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Risk Assessment And

Management
Safety And Health Officer Certificate
Course

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Learning Objectives
To define what is hazard, risk and danger
To explain the risk assessment process
To describe the method of identifying
hazard
To use the risk assessment matrix
To explain the hierarchy of control
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Scope
Overview of risk and risk
assessment
Planning for risk assessment
Risk control

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Overview Of Risk And


Risk Assessment

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Definitions
Hazard: A source or a situation with a
potential for harm in terms of human
injury or ill health, damage to property,
damage to the environment or a
combination of these
Danger: Relative exposure to hazard

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Definitions
Risk: A combination of the likelihood of
an occurrence of a hazardous event with
specified period or in specified
circumstances and the severity of injury
or damage to the health of people,
property, environment or any combination
of these caused by the event

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Risk Assessment

What is Risk assessment: The process


of evaluating the risks to safety and
health arising from hazards at work
Risk assessment results is documented
and used for:
1. Risk control in OSH management
2. Future reference and review

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Basic Principles Of
Risk Management
1. Integrate Risk Management as part
of planning at all levels of business
2. Accept all risks
3. Make risk decisions appropriately
(depending on level of risk)
4. Manage the risk

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Why Carry Out


Risk Assessment?
Gives organisations a more effective way
of managing hazards
Requirement of the law e.g.
OSHA 1994, CIMAH Regulations 1996 &
USECHH Regulations 2000

Requirement of OSH management


system standards:
MS 1722:2003,
OHSAS 18001 and
ISO 14001, etc.

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Risk Assessment Should Be


Carried Out For:
Routine and non-routine activities
including emergencies
Activities of all personnel having access to
the workplace (including subcontractors
and visitors)
Facilities at the workplace, whether
provided-by the organization or others
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When To Carry Out


Risk Assessment
Before Operation
During Operation
After Operation

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When To Review
Risk Assessment
Types of review:
initial review
periodic review

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When To Review
Risk Assessment
Review whenever there are changes:
internal
Before modification, changes or introduction of
new
Materials, machinery or processes, working
procedures

external
Amendments of national laws and regulations
Developments in OSH knowledge and technology

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Who Will Carry Out


Risk Assessment
Person or persons trained to identify hazard and
risk assessment
In some cases legally competent person,
example : Chemical Health Risk Assessor
Consultation with and involvement of
workers
Safety and Health Committee OR workers
and their representatives
Involvement of supervisors
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Basic Components Of
Risk Management
Hazard Identification
Risk Assessment
Risk Control
Review
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The Process of
Risk Management
Start
Classify Activities
(Work, Product, Services, Activities)
Identify Hazards
Determine Risk

Risk = Severity X Likelihood

Decide if Risk is Tolerable


Risk Control Action Plan
Review Adequacy of Risk Control
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Hazard Identification

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SOURCES OF HAZARDS
Man
Unsafe acts
Machinery Installation, layout and design of
equipment
Materials Substances such as chemicals and
gases use in the workplace
Method
The way people carry out their
work
Media
Workplace condition i.e. air quality,
ventilation, lighting, noise, vibration
etc.
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Classification and
Potential Sources of Hazards
Classification
of Hazards
Mechanical

Electrical

Biological

Example of Potential Sources of


Hazards
Pinch points, sharp points and edges,
overload or force a tool beyond its
capabilities and grinding wheel without
guard
Electrical cord insulation damaged,
electrical face plate or cover broken or
missing and fan cord insulation pulled
loose
Exposed to airborne and blood borne
viruses, bacteria and fungus
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Classification and
Potential Sources of Hazards
Classification
of Hazards

Example of Potential Sources of


Hazards

Chemical

Exposed to carcinogens chemicals,


sensitizers and corrosive chemicals.

Ergonomics

Repeated exposure to unnatural


postures and unnatural movement,
wrong design of workstation, tools and
task.
Stress, sexual harassment and violent at
work.

Psychological

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Pre-Assessment
Information Gathering
Information on the facilities, processes and
activities of the organization, including:

Area Map
Site plan(s); own and neighbor
Process flow-charts
Inventory of materials (raw materials,
chemicals, wastes, products, sub-products)
Toxicology and other health and safety data
Monitoring data
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Pre-Assessment
Classifying Work Activities
Geographical areas within/outside the
premises
Stages in a production process, or in the
provision of a service
Defined the tasks (e.g. driving, window
cleaning)
Identify the working groups
Land use, previous property use, future use

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Methods Of
Identifying Hazards

Review of documents and publications

Inspection and observation at the


workplace

Measurement of the atmosphere,


monitoring the environment or medical
surveillance of workers

Hazard Analysis
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Document Review
Reports of accidents, accident
investigation and audits
Information from publications
Acts, Regulations and Codes of Practice
Statistics
Handbooks
Chemical Safety Data Sheet (CSDS)
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Inspection and Observation


Types of inspections: statutory
inspection, periodic inspection, formal
and informal inspection
Documentation - Checklist and inspection
worksheet (standard approach and
record)

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Inspection and Observation


Activities - to involve supervisors,
managers and employees
Inspection outcome - to include actions
and timeframes
Ensure follow up on action - to ensure
effectiveness
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Exposure Monitoring
Types of monitoring: area and personal
monitoring.
Monitoring of:
Noise
Heat
Radiation
Air contaminants
Chemicals etc.
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Biological Monitoring
Biological monitoring is a regular
measuring activity where selected
validated indicators of the uptake of toxic
substances in the human body are
determined in order to prevent health
impairment
This form of monitoring could entail
examination of, for example, blood, urine,
saliva and expired air
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Biological Monitoring
Biological monitoring commonly features
in the health or medical surveillance
of persons exposed to hazardous
environments especially complying to
legal requirement i.e. USECHH
Regulations 2000 etc.

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Medical Surveillance
Health Surveillance is Warranted if:
Substance is used in workplace
Substance is hazardous
Evidence or reason to suspect injury
Atmospheric monitoring insufficient
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Hazards Analysis
Method use: (example)
Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
Hazards and Operability Studies (HAZOP)
Fault Tree Analysis etc.
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Job Safety Analysis (JSA)


Job described in less than 10 steps
Action verb used to describe job
List things that can go wrong

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Job Safety Analysis (JSA)


Note:
The term JSA includes the formulation
of safe work procedures using written
instructions for workers
May still require other risk controls
Supervisor and workers assist
Ideally all jobs should have a JSA
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Hazards And Operability Studies


(HAZOP)
To identify and evaluate safety hazard
in the process plant
To identify operability problems
New design or process
Multidisciplinary brainstorming
What If questionnaire method
Focus on fire, explosion, toxic release
etc.
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Fault Tree Analysis


To analyse how and why incident could
occur
Graphic technique - traces branches of
events
To calculate probability of end event
Example: Water pumping system
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Fault Tree Analysis


No Flow (T)

Pump failure

Pump failure (A)

Control valve (C)


failure to regulate
flow of water through
pump

Pump failure (B)


(automatic
standby pump)

No water flow occurs if both pumps fail or if the control valve fails.
If the individual initiating event probabilities P(A), P(B), and P(C) are known,
then the probability of P(T) the top or end event can be calculated.
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Risk Assessment

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Types of Risk Assessment


Approach:
Qualitative Risk Assessment
Semi-Quantitative Risk Assessment
Quantitative Risk Assessment
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Determining Severity
Severity in terms of:
Harm to health
Damage to property
Damage to environment
Or the combination of the above

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Severity
Determine severity categories i.e.:
Fatality
Major injuries (normally irreversible injury or
damage to health)
Minor injuries (normally reversible injury or
damage to health requiring days off work)
Negligible injuries (first aid)
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Determining Likelihood of
Occurrence of Hazard
Based on statistic & data, professional
judgement.
Determine likelihood categories i.e.:
highly likely,
likely,
highly unlikely.

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Likelihood
Very likely - could happen frequently
Likely - could happen occasionally
Unlikely - could happen, but only rarely
Highly unlikely - could happen, but
probably never will
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Qualitative Risk Table


Severity
Fatality
Major Injuries
Minor Injuries
Negligible Injuries

Very Likely

Likely

High
High
High
Medium

High
High
Medium
Medium

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Likelihood
Unlikely Highly Unlikely
High
Medium
Medium
Low

Medium
Medium
Low
Low
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Semi - Quantitative
Risk Assessment
Determine severity categories i.e.:
4: Fatality & Permanent Disability
3: More than 4 days MC
2: Less than or 4 days MC
1: First aid and near misses
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Semi - Quantitative
Risk Assessment
Determining Likelihood of Occurrence of
Hazard
4: Daily
3: Weekly
2: Monthly
1: Yearly

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Semi-Quantitative
Risk Assessment
LIKELIHOOD
SEVERITY

Yearly

Monthly

Weekly

Daily

More than
4 days MC

12

Fatality &
Permanent
Disability

12

16

First Aid
and Near
Misses
Less than
or 4 days
MC

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Quantitative
Risk Assessment
Where the hazards presented by the
undertaking are numerous and complex,
and may involve novel processes, for
example in the case of large chemicals
process plants, detailed and sophisticated
risk assessments will be needed, and it is
appropriate to carry out a detailed
quantitative risk assessment

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Quantitative
Risk Assessment
Quantitative risk assessment involves
obtaining a numerical estimate of the risk
from a quantitative consideration of
event probabilities and consequences

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Quantitative
Risk Assessment
In carrying out quantitative risk
assessments, special quantitative tools
and techniques will be used for hazard
identification, and to estimate the severity
of the consequences and the likelihood of
realization of the hazards

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Quantitative
Risk Assessment
Where such methods and techniques are
used it is important that they are carried
out by suitably qualified and experience
assessors

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Decision For Action


AS LOW AS REASONABLY PRACTICABLE (ALARP)
PRINCIPLE
Risk cannot be
justified
on any grounds

A
L

A Reduce risk
R
P No need for detailed

Risk is undertaken if
a benefit is desired

Intolerable (e.g. H,H or >10)

LEVEL
OF
RISK

TOLERABLE IF:
Reduction
Impractical
or
Cost / gain grossly
Disproportionate

action

Trivial
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Risk Assessment Form


Activities / process / facilities/
equipment

Hazard

Effect

Current Risk
Control

Legal
Reqmt

Risk
Severity.

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Likelihood.

Risk
Rating

Action & Recommendations

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Risk Control

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Principle of Control

Substitution
Modify process
Enclosure
Local exhaust
Fugitive
emission control
Isolation

Housekeeping
General
ventilation
Continuous area
monitoring
Dilution
ventilation
Automation or
remote control
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Training and
education
Worker rotation
Enclosure of
worker
Personal
monitoring
Personal
protective devices
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Consideration In Implementing
Risk Control
Review measures regularly; modify if
necessary
Comply with national laws and
regulations
Reflect good management practice; and
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Consideration In Implementing
Risk Control
Consider the current state of knowledge
Include information or reports from
organizations such as:
DOSH, OSH services, and others

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Hierarchy Of Control
MOST EFFECTIVE
Elimination - remove the hazard.

FAIRLY EFFECTIVE
Substitution - use less hazardous one.
Isolation isolate the work area i.e. X-ray machine in
restricted room
Engineering Control design, isolation at source,
barricade, guarding,

LEAST EFFECTIVE
Administrative Control safe work procedure, isolation
i.e. reduce exposure time and limit, training, signage etc
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PPE - last resort. Copyright@NIOSH 2005(2)

Summary
The basis of OSH management is the
identification of hazard, risk assessment and
control
Ways of identifying hazards varies from
inspection of the workplace to reviewing
legislation
Risk assessment allows an organisation to build
a sound basis for managing hazard
Hierarchy of hazard control starts by elimination;
use PPE as protection is the last resort
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