp clearly does not have a composition series (which must have finite length).
A full proof of this result needs more facts about infinite Abelian groups
than are given in the book; see for example Kaplansky [1969] for more information.
(ii) If Cpn = hai, then the only composition series is
hei / hap

n1

i / hap

n2

i / / hap i / hai

## with all factors isomorphic to Cp , see Problem 4.20.

(iii) If F is finite use Theorem 9.3(i), and if F is infinite then the argument
used to show that Z does not have a composition series can be applied.
(iv) Use Web Problem 3.31, the group A(N) is simple, and so has a two
term composition series, and Z is a subgroup with no composition series.
Problem  9.5 (i) If a composition series has the form / Gi / Gi+1 /
where o(Gi+1 /Gi ) = pq . . . then, as the group is finite Abelian, we can insert
a new term between Gi and Gi+1 with a factor of order p contradicting the

522

Solution Appendix

## definition of a composition series.

(ii) This is similar to (i) using Theorem 6.5.
Problem 9.6

hei / H / G

and hei / J / G,

(9.2)

## where H 6= J. Now H and J are simple by Theorem 9.3. By Lemma 9.2

we have hei / H J / H, but both series in (9.2) are composition series, so
H J = hei, also by Problem 2.19 we have H / HJ / G, hence HJ = G. Now
use Theorem 7.4. In fact this shows that G ' H J.
(ii) See for example Problem 9.4(ii) with n large.
Problem 9.7 Refinements are hei / pqZ / pZ / Z, and hei / pqZ / qZ / Z,
with factors isomorphic to pqZ, Cp and Cq .
Problem  9.8 (i) If H / H1 / / G is a subnormal series from H to
G, then by Lemma 4.14(i) H J / H1 J / / G J = J is the required
series.
(ii) Use (i).
(iii) Use the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16).
Problem 9.9 (i) Use Definition 9.9 and Lagranges Theorem (Theorem
2.27).
(ii) Use (i) and induction.
Problem 9.10 (i) There are two cases: the direct product C3 C2 C2 , and
D6 = ha, b | a6 = b2 = e, bab = a5 i. In this second case ha2 i ' C3 / D6 and
ha3 , bi ' C2 C2 . Note that C3 has only two automorphisms, and Theorem
9.17 applied in this case gives k0 = e, (a, b) = e for all a, b, and so all
extensions are semidirect.
Problem 9.11 (i) This follows immediately from the Basis Theorem for
Finite Abelian Groups (Theorem 7.12).
(ii) The group Z has just two automorphisms: the identity map, and the
minus map where a 7 a. Also in Theorem 9.17, k0 = e and so all extensions are semidirect. Hence we obtain two extensions: the direct product
Z C2 , and the infinite dihedral group; see Problem 3.20. In this second
case if we take {0, 1} with addition modulo 2 as a representation of C2 , the
operation is given by:
(0, x)(0, y) = (0, x + y), (1, x)(0, y) = (1, x + y),
(0, x)(1, y) = (1, x + y), (1, x)(1, y) = (0, x + y)
for all x, y Z.
Problem 9.12 Note that Q2 has three normal subgroups isomorphic to
C4 and one isomorphic to C2 , so four possible definitions by extensions. In
each case the intersection property for a semidirect product fails.

Solutions 9

523

Problem 9.13 (a) We have (e, e)(a, k) = (ea, (e, a) ea k) = (a, k).
(b) Using the definitions we have


(a, k)(a, k)1 = aa1 , (a, a1 ) ka1 ((a1 , a))1 k 1 1
= (e, z),
a
say. Now as a is an automorphism, if za = e then z = e. Applying a to z
we obtain using (iii) in Definition 9.14 in the second line
za = ((a, a1 ))a ka1 a ((a1 , a))1 k 1


= ((a, a1 ))a ((a1 , a))1 k (a1 , a) ((a1 , a))1 k 1
= ((a, a1 ))a ((a1 , a))1 = e,
using (ii) in Definition 9.14 with a1 = a3 = a and a2 = a1 .
Problem 9.14 Suppose o(G) = pq where p < q, so G has a normal
Sylow q-subgroup P , say, and 1 or q Sylow p-subgroups. In the first case
G ' Cp Cq (' Cpq ). In the second case G is a cyclic extension of P by a
subgroup of G with order p. But as (p, q) = 1, applying Theorem 9.17 we
have k0 = e, and so all extensions are semidirect. The theory will provide
several but they are all isomorphic. Note that as o(Aut (P )) = q 1, the
condition p | q 1 is necessary for the map in Theorem 9.17 to exist.
Problem 9.15 (i) Use the fact that if G has a chief series, H and K are
normal subgroups of G, and H < K, then K/H is a chief factor for G if and
only if it is a minimal normal subgroup of G/K.
(ii) Use induction and the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16), there
is little to prove if the group is simple.
(iii) Again use the Correspondence Theorem and a property of minimal
normality.
(iv) Let K be a minimal normal subgroup of G, and H1 be a maximal
normal subgroup of K, note K/H1 is simple. Further, let H1 , . . . , Hj be the
conjugates of H1 in G; each Hi is maximal normal in K as K / G. Show that
K/Hi are mutually isomorphic and, using a conjugation argument, show that
H1 Hj = hei.
Now using induction on i prove that K/(H1 Hi ) is isomorphic to a
direct product of copies of K/H1 . The result follows by putting i = r.
(va) hei / V / A4 / S4 , this has one less term than the corresponding
composition series;
(vb)

hei / V / A4 ;

(vc)

(vd)

(ve)

## hei / hci / ha2 ci / ha, ci / E.

524

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

Solutions 10
Problem  10.1 We have if g Zn+1 , then gZn Z(G/Zn ) which
implies that gZn commutes with aZn for all a G, that is [a, g] Zn . This
argument reverses.
Problem 10.2 (i) S4 is centreless so its hypercentre is hei. The hypercentre
for SL2 (3) is its centre, and for E it is ha2 , bi ' C2 C2 (and so not the
centre); to prove these facts use Problem 10.1.
(ii) Suppose Dn = ha, b | an = b2 = e, bab = an1 i. If n = 2k then o(Dn ) =
2
, so Dn is a 2-group, and hence nilpotent (Theorem 10.6). If n = 2k r
k
k
k
where r > 1 is odd, then o(a2 ) = r, o(b) = 2, and ba2 = a2 (u1) b. Now
apply Theorem 10.9(ix). This second part can also be established by showing
that the Sylow 2-subgroups are not normal and using Theorem 10.9(vii)
(iii) Use Problem 3.15(iv) and Definition 10.1, or see Robinson (1982),
page 123.
(iv) By Definitions 10.1 and 10.5 we have Dn+1 (G) = [. . . [[G, G], G] . . . , G]
= hei, (n + 1 copies of G) if, and only if, G is nilpotent with class n.
k+1

Problem 10.3 Elements of the group G can be treated as infinite sequences z = (g1 , . . . , gi , . . . ) where gi Hi for all i, and gi = e for all but
finitely many positive integers i. The product is component-wise as in the
finite direct case. As each gi has order a power of p, each z also has an order
which is a power of p because it only has finitely many non-neutral entries.
Hence G is a p-group, and Hn is isomorphic to a subgroup of G. Now consider
sequences with an element of Hn at the n-entry and e in all other entries.
Suppose G is nilpotent with class m and n > m. So we have a group of
nilpotency class m with a subgroup of larger nilpotency class, that is n. But
this is impossible for an easy extension of of Theorem 10.6(iii) shows that the
nilpotency class of a subgroup cannot be larger than the nilpotency class of
the group itself.
Problem  10.4 (i) If the nilpotency class number r is 1, then G0 = hei.
If r > 1, then by the inductive hypothesis H/Z(H) = G/Z(G) which gives
G = HZ(G). Now using Problem 2.17 we have
G0 = [HZ(G), HZ(G)] = H 0

and so

G = HG0 = HH 0 = H.

## (ii) If the nilpotency class number is r, then

H HZ1 (G) HZ2 (G) HZr (G) = HG = G
is a subnormal series. Also H normalises HZi (G) and Zi+1 (G) normalises
HZi (G) because
[Zi+1 , HZi (G)] [Zi+1 (G), G] Zi (G) HZi (G).
Now use Theorem 10.9.

Solutions 10

525

## Problem  10.5 (i) For fixed g G we have a = [g, a] for a G.

Now ab = g 1 b1 a1 gab and ab = g 1 a1 gag 1 b1 gb. These are equal if
b1 a1 ga = a1 gag 1 b1 g or
(a1 gag 1 )b1 (ga1 g 1 a)b = [a, g 1 ]b1 [g 1 , a]b = e.
But G has nilpotency class 2, and so G0 Z(G) which implies that this
equation is indeed true by Problem 2.17(i). Hence is an endomorphism
of G. Now clearly ker = CG (g), and therefore this centraliser is a normal
subgroup of G.
(ii) Use the definitions and the proof methods applied in the derivation of
Theorem 10.6.
n
(iii) If D2n = ha, b : a2 = b2 = (ab)2 = ei, then the lower central series
for D2n is
n1
D2n , ha2 i, ha4 i, . . . , ha2 i, hei
hence the nilpotency class is n.
Problem 10.6 This can be done by repeating the proof of Theorem 10.4.
In the first part replace Dr+1 by Hr+1 and show that Hr+1 Zsr , and in
the second part replace Zt by Ht and show that D(s+1)t Ht .
Problem  10.7 If G is nilpotent, then G/J is also nilpotent by Theorem
10.6(iv). Conversely if G/J is nilpotent, and H G, then by Theorem 10.9(v)
we have HJ/J / / G/J, and so HJ / / G by the Correspondence Theorem
(Theorem 4.16). But as J Z(G), we also have H / HJ which gives H / / G.
The result now follows by using Theorem 10.9(v) again.
Problem  10.8 As G is nilpotent, it is isomorphic to a direct product of
p-groups, its Sylow p-subgroups, where p | n (Theorem 10.9). Also a p-group
of order pr has subgroups of all orders ps where s r. Using the prime
factorisation of m and these results we can construct a direct product of
order m via Lemma 7.5 which will form a subgroup of order m in G.
Problem 10.9 (xii) This was given by Problem 10.7.
(xiii) and (xiv) We show that Theorem 10.9(iv) implies (xiii) implies (xiv)
implies (xii). The first implication follows from Lemma 5.21 using Problem
7.4.
For the second implication we argue as follows. Suppose (xiii) holds and
assume that G 6= hei, then Z(G) 6= hei. A factor group of G also satisfies
(xiii). So using induction on o(G) we have if K / G, either K/Z(K) ' hei or
[K/Z(K), G/Z(G)] < K/Z(K) by (xiii). In the first case we have K Z(G)
and [K, G] ' hei < K, and in the second case [K, G] < K follows because
the derived subgroup of a group is a characteristic subgroup of that group
(Problem 4.22). So in both cases we have (xiv).
Now suppose (xiv) holds. Let G > hei and let L be a minimal normal
subgroup of G; see page 235. As [L, G] / G (see Theorem 2.30) we obtain
[L, G] = hei and so
L Z(G).

526

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

Now suppose L < K/ G and [K/L, G/L] = K/L. This gives K = [K, G]L. (To
see this use: if is an endomorphism of G and a, b G, then [a, b] = [a, b].)
This implies
[K, G] = [[K, G], G].
Applying (xiv) this property shows that [K, G] = hei, and so K = L which
contradicts our supposition. We can also use this argument to show that G/K
satisfies (xiv). Therefore by applying induction on o(G) we may suppose G/K
is nilpotent. But then using by Problem 10.7, we see finally that the original
group G is nilpotent.
Problem 10.10

## (i) Let a H1 , b H2 and c H3 , then by hypothesis

c1 [b, c1 , a]c K

## Using the Hall-Witt Identity (Problem 2.17) these show that

b1 [a, b1 , c]b K

and so

[a, b1 , c] K

## as K / G. Hence for all a, b, c K we have [a, b, c] K. But [H2 , H3 , H1 ] =

[H3 , H2 , H1 ] and [H3 , H1 , H2 ] = [H1 , H3 , H2 ], and so [[a, b1 ], c] = [b, a, c]
K. Now note that in general if ai , bj G and J = h. . . , ai , . . . , bj , . . .i then
[a1 , . . . , am , b1 , . . . , bn ] can be expressed as a product of terms of the form
1
[ar , bs ]jr,s where 1 r m, 1 s n and jr,s J. These j elements
jr,s
depend on the order of the terms in the product. Therefore we have
[H1 , H2 , H3 ] = [[H1 , H2 ], H3 ] K.
(ii) This follows directly from (i) with K = hei.
(iii) Using the fact: z 1 [x, y]z = [z 1 xz, z 1 yz] when x, y, z G and
Lemma 3.14(iii), as Hi / G we have [H2 , H3 , H1 ][H3 , H1 , H2 ] is also normal,
and so the result follows from (i).
(iv) Use the method suggested.
(v) Use induction on i. First we have [D1 (G), Zj (G)] = [G, Zj (G)]
Zj1 (G) for all j, see page 211. For the inductive step applying the Three
Subgroup Lemma we obtain (where we write Di for Di (G) et cetera.)
[Di+1 , Zj ] = [[Di , G], Zj ] [[G, Zj ], Di ][[Zj , Di ], G]
[Zj1 , Di ][Zji , G] Zj(i+1) .
Problem 10.11
But

## (i) Note that by Problem 10.10(v) [Di (G), Zi (G)] = hei.

D(j+1)i (G) Zi (G)

(see the proof of Theorem 10.4), and so [Di (G), D(j+1)i (G)] = hei which
gives the result.
(ii) We have where all products run from 0 to n (note that some careful
consideration using Problem 2.17 is needed for the first equality)

Solutions 10

527

Y
Y
[[Kni , Ki ], G]
[Kni , [Ki , G]] [[Kni , G], Ki ]
Y

[Ln , G] =

## (iii) By assumption we have Dl+1 (G) L0 = K 0 , and so

Kl+2i+1 Dl+2i L2i1 [K, Ki ].
Hence if
Ki Di+1 (G) Dj+1 (K)

then

## But Kl Dl+1 (G) K1 , and so by induction on j we obtain

Ki Di+1 (G) Dj (K)

when

## Finally use the given hypothesis that K has nilpotency class j.

Problem 10.12 (i) As Z0 (G) = hei and Zr (G) = G for some integer r,
there exists minimal s r such that K Zs (G) 6= hei. As K / G we have [K
Zs (G), G] K [Zs (G), G] K Zs1 (G) = hei, that is [K Zs (G), G] = hei
and so K Zs (G) Z(G), the result follows as this group clearly belongs to
K. This can also be derived using the methods of Chapter 5.
(ii) Use (i) and the fact that H Z(G) / H since subgroups of Z(G) are
normal in G (Problem 2.14(ii)) and H G.
(iii) The subgroup J is Abelian, so J CG (J). For converse, suppose
CG (J)\J is not empty. As J / G, we have by Problem 5.8, g 1 CG (J)g =
CG (J) for all g G, so CG (J) / G. Hence by the Correspondence Theorem
(Theorem 4.16) CG (J)/J is a non-neutral normal subgroup of G/J. Applying
(i) we can find a coset hJ (CG (J)/J) Z(G/J), and using Theorem 4.16
again we have hJ, hi is a normal Abelian subgroup of G strictly containing J
Problem 10.13 For A5 : hei and hei; for C32 : C16 (cyclic groups have
unique maximal subgroups) and C32 ; for D12 = ha, b | a12 = b2 = (ab)2 = ei:
ha6 i ' C2 and hai ' C12 , and for Sn : hei (Problem 3.9), and C2 C2 if
n = 4 (Section 8.1) and hei if n > 4 (in which case there are no non-neutral
normal nilpotent subgroups the only subnormal subgroups are symmetric
or alternating).
Problem  10.14 Suppose K (G) and H < G. There is a maximal L
such that H L < G, and K L. Therefore HK L < G, a contradiction.
Conversely suppose K 6 (G). So G 6= hei, and by definition there is a
maximal subgroup M of G with the property K 6 M . Hence M < M K G
by Lemma 4.14. Now the maximality of M implies that M K = G as required
in the problem.
Problem 10.15 (i) Use the fact that if H, J G and is a endomorphism
of G (a map G G), then (H J) H J.

528

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

(ii) This example was suggested by Ben Fairbairn. Let G be the group
of all 2 2 upper-triangular matrices with determinant
 1 defined over F9
(Problems 3.15 and 12.1). The subgroup H = { 10 x1 : x F9 } is normal
in G. It has order 9 and it is the unique Sylow 3-subgroup in G. Also the
subgroup J of diagonal matrices in G is cyclic and has order 8. (It forms a
Sylow 2-subgroup, there are nine in all with generators c0 cx7 one for each
x F9 where c is a multiplicative generator of F9 .) It follows easily that G is
isomorphic to the semi-direct product
J o H. Two other normal subgroups

are given as follows: H 0 = { a0 ax : x F9 , a = 1 or 2} with order 18, and
H 00 = { y0 xz : x F9 , {y, z} = {1, 1}, {2, 2}, {c2 , c6 } or {c6 , c2 } } with order
36.
The maximal subgroups
of G are H 00 and the nine Sylow 2-subgroups,

2 0
and so (G) = 0 2 ' C2 . Incidentally this subgroup is also isomorphic to
Z(G). Now as H 0 / G, we can define an endomorphism : G
 C4 in the
usual way. (The four cosets of H 0 in G are generated by 0c c07 H 0 and its
second, third and fourth powers. As (G) H 0 , we have (G) ' hei, but
(G) ' (C4 ) ' C2 .
Problem  10.16 Let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of J. This gives KP/K is
a Sylow p-subgroup of J/K (see Problem 6.10). Now as J/K is nilpotent, we
have KP/K is a characteristic subgroup of J/K, and so KP / G. Also P is a
Sylow p-subgroup of KP , and hence using the Frattini Argument (Theorem
6.14) we have G = NG (P )K NG (G). By Lemma 10.14 this shows that
G = NG (P ) and P / G. As this argument holds for all Sylow subgroups of G
the result follows by Theorem 10.9(vii).
Problem 10.17 If G = HJ and L is a maximal subgroup of H, then LJ
is a maximal subgroup of G, see Problem 7.3(ii). Therefore (G) L J,
and so (G) (H) J. This gives the result.
Problem 10.18 (i) If G = S4 then (G) = hei. We also have H =
h(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 3)i < G and H is isomorphic to D4 . Therefore (H) = ha2 i 6
hei = (G).
(ii) Note first that the question needs to be amended so that K is a proper
subgroup of (H). Suppose K 6 (G), so there exists a maximal subgroup
L of G with K 6 L and G = KL (as L is maximal). Hence H = H KL =
(H L)K (by Problem 2.18(i)), so H = H L (by Theorem 10.12) that is
H L. This gives K (H) H L G contradicting our hypothesis.
(iii) Use (ii).
Problem 10.19 (i) Let J be minimal subject to the condition: G = JK.
We have J K / J as K is normal, and J K / K as K is Abelian, so
J K / JK = G. If we assume that J K (H), then by Problem
10.18(ii) J K (G) K = hei by hypothesis, and we have the required
subgroup. Hence suppose J K 6 H for some H which is a maximal subgroup
of J. But in this case J = H(J K) and G = JK = HK which contradicts
the minimality of J. Therefore our assumption is valid.
(ii) One example from Chapter 8 is as follows. Using the notation of Section
8.3 let G = E, then (G) = ha2 i, so let K = hci. In this case we can take

Solutions 10

529

J = ha, bi. Note that this phenomenon can also occur if (G) = hei, for
example if G = S4 . Let K = V , the subgroup generated by the 2-cycles
2-cycles, and then we can take J = h(1, 2, 3), (1, 2)i; there are four choices for
the subgroup J.
Problem 10.20 (i) If g G then by conjugation g induces an automorphism, g say, of K, that is g is a homomorphism G Aut (K). We have
Kg = Inn (K) ((G))g (Gg )
using Problem 10.15. But Inn (K)/ Aut (K) (Theorem 5.26), and so by Problem 10.18(ii) we have Inn (K) (Aut (K)).
(ii) Put K = (G) in (i).
(iii) If D4 = ha, b : a4 = b2 = (ab)2 = ei, then (D4 ) = ha2 i ' C2 , and
Inn (D4 ) ' C2 C2 (see page 84). Now apply (ii) with G = D4 .
Problem 10.21 (i) Let H be a maximal subgroup of G, then by Theorem
6.6 we have H / G and [G : H] = p. This shows that G/H is Abelian,
and so G0 H (Problem 4.6). Also G0 has exponent p, and so ap H for all
a G. Hence G0 Gp (G). Conversely, note first that G/G0 Gp is an Abelian
group with exponent p and so can be treated as a vector space over Fp , and
(G/G0 Gp ) = hei (Lemma 10.19). Also if J / G and J (G), then (G)
is the inverse image (using the natural map) of (G/J) because, via the
Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16), maximal subgroups correspond.
Now the reverse inclusion (G) G0 Gp follows.
(ii) As G0 Gp = (G), the factor group G/(G) is an Abelian group with
exponent p which can be treated as as vector space over Fp .
Problem 10.22 (i) If a, g G, then [a, g p ] = [a, g]p = e and so g p Z(G).
Consequently every element of G/Z(G) has order p and as G is a finite pgroup we see that G/Z(G) is an elementary Abelian p-group.
(ii) We have o(Z(G)) 6= 1 by Lemma 5.14, it is not p2 by Problem 4.15 (for
otherwise G/Z(G) would be cyclic), and it is not p3 as G is not Abelian. So
Z(G) is cyclic with order p. Also by Theorem 10.1, G0 Z(G), and G0 6= hei
as G is not Abelian, hence G0 = Z(G). Now use Problem 10.21 to show that
(G) = G0 .
Problem 10.23 (i) One method uses Problem 10.21(i). If p = 2 we show
that all commutators belong to G2 . Suppose o(a) = 2k and o(b) = 2l . Now
k

[a, b] = a2

1 2l 1

ab = a2

k1

## ab2 1 ab2 1 b2 = (a2

1 2

) (ab2 1 )2 b2 ,

a product of squares. This shows that (G) G2 , now apply Problem 10.21
for the reverse inequality.
(ii) Let p = 3 in the second group given in Problem 6.5, that is ES2 (3)
generated by a, b and c. Here all elements x satisfy x3 = e, so hx3 | x Gi =
hei whilst (G) = hci; see Problem 10.22. The first group in Problem 6.5,
ES1 (3), does satisfy the condition given in (i).

530

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

Problem 10.24 (i) Use Problem 9.16 with K = (G) and J/K = F(G/K).
As J/K is nilpotent (Theorem 10.22 and Definition 10.23), the quoted problem shows that J is nilpotent, which implies F(G/(G)) F(G)/(G). For
the converse, as F(G) is nilpotent, we see that F(G)/(G)) is a nilpotent subgroup of G/(G). Hence F(G)/(G) F(G/(G)) which gives the result.
(ii) For S4 we have (S4 ) = hei, and so the result is trivial in this
case. For SL2 (3) we have (SL2 (3)) ' C2 (which also equals the centre) and F(SL2 (3)) ' Q2 . Now Q2 /C2 ' C2 C2 , and SL2 (3)/C2 ' A4
(Problem 4.4). Now note that F(A4 ) is the largest nilpotent normal subgroup of A4 that is C2 C2 generated by the 2-cycles 2-cycles. For E
we have (E) ' C2 and F(E) ' C6 C2 . Now clearly F(E)/(E) ' C6 .
We also have E/(E) ' D6 , and the largest nilpotent normal subgroup of
D6 = ha, b : a6 = b2 = (ab)2 = ei is hai ' C6 . For the details on these
constructions see Chapter 8.
Problem 10.25 (i) Let i be the largest integer satisfying K G(i) 6= hei;
see page 234. So (K G(i) )0 K G(i+1) = hei, and it follows that K G(i)
is Abelian and is normal in G.
(ii) Suppose first CG (F(G)) 6 F(G). By (i) we can find J so that J/F(G) /
G/F(G), F(G) < J CG (F(G))F(G), and J/F(G) is Abelian. Now J =
J (CG (F(G)) = (J CG (F(G)))F(G) by Problem 2.18. This shows that
D3 (J CG (F(G))) [J 0 , CG (F(G))] [F(G), CG (F(G))] = hei,
which in turn shows that J CG (F(G)) F(G) and J = F(G). This contradiction now shows that CG (F(G)) F(G) which in turn implies that
CG (F(G)) = Z(F(G)).
(iii) As G is soluble it contains a non-neutral normal subgroup, this follows
from (i).
(iv) Use Problem 10.24(i) and (iii).
Problem 10.26 (i) hei / C3 / S3 is a supersoluble series for S3 . But S4 is
not supersoluble, its normal series hei / V / A4 / S4 has a non-cyclic factor
V ' T2 .
(ii) Assume S = (H0 , . . . , Hm ) is a supersoluble series for G. Its factors
are cyclic, so suppose Hi+1 /Hi ' Ck . Now S can be refined by inserting
new terms between Hi and Hi+1 so that the new factors have prime orders
corresponding the the prime factors of k. This can be done for all factors in
S.
(iii) See the proofs of Theorems 11.2 and 11.3. Now see (i). The group V
is finite Abelian so supersoluble, and S4 /V ' S3 is also supersoluble, but S4
is not supersoluble.
(iv) If J0 , . . . Jm and K0 , . . . , Kn are supersoluble series for G and H,
respectively, then
J0 K0 , . . . Jm K0 , Jm K1 , . . . , Jm Kn
is a supersoluble series for G H.

Solutions 10

531

(v) Finite p-groups are supersoluble by Theorem 6.4. So the result holds
by this, (iv), and Theorem 10.9(viii). Now note that S3 is not nilpotent, and
S4 is not supersoluble.
(vi) Let H0 , . . . , Hm be a supersoluble series for G, and let Ji = Hi G0 .
Now J0 , . . . , Jm is a supersoluble series for G0 . Also if g G then g induces
an automorphism of Ji+1 /Ji (by conjugation), so
G/L  Aut (Ji+1 /Ji )

where

## L/Ji = CG/Ji (Ji+1 /Ji ).

But Ji+1 /Ji is cyclic (by definition), so by Theorem 4.23 it follows that G/L
is Abelian. Therefore L G0 (Problem 4.6), and hence
Ji+1 /Ji Z(G0 /Ji ),
that is J0 , . . . , Jm is an upper central series for G0 .
(vii) Suppose H0 , . . . , Hm is a supersoluble series for G/K, and is the
natural homomorphism G to G/K, then
hei / H0 1 = K / H1 1 / / Hm 1 = G
is a supersoluble series for G.
(viii) Zappa has shown that the terms of a supersoluble series can be
rearranged so that the all of the factors of odd order come first followed by
those of even order. This can now be used to prove the result, see the quoted
reference.
(ix) This is a substantial problem, try to establish each of the following
propositions in turn. (a) If G is supersoluble, then all of its maximal subgroups
have prime index in G. (b) Using induction on o(G) and Problem 11.9(ii),
show that all subgroups of G are reverse Lagrange. (c) For the converse,
again use induction on o(G). Note first that G has at least one normal Sylow
p-subgroup P where p | o(G). (d) Use the inductive hypothesis and Halls
Theorems (Chapter 10) to show that G/P is supersoluble. (e) By hypothesis,
there exists a subgroup L of G with [G : L] = p. Prove that L P / G and
G/(L P ) is supersoluble. (f) Suppose we can choose a subgroup K of G
satisfying K/ G, K LP and o(K) is as small as possible. Now K = hei and
we can complete the argument. But if K 6= hei, then [K, P ] < K, so consider
the chief factor (see Problem 9.15) K/M of L with [K, P ] M < K, and use
this to show that K = hei. For further details see Rose [1978], page 292.
(x) The real numbers R form an example of a non-supersoluble Abelian
group. This group does not have a finite series with cyclic (finite or infinite)
factors, in any such series at least one factor must be uncountable. Of course
all finite Abelian groups are supersoluble.

532

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

Solutions 11
Problem 11.1 (ia) Coefficients are rational, so we may assume that the
leading coefficient is 1, hence the cubic has the form f (y) = y 3 + ry 2 + sy + t
where r, s, t Q. Put y = x r/3.
(ib) Use
0 = (u + v)3 + a(u + v) + b
= u3 + 3u2 v + 3uv 2 + v 3 + au + av + b
= u3 + v 3 + (u + v)(3uv + a) + b.
p
(ic) Set v = a/3u, then 2u3 = b + (b2 + 4a3 /27).
(iia and b) For (iia) proceed as above and for (iib) we have
x4 + ax2 + bx + c = (x2 + rx + s)(x2 + ux + t)
= x4 + (r + u)x3 + (s + t + ru)x2 + (rt + su)x + st,
so put r + u = 0, s + t r2 = a, r(t s) = b and st = c. Second and third
equations give 2t = r2 + a + b/r and 2s = r2 + a b/r. So fourth gives
4c = 4st = (r2 + a + b/r)(r2 + a b/r) = r4 + 2ar2 + a2 b2 /r2 .
Problem 11.2 (ia) Suppose Dn = ha, b | an = b2 = e, bab = an1 i. We
have hai / Dn and Dn /hai ' C2 . Now use Theorems 11.4 and 11.6.
(ib) This is similar to (ia).
(ic) We have hei / V / A4 / S4 is a soluble series for S4 ; see Section 8.1.
(ii) By Lemma 7.3 and Theorem 7.4, G / G H and (G H)/G ' H.
This can also be done by combining the soluble series for G and H and using
properties of the direct product.
Problem 11.3 (i) By Problem 3.19, the only subnormal series for SL2 (5)
with more than two terms is: hei / C2 / SL2 (5), and so this series is a composition series for SL2 (5) (use the Jordan-Holder Theorem (Theorem 9.5)).
Hence SL2 (5)/C2 is simple (in fact it is isomorphic to A5 , see Problem 6.16).
Therefore SL2 (5) is not soluble.
(ii) If o(G) = p < 200, then G ' Cp which is soluble. If o(G) < 60 or
o(G) = 60 and G 6' A5 , then use Problems 6.15 and 6.16, and Theorem 11.4.
This can be extended to groups satisfying o(G) < 120. At least three nonsoluble groups of order 120 exist, they include S5 , SL2 (5), A5 C2 . There
is a (unique) simple (and so non-soluble) group of order 168, see Problem
12.7, and at least one of order 180, that is A5 C3 . In fact these six groups
complete the list of non-soluble groups of order less than 200, a fair amount
of checking is needed to establish this; see the GAP program and Section 6.7
in the Atlas.
Problem 11.4 Suppose G is the smallest non-soluble group of order p2 q 2
or pn q. If G is not simple, it has a normal subgroup K where 1 < o(K) < o(G),
and by minimality it is soluble; as is G/K for the same reason. We can now
use Theorem 11.4.

Solutions 11

533

Case 1 o(G) = pn q. Using the first part and the Sylow theory we have
np = q, so let P1 and P2 be distinct Sylow p-subgroups of G and let L =
P1 P2 . There are two subcases. Subcase 1 for all choices of P1 and P2 ,
L = hei. In this case G has q(pn 1) elements of order a power p, and so
only q others. But G has at least one Sylow q-subgroup of order q, and as it
is unique it is normal contradicting the simplicity of G. Subcase 2 L 6= hei,
we may suppose L has maximal order. It is a p-group so nilpotent, hence by
Theorem 10.9(iv), if
Mi = NG (Pi ),

we have

L / M = hM1 , M2 i.

## By Sylow 5, if M is a p-group, it is contained in some Sylow p-subgroup of

G, say P . We have
P1 M1 M,
but as P1 is maximal (it has prime index) and P2 M , we see that P1 6= M .
Hence M = G and L / G which contradicts the simplicity of G.
Case 2 o(G) = p2 q 2 with q < p. Here np = q 2 , and if L is defined as
above and L = hei then the same argument applies. So suppose L 6= hei.
In this case each Pi is Abelian, and so L / hP1 , P2 i = J, and J 6= G (as G
is simple). This further implies [G : J] = q, and by Theorem 5.15, we have
o(G) | q! which is impossible as p > q.
Problem  11.5 (i) Suppose we have . . . / A/ B / . . . with B/A Abelian,
and A / C / B. We can deduce that C/A and B/C are both Abelian using
Theorems 4.16 and 4.17, and Problem 4.6(i).
(ii) Yes. Use the facts that an infinite simple group H has the composition
series hei / H, and a soluble series for an infinite group must have at least
one infinite step A / B (where o(B/A) = ). Consider hei / A/A / B/A.
(iii) Use the definition and Theorems 7.12, 7.7 and 6.5.
(iv) Use Problem 9.15.
Problem 11.6 (i) We assume that r, s > 0. Now G has a Sylow q-subgroup
P , and Z(P ) > hei by Lemma 5.21. Let g Z(P ) with g 6= e, so P < CG (g)
and
o(C`{g}) = [G : CG (g)] = pu
for some integer u. If u = 0 then g Z(G), and so G is not simple (as
Z(G) / G), and if u > 0 then G is not simple by Burnsides result. Therefore
if o(G) = pr q s , then G is not simple. Suppose G is of smallest order such that
G is not soluble. As it is not simple, it has a normal subgroup H of order
pr1 q s1 < o(G), so H (and also G/H) are soluble, now use Theorem 11.4.
(ii) Suppose G is not Abelian. If all odd-order groups are soluble and G is
simple, then G must have even order.
Conversely if all simple groups have even order and G has odd order then
it possesses a non-neutral proper normal subgroup K, and o(K) and o(G/K)
are also odd. Suppose K is smallest (by size of its order) which is not soluble,
it will have a normal subgroup H of smaller order, so apply Theorem 11.4 to
it and K/H.

534

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

(iii) See Theorem 6.18, the group has a normal cyclic subgroup hai. A
substantial number of simple groups come close; for example A5 , L2 (11) and
J1 have Abelian Sylow subgroups many of which are cyclic.
Problem  11.7 (i) If G is non-Abelian and soluble, then its derived
series has at least three terms including hei and G, its second from bottom
term will be non-neutral, normal and Abelian by Theorem 11.10.
(ii) If G is not soluble, then its derived series does not reach hei, that is
there is an integer k such that G(k) = G(k+1) = (G(k) )0 giving the required
perfect subgroup. Note that G itself might be perfect.
Problem 11.8 (i) One example is SL2 (3); see Section 8.2.
(ii) A Reverse Lagrange group will have a p-complement for all primes
dividing the order of the group, so will be soluble by Halls Second Theorem.
Or we can argue as follows. First we show that G must have a proper nonneutral normal subgroup. Let o(G) = p1 p2 . . . where p1 p2 . . . There
exists a subgroup H of G with [G : H] = p1 , so by Theorem 5.15, if core(H) =
hei then G is isomorphic to a subgroup of Sp1 . Hence p1 p2 . . . | p1 ! which is
only possible if p2 = = 1 and G ' Cp1 . Therefore if we exclude this
case, the subresult follows. Now use induction and Theorem 11.4; start by
assuming that G1 is Reverse Lagrange and not soluble, and has the smallest
possible order with these two properties.
Problem  11.9 (i) The subnormal series hei / J / K / G can be refined
to a chief series, see Problem 9.15 (iii) and (iv). By definition, J and K are
consecutive terms in this series, so K/J is elementary Abelian by Problem
9.15 again.
(ii) Let J = core(H) and K be minimal subject to the condition J < K.
Using the definitions of the core, and of K, we have K 6 H, and so by
maximality of H we have KH = G. Next we show
K H = J.

(11.1)

## We have J K H K and K H / H (Lemma 4.14). So by (i) K/J is

Abelian, and by applying the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16) we
have K H / K. These show that
NG (K H) hK, Hi = G.
Hence K H / G, and so by the definition of J this gives (11.1). Therefore
using the Second Isomorphism Theorem (Theorem 4.15) we obtain
[G : H] = [KH : H] = [K : K H] = [K : J].
Finally by (i) again, as [K : J] is a prime power so is [G : H].
Problem  11.10 (i) Use Theorems 4.16 and 11.2 to 11.4.
(ii) Use Lemma 4.14 and (i).
(iii) Yes, let G = A5 C2 . Here A5 forms a maximal normal subgroup.

Solutions 11

535

## Problem 11.11 One example is A5 C6 which is not soluble. It has order

360, and contains maximal subgroups of index 2, that is A5 C3 ; of index 3,
that is A5 C2 ; and of index 5, that is A4 C6 .
Problem 11.12 The group G is soluble, so by Theorem 11.10 if, for some
k, G(k) = G(k+1) , then G(k) = hei. The solubility also implies that G(k) = hei
for some k which in turn implies that G(k1) is cyclic. Repeating the argument
if necessary we may therefore assume that G(3) = hei and so G(2) is cyclic.
By Theorem 11.10, G(2) / G, and so by the N/C theorem (Theorem 5.26)
CG (G(2) ) / NG (G(2) ) = G and G/CG (G(2) )  Aut G(2) .
Now G(2) is cyclic, and so by Theorem 4.23, Aut G(2) is Abelian, and hence
G/CG (G(2) ) is also Abelian, which in turn by Problem 4.6(ii) implies
G0 CG (g (2) ),

and so

G(2) Z(G0 ),

by (iv) on page 104. We also have G0 /G(2) is cyclic, and so this gives by the
Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16) G0 /Z(G0 ) is cyclic. Therefore using
Problem 4.16(ii) we have: G0 is Abelian and so G(2) = hei.
Problem 11.13 We show first that G is soluble using induction on o(G),
if o(G) = 1 there is nothing to prove. Now let o(G) > 1 and let p0 be the
smallest prime dividing o(G). By Burnsides Normal Complement Theorem
(Theorem 6.17), G has a normal p0 -complement K, say, so K / G and G/K '
P where P is a Sylow p0 -subgroup of G. Using Theorem 6.9(i) we see that
all Sylow subgroups of K are cyclic, hence K is soluble by the inductive
hypothesis. Further P is a p0 -group, and so is soluble. Therefore G is soluble
by Theorem 11.4.
Now by Problem 4.6(ii), G(n) /G(n1) is Abelian for n = 0, 1, . . . , and all
of its subgroups are cyclic. Hence they are themselves cyclic, this follows
using the Sylow theory and Problem 4.15(ii). Therefore by Problem 11.12,
G(2) = G(3) = hei and the result follows.
Problem 11.14 (ia) If G1 is not simple, it has a proper normal subgroup
K which is soluble by the definition of G1 , as is G1 /K for the same reason.
But then G1 is soluble by Theorem 11.4.
(ib) Suppose every pair of distinct maximal subgroups has neutral intersection. Now H1 = NG1 (H1 ), and if o(H1 ) = m, then H1 has o(G1 )/m
conjugates all of which have neutral intersection. So the conjugates of H1
have (m 1)o(G1 )/m = o(G1 ) o(G1 )/m = r non-neutral elements. As
m > 1, we have (o(G1 ) 1)/2 < r < o(G1 ) 1, but this is impossible as
each non-neutral element of G1 belongs to exactly one maximal subgroup
(because of the neutral intersection of the subgroups containing them), and
so there are o(G1 ) 1 in total.
(ic) Let L = NG1 (J), then J 6= NH1 (J) by Theorem 10.7 as J is nilpotent,
so J < L H1 . By (ia) L < G1 , and so it is contained in some maximal H
of G1 . It follows that J < L H1 H H1 contradicting the maximality

536

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

property of J.
(id) By (ib and c) the counter-example postulated in (ia) does not exist.
(ii) As finite Abelian groups are nilpotent, (i) shows that G0 < G by Theorem 11.10, and G0 / G by Problem 2.16. But then G0 is Abelian, and so
G00 = hei.
Problem  11.15 By Theorem 2.30 we have [H, J] / G, and by Problem
2.16 G0 [H, J], hence G0 = [H, J]. If hi H and ji J we have h1
2 j1 h2 =
1
0
0
h3 j3 and j2 h1 j2 = j4 h4 . Note also [h, h ] = e and [h, h j] = [h, j] as H is
Abelian, and so by Problem 2.17(iii) j 1 [h, j 0 ]j = [j 1 hj, j 0 ], et cetera. Hence
we have
1
(h2 j2 )1 [h1 , j1 ]h2 j2 = j21 [h1 , h1
2 j1 h2 ]j2 = j2 [h1 , h3 j3 ]j2

## = j21 [h1 , j3 ]j2 = [j21 h1 j2 , j3 ] = [j4 h4 , j3 ] = [h4 , j3 ],

and similarly
(j2 h2 )1 [h1 , j1 ]j2 h2 = h1
2 [j4 h4 , j2 ]h2
= h1
2 [h4 , j1 ]h2 = [h4 , h3 j3 ] = [h4 , j3 ].
This shows that [H, J] = G0 is Abelian, and so G00 = hei which implies that
G is soluble. Other proof methods are possible.
Problem 11.16 A5 : this group has a 5-complement which is isomorphic
to A4 , but no 2- or 3-complements, see page 101.
A6 : this group has no p-complements. The maximal subgroups of this
group are isomorphic to A5 , S4 or C4 o C32 (with order 36). Hence A6 cannot
have subgroups of order 45 (index 8) or 40 (index 9). By Theorem 5.15 it
cannot have a subgroup of order 72 (index 5).
L2 (7) : this group has a 2-complement isomorphic to F7,3 and a 7complement isomorphic to S4 , but no 3-complement, such a subgroup would
have order 56 which is impossible by Theorem 5.15.
Problem 11.17 First note that both S3 and S4 are their own Hall {2, 3}subgroups. S4 is an example of a Hall {2, 3}-subgroup of S5 . A Hall {2, 3}subgroup of S6 would have index 5 which is impossible by Theorem 5.15. Finally, Problem 3.9 shows that S3 S4 is isomorphic to a Hall {2, 3}-subgroup
of S7 , and S4 wr C2 (or S4 o C2 ) is isomorphic to a Hall {2, 3}-subgroup of
S8 (Problem 3.9(iii)).
Problem 11.18 (i) Use the definitions.
(ii) The symmetric group S5 has subgroups isomorphic to C3 generated
by 3-cycles, and C5 generated by 5-cycles, but it has no subgroup of order
15, such a subgroup would be isomorphic to C15 but the group contains no
elements of order 15.
(iii) A Hall {2, 5}-subgroup of S5 would have order 40, but S5 has no
subgroup of this order (use Theorem 5.15). On the other hand S5 does have
a {2, 5}-subgroup of order 20, see Problem 3.11.

Solutions 11

537

(iv) GL3 (2) (which is isomorphic to L2 (7), see Chapter 12) has two sets of
subgroups each isomorphic to S4 . An example from the first set is generated
by
!
!
1 0 0
1 0 1
0 1 1
0 1 1 ,
and
0 1 0
0 0 1
and an example from the second set is generated
!
1 1 0
1 1
1 0 0
0 1
and
0 0 1
0 0

by
!
1
0 .
1

Note that in both cases the first generating element has order 3, the second
has order 2, and their products both have order 4; see Problem 3.18. Matrices
in the first example above only fix (0, 0, 0) in the 3-dimensional vector space
defined over F2 , that is they only fix one point in the space, but in the
second example every matrix fixes two points (0, 0, 0) and (0, 0, 1) a line
in the space. For this reason the examples cannot be conjugate, even though
they are isomorphic.
(v) The group L2 (11) has order 660, and it has non-isomorphic subgroups
of order 12 and index 55 (so Hall {2, 3}-subgroups). For example if the group
is given by the permutation representation stated on page 295, then
D6 ' h(1, 3)(2, 7, 11, 5, 10, 9)(4, 8, 6), (1, 3)(2, 11)(4, 8)(5, 9)i L2 (11),
A4 ' h(1, 3, 2)(4, 6, 5)(7, 9, 8), (1, 3)(2, 11)(4, 8)(5, 9)i L2 (11).
Problem  11.19 (i) Clear.
(ii) Use Problem 2.23.
(iii) Use Problem 2.15.
(iv) Use the Correspondence Theorem (Theorem 4.16).
Problem 11.20 (i) For S4 one example is h(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 3)i and h(1, 2, 3)i;
for SL2 (3) take the copy of Q2 and one of the Sylow 3-subgroups; and for E
use the definition.
(ii) Sylow 3- or 5-subgroups of S5 are cyclic in the form h(a, b, c)i or
h(a, b, c, d, e)i, but these never commute.
(iii) Condition 6. Take P1 = h(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 3)i as a Sylow 2-subgroup.
Condition 7. Use Problem 3.18.
Problem 11.21 This is a project not directly relevant to the chapter, so
is left as an exercise for the reader to complete. See Suzuki [1986], pages 102
and 103.

538

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

Problems 12
Problem 12.1 We have c3 = 2c + 1, c4 = 2, c5 = 2c, c6 = 2c + 2, c7 =
c + 2, c8 = 1, c = 2c + 1, c2 = 2c + 2, c3 = c, c4 = 2, c5 = c7 = c + 2, c6 =
c + 1, c7 = c5 = 2c, c8 = 1, c + c = c3 + c3 = c4 + c4 = 1, c2 + c2 = c6 + c6 = 0
and c5 + c5 = c7 + c7 = 2.
Problem 12.2 Examples of Steiner systems for the given parameters are
as follows.
(a) {1, 2, 3} {1, 4, 5} {1, 6, 7} {1, 8, 9} {2, 4, 6} {2, 5, 8}
{2, 7, 9} {3, 4, 9} {3, 5, 7} {3, 6, 8} {4, 7, 8} {5, 6, 9}.

(b) {1, 2, 3, 4} {1, 5, 6, 7} {1, 8, 9, 10} {1, 11, 12, 13} {2, 5, 8, 11} {2, 6, 9, 12} {2, 7, 10, 13}
{3, 5, 9, 13} {3, 6, 10, 11} {3, 7, 8, 12} {4, 5, 10, 12} {4, 6, 8, 13} {4, 7, 9, 11}.

## (c) {1, 2, 3, 4} {1, 2, 5, 6} {1, 2, 7, 8} {1, 3, 5, 7} {1, 3, 6, 8} {1, 4, 5, 8} {1, 4, 6, 7}

{2, 3, 5, 8} {2, 3, 6, 7} {2, 4, 6, 8} {2, 4, 5, 7} {3, 4, 5, 6} {3, 4, 7, 8} {5, 6, 7, 8}.

(d)
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
{1, 2, 4, 8, 11}
{1, 3, 4, 6, 8}
{1, 3, 6, 9, 11}
{1, 4, 7, 8, 9}
{2, 3, 4, 6, 11}
{2, 3, 6, 9, 10}
{2, 4, 9, 10, 11}
{3, 4, 5, 6, 9}
{3, 5, 8, 9, 10}
{4, 6, 7, 9, 11}

{1, 2, 3, 6, 7}
{1, 2, 5, 6, 11}
{1, 3, 4, 7, 11}
{1, 3, 7, 8, 10}
{1, 5, 6, 8, 9}
{2, 3, 4, 7, 9}
{2, 3, 7, 8, 11}
{2, 5, 6, 7, 9}
{3, 4, 5, 7, 8}
{3, 6, 7, 8, 9}
{4, 6, 8, 9, 10}

{1, 2, 3, 8, 9}
{1, 2, 5, 7, 8}
{1, 3, 4, 9, 10}
{1, 4, 5, 6, 7}
{1, 5, 7, 10, 11}
{2, 3, 4, 8, 10}
{2, 4, 5, 6, 10}
{2, 5, 8, 10, 11}
{3, 4, 5, 10, 11}
{3, 6, 8, 10, 11}
{4, 7, 8, 10, 11}

## {1, 2, 3, 10, 11}

{1, 2, 5, 9, 10}
{1, 3, 5, 6, 10}
{1, 4, 5, 8, 10}
{1, 6, 7, 8, 11}
{2, 3, 5, 6, 8}
{2, 4, 5, 8, 9}
{2, 6, 7, 10, 11}
{3, 4, 6, 7, 10}
{3, 7, 9, 10, 11}
{5, 6, 7, 8, 10}

{1, 2, 4, 6, 9}
{1, 2, 6, 8, 10}
{1, 3, 5, 7, 9}
{1, 4, 5, 9, 11}
{1, 6, 7, 9, 10}
{2, 3, 5, 7, 10}
{2, 4, 5, 7, 11}
{2, 6, 8, 9, 11}
{3, 4, 8, 9, 11}
{4, 5, 6, 8, 11}
{5, 6, 9, 10, 11}

{1, 2, 4, 7, 10}
{1, 2, 7, 9, 11}
{1, 3, 5, 8, 11}
{1, 4, 6, 10, 11}
{1, 8, 9, 10, 11}
{2, 3, 5, 9, 11}
{2, 4, 6, 7, 8}
{2, 7, 8, 9, 10}
{3, 5, 6, 7, 11}
{4, 5, 7, 9, 10}
{5, 7, 8, 9, 11}

This system was constructed ad hoc starting with {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. Other methods are given in the Web Appendix to Chapter 12.
(ii) Two non-isomorphic Steiner systems S(2, 3, 13) with 26 members can
be generated as follows. In each case the first 13 members are (1,3,9) (a subset
of the set of the quadratic residues mod 13) and its twelve translates by the
map x 7 x + 1 giving a set of 13 triples in all. The second set of 13 triples
can be either (1,2,5) or (1,2 11) and their translates under the same map.
(iii) This is a version of S(2, 3, 7).
Problem  12.3 If u = 1, then we are counting those members of the
Steiner system which contain a1 . Ignoring a1 these members form a version
of the system S(r 1, s 1, t 1), so use Theorem 12.2 again. Similarly if
u = 2, and we look for the members containing a1 and a2 , we have a version
of the system S(r 2, s 2, t 2). Now carry on.
Problem 12.4 (i) A non-singular square matrix can be diagonalised using
elementary row and column operations, and each of these operations can be
performed by pre- or post-multiplying the given matrix by an elementary
matrix. Note that as all matrices in SLn (q) have determinant 1, the elementary operation that multiplies a row or column by a non-zero constant is not
required. For further details see any standard text of linear algebra.

Solutions 12

539

## (ii) Examples are as follows. First, A6 is generated by the perms. a =

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) and b = (1, 4, 6, 3, 2), and a and b satisfy the presentation given.


2
Secondly, SL2 (9) is generated by A = 02 c15 and B = cc3 12 (Problem 12.1),
where A5 = B 10 = (AB)4 = (A4 B)8 = I2 . The group L2 (9) can be formed
by factoring
SL2 (9) by its centre Z. This centre contains two elements: I2

and 20 02 , so by identifying A and A throughout for A SL2 (9) (consider
the cosets of SL2 (9) by its centre) we obtain a group isomorphic to A6 . This
can also be done by using the presentation for A6 given on page 249. Again
working in SL2 (9) we need four 2 2 matrices Ci which satisfy (Ci Z)3 = Z
and (Ci Cj Z)2 = Z for 1 i, j 4 where i 6= j. One set is given by

 

 
 
1 c2
0 2
0 2
2 c2
,
,
,
,
1 1
1 2
c2 0
c2 0
where c is a generator of the multiplicative group of the field F9 .

1
0
With A and B as given we have AB 2 AB = a2p4
1 1

2
and ABAB 2 = 10 a 1
; now take powers and use Lemma 12.8; note that
1
p 5. The order of A is p 1 and the order of B is 3.
Problem  12.5

## Problem 12.6 (i) Straight-forward calculation.

(ii) Note that (0, 0, 1)R = (0, 1, 1) so R maps point 1 to point 2 et
cetera, similarly for S. Using the labelling given in pages 253 and 254 we
can associate R with (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) and S with (1, 7)(3, 6). These give
R4 S = (1, 5, 2, 3)(4, 7) and RS = (1, 2, 6)(3, 4, 5) as required.
(iii) One solution is a follows. If C = SR3 SR5 S = (1, 4, 3)(2, 6, 7), then
hR, Ci ' F7,3 , and if D = SR4 SR2 S = (1, 3, 7)(2, 5, 4), then R4 S D =
(1, 4)(2, 7), that is R4 S and D generate a subgroup isomorphic to S4 , see
Problem 3.18.
Problem 12.7 (i) By Sylow: n7 1 (mod 7) and n7 | 24, so n7 = 8, and
by Theorem 6.10, [G : NG (P )] = 8 and o(NG (P )) = 21. So as H = NG (P )
is not Abelian, it is a semi-direct product of C7 by C3 (Section 7.3), that is
H ' ha, b | a7 = b3 = e, b2 ab = a2 i ' F7,3 , ab = ba2 and ba = a4 b.
(ii) As o(b) = 3, hbi is a Sylow 3-subgroup of G. By the Sylow theory,
n3 = 4, 7 or 28. n3 6= 4 by Theorem 5.15, n3 6= 7, we leave this as an exercise
for the reader, and so n3 = 28, o(NJ (hbi)) = 6 and NJ (hbi) ' hb, c | b3 = c2 =
e, bc = cb2 i.
(iii) We have eight cosets each with 21 elements, so G is the union of the
cosets in C provided we can show that they are disjoint. H 6= cH as c 6 H,
and if cH = acH then cac H but as H is the normaliser of hai this implies
that c H which is impossible. Similar arguments cover the remaining cases.
(iv) Premultiplying each member of C by g G permutes C, and so we
obtain an element of S8 . Let be the corresponding map, this is an injective
homomorphism, see the first example in Section 5.2. Note that G = G0
as G is simple, and so G S80 ' A8 . Now a = (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) because

540

Solution Appendix

## Answers and Solutions to Problems

a H and so aH = H, and a(at cH) = at+1 cH. Also as bat = a4t b and
bat cH = a4t bcH, we have b = (3, 6, 4)(5, 7, 8), as bH = H (note b H) and
b(cH) = cb2 H = cH.
(v) and (vi) Continuing as above we have c(H) = cH and c(cH) = c2 H =
H (as o(c) = 2), so c maps 1 to 2 and 2 to 1. Now c can map 3 to 5 or 7 or 8.
If 3 is mapped to 5, then c = (1, 2)(3, 5)(4, 7)(6, 8) with similar expressions
in the other two cases. We have
(3, 6, 4)(5, 7, 8)(1, 2)(3, 5)(4, 7)(6, 8)(3, 4, 6)(5, 8, 7) = (1, 2)(3, 7)(4, 8)(5, 6)
et cetera, this and similar identities gives the equalities, and the result follows
because we started with an arbitrary simple group of order 168.
Problem 12.8 First, the elements of L2 (11)
 are defined
 as cosets each
b
containing pairs of matrices of the form ac db and a
c d , and so A has
domain L2 (11). We have (a) the map A is a perm. of P as A L2 (11) is
non-singular; (b) composition of maps corresponds to matrix multiplication,
and (c) the identity map z z corresponds to the identity matrix I2 .
For the next part use transvections as discussed in Section 12.2. Note that
has order 11 and corresponds to the perm. (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10),
has order 2 and corresponds to the perm. (0, )(1, 10)(2, 5)(3, 7)(4, 8)(6, 9),
as we are working over the field F11 . If we set a 7 and b 7 , then the
relations in the presentation (12.5) given on page 261 are satisfied.
Problem 12.9 By Theorem 5.15, as L2 (11) is simple it cannot have a
proper subgroup of index less than 11, that is of order more than 60. By
Lagranges Theorem (Theorem 2.27) further possible subgroup orders are 55,
44, 33, 30, 22, 20, 15 12 and 11 as well as some smaller ones. The group does
have (maximal) subgroups of orders 60, 55 and 12 and no others.
To see this each possible order must be checked in turn. So for example
it cannot have subgroups of order 15 or 33 as these would be cyclic but the
group does not possess elements of order either 15 or 33. Also note that the
group has no elements of order 4, and products of elements of orders 2 and
11 give elements of order 3, 5 or 6. On the positive side there are maximal
subgroups isomorphic to A5 , F11,5 and D6 .
For A5 , one method is as follows: Use the presentation P3 for A5 given
in Web Section 3.6, choose three elements of L2 (11) each with order 3 such
that the orders of their products is 2 in all cases. One example is
(1, 2, 8)(3, 6, 9)(4, 10, 11)(5, 7, 12), (1, 6, 7)(2, 5, 4)(3, 10, 12)(8, 11, 9),
(1, 5, 3)(2, 9, 10)(4, 7, 8)(6, 12, 11).
This can also be done by using P2 from the same Web Section, and choosing
two elements of order 5 which satisfy the relevant relations. One choice is
(1, 3, 2, 4, 11)(5, 8, 7, 10, 12), (1, 7, 6, 8, 4)(2, 5, 10, 11, 9).
For F11,5 generated by an element a of order 11, and b of order 5, let a be
the cyclic perm. of order 11 given in the previous problem (ie one not using

Solutions 12

541

the symbol , here replace by 12 and add one to each finite symbol), and
look for products of two disjoint 5-cycles again not using the symbol . An
example for b is (1, 7, 6, 8, 4)(2, 5, 10, 11, 9) where b4 ab = a9 .
Lastly for D6 , take b from the previous problem as a generator of order 2, and look for an element c of order 6 (that is a product of two disjoint 6-cycles) to satisfy the D6 relation: bcb = c5 . One example for c is
(1, 5, 4, 11, 10, 3)(2, 8, 9, 12, 6, 7). As above we have replaced the basic symbols 0, 1, . . . , 10 by 1, 2, . . . , 11, and by 12.
Problem 12.10 First obtain ten equations for the coefficients of an order
2 matrix C L3 (3), the first is det C = 1, and the remaining nine equate
corresponding entries in C and C 1 . The top row of C can be a triple of
elements from the set {0, 1, 2} allowing repetitions except (0, 0, 0). Show that
for each of these triples there are three corresponding order 2 matrices, except
for the triple (1, 0, 0) when there are nine, and for the triple (2, 0, 0) when
there are 36. One set of order 2 matrices which generate L3 (3) is
A=

0 1 1
0 2 0
1 1 0

!
, B=

0 2 1
1 1 1
2 1 1

!
, C=

1 0 0
1 2 0
2 0 2

!
.

## We have o(A) = 2, o(BCBC) = 3, o(AC) = 4, o(BC) = 6, o(ABCBC) =

8 and o(ABC) = 13. For the second part note that one (of many) solution is:
h(5, 6, 7)(8, 9, 10)(11, 12, 13), (1, 5, 2)(3, 6, 11)(4, 7, 8)(9, 12, 13)i,
and
h(1, 4)(3, 8)(6, 7)(9, 10), (1, 7)(2, 3)(4, 10)(11, 13), (1, 12)(3, 9)(5, 10)(8, 13)i.
It has been shown by Malle, Saxl and Wiegel that all finite groups except
U3 (3) can be generated by three involutions, the proof needs CFSG.
12.11 (i) Note that 22 1 (mod 3).
(ii) If (aij ) belongs to the centraliser of A, then a13 = a31 , a11 =
a33 , 2a12 = a32 and 2a21 = a23 . Further as det(Aij ) = 1, these give
(a11 + a13 )(a22 (a11 + 2a13 ) + a12 a21 ) = 1.
Count the number of solutions over F3 ; there are 12 if a22 = 0, 18 if a22 = 1,
and 18 if a22 = 2. Now use Theorem 5.19.
(iii) Using (ii) and the presentation of GL2 (3) given in Problem 3.24, let
a 7

0 1 2
1 1 2
2 2 0

!
, b 7

0 0 2
0 2 0
2 0 0

!
, c 7

1 0 0
1 1 2
0 0 1

!
.

Each of these matrices commute with A, and they generate a copy of GL2 (3)
in L3 (3).

542

Solution Appendix

## 12.12 (i) Examples are: A4 , order 2; (AB)2 , order 3; A2 , order 4; AB,

order 6; B, order 7; A, order 8; and A5 BAB, order 12.
(ii) Note that
det C = c3 a1 a1 + c2 a2 a2 + c1 a3 a3 a1 a2 a3 a1 a2 a3 c1 c2 c3 = 1.
Also as C = C 1 we have equating corresponding entries
a1 a1 = c1 (1 + c2 ), c1 a3 = a1 (1 + a2 )
a2 a2 = c2 + c1 c3 , c2 a2 = a2 + a1 a3
a3 a3 = c3 (1 + c2 ), c3 a1 = a3 (1 + a2 ).
Taking a2 equal to each member of F9 in turn, count matrices as follows:
If a2 = 0, then a1 a3 = 0 (use the fourth equation above). If a1 = 0, then
c1 6= 0 (C is non-singular), so c2 = 2 (first equation), so a3 = 0 (second
equation). Hence a1 = a2 = a3 = 0, c2 = 2 and c1 c3 = 1 (third equation).
There are now two possibilities: c1 = c3 = 1 or c1 = c3 = 2 giving two (of
our 63) matrices. The remaining cases are similar. If a2 = 1 then c2 = 0, we
obtain four matrices with c1 = c3 = 1 and four with c1 = c3 = 2; if a2 = 2
then c2 = 1, with one diagonal matrix, eight upper triangular matrices (with
c1 = 1), and eight lower triangular (with c3 = 1); if a2 = c or c3 then
c2 = 1, c1 = c3 , with 16 matrices; if a2 = c2 or c6 then c2 = 2, c1 6= c3 ,
a1 = a3 = 0, with four matrices; and if a2 = c5 or c7 then c2 = 0, c1 6= c3 ,
with 16 matrices. Hence we have found all 63 matrices required.
(iii) One example is as follows. Take
c = (5, 8)(6, 7)(9, 12)(10, 11)(13, 16)(14, 15)(17, 20)(18, 19)(21, 24)(22, 23)(25, 28)(26, 27),

then an element of order 4 which commutes with this and belongs to the
group is
d = (5, 6, 8, 7)(9, 10, 12, 11)(13, 20, 16, 17)(14, 19, 15, 18)(21, 27, 24, 26)(22, 28, 23, 25),

note that its cube also has this property. Now look for elements of the group
whose first cycle(s) are elements of S4 defined on {1, 2, 3, 4}. You will find
that for each element of S4 , say = (1, 2, 3), there are four elements of U3 (3)
which commute with c and begin with the chosen cycle; so for our chosen
example they are
(1, 2, 3)(5, 17, 26, 8, 20, 27)(6, 13, 21, 7, 16, 24)(9, 14, 28, 12, 15, 25)(10, 19, 23, 11, 18, 22),

and its product with d, d2 or d3 . These four elements form a coset (of order
3) of the normal subgroup hdi in J.
Problem 12.13 For the first proof note that B12 is diagonal with diagonal
entries {a21 , a22 , a23 } so B1 is an involution only if it belongs to the centre; the
top left-hand entry of B32 is zero and so B3 cannot be an involution; and
if b3 = 0 then B22 has diagonal {b21 , b2 , b2 } and the product of these entries
must equal 1. Apply (a), then use Problem 5.21(iii) as L3 (4) / SL3 (4) and
[SL3 (4) : L3 (4)] = 3, a prime.

Solutions 12

543

For the second proof note that the order of the centre of the first given
Sylow 2-subgroup of L4 (2) (with order 64) is 2, whilst the order of the centre
of the second given Sylow 2-subgroup, now of L3 (4) and again with order 64,
is 4. Hence the groups cannot be isomorphic.
Problem 12.14 Use the notation 1 , . . . set up in Section 12.4.
(i) Apply conjugation. For this solution we write a \ b for the conjugate of a
by b, that is b1 ab. One solution is as follows: 1 = \ 1 1 , 2 = 12 \ ,
2 = 3 \ 5 4 , 1 = 2 \ 4 3 , and 2 = \ 1 23 . For the converse note
that = (2 1 2 1 )4 \ 22 2 2 . For the presentation note that \ = 4
and \ = 2 .
(ii) h1 , 2 i ' C3 C3 is a Sylow 3-subgroup, hi ' C5 is a Sylow 5subgroup, and hi ' C11 is a Sylow 11-subgroup. For the prime 2 we have:
8 = 22 = e and 2 2 = 3 , hence h, 2 i is a Sylow 2-subgroup. It is isomorphic to a semi-dihedral group of order 16; see Problem 6.4. Note that M11
has 495 Sylow 2-subgroups, 55 Sylow 3-subgroups, 396 Sylow 5-subgroups
and 144 Sylow 11-subgroups.
(iii) One method is as follows. Let  = 4 = (1, 4)(2, 6)(3, 5)(8, 9) be the
chosen involution. By (i)  commutes with , 1 and 2 , and so after some
computer algebra checking we see that CM11 () = h, 1 , 2 i = H with order
48. Note M11 has 165 involutions all of which are conjugate, so by Theorem 5.19 we have o(H) = 48. Now = (1, 2, 9, 3, 4, 6, 8, 5)(10, 11), so if we
take = (1, 3, 9)(4, 5, 8)(7, 10, 11) (then = (1, 2)(3, 5)(4, 6)(7, 10)) and
D = {e, }, then D and D generate a copy of S4 using the standard coset
product. Hence H is isomorphic to an extension of C2 by S4 .
(iv) One set of involutions is:
a = (4, 7)(5, 8)(6, 9)(10, 11),
b = (1, 10)(2, 5)(4, 11)(8, 9),
c = (1, 5)(2, 9)(3, 11)(8, 10),
d = (2, 3)(5, 6)(8, 9)(10, 11).
Problem 12.15 (i) The orbits of K under the coset action are permuted
by G, and as G is transitive and K is non-neutral, all of these orbits are
of the same order p, and K is transitive. From this we see that there is a
Sylow p-subgroup Q of G which is a subgroup of H. By Sylow 2, all Sylow
p-subgroups are conjugate in G, and so they all belong to K as K is normal.
Therefore o(K) = pnp s where s | t and s > 1. Now use Problem 6.11(ii) to
show that K = G.
(ii) By our first definition, M11 is a transitive subgroup of S11 and it has
order n = 7920 = 8 9 10 11. We have n/11 = 720 5 (mod 11), hence
using (i) we can take t = 5 and n11 = 144 > 1, as n11 1 (mod 11). Now
apply (i). For M23 we have n0 = o(M23 ) = 48 20 21 22 23, n0 /23 11
(mod 23), so t = 11, n23 = 40320 > 1, and n23 1 (mod 23).

Subgroup Lattices

547

Subgroup Lattices
The diagrams on this and the next eleven pages illustrate the subgroup lattice
structure for groups of order 8 and 12, and two of order 16. They follow the
same style as those in the main text. Except possibly for the top group all
circles in these diagrams represent cyclic groups, and ovals mainly represent
direct products of two cyclic groups except where indicated (for D6 ).
Subgroups of C8
The diagram given below for C8 is very simple reflecting the fact that primepower order cyclic groups have only a limited range of subgroups; see Theorem 4.20. The proper non-neutral subgroups are ha4 i ' C2 and ha2 i ' C4 .


C8


Subgroup Lattice
for

C8


ha2 i



ha4 i



hei


C8 ' ha | a8 = ei

548

Solution Appendix

Subgroups of C4 C2
The second diagram gives the lattice structure for C4 C2 , note that it is
slightly more complicated than that given on the previous page for C8 . The
proper non-neutral subgroups are ha2 i, hbi and ha2 bi isomorphic to C2 , hai
and habi isomorphic to C4 , and ha2 , bi isomorphic to T2 .

C4 C2



Subgroup Lattice
for

C4 C2





ha , bi



hai


habi


  
hbi
ha2 bi
ha2 i
  



C4 C2 '
hei
4
2
ha, b | a = b = e, ab = bai

Subgroup Lattices

549

Subgroups of (C2 )3
Of the groups illustrated the lattice structure for (C2 )3 given below is one of
the most complicated. The proper non-neutral subgroups are hai, . . . , habci,
seven in all each isomorphic to C2 , and seven copies of T2 as given in the
diagram below. Also the automorphism group for this group is isomorphic
to L2 (7) ( ' L3 (2)) with order 168. If we treat (C2 )3 as a three-dimensional
vector space over F2 (Problem 4.18), then an automorphism of the group
corresponds to a non-singular linear map of this vector space. These maps
permute the seven non-neutral elements a, b, . . . , abc, see the lower main row
in the diagram.

 
ha, b, ci
 

Subgroup Lattice
for

(C2 )3

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
hab, bci
ha, ci
ha, bci
hac, bi
hab, ci
ha, bi
hb, ci
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


haci
hai
hbci
habci
hci
habi
hbi



hei

(C2 )3 ' ha, b, c | a2 = b2 = c2 = e, ab = ba, bc = cb, ca = aci

550

Solution Appendix

Subgroups of D4
The fourth diagram illustrates the subgroup structure for the dihedral group
D4 . The proper non-neutral subgroups are ha2 i, hbi, habi, ha2 bi and ha3 bi isomorphic to C2 (the first is normal whilst the others are not), hai ' C4 , and
hb, a2 bi and hab, a3 bi isomorphic to T2 . These last three subgroups are normal,
they each have index 2 in the main group.



Subgroup Lattice

D4


for



hai


 

D4


3

hb, a bi
hab, a bi

 












ha2 i


hbi


ha2 bi


habi


ha3 bi



hei


## D4 ' ha, b | a4 = b2 = (ab)2 = ei

Subgroup Lattices

551

Subgroups of Q2
The last of the order 8 group diagrams is for the quaternion group Q2 . Notice
that it has a rather simple structure. The three cyclic subgroups, hai, hbi and
habi, have index 2 and so are normal, the centre is ha2 i with order 2, and the
remaining subgroups are hei and the group itself. Hence all of its subgroups
are normal a rare occurrence, and the group is called Hamiltonian. See the
discussion on page 119.


Q2


Subgroup Lattice
for

Q2







hbi


hai


habi



ha2 i



hei
Q2 ' ha, b | a2 = b2 = (ab)2 i


552

Solution Appendix

Subgroups of C12
The first of the diagrams of the order 12 groups is for C12 , it is slightly more
complicated than that for C8 because the integer 12 have more divisors.
The proper non-neutral subgroups are ha6 i ' C2 , ha4 i ' C3 , ha3 i ' C4 and
ha2 i ' C6 .


C12


Subgroup Lattice
for

C12




ha2 i


ha3 i





ha4 i


ha6 i



hei


## C12 ' ha | a12 = ei

Subgroup Lattices

553

Subgroups of C6 C2
This diagram is for the group C6 C2 , it has a similar structure to that for
C4 C2 . The proper non-neutral subgroups are ha3 i, hbi and ha2 bi isomorphic
to C2 , ha2 i ' C3 , ha2 , bi ' T2 , and hai, habi and ha2 bi isomorphic to C6 .

Subgroup Lattice

C6 C2



for

C6 C2

  
ha2 bi
habi
hai
  


ha , bi
 

ha2 i
   
ha3 i
hbi
ha3 bi
  



C6 C2 '
hei
ha, b | a6 = b2 = e, ab = bai


554

Solution Appendix

Subgroups of A4
The diagram below gives the subgroup lattice structure for the alternating
group A4 . This is the only illustrated group which is not Reverse Lagrange,
that is A4 has no subgroups (or elements) of order 6. But unlike all other
alternating groups it has a normal subgroup isomorphic to C2 C2 , its unique
Sylow 3-subgroup. The remaining proper non-neutral subgroups are habi, hbai
and hba2 bi isomorphic to C2 , and hai, hbi, ha2 bi and hb2 ai isomorphic to C3 ,
none of which is normal.


A4


Subgroup Lattice
for

A4



hab, bai


   
hai
hbi
ha2 bi
hb2 ai
   
  
hbai
hba2 bi
habi
  


hei


## A4 ' ha, b | a3 = b3 = (ab)2 = ei

ha2 , bi






ha2 i

hai



ha3 , bi







ha3 , abi

D6

ha3 , a2 bi

for

Subgroup Lattice

hbi

ha3 bi

ha2 bi

ha4 bi

habi

ha5 bi



hei


D6 ' ha, b | a6 = b2 = (ab)2 = ei



ha3 i

@A
I
IB
@
IA
@
IA
@
IB
@
IB
@
@
@
@
@
@
@

@
@
@
@
@
@

  
@
@
@ B
@A
R
@
R
@

ha2 , abi





D6



Subgroup Lattices
555

556

Solution Appendix

Subgroups of D6
The diagram for D6 is given on the previous page. It shows that this group has
14 proper non-neutral subgroups, they are ha3 i, hbi, ha3 bi, ha2 bi, ha4 bi, habi
and ha5 i each isomorphic to C2 (the first is normal but the others are not);
ha2 i ' C3 ; ha3 , bi, ha3 , abi and ha3 , a2 bi isomorphic to T2 ; hai ' C6 ; and
ha2 , bi and ha2 , abi isomorphic to D3 . The last three and ha2 i are normal.

Subgroups of Q3
The last order 12 group diagram is for the dicyclic group Q3 . Note the similarity to that for Q2 given on page 551. Note also all of its proper non-neutral
subgroups are cyclic, they are ha3 i ' C2 , ha2 i ' C3 and hai ' C6 which are
all normal, and hbi, habi and ha2 bi isomorphic to C4 .



Subgroup Lattice

Q3


for

Q3


hai








hbi


habi


ha2 bi



ha2 i



ha3 i



hei


## Q3 ' ha, b | a3 = b2 = (ab)2 i

Subgroup Lattices

557

Subgroups of C8 C2
The last two diagrams are for two particular groups of order 16, see Problem
8.12. There are identical except for their top groups, and so illustrate the
fact that particular groups cannot be characterised by their subgroup lattice
diagrams alone. The first of these, for C8 C2 , should be compared with those
for C4 C2 and C6 C2 . The proper non-neutral subgroups are ha4 i, hbi and
ha4 bi isomorphic to C2 , ha2 i and ha2 bi isomorphic to C4 , ha4 , bi ' T2 , hai
and habi isomorphic to C8 , and ha2 , bi ' C4 C2 .



C8 C2


@
@
@
@

Subgroup Lattice
for

C8 C2


hai


 
ha2 , bi
 
@
@
@
@
 
ha4 , bi
 
@
@
@

hbi

@
@
@
@
@


ha2 bi


@
@
habi


@
ha2 i


@
@

@
4
ha bi
ha4 i



@
hei


## C8 C2 ' ha, b | a8 = b2 = e, ab = bai

558

Solution Appendix

## Subgroups of G1 defined in Problem 6.4

As noted above the subgroup diagram below for the group G1 which was
defined in Problem 6.4 is identical to that for C8 C2 given on page 557,
and so its list of proper subgroups is identical. But many other features are
different. For example in the normal subgroup structure the two subgroups
isomorphic to C2 marked with () should be deleted, the centre of the group
is ha2 i (not the whole group), and the derived subgroup G01 is ha4 i (and not
hei).


G1

@
@
@
@

Subgroup Lattice
for

G1


hai


 
ha2 , bi
 
@
@
@
@
 
ha4 , bi
 
@
@
@


ha2 bi


@
@
habi


@
ha2 i

Z(G1 )

@
()
()
@


@
4
ha bi
hbi
ha4 i



@
G01
@
@
@
@
@
hei

G1 ' a, b | a8 = b2 = e, bab = a5 i

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