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BTEC Unit 12: Physiology of Human Regulation and Reproduction

Student Name:
Assessor (s) Name (s):

Frankie Barnes and Jon Tomkinson

Date set:

Monday 7th December 2015

Deadline:

Thursday 14th January 2016

Learner Declaration: Please sign below to confirm you have read and fully understand that
your project work is due in no later than the deadline stated above.

ere are some ideas to get thinking about


how you can showcase your work at the
bodyworks: paranoid android exhibition.
Make sure your choices are based on what
best suits the nature of what you have learned
and your own learning style(s).
Wall charts Podcasts
Radio broadcast TV show
Comic Books Games
Interactive 3D models.
Any Other Methods?
Clearly state what it is. get the go ahead from
your teachers.
Once agreed you must stick to this assessment
method and be prepared to show off your
amazing work at the iSTEM Bodyworks
exhibition in January 2016.
Think about the human body systems you
have learned about as you will have to show
your understating of them in considerable

detail. Furthermore your project is to


showcase your learning in terms of the theme
of the exhibition paranoid android. What
questions spring to mind when you consider
the future of technology, particularity in
relation to prosthetics, organ transplants,
reproductive treatments, or enhancements
of the nervous system?
How can you showcase the evolutionary
wonders of the human body, for example
the magnificent workings of our Nervous,
Endocrine, Urinary and reproductive
systems? How can you showcase the
extraordinary ways in which humans
maintain homeostasis - will cyborgs ever be
created with this level of complexity?
What can you discover about this amazing
biological machine - the human body - that
makes you want to share your knowledge in
an inspirational and engaging way?

a
i
Asses
r
e
t
i
sment
r
C
and Grading
In order to pass this unit, you must meet all the learning
outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria for a
pass grade describes the level of achievement required
to pass this unit. You must achieve All Pass and Merit
to gain Merit in this unit. To gain a Distinction in this unit
you must meet All Pass, Merit AND Distinction Criteria.
To Achieve a PASS

P1: Describe the


main sites of
reabsorption in
the kidney

To Achieve a MerIT

M1: Describe how reabsorption occurs


in each of the main
sites

To Achieve a
DISTINCTION
D1: Explain how the
body maintains the
correct acid base
balance

P2: Outline the


importance of
regulating body
fluids in the body
P3: Outline the
organisation and
function of the
nervous system
P4: Outline the
organisation and
function of the
endocrine system
P5: Describe the
mechanisms of
the homeostatic
system

M2: Explain the


functions of the
nervous system
M3: Explain the
functions of the
endocrine system

M4: Explain positive


and negative
feedback in
homeostasis, using
examples from the
human body

D2: Explain the


interrelationship
between the
nervous and
endocrine systems
D3: Explain how
malfunctions in
the homeostatic
mechanisms can
lead to disorders

P6: Explain the


roles of the
sex organs in
production of ova
and sperm
P7: Explain how
the structure of
the reproductive
system relates to
their functions

M5: Report on the


common tests
performed to
measure fertility.

D4: Evaluate
data concerning
the levels of
sex hormones at
different times
in the menstrual
cycle in relation
to fertility.

Internal verification: Victoria Stokes 20.10.2015

An

aranoid

d r oi

The

human body's systems work


together in remarkable
harmony. Even the most
simplistic actions involve numerous systems in
complex coordination, whether its the nervous
system, with impulses travelling up to 248 mph,
or the muscular system with contraction and
relaxation of the body's 600 muscles. Consider the
endocrine system; involving hormones produced by
glands in one part of the body that affect selected
cells with the correct receptors in other
parts of the body. Or the lymphatic system,
which contributes to homeostasis by
draining interstitial fluid as well
as providing the mechanisms for
defence against disease.

a i n ta i n i n g
the

c o m b at

h o m e o s ta s i s

body

requires

a g a i n st

harmful

in

continual
agents

in

our internal and external environment.


D e s p i t e c o n s ta n t e x p o s u r e t o a va r i e t y o f
p at h o g e n s
such

as

(disease-producing

bacteria

and

microbes

viruses)

m ost

p e o p l e r e m a i n h e a lt h y . T h e b o d y s u r f a c e
endures cuts, bumps, exposure to
u lt r av i o l e t

r ay s

in

sunlight,

c h e m i ca l tox i n s , a n d m i n o r
burns with

a n a r r ay

o f d e f e n s i v e p l oys .

h o u l d o n e o r g a n o r s y s t e m o f t h e b o d y f a lt e r
in performing its function, the entire body is
affected. The complexity of the human body can be
s e e n f r o m t h e l e v e l o f c e l l s t o t h at o f s y s t e m s . T h e s e
c e l l s a n d syst e m s a r e p e r f o r m i n g d i v e r s e r e ac t i o n s ,
i n v o lv i n g r e p a i r , r e p r o d u c t i o n , c o m m u n i c at i o n , w a s t e
disposal, and nutrition. So, will it
e v e r b e p o s s i b l e t o r e c r e at e s u c h a
r e m a r k a b l e f e at o f e v o l u t i o n ?

osto n
Dynamics
and
J a p a n s Ko k o r o a c t r o i d s
believe so...

An

n s p i r e d by science fiction
and a plethora of comic
b o o k h e r o e s s c i e n t i sts
around the world are forever
pushing the limits of
w h at i t m e a n s t o h u m a n ,
so, is an uprising
of an android
r a c e l i t e r a l ly o n
o u r d o o r st e p ?
The Biological
Machinery of
the human body
continues to
a m a z e s c i e n t i sts
t o d ay . A s
we discover
more about
the remarkable
a d a p ta b i l i t y o f
our species,
q u e st i o n s a b o u t
our evolutionary
future often
arise. Are we
s t i l l e v o lv i n g ?
W h at d o e s t h e n e x t
10, the next 100 or
1000 years hold in
sto r e f o r t h e f u t u r e
of our species Homo
sapiens - Man the
aranoid
Wise.
5

d r oi

n this project you will learn about

some of our amazing body systems: for example the coordination


and efficiency of the nervous and endocrine systems to The self perpetuating accomplishments
of the reproductive systems. You will also consider the ways in which our biological machines
maintain balance as homoeostatic mechanisms regulate pH, water balance, acid base levels,
temperature and hormonal levels, to name but a few. Homeostasis keeps our
bodies within an optimal range of values to ensure longevity of the
organism... Will cyborgs ever be able to evolve similar mechanisms?

inally you will give careful consideration to the future.
In particular
the future advances of fertility
treatments
and what to do should our

homeostatic
mechanisms
falter. For example in the case
of hormonal disorders like
pituitary dwarfism or diabetes.

Proje
s
ct pla
t
e
g
r
nning an
a
d SMART t
You are all individual learners aiming to gain the same qualification. Detailed below is your own individual learning plan. Using this
plan you (and your teachers) will put in place the necessary requirements that enable you to succeed in acquiring your qualification
with the best grades possible. Learning is a personal thing! So make it work for you by setting yourself achievable goals...

Personal learning Plan:


I Have to
Finish THIS
Learning
by

How i will
apply this

An

aranoid

These
are the
Questions
I Will
Answer

This is
what I am
setting
out to
Learn

d r oi

Task

Section 1:
Project Bodyworks: paranoid android
The kidneys and acid base balance
P1: Describe the
main sites of
reabsorption in
the kidney

reM1: Describe how


rs
cu
oc
n
tio
rp
abso
in
ma
e
th
of
ch
ea
in
sites

In this section
igate the ways
you will invest
man body
in which the hu
fluids by
dy
bo
s
regulate
e structure
understanding th
the kidneys.
and function of

ara

A
n dr

id
no

oid

droid
paranoid an
:
s
k
r
o
w
y
d
tems
Project Bo
docrine sys
n
E
d
n
a
s
u
o
v
er
Section 2: N

ou will
ection y
In this s e ways in which
te th
e
investiga us and endocrin
o
v
.
r
d
e
e
n
t
a
e
th
rel
are inter
s
m
e
t
s
y
s

e three
h
t
y
if
t
Iden
s of a
t
n
e
n
o
p
m
d
basic co
stem an
y
s
s
u
o
nerv
function
y
e
h
t
how
.
explain
ostasis
e
m
o
h
in
a
to maint
3 - Part p

Briefly exp
lain the st
ructure an
d role of:
The CNS
The PNS
The Sympat
hetic NS
The parasy
mpathetic N
S.
- Part P3 -

11

ara

A
n dr

id
no

oid

f:
role o
d
n
a
e
uctur
r
t
s
e
th
plain
NS
x
e
y
The C
Briefl
S
The PN tic NS
e
mpath etic NS.
y
S
e
Th
mpath
y
s
a
r
The pa Part P3 -

Use an exa
mple - e.g. H
eart rate role of ref
to describe
lexes in au
the
tonomic sy
stem funct
- Part P3 ion.

13

ara

A
n dr

id
no

oid

Making use of diagrams Describe:


a structural difference between a motor and sensory
neuron. - Part P3 a functional difference between a motor and sensory
neuron. - Part P3 a structural difference between a motor and relay
neuron. - Part P3 a functional difference between a motor and relay
neuron. [Part P3]

Space for your diagrams...

15

ara

A
n dr

id
no

oid

What is the function of myelination in neurons


- Part P3 -

How does myelination increase the speed of nerve


impulse coordination?
- Part P3 -

Complete the table to compare Nervous and hormonal


- Part D2 -

Comparison of nervous and endocrine control


Nervous control
Communication

Endocrine control

impulses across synapses

Speed
Duration

Short term and reversible

Target pathway
Action

Causes changes in metabolic


activity.

Describe 2 differences between nervous control and


endocrine - hormonal - control of body systems
- Part D2 -

Describe the structure of the adrenal glands.


- Part P4 and M4 -

17

ara

A
n dr

id
no

oid

Explain the relationship between the pituitary gland


and the adrenals.
- Part P4 and M4 -

Explain the relationship between the sympathetic


nervous system and the adrenals.
- Part M4 and D2 -

Describe the metabolic effects of growth hormone.


- Part D2 and D3 -

What would you expect the effect of chronic GH


deficiency in infants to be
- Part D2 and D3 -

What could GH hypersecretion infancy lead to


- Part D2 and D3 -

19

ara

A
n dr

id
no

oid

Describe the two main mechanisms by which secretion


of GH is regulated in humans
- Part D2 and D3 -

Create a poster of the Endocrine system


Indicate both male and female differences And provide descriptions
of the function of each key gland. - Part P4 and M4 -

Poster of the Endocrine system...

21

ara

A
n dr

id
no

oid

Project
Bodyworks:
paranoid android
Section 3:
Homeostasis and
Reproductive
systems

ection
In this s
you will ays
e the w
investigat dy maintains
o
b
e
h
t
in which conditions. you
m
u
e
im
t
p
o
about th
o learn
of
n
io
t
will als
c
n
e
re and fu
s and th
structu
ive system
t
c
u
d
o
r
the rep
ways to
possible
rtility
fe
in
p
hel

Provide
a
brief definition
of
homeostasis
in
terms
of
temperature, BloodGlucose and water
regulation.
- Part P5 22

ro i d

ar

23

nd

oid
an

Define the terms positive and negative feedback and


state an example for each.
- Part P5 -

With use of a flow chart and graph vexplain how the


human body maintains temperature around a set point.
- Part M4 -

24

ro i d

ar

25

nd

oid
an

With use of diagrams explain how homeostasis helps


maintain an optimum internal environment for cell
function. Consider pH balance of blood and blood
glucose concentration in your answer. - Part M4 -

26

ro i d

ar

27

nd

oid
an

Hormonal control of blood glucose concentration is


dependant upon two hormones: Insulin and Glucagon.
Making use of diagrams explain how these chemical
messengers maintain homeostasis. - Part M4 -

28

What causes Type I diabetes. Discuss how Type I


diabetes is a homeostatic disorder - Part D3 -

ro i d

29

oid
an

ar

nd

Give two risk factors associated with Type II diabetes.


Discuss how Type II diabetes is a homeostatic disorder
- Part D3 -

30

Describe how Type II diabetes can be controlled.


- Part D3 -

ro i d

31

oid
an

ar

nd

Create a fully labelled poster of the male


reproductive system. Explain how the system is
related to its function.
- Part P7 -

32

Create a fully labelled poster of the female


reproductive system. Explain how the system is
related to its function.
- Part P7 -

ro i d

33

oid
an

ar

nd

Making use of diagrams explain spermatogenesis


- Part P6 -

34

Making use of diagrams explain oogenesis.


- Part P6 -

ro i d

35

oid
an

ar

nd

The M
e

36

e
l
c
n s tr u a l c y

ro i d

ar

37

nd

oid
an

Name the hormone responsible for follicle growth. Part D4 -

Name the hormone responsible for ovulation.


- Part D4-

Each month several ovarian follicles begin


development. only the Graafian follicle fully
develops: What is the hormone secreted by the
developing follicle
- Part D4 -

What is the role of this hormone during follicular


phase
- Part D4-

What happens to follicles that do not continue


development.
- Part D4 -

38

Identify the main hormone secreted by the corpus


luteum. What is its purpose.
- Part D4 -

The graph shows the concentrations of four


hormones in the first 15 days of a menstrual cycle.
Name hormone A.
- Part D4 -

A
B
Concentration
of hormone

Key:
Hormone
produced by
ovary
Hormone
produced by
pituitary gland

ar

ro i d

15

39

oid
an

Time / days

10

nd

Progesterone

Oestrogen

Hormone
concentration

8 10 12 14 16 28 20 22 24 26 28
Time / days

Structures

The graph shows concentrations of two hormones


during one sexual cycle of a human female.
The diagram shows structures that produce these
hormones. Write the appropriate letters in the graph
to show the order in which the structures labelled P
to R appear during the cycle.
- Part D4 -

Name the hormone that causes structure Q to


develop.
- Part D4 -

40

Describe two effects of progesterone on the uterus.


- Part D4 -

Concentration
of hormone
in blood

The graphs show the change in concentrations of follicle stimulating


hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and hormone Y in the blood,
during part of an oestrous cycle.

Graph 1
LH
FSH
Use the letter O to
show on graph 1 when
ovulation is most likely
to occur.
- Part D4 -

Concentration
of hormone
in blood

Graph 2
Hormone Y

41

oid
an

ar

ro i d

Time

nd

What is the term given to the effect hormone Y has


on FSH between times P and Q
- Part D4 -

What causes the change of concentration of hormone


Y between times Q and R?
- Part D4 -

Explain the following procedures in


relation to fertility tests:
1. Cryogenics - with reference to sperm banks.
2. Semen analysis make reference to sperm counts and
motility.
3. Monitoring of hormone levels and treatment of
female infertility.
- Part M4 -

42

1. Cryogenics - with reference to sperm banks.


- Part m4 -

ro i d

43

oid
an

ar

nd

2. Semen analysis

44

- make reference to sperm counts


and motility.
- Part m4 -

3. Monitoring of hormone levels and treatment of


female infertility.
- Part m4 -

ro i d

45

oid
an

ar

nd

46

rning

emember the ethos of project based


learning allows you not only to learn your
chosen subjects, but also arms you with the

roje

My S
ki l

ect

g
n
i
k
ls and Pr ct Trac
oje

as

skills required to succeed in the real world


by working on this project you will develop
many transferable skills, for example:

ed

Lea

Digital Literacy: using online resources, communicating digitally & using digital technology
Delivering Results: planning for success, adapting to change & decision making
Innovation: problem analysis, designing solutions, generating and pitching ideas
Self-Development: self-analysis, self-motivation, using feedback, independent learning &
managing stress
Workplace Literacy: resilience, professionalism & financial awareness
Enterprise skills: commercial awareness, understanding customers & social responsibility

State how you have developed your My Skills and put a tick when
completed during this project.

Communication:
Enterprise:

Delivering Results:
Workplace Literacy:
Innovation:
Self - Development:
Digital Literacy:

Have you c ompl e te d?


Unit 12: D1
Unit 12: D2
Unit 12: D3
Unit 12: D4

47

An

aranoid

Unit 12: M1
Unit 12: M2
Unit 12: M3
Unit 12: M4
Unit 12: M5

d r oi

Unit 12: P1
Unit 12: P2
Unit 12: P3
Unit 12: P4
Unit 12: P5
Unit 12: P6
Unit 12: P7