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4 proiect of Volunteers

in Asia

by: Jgck Wiley


Published by., *
TAB Books
Monterey Avenue.
@ Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214
I\
Paper copies are $ 8.95
*

.a
,wc$!$!!)nterey
Avenue
' "*Blue Ridge Summit; PA 17214
Reproduced

by permission

USA

','.

0 -

USA

of TAB- Books.
3;;
-p

'eepro ction of this microfiche document in anv


f&m is subject to the same restrictions* as th;se
Ll--

How tomodify, build, select, buy, use, repair, and recondition bicycles
2nd pedal/operated vehkks .:. .-plus how to tiake.nov&y .andspeciaity
kycles,
and construcf a pedal-,driven electricity
g&erab+
,
1
, 1
II
*
., ,*,:

_-

.,

If youre dn experienced rider, or if youve.?just discovered the


benefits of bicycling and pedal power, this book will show you how to
get more enjoyment and practical use out of the sport. Youll learn how
you can getlmore for the money you invest, how to save money on
.maintenance and repairs, and how to create your own unique bicyJe
or pedal-powered
vehicle ,by modifying existing designs or .statiinL:
from scratch. No mat&?-how inexperienced you mi-;y,be with I ecl:anical things, this book will show you h.ow to do as much as .!p~ wa
77 ; to :lo
* . . . including how to generate:,your own elect;-icity from a (0: Jelted
1
%
9:pedal:powered
unit!. . ,.: a .,
fhis is far more than just a fix-!! bock. It will help you understand
;
the, features of available bikes so you can buy more intetligeniry; it
exptains <how to care for and protect, transport,. park, and use your
bike. Youll learn how bioycleswork,
and what you need to know, and.>
have, to maintain and rep&r them. In additionto
complete maintenance procedures, the author tells how the critical mechanical parts
work, how to make adjusfmentg;and
how to ~ve,rhaul and .r@ui.ld
them. tie also coversr$condifioning~procedures
fo thosewho-want to
2- d
salvage. an old or junked bicycle.. I
If you-wantto
create an unusuai mactiine or a copy of aclassic,
b there are detailed tips on building or convert;ng an existingbioy.cle into
a tand, .f a folding bike, a. pedal car, ad_uItand industrial tricycles,
high-r-de
F
bicycle, pivot bike, a poTt%i&
pe?iti~farthing,
double* decker, bronco, miniature bicycles,
walking machines, recumbent
cycles, water- pedal cycles, flying pedal cycle:,
or a unicycle. Also
covered are motocross bikes, stationary exercise bikes, and artistic
- bicycles. Kits and conversions are covered in detail, too; each part and
each step. of assembly (and disassembly)
are fully itlustrated and
,,explained. Whether youre a newcomer to the wcsrld of pedal powe&_
serious enthusiast, a do-it-ydurselfer,
a weekend mechanic 6r jtrst
.enjoy riding bicycles but not paying top, dollar for repairs. tl>is beak
-should make a welcome addition to your librtiry.
-

The Sicycters

Bible

! tw.:846--$5.95
Mopedallers

Handy

+lo. 2044A2.25
Moped

Repeir

Maricla!

paper[pniyj

Handboc&

(No 9Yt+-$7.95
Motorcyc:e

The Cow&~
*
$niwr%obi[e
F:.q?ir, Handbook
(No. 705&?95
pamr: $9.95hard)

paper: $S.O?;g&d)

Repair

paper: $9.95 hard)


Handbook

(No. 789----56 95 paper; $9 95 hard)


.
c

_,

How To M?ke Yqur Gwn ,


,
:
.
Clmping%
tjikinq Gzv
(NO. 1.6 14--$7 3 papc;
f ? 15 hard:

101 Practical

-.

(No

Uses

1030---53.55
._

for -Propane

Torches

papel

#lard)

s.95

.--a
--

c_
1..

..

FIRST EDlTlbN

FIRST
. PRINTING-A&?
Copyright

-
980

G 1980 by TAB BOOKS Inc.


,

Printed in the United States of America


Reproductron or publication of the content in any manner, without express
permrssipn of the publisher, is prohibited. No liability is assumed with respect
to the use ot.the j$fartiation herein.
c

Library of Congress Cataloging

in Publication

Data
,

Wiley, Jack.
The bicycle builders bible.
Includes Index.
1. Brcycles and tricycles. 2. Bicycles and
tricycles-Maintenance
and repair. 3. Bicycles and
I.
tricycles--Design
and construction.
Title.
TGIlO.W53
629.2272
79-25236
ISBN 0-8306-9725-X
ISBN 0-8306-l 156-8 pbk.

,?

.
I

_(

ontents

edgements

lntrodut

:ion To Pedal

Capsule History--Pedal

How To Choose

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~...........................

Acknow

Cycles

. . . . . . . . . . . :..a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Cycles Today4Jses
.

a Bicycle

i.-

of Pedal Cycles

,....,..........................~................

19

The Best Bike for You-Single-Speed


Bikes-Internal
Hub MultiSpeed Bikes-Derailleur
Bikes-Riding
Posture-Intended
_
=
.
.Use---Fr$e
and,- C@al~jty-$omparison
of BicycleslFramesThe T&al Si@y$q and Weight-The
Rider
nnish-Components.
and the Bicycle-Accessories7Price,
Design, Quality and Weight 5: o
- .i ~

3
4

Using

......................................................~.....

Bicycles

Basic *Bicycle.

Mechanics

Bicycle

.*

for
,

\ I
. . . . . . . . . .*. . . . . ..*...................#.

StzInds-Cleaning
Basics

Maintenance

3 )p- 1
J

Riding-4
ar Shifting-Braking4ornering-Safety-Helmets
Requirements-Transporting
Gear-Legal
and
He &
ItBicycles-Bicycle
Parking and Racks-Touring-Bicycling
physical Fitness-Doing
Your Thing on a Bicycle-Racihg

Tools.Aarntenance
&pplies-Parts-Some

Pans

and Solven

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Monthly 011 Maintenance-fidjustments-Cleaning,


Polishing,
and Waxing-Six-Month
at-@ Yearly Overhauls-The
Overall
and
Tubes-Hubs
and
! Maintenance
Picture-Tires
HubsFreewheels-Adjusting
(=ones-Overhauling
Freewheels-Wheel
Truing-Straightening
Rims--Protruding
Spokes-Wheel
Lacing-Caliper
Brakes-Disc
BrakesPedals-Chains-Crank
Sets-Deraillers-Head
Sets and
Handlebars-Saddles
and Seat Posts
%
-

Reconditioning,

Modifying

and Building

Bicycles

. . . . . . . . . . . . 197

-Cleaning
Plated
ComponentsThe Frame-Painting
Assembly-Modifications-Custdm
Bicycle Frame BuildingTools-Brazing
and Welding-Parts
and Materials-Basic
,Techniws-General
Construction Plan

Portable

Bicycles

,,....................,....................................

Manufactured
Models-Conversions-Making
Your OwnMaintenance and Repair-Tips
on Using Portable Bikes

209

Stationary

Exercise

Cycles

and Bicycle

Rollers

Exerctse Cycles-Convertincj
Bicycles to Exercise
Brcycle Rollers-Physical
Fitness Programs

Bikes e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~..................

Motbcross

Conversrons-Motocross
Courses-Technical
brcycles-Safety
Gear-Riding
Tips-Marntenance

Bronco,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Cycles-

High-Rise,

and Pivot

Bicycles

ConstructIon of Bronco Bikes-Tips


High-Rise and Pivot &cycles-The

&d Sidewalk
Bikes
11 Tricycles
Maintenance
and Repair-Tricycles

235

Inspection
of
and Repair
2
,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 247

on Using Bronco Bikesq


Swing Bike

*..............................,.........

259

for Adults-Manufactured
Trrcycles-Industrial
Tricycles-Xonversion
Units--Care,
Repair
and Maintenance-Tips
on Usrng j a Tricycle-Pedal
CarsSrdewalk Bikes-Conversion
of a Tncycle to a Two-Wheeler

Penny

Farthings

:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

Flndtng
Antique
Penny FarthIngs-Modern
Manufactured
Penny
Farthings-Riding
Penny
1Versrons-Building

Far-things-A
Variatron-Ideas
for Penny Fat-things \

l
1

D
\

Tatitiem

anb Double-Decker

Bicycles

. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . ..*...........

283

Manufactured
Tandems-Building
Tandems-Tips
on Using
Tandems-Double-Decker.
Bikes-Construction
of DoubleDecker Bikes-Ttps
on Using Double-Decker Bikes

Bicycles . . ..i.........................................................~
;
14 Artistic
Manufactured Artistic Bicycles-Conversioos-Care,
Repair and
-Maintenance-Trps
Bicycling

15
c

1.

Unicycles

on Using

Artistic

Bikes-ideas

293
I

for Artistic

. . . . ..~.......................................................~........

Brief History
of Unrcycles-lntroduction
to UnicyclesManufactured
Unicycles-Building
Unicycles-Standard
Maintenance
and Repair of UnicyclesUnicycles-Care,
Learning to Ride a Unicycle-Ideas
for Unicycles and Unicycling

Furth,er

Ideas for Novelty

Miniature Bicycles-Walkrng
Pedal Cars-Water
Pedal
Railroad Bicycles

Generating
Power
17 Materials-Construction
Archimedes
Pedal-Driven

with

and Specialty

Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337

Machines--Recumbent
Cycles-Flying
Pedal

Bicycles

CyclesCycles-

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347

Steps-A
Pedal-Driven
WinchScrew-Borehole
Pumps-Buildrng
a FlywheelPumps-A
Pedal-Powered Log Splitter

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

*,

,
This is a book about, regular bit-yules and a variclty of novt~lt~~;;nd
-specialty c*yc*les.Subjects covered incaludr selt~c*ting, using,,-mainc+
taining. repairing, modifying, and building pedal c.ycles?,
I \vould like to thank the many individuals and co~~q$mies \\ho
. supplied information and materials and ghvc ptrmissionto reprint
illustrations. I am indebted to: William MI. Jenack, Editor of tht>
C,?licyclillg SocTir[y qfAT1lwicu ?iclixlr~ttc~r;Bernard Crandell, direr- =L_
-_ t&ilf the Potztiac Urzicyclv qlub; lVarren C. Ily)d, director of the
a
CI-c.cztI Circ*zls;Jess $lonefield-his
current itage name is Jim
_
Dandy; Chas R. Sipe; John Jenack; Kit Sunimers: John Held; Brian
Martin; Fred Teeman, manager, consumt~r relations, Sch rclilzlz
I3iqrlc Co; \~lIi
1 am J. Ennis, public. relations dircc?tjr, Shimmo
SUll5 Co?p. ; Bob Shaver, director of product devt4opmtwt, Thcl
Jacobs Corp. ; Howar C. Hawkins, P(zvk Tool Co. ; Arthur Lipski,
president, Oxford I)ztcrnatiomzl Crwp. ; M. C. Myer, advertising
ti manager, I+~zcP~Goods Division, ilMF, 111~.; Thomas D. Seifert,
president, LRVIpzdustrics; John Nicol, vice president, marketing AZ
engineering, Tcledyntl Linair E~Zgine~~ri~lg; Raymt)nd N. Seakan..
sales manager, bike security systems division, Arm-Fab Industries
I12c. ; Rarry Konig, Proteus Dmign Im* . ; Bruce Danzigei, vice presid&t. advt&Ang & marketing, Ross Chczin Bikr Corp. ; O.F.
Quaas, I1mdl.y Coq@rutiivz; I. Taniucl$, C. Itoh & Co (14wvirx)
Itzt. ; Alan B. Gobby, Gobby Mu;nZtfll(-tZ~ri~7g INC. ; Peter
Rizzo,
_.
consumer relations, A;tkizzs-Gvnbrv Iuc. ; Charles T. \13llmarth,
Willmwths Co..: Ken. Yoshigai,Din-Conlp~l 11~~.; Dick Koni~,czny,
-ai

:;:

7s

Jack Wiley
,

Introduction

To Pedal Cycles
Pedal Power is a rather recent innovation-at
least on a practical
scale. In one sense this might be fortunate. The potential of pedal
power by slave teams using oars in boats and levers and ropes on ,, _,
land was never&lly realized.
Mhile there is good evidence that Leonardo da Vinci (14521519) or tine of his assistants made a drawing of a pedal-driven
biq.cle, it seems that the actual construction ofsuch a device did not 1
come until years later. Even then the route deviated widely before
coming back to essentially the bicycle design shown in the supposed

Leonardo drawing.
I.
The history of pedal cycles is usually written as though the
development of the modern bicycle is the only concern. However,
there are many* other important offshoots. Pedal povver is used
. today in an array of cycles that include one, tivo, three and four
wheel devices. Popular uses include recreation (Fig. l-l and Fig.
l-2), sport, hobby,, fitness, transportation and artistic expression.
CAPSULE

HISTORY

In the late 1970s, Comte de Sivrac, a Frenchman,

constructed
a crude-wooden hobby horse. The ride!?straddled the device and
supplied power by pushing against t$e ground. There was no means
of steering short of stopping, lifting the hobby horse off the ground,
< turning it a new direction and then starting forwa@ again.
-.
Around 1816, Baron Karl Von Drais, a Gerrr&n, developed a
steerable hobby horse. He is reported to have made a 20-mile trip
9

Fig. l-l.

Bicycling

foi recreation

and fitness.
.

the device in three hours. A demonstration of the device in Paris


in 1818 started a hobby horse boom that swept Europe.
It is sometimes said that during this stage of bicycle developnient people thought maintaining balance required having both feet
in contact with the ground. But almo$t certainlyit was known that
on

10

~;~I;II?cc
~ould bt> l<clpt \\rhilcbc~oasti~~g~clo~vI~l~il1
ivith the feet COIIIpltwly off [lltl ~LOLIIK~. Also. SOIIIC~
cvrly hobbyhorses had footrtlst
t~sltylsii()IIs 011Ilit) front asle, apparcntl!- for placing thv fwt after
spt~t~dh;i!l bt~t~11
gainrd b$ pushing against the ground.
.. -.
111l&!!~, 1iirlipatric.k Alac+llall, 2 Scottish blac~ksmith, COI T
)
s t n1c.ttlcl ;I t I-t~atll~-opc~rattlcl t \vo-\vhtvl device. It ~oulcl be ridden
\\,ith tht> fc\ckt~wnlplt~tt~l~~
off the grou~lcl. Iit> reportedl>* made a
JO-rllilv trip OII the device in 1842.

Fig 1-2. Bicycling

allows enjoying

the scenery.

A device (jperat ed b>ypedals r&ated in a circle was constructed


in the 1860s $. i<rnest Michaux, a Frenchman. Pedal arms and
pedals iverti ctmltlcted to the froilt axle. The circle had wooden
\vherls of equal siztl, a heav?. iron frame, and iron tires. These
c!.~Gs \vere appropriate117 called bo)zeshak&+s.
About 1870, James Starley, an Englishman, construcied a
\aria:ion of >lichauss desigil with a larger front wheel and a smalleT
rear \\rheel. These cams to be called the ordiwg orp~~ll~l\l.farthi,i~.
These cycles soon spread to the United States. Aro.und 1876
the ci.rtiningham Co. began importing them to the United States.
Shortly thei-eafeer the Columbia Co., in the United States, began
manufacturing them. They-started with a 70-pound model that sold
for over a00 and thit was a nsiderable sum ofmoney in the
1870s.
, '

Around 1884 Thomas Stevens, qn American, reportedly became the f&t person to pedal a two-wheel cycle around the world.
He used a Columbia penny farthing.
In 1865, .&ohnK, Starley, Bn Englishman, developed what came
to be call&&&&%$!& l%cycle.It featured a chain driven rear %heel,,a
&&ond shaped frage and equal size wheels with solid rubbey tires.
The modern bicycle is essentially improvemenfs and features
that were added to Starleys design. Examples are pneumatic
tires-developed
about 1888, coaster brak&sTstarting about.1898
and free wheeling- developed before 1900.
&y the mid 1890s, the safety bicycle hid, for all practical
purposes, replaced the $eriny.farthing.
. This capsule history is given in terms of histic turfing points,
but hundreds of people made cohtributions. Many offshootsstich as
unicycles, artistic bicycles and tric>cles are still popular.
The 1890s featured the first big bicycling boom. At one point
there were over 400 bicycle manufacturers in the Unite3 States.
The most basic features found on bicycles today, including gearing
systems that allowed changes while riding, were around before
1900.
With the advent of the automobile, the bicycle became largely
relegated to children. However, this did not stop the ftirther improvetient
and refinement
of the bicycle. The construction
methods, precision and strength-to-weight
ratio have generay
been improved. The second big bicycle boom in the United States
started in the early 1970s (Fig. l-3).
PEDAL CYCLES TODAY

'

The so-called pure bicyclist would have you believe that the
6
12

i
.-6-l
LL

13

o@y real bicycles ate lightweight racing.and touring machines and


-.&at youarent re,$ly living unless you bevote at least 27 hours a day
1
to the care and/use of your bicqle.
ti
Such a point of view leaves out the vast-majority of bicycles and
,>bicycleusers,In fact, so many types of bicycles are manufactured
and in. use @at it is almost impossible to label any single type as
8
being Uze yandard ,or regular bicycle.
In a$lition, many novelty and special cycles are manufactured.
They include tandems, penny fax-things;, adult tricycles, portable
bicycle& stationary exercise cycles, artistic bicycles, swing or,pivot
bikes,&@ unicycles (Fig. l-4). Many other\ types, such as tall or
-upside-down bikes, recumbent cycles and bronco bikes are not
being manufactured. However, they can be built and used.

.,
+

,li One popular book on bicycling devotes almostiall of its contents 1(


yo precision, expensive lo-speeds. The minimum preventative
;maintenanck schedule given for one bike amount\ to a full-time job.
! This might be fine for the few-who are so dedicaied, but the sim$e
~
.
fact is that the vast majority of pedal cycles in use today receive little
W
or no preventative maintenance until there is an actual breakdown

that will not allow the cycle to be used until some repair is made.
This book attempts to take a realistic *look at pedal cycle

ownership. For example, while I believe that some maintenance jsL


beneficial even for the casual.or utility cycle user, it should be

practical to his or her intents and puq?oses. A person who occasionally rides a bicycle ariund the block cannot be expected to follow the
same bicycle maintenance program as the racing or cross-country
touring cyclist. Nor would there be any practical reason to do so.
i,Y
,,*,,dfWhile the bicycle isprobably far and away the most important
b
pedal cycle for most people, its not the only one and this fact wiu be
kept in mind throughout this book.
I x
a U-SES OF PEDAL CYCLES
+
- Take a closer look at how pedal cycles are used. The common
ele&nt seem5 to be physical fitness-although a particular pedal
4
cycl&an be somuch fun that you do not realize this or think of using
1 z the cycleaq @ess activity. Since you provide the pedal power, it
cannot be otherwise. All.pedal cycles have this in common. The
stationary exercise or go-nowhere cycle is used almost entirely for
this purpose.
/
Other than perhaps the stationary cycle, all pedal cycles provide recreation. They are fun to ride. Some of course more so th&
others and people have their preferences in this regard.

Fig l-4

Kit Summers rldlng a unicycle

^_

;.:.*.,<.

-.

There-are some pure bicyclists Lvho look down at a unicycle


and there are some.unicyclists who do not like lo-speeds. But there
are others, myself among them, who find the two things compatible.
Bi&cles, including tandems and sometimes adult tric!-cles, are
used for transportation and they are ecologicall>- sound in comparison to motor vehicles. Bicycling can merelJi be a \va>- to get to
nearbi. pIal.es, but some people go much further than this. The>-use
pedal ~!-~.les. usuall>vbic>.cles, for traveling long distances and nlan>.
have used biq-cles for taking vacations. A few have used the bic.\.cle
for extended travels and adventures. Argund the world trips-or at
least the land portion-have
been made on penny farthings and
regular and tandem biq-cles. Itall!. Datts, a Canadian, recentl>.
completed an incredible journeg around the world on a unic>.cle!
This doing->.our-thing aspect should not be taken lightly. There are
fe\i- great adventures left in the realm of the average person.
The sport aspects of c>,cling are extremel!. important to some
pcoplt,. There are many kinds of racing events that are held on
tracks or roads. hlotocross bicycling-racing
around a special
course Ltith a variety of jumps, turns and obstacles-is
a popular
sport \si?th children inthe Unit-ed States. Racing on unicycles is also
pcJpular.

Iarious competitive games are plah.ed on bic>.cles and unity~.~lts.Biq cle polo is sometimes pla>.ed in the United States and
hit>-cle ball is popular in Europe.
,_
-.

15

Fig

16

l-5

IohP Jepark

demonstrates

his skill on an arlrstlc bicycle

Fig. 1-6. A novelty bicycle.

The term buildifzg,


as used in this book, might be
. misleading-or
at least it should~be qualified. First, the building is
ivhen it is practical to do so. In the case of manufactured cycles that
are readily available, especially those that are popular and made in
large numbers, it is generally impractical to build them-at
least in
terms of trying to save ,,money. Second, most of the projects
described. in this book make use of standard bicycle parts and
components and other readiITavaikblCitems.
_
Customizing and-modifying bit>-cles and building novelty or
special cycles is fast ,becoming a popular hobby and pasttime (Fig.
l-6), A number of kits areavailable for making cetiain modificatjons
to bit)-cles and converting bicycles to novelt>,.and specialty cycles.
In many cases, these provide the easiest means of going about the
task.
Slightly more diffi It, ,but still uithin the range of man!. bicycle
oivners, are the construction of the various nqvelty and specialty
cycles from bic>.cle components and other materials without the use
of kits. The amour-if of skill required for these building proj,ects
varies v,idel\.. Llan\, require onl\. minimal mechanical skills. ThosE
that require considerable skill and specialequipment,
such as
brazing and \lelding, have been setup so that, if 170~desire, you can
do part of the 13-w-kand then have the remainder done at a commercial shop. Certainl!. it ivould not pa!- to take up Lvelding and purchaie
the necessar>. equipment for one or t\vo building projects. But for
the perscjn ivho Lvants to do man). projects, this might become
practical.

L,

.
i
-A

c
,

ItjOW

hoose A Bicycle

u tilit\,, ouring and racing bicycles are covered in this chapterTT -.


uanous novelty and specialty bicycles, such as sideivalk and highrise bikes for youngsters, are covered in later chapters. However,
the information in this chapter will help you form the basis for
choosing and equipping all types of pedal cycle?.
THE BEST BIKE FORYOU

The first problem is to find the right bit>-cle for l-our budget and
t needs. This dep;endson how JOUintend to use the bicycle and how
much you can afford to spend. Its possible to have too much bicycle
for J-our intended use;as well as too little. For ordinarJ7 around.
ko\vn riding, an expensive touring machine is probably more bic>.cle
than you need. The lighter weight and greater precision make it
more delicate and it requires more care and maintenance than a
someivhat heavier, less precise machine. A delicate machine also
leads to greater problems in protecting it from wear, damage from
nt or theft.
rmance of abic>cle is a combination of the rider and
the bike. Important factors on the bicl-cle itself are design, preci+ sion, weight and condition. The bicycle can be considered an extension of the riders most po~verful muscles. The combination is Vera
effective for transferring the linear motion machine-the
human
body-into
a rotary machine, the rolling motion of the bicycle
wheels. The human body, of course, is far more versatile when not
on a bicycle and capable of many diverse actions, such as walking,

13
14

brake

rear fork

15

front brake

27

rear fork (bottom)

seat poai

16

front fork

28

chain

saddle

17

chrome

Beat tube

18

quick

quick release

rear

hub

brake

lever

ballhead

tube

e
fork tips

release

hub

25

crank

26

pedal

29

guide

30

rear

changer

wheels
sprockets

lop tube

19

rim

31

rear

front changer

20

front hub

32

lug.9

33

gear change

stem

21

fork rake

10

expenderbolt

22

down tube

11

handlebara

headset

23
24

chain

12

bottom

guard

of the rear changer


(deratlleur)
(freewheel)
levers

and chainwheels

bracket

Fig. 2-l. The parts of a bicycle.

running or climbing stairs and ladders. A bicycle is far more limited


and must a1waJ.s be combined with a person to,generate a source of
power. However, on smooth hard surfaces that j&z-level &- *of
limited grades, a bic\v#e can transfer human powe; i;b
to Vet-J
effective and efficient motion. Pedal poiver is, to my knowledge, the
only wayhuman power alone has managed to get a heavier than air
device, a filing pedal cycle, off the ground more than rnomentaril!,
from a level surface!
Bicycles are a serious compromises. The person who wishe:
to take up bicycling for the first time is faced with a seemingl)
endless number of bicycles to choosefrom. To complicate matters,
there is no simple \vay to classify bicycles. To sort out the picture, I
will first discuss bicycles in a general way, and then cover the
specifics of design and construction.
20

:i

SINGLE-SPEED

.~

BIKES

Perhaps the most basic bicyrcle in ividesprclad use today is the


single-speed. It has only one gear ratio and it is a fixed ratio. (Gear
ratios itill be explained later in this chapter. For no\v, its only
important to get a general idea of the types of biL.ycles available. A
single-speed bicycle is sho\vn in Fig. 2-2.
There lvas a time Lvhen most single-speed bikes had h(~1100~1
tires and Lvere called ~ZWL!Y
wr~ihts or Amwcm
bicycles: Today,
single-speeds are more likely to be middle Lveights and there are
also some reasonably lightLveight models on the market. Bicycle
weight is discussed in detail later in this chapter. For now, it is
enough to say that light weight tends to be an advantage in bicycle
performance. A single-speed bicycle of the same shape, iveight &
precision ~i11have the same performance as a multi-geared bicycle
ridden in the same gear ratio. This might seem obvious, but it is a
fact often overlooked. Many people believe that a lo-speed, disregard$g the ability to change gear ratios, is automatically a better
performing bicycle. This is caused in part by the fact that few
medium-priced and almost no high-priced bikes are available in
single-speed models. The reverse, however, is not true. Many
low-priced bikes feature gearing systems.
Single-speed bicycles generally have coaster brakes. Braking
is accomplished by means of back pedaling. This is an extremely
convenient arrangement that allo\vs both pedaling and braking by
foot action. These bikes can usually be recognized by the absence of
hand operated brake levers. Coaster brakes are sometimes
supplemented nith a caliper brake on the front Lvheel. These have
one hand-lever control on the handlebars. Coaster brakes can also
be recognized by a brake arm that connects to the bike frame.
Another type of single-speed bike is the fixed sprocket (nonfreewheeling) track racing cycle shown in Fig 2-3. These fixed hubs
are generally found only on top quality bicycles and should not be
confused with freewheeling single-speeds. Freewheeling allows the
wheel to continue turning even when you arent pedaling. This
coasting is a tremendous advantage for normal riding.
.. The main advantages of single-speed bikes are thit they have
b
no com&icated,gear changing mechanisms and, on most models,
braking by simple back pedaling. .The disadvantage is that all riding
must be done in a single gear ratio. II
For many purposes, esjxcialiy for limited riding on f
surfaces, the single-speed is all t&t is needed (Fig. 2-4). There are
many lo-speed bicycles that, after the ini& novelty of shifting the
.
22
\
.
,
,
/
f Y-----l

23

10 gears wears out, remain set in a single gear year in and year out.
This applies mainly to bicycles that are used for short hops on level
surfaces. The advantages of being able to change the gear ratios
becomes quickly appment on hills and longer rides.
INTERNAL

HUB MULTI-SPEED

BIKES

--

The next improvement-or


complication debending on how ,
ybu look at it-is internal hub gearing. This gearing most commonly
offers 8r.reespeeds or gear ratios (Fig. 2-5). It is also available with
two-gear and five-gear ratios, as well as other numbers. Most of
these are shifted by a hand lever, but models that shift autbmatically
-.
with changes in speed are also available.
Internal hub multi-speed gears generally present more difficult .
adjustment,
maintenance
and repair problems than singlespeeds-they
also offer the important riding advantage of a choice
of gear ratios.
(, .
Bikes with internal hub gearing are ideal when something more
than a single gear ratio is needed, but something less than a lo-
speed is adequate.
While internal hub gears make riding slightly more complicated
than single-speeds, they are generally much easier to operate-or
at least easier to operate-than
derailleur changers. The internal
hub gears are more s&able for those who do not want to, or cannot,
master the derailleur, system.
A few years back, internal geared bikes were representativ-e of
a type called Erzglish- races. Today, however, the internal hub
gears are used on so many types and qualities of bicycles that they
no longer represent a specifjc type of bicycle. As is the case with
single-speeds, other than fixed hub track bikes, the internal hub
geared bikes are generally only available in the lower price and
quality ranges. However, they often extend upward a notch or tx.0
above what is available in single-speeds, with a correspondingly
PP.
higher price tag.In general, the advantages of internal hub gears.(Fig. 2-6) over
derailleur systems are ease of adjustment and operation. Disadvantages are a smaller number of gear choices and difficulty in making
internal repairs when they break down-which
fortunately isnt
, often.
DERAILLEUR

BIKES

The next general type of bicycle is the lo-speed, with derailleur gea,rs (Fig. 2-7). The operation of these is detailed later in this
chapter. L%ile other numbers of gears-especially
five (Fig. 2-8).
24

*
d

26

r,;
4

28

.I

-:

.
-

7, -r
-.

and 15-are also u@d, the lO-speed has become the general standard. The rear derailleur-as
the shift mechanism at the rear
sprockets are called--Lgenerally has five sprockets. The front dera/$
Ieur has t\vo. \vhich results in a total of 10 possible gear combinations. Itith a single chainwheel at the crank, the set up, with five
sprockets at the rear hub, (insert) it becomes a 15speed. While the
five cluster rear sprocket arrangement is the most common, other
numbers are sometimes used.
Deraillrur sy-stems are generally both more difficult to operate
and keep in adjustment than internal hub gears. Howev,er, derailleur
systems are often easier to repair than internal hub gears. Many of
the newer designs*of derailleurs, even ones on inexpensive bikes,
*- have been greatly improved over earlier versions. At least one
design, ivhich is
ter in this chapter, approaches the ease
of operation of hub gears
ommend the lo-speed for teenagers and
As a general rule, I
adults \vho are re
t and agile and who intend to ride fairly
long distances-especially
on an unlevel terrain.
,a d
I

RIDING POSTURE

In sele -ting a bicycle, riding posture is an important consideration. Pure $ icyclists are fond of pointing out that theres only one
t>-peof saddle (narrow) and position (high) thats proper forbicycling. Perhaps this is true for greatest efficiency, but its not necessarily. the most comfortable. Many riders have neither the fitness nor
desire to ride like this.
Some bicycles are designed to be ridden in a fairly erect
position. These generally have wide, fairly low positioned saddles
and flat or slightly upturned handlebars.
These bicycles are
sometimes considered to be beginners bikes, but I think they have
important uses beyond this. @&nowa number of older people who do
not consider bicycling but do not have the fitness or agility necessary for the so-called racing posture.
The second main type of bicy.cles have narrow touring or racing
saddles and dropped (down-turried)Whandle.bars, such as the arrangement shown on the bicyrcle in Fig. 2-9. This ;arrangement
actually offers a variety of riding positions, from fairly upright to
leaning far forward. This saddle and handlebar combination is recommended for those who have the necessary fitness and agility
and intend to do considerable bicycling.
Chidesaddles are seldom used with drop_ped handlebars. This
arrangement isnt very practical. However, narrow saddles are
30

Fig: 2-10. The AMF Caravqn 3-speed bjqy,cje is j!eql,for $pse,whp


than atitility b;ikk&t l&k th&i along distance touring bicycle.

sometimes used advantageously


lebars.
JNTENDED

U!Jg

wan! more

with flat or slightly upturned hand

. Using bicycles is covered in the next chapter. At<~hispoint, its


important to realize that bicycles are intended, by their design and
construction, for various specific uses. Some bicycles are best
suited for short rid& and utilityuse. Others are designed specifi, tally for touring or racing. There are subtle difference; in each
- category. Fig. 2-2 sho&z a utility design which is ideal for shor-t
rides and, with suitable racks or baskets., is capable of carrying fairly
heavy lads-such
as for shopping or delivering newspapers. A
bicycle that fills the gap between a utility bicycle and a long distance
touring model is shown in Fig. Z-10. A touring bicycle is shown in
Fig. Z-11. A quality road racpg bicycle (Fig. 2-12) resembles a
) ,touring bike, but actually has many subtle differences. The Trcrck
bi~yclc (Fig. 2-13) Is a very specialized machine. It i# described in the
next chapter.
PRICE AND QUALITY

In general, a higher priced bicycle means higher quality. But


there are many exceptions to this, especially in,the case of lower

priced models. \\-hile its quitti arbitrary, it may be helpful to consider bio-c.ltls that cost under- $150 as-being Lo\v-prictld, $150 to
$230 as btling Illtldium-pIic.td. and ovtr $230 as b&g high-prictbd..
Thtw pr-icxl rangt~s roughly par~~llt~ldistinc,t quality catcgot-i~~ of
bicycltts:
,-7
COMPARISON

OF BICYCLES

To this point, my aim has been to get a general idea of diffclrences in bicycles. I suggest that thy no\-ice study these points and
then apply t%tw \vhtv looking at bicTyc=ltasat bicycle shops and
bicycle shoivs. Xo\vever, before you actually ~%oos;e,its important
to go one long step further and be able to.&dge and cwmpare frames
and coI?~ponents that go to make up a spkfF bicycle. I
'FRAMES

.'

The frame, \vhich for our p~~rposcs fill also inc.lude the front
_ fork, can be gnsidered as th? basic- part or foundation of a bicycle.
LYithout a&;,d frame, regardless of the components used to make it
a complC,te bicyc.le, it ~vill~al\~~ays
be 1~s;~th,?n~satisfactol-~. On fhe
other hand, start \\ith a good frame and improvtments are generall>
relatively easy. Better components can be added right away or at
some Iater time.
The parts of a frame are shown in Fig. 2-1. Frame sizes and
shapes vary. Custom frames can be fitted to the rider. Stock
manufactured frames come in a number of sizes. Framt size is the
distance in inches from the, center of the crank hanger to the top of
the seat.,post tube. L1anJ. brands have sizes ranging firm about 19
inches to 25 inches. Eventually, thtw sizes nil1 be in centimeters
(metric sy:tyT) in the United States. This is already the case in
much of the \vorld.
A rgnge of from 19 inches to 25 inches iii11suit most teenagers
and adults, Methods for fitting a bicycle to the rider are covered
later in this chapter. Even when you consider bicycles designed for
the same purposes, such as utility or touring, frame sizes and
designs vary \vith thy manufacturer. Oddball frame shapes have
largely disappeared from the market and the ttlnd.ency has been for
even inexpensive bikes to follow the design shape of expensive
models. Ho\vrver. a certain frame size, as defined above, can still
vary cxnsidrrably in other diAlensions from a frame
by another
.
manufacturer Mith the same frame size.
()nc possible variable is to angle thy head and seat tubes.
These are called frame angltx. GvIierally the angles of both the head
and svat tubes on a biqrclc frame are the same, that is, they al-c!set
34

, .

,*

35

parallel to each other. On general purpose andtouring bicycles, the


frame angles are generally about 72 degrees. Racing bicycles some,:- timeshave slightly greater angles, such as 73 or 74 degrees.
Another important variable is the reach, which is the distance
from saddle to handlebars. *Reach can be adjusted somewhat by
using different length stems on handlebar posts. But this depends
on having approximately the correct length top tube on the bicycle
.A
,
*
frame.
Still another variable is the size of the rear triangle. For general ,,
riding, touring and even more so for most types of racing,its an
-advantage to have a short triangle so that the-tire.till%e close tb the
seat tube. This gives a shorter wheel base and makes the frame
. 9
more rigid. Many inexpensive bikes have large tri%gles.,The
longer chain and s&&taps tend to make the frames less rigid and
subject to greater whip. This is an undesirable
_ __--- characteristic.
~-~
characterisaTame
are light weight .and a
-- -- DGrable
certain amount of rigidity. An extremely flexible frame iastes
.
energy, while an extremely rigid frame is less comfortable. Too
m&h flexibility can also .guse whipping. For general riding and
touring, a happy me&umYis recommeded.
Thi? -will give both
-reasonable riding comfort and control.
Making frames lighter in weight, yet strong and rigid enough,
.
is,an extremely complicated design problem. Unlike some things, .z
- 7
lighter weight, costs more money in bicycle frames than heavier
weight.
5
Bicycle frames are made up of a series of tubes. The tubes
.
used on inexpensive bicycles are commonly o$ seamedsteel tubing
and made by wrapping.a sheet of low-carbon &eel into a tube and
then electrically welding it where the edges meet. This forms a
straight gauge tubing that is the same thickness theentire length.
Many writers of books on bicycling recommend that gou forget
about bicycle frames constructed of seamed low-carbon St/eel tub-d
f,
_ing. However, I dont go along with this. The low-carbon steel is
what -makeselectric welding possible. Thehigh heat caused by this
--l
__~ inexpensive v&ding methodwould weaken ahighercarbon steel&-_
turn, this is what makes inexpensive bicycles possible. These
frames work well on bicycles used for certain purposes and the
heavier weight required to make a strong enough frame can be
offset by the lower price.
The.be.xt step. upward, -and.certainly much. better,. is.s.ea&&zss, .._..._L.SI_>_,
high-carbon iensile s&&-Since
this tubing is stronger; -thinner
cross sections can be used to/nlake a lighter frame:

9.

37

i,

The lowest cost frarnt~ of this material are straight gaugtl. A


butted tube is snore expensive and it is thicker gauge at NW wd.
I)oublt> butted is the most tlsptwsivtl and has a thic.ktlr gauge at both
ends ;ind thinntbr gaug~cin thtk middle.
The butting proc.ess is ac,tually quite old. It \vas invented in
1897 b!- Mfrttd Rc>*ncjlds,an English nailmakt~r. Over the smears, the
practicality
of thth tubing has been \vtbll demons\ratrd. The advantage
of using butted tubing for bicycle frames is that they are thickel
on the ends \vhere they join other tubes. That is the point \vherc
*
they are subjected to-the gwatrst stress.
\thrn
JYXIlook at a frame from the outside, you cant see thtl
different gauges of it-ail thickness. The outside of the tubing is the
same diameter throughout. The added thickness goes inward. ACtually, its difficult to obserire even if you cut up the frarile. The Lvall
thickness of a top tube, for example, might be ,022 of an inch in the
middle and .032 of an in& at the ends. This is a c1ifferenc.e of OIIIJ
about one-hundredth of an inch. Although the difference might
appear Slight or e\-en unnoticeable to the eye, it makes for a 1nuc11
better frame. HO\V do yo~~know if the tubing is butted? You just
have to take the manufacturers word for it.
The next step upward in frame material is chromea
molybdenum (chrome-moly) or manganese-molybdenum
steel.
This tubing, like high-carbon steel seamless tubing, is available in
straight gauge and single and double butted construction.

Rcylolds 531 tubing is ~~11 knoivn, but there are also many
other top quality brands, including Colz4z~1hz~s, Fulk, sz@w Vitus and
~~zu~~zpio~z.
These iii11 be indicated by a sticker Lvhich is usually ++
,
placed on the se,at tube. It will also tell you if the tubes are butted or
double butted.
Sometimes ~hrome-rnol~bd~~~L~~~~
or manganese-molybdenum
steel ii-ill be used only on the three main tubes and less expensive
tubing used for the remainder of the frame. For example, the
sticker might read 3 Clzro~lc~Molybdrmtm Mail1 Tuh~s, which also
.
indicates, since its not mentioned, that the tubing is straight gauge.
If a manufacturer goes to the expense and trouble of using

these materials, you can be sure &at it ~t-illbe indicated by a sticker


on the frame.
The steel tubing described ibove-seamed
Ioiv-carbon, seamless high-carbon
and chrome-molybdenum
or manganesemolybdenum-must
be joined together to form a frame. LONT-
carbon steel permits ivelding and makes inexpensive bicycles possible. The high-carbon and alloy steels are generally assembled bl
loin-heat brazing, as the high heat of welding Lvould greatly \ve&en
38

tht~s;i~tJpc>s of stwl. Not only that. but tllcb \vwk point ;vould by
right at thrl joints. This is in thy Icast d<lsirably lo~xtEq(ms.Hrazing
usts ;I brass or silvtlr inc~tal alloy filler. It can be done at about
l(i(>O
dtgrec*y Fahrt~nht~it or evtxn lo\vt~-. This allows the tubes to be
joined iIithout seriously reducing their strength. Even Lvithbrazing,
thtlrcl is some drop in tensile strength of the tubing. This is usually
\vell &thin acceptable limits.
Framtas art assembled \\ith and \fithout lugs. Frames without
~~a~~--tbtfkitl
c -many top quality frames are also made without lugs. Also, there is a
groming tendency for cheap, poorly constructed frames to use lugs
in an atttlnipt to look like more expensive units.
.The p~u-pose of lugs is to strengthen joints by adding metal and
clistributillg the stress over a larger area. Its importan~~,ho\z~~~r~l-,
that the ends of the tubes be precision mitered. Lugs can and often
are used to hide poorly fitted frame pieces. Lugs also perform a
drcorati\.e feature of a sort. The~often have decorative cutouts and
shapes. On.the other hand, a frame brazed together without lugs by
a skilled craftsman can have an attractive appearance too.
In comparison to ivelding, brazing is an expensive operation
and it .is difficult &toabsorb this cost on inexpensive frames. One
method of cutting down the cost is to use inexpensive brazing rod
(f&r) material. Unfortunately, this results in a poorer bond.
It is difficult for the novice-or
for tht matter, almost
anyone-t;,
accurately judge the quality of brazing on a finished
bicycle. This is especially true when lugs are used. In general, the
best assurance of a quality job is a reputable manufacturer.
Drop-outs, the plates nith notches in them for the rear wheel
axle, are another important part of the frame. The cheaper ones are
stalnped out. The better ones are forged into shape.
On inexpensive bicycles. the drop-outs are often installed by
criwing them to the frame and then spot ivelding them. This is
easily recognized by the break in the joints. This method has been
\iidelyLcriticized, but frames constructed in this manner will often
pass quite stringent stress tests. In any case, in the lommt price .
range, there is little else available. ,Mtrre expensive frames generally have forged drop-outs (Fig. Z-14) tha{ are brazed in place.
Forks are generally, though perhaps not techriically, considered to be partA the frame. Dw steq~ is the. part that passes
through the head tube on the fr.am.3. .T,,he blades are the parts
IvhtAre the wheel attaches. The blades normally ?xrve forward :
about tivo inches from a straight lint. This is called vuke. Rake helps
,
1
-3
.i
39
,
L

Fig. 2-14 Shlmano Dura-Ace Model NB-100 drop-outs:


(1 ) front fork end set,
(2) rear fork end set with adjusting set, (3) adjusting bolt. nut arid spring, (4)
u
adlustIng bolt. (5) ad$srlng spring and (6) adjusting nut.

the bicycle to track in a straight line and absorbs road shock. Less
rake results in quicker turning but poorer tracking.
The least expensive forks have flattened ends ivith notches for
the axle. Better forks have drop-outs or fork-ends brazed or welded
to the fork blades. The cheapest of these are stamped. The best are
forged into shape.
a*
The drop-outs, or lack of them in the case of flattened and
notched fork blades, can give a good indication of both the price and
qualit!- of a bicycle. Holvever, all can be satisfactory. Also, after
about the 10~~end of the medium price range-land up, almost all
bic!,cles isill have forged .$-op-outs brazed or Lvelded in place.
\fhat about bit>-cle frames designed for girls and women? The
closed triangle shape is tr&litionally considered to be for.the boys
and men. This design n&es for a stronger, more rigid bicycle. Al>first suggestion is that uornen use the mens style bicycle. The
original reason for the design of nm~~ens bit!-c.le frames \+ithout the
top tube \vas for \f,earing skirts. Since man). girls. and \\omen now
prefer to Lvear other clothing for bicylling, this reason is no longer
\
in \-alid.
F$girls and \vomen \vho still prefer a bic!.cle svithout thetop
tube. these ii-ill be satisfaclory up to a high level of,performan?eY40

Fig 2-16 This three-speed bicycle with women s style frame down tubes.
wldms between head and seat tubes.

Fig. -15 sh O\VSthe traditional deGgn \fith the t\ro do~vn tubes
running parallel. For lighter \f,vight bikes, a sonne\f.hat bvtter arrangtlmvnt is with the upper tubtt joining tht3 scat tube at a higher
position (Fig . Z-16). An cvt-n txtttx arrangement is called the 111ktc1.
The bottom tube is the same as on a mans bike and tivo smaller
tubes run in tandem from the top of the head to the drop-outs in the
rear. \Ihile the latter will still tend to have more undesirable lvhip
than a similar mans frame, this seems to be the best compromise.
Stainless
Steel Frame. The Japanese firm, Bri&~~fw~~~
CJClfJIlldlrsh~ Cl). . Ltd., features one biq-cle in their line vith a
die-cast stainler;s stttl frame. The bic>,cle, called the Szl~wlriw~*.
is available \vith a regular (Fig. 2- 17) and ladies st>rle frame. The
bicycles crmt in wi.eral frame sizes lvith total bic!.c.lc iveight
ranIn~fr(J1T-I
29
to 31 pounds.
..-.-I^_.._,-,.,
-.-.~-I/+
,, A,,.-.^,...
-It seem?; to my that these bic!.cies \vckuldmake ideal take-along
shore tra,nsportation for cruising boaters. This might seem a USC
that \vould be so rare that it \vouldnt be Lvorth mvnking.
Hut not
so. There are hundreds of boaters \frho take biqycles along on their
boats. Hai-ing drjnt: this m>xelf and Sean-=filrs~hand \vhat the salt air

r,

43

Fig. 2-18. A three aDd one-half

pound Teledyne

Titan bicycle frame.

environment iii11 do to a regular steel bicycle, I can see the possibilities of the stainless steel frame. No more rusted lvonders.
rq Aluminum

Frame.

The Bridgcston~~ Co. also offers a ..


lightweight aluminum die-cast frame in their line of bicycles. Therv

is both a regular and ivomens frame style, each \vith a total bicycle
weight of 28 pounds. This is only about average for a general
purpose and touring lo-speed in the ~mdium
price range. The
aluminum alloy used is a fairly heavy one.
Both the aluminum and thr stainless steel frames are assemblecl
liith pressure-molded
joints, a process patented in Japan and
Europe. Both of these bicycles are for geileral purpose riding and
touring-nctt for racing.
For racing, a frame must bc vcr!. stiff in order to avoid \vasting
the riders energy and of very light iveight. A racing frame maclt~
from Rryzolds 531, for example, iveighs about five pounds or
slightly less. This is the Lveight of the frame Lvithout the components
that go to make it a complete bicycle.
There are frames made from s;e~~eral other mater&s that are
challenging the chrome and manganese molybdenum steel ones.
Aluminum alloy is one of them. Popular models are the Italian Akzlz
frameP, distributed in the United States by ?ilr~lPitzto Imports,
2860
Amandalc~, Falls Chunh,
Vcz Z0042k~l
the Klrin frame, Klcill Corp., 23 Elw Stat,
Cq~h~i&o, ,VlA 0213.9. The Alan frame
iveighs 3.5 pounds and id assembled by epoxy gluing aluminum
tubes into oversized lugs. The price for the frame is about $250. ,
The Klc?in frame lveighs 3.28 pounds and is assembled by a special
44

\velding s;Sstem. Boron fibers are used for reinforcement to increase rigidit!.. The price for the frame only is about $360.
Tit,anium Frame. A 3.5 pound titanium frame (Fig. 2-M) is
n~ndtl 11~7Tcl~~tl~~)~c~
Lilzair, Bicyc-10 Diuisicuz, 651 h. K~zox St.,
GuY(~cH~J,
C,4 X&W?. The price for a frame is about $550. The
~pw(rw~/lGcc7r CUSPCo. Ltd. , of England plans to introduce another
titanium frame in the United States.
/
Graphite Frame. The EXUIIZco., Composik Matrrials Ditlision , 242-,11 St. :licholas Auc., South Plai~~~fzrld,-Y./. 07080, makes
a 3.4 pound frame of graphite fibers spun around a core of aluminum.
The priw
of the frame alone is about $825.
--__ _---___~
glastic Bikes.A couple of years back theidea of 17.5 pound
plastic bicvc,les that Lvould sell for under $100 made a big splash in
magazine arid newspaper articles. iYell, it sounded like a good idea,
but it must ha\*e run into problems.; because the plastic bikes, as far
as I\-e been able&) determine, still arent ,on the market. Also,
these nright not have been suitable for racing for a number of
I-easms,
since light Lveight is only one of a number of design factors
required.
Frame Variables.
Frame variables include saddle tube
length and angle, top tube length, frame height above ground,
bracket height and wheel base-ivhich
is varied by length of stays
and angle and rake of front fork.
.

FINISH

Frames are usually painted. This is for both protection of the


metal and appearance. Chrome plating is used on the ends of the
fork blades on some bikes and in a few cases the entire frames are
plated.
The quality of finishes varies greatly. LVhen looking for a new
biq*cle, examine the finish carefully on the particular bicycle to
make certain that there are no runs, chips or other indications of
careless application of the finish or handling of the bicycle. This type
of minor damage often occurs in shipping and assembly of bicycles.
Some of this. can be tolerated in an inexpensive bicycle, but a
medium and high priced model should be closer to perfection.
COMPONENTS

A bicycle is a frame plus its components. In general, better


frames have better components-but
there are exceptions to this.
The brand name of the bicycle is generally supplied by the frame
manufacturer, but most often the components for completing the
bic!.cle are from other manufacturers. The components also have
brands and these are often helpful in judging quality.
*-

Thcw x-t~ t\vc, basic. c.onstruction mc~thods. Inexpensive hubs


arv stamped out of stwl. ill_ortJt~xptwsi~t ont5
are prcG4ion
nlachinvd out of stvcl or aluminum alloy. In addition to bcinq
as light
_ -_ L---I..
..- .- ..-- _
_. ~_-__- --IT
_-.-in ~@~;ts p~s~Gl5lEX6 hubs should rotate \ilth as little friction as
p( )ssiblc. This dc~pcncls on a nunlbt~r of fat-t&s, espt~c*iall\~thy
*
.
prcbc*isionof the>bearings and their housings.
Thta flanges x-t the parts of the hub that ~%e spokes pass
throu,gh. Hubs arc2a\~a&$F~ \iith vither high or lo\v flanges.
Longer
spokt>s
XY USCCI
\iith lo~vflanges. This gives better shock absorbing
.
y&tics
than shorter spoktx and rnaktls them ideal for general
riding ;md touring. High flanges ~1st shortm spokt\s. This rnakcs thr
\vhtlel less spring!. md idval for sonw tlpcbs of rac3ng.
T\vo basic mtthods used for c~onnectingthe axlt~ to the bic.>rc4e
frames a-c b? ~ntw~s of nuts OH the ends of the threaded portion of
3thv asly and b>.c1uic.krcleast devices. On the lattvr, a quic*k-rtxlt>ase
s;ke\ver passes through a hollow axle. A lc~*t~rloc*ksboth sidtis of thcl
.
axle in the drop outs.
Quick rdeast~
are generally associated \iith higher priced

-1
~l~ycles. .~nother method ~.for~~nxwing
a \vhcel with&t tools is to
I_
--__
replaw the axle nuts with ~firg nuts. Some manufactured bit.ycles
,
conw t\ith these. The advantages iIf quick v.+evl wmoyal \tjthout
tools is somctirnvs offset by the 6ac.t that it n~kt~s stvaling \vhtht4s
t:tSItI-.

The quic.1~r~lcasti hubs \f.trt originally* designcSd for rac.ing~vherc


quick \vh~~l c%hangingis csscntial. Ho\ve~.er these dtlvjc*es
arc now found on nnany medium pric-ed and most exptmi~,c to~ring
_
bic*~~c~les.
1lost hubs, esci-pt those \vith internal gear or coastvr bj-akes,
ary packed m-ith grease. A few use oil,~including wme expensive
racing hubs. Tmm basic types of bearings, either caged (in a r-etainer) or loons arc used. There ivas a time wIlta inexpensjye hubs
generally had bearings in retain&-s and more expensive ones \vere
loose. \\hilc this is still generally true, there is a trend toward
.
espens;i~~e
hubs using bearings in retainers too. Needless to say,
thisrkq-tAatly siI&!ifitAs overhauling hubs.
_
$3
46

r-

prtwnt

pric*t)s. I consider themto btl ivell \vorth the price for use on
ni~cliu:::
a:;:!
cs peGall!. high pricxd biC!.cley.
Anotl!er \.ariablc OII hubs is the Ilumber of spoktl holes. These
must n1atc.h the number WI the rim. The most corm1011
number of
spoke holes is 36. For carr!-ing heay. loads such as panniers with
camping ~tw- on a touring bike, a N-spoke hub and \vlbeel might be a
better idea.

Rims

Clinc=hcr es and tubular tires are tht> t\vo t>.pvs of rims.


Clinchtlr tires have beads that are h&l in place on tk rin~by lips and
tubular tires arc glued to the rims.
Clincher rims are available in steel and MOIY espensive-but
lighter \veight-aluminum
alloy. Most tubular rims are of aluminum
alloy. Some tubular rims arc filled ivith wood or plastic inserts to
reinforce the otherliise hollow area.
Spokes

Ihcsc ;w available in straight gauge and butted t !.pes. The


butted OIWS;IW of larger diameter on the erlds than in the nliddlt~.
Unlike but ted buc.\.cle frames, \~ou can see this feature on spokt~.
Spokes are niade,frrwl alu&num, steel and stainless steel. For
general riding and touring, I prefer stainless steel spokes. The!swm
to retain a better appearance than the aluminun~ or regular
steel

ones.

\\.hen a hub is spoked or laced to a rim, various lace Fatterns


can be used. Chapter Eight details ho\v to recognize these pjt,terns
and law ivheels. A three cross pattern is t\.pical for touring biq.cles.
Special spcking patterns that give stiffer wheels are frequently used
-on xme
t\.pes of racing biq.cles.

47

Tires

.g pr!)l)lc~Inin ttw~~inolog~~ariscs,in the ,c3s;eof tires. It is often


~5rl that you irlilatt> or pate,h a tire, ii.hen \\Thatisusually meant is the
irmY tutu that is kick thy tire.
The> t~vcj main types of tires in ust on bicycles-besides
the
s~nli-~)nt~unlatic,ants used on some c%ild_renscycles-are
clinc*hers
ior ivired-ens) like> the tires n-ith i;?ner tubes that are used on
automobilc~s and tubulars (or se\v-ups). Tubeltlss tires have been
used on bi~!~~~lt~s;,
but thry art> rarely seen toda!,.
Clill~~hc~r
tirtts have \\-ire beads at each cclgtaof the <*asing\vhertt
it gots OVCI-the rim. Tubulars are called se\v-ups becauw thti
inlit~i- ti$btls ;I~c a&all!. SCL\.I~inside thtl tire \vith a nwdle and
thrtazr!. Kqair r:~~i~ires considerablt~ skill and patiencxl. Tubular-s
xc glutd to thc$ rinl or attached \\*ith a stic,l;>-tape.
CIinc+t~r~ NY gtwtlrall! heavier than tubulars. fhisd3heavier
\\*taight is a disadL,antage sir& the rolling resistance is greater.
H o\\-cvtl-.
for utilit!. and even :most touring uses, there are a
number i)f advantagtks. Clinc%rrs a;c gcnerall!- more puniturr resistallr, givrl btat ter trac%oll in \vtlt cwnclitions, ha\,e a longw useful
lifts a11d ;IIIOK tkasiclr repair of pu~~~-tuws.
ClinchLlrsgge~~cwll!~ have +*
I(~\\.c>r.masiniunl
inflation pressur~~s
than tubulars.
I!~picx51
clinchers-its the tire that dt~termines the maximum pressure,
not
thtl inner tube-on
narrow 26-inch or 27-inch ~vheels have a
maximum prrswre of 60 to 75 pounds. Models are now on the
market that take up tr) 90 pounds or nlore.
Higher pressures are an
ad\-antagc in dccwasing rolling resistance, but they make for a
bump!. ride on a biq-cle with a stiff frame. Hoivever, you can use the
tires \s?th a Io\!.t~- pressure. Ilhile most clincher tires cannot be
folded for easy carrying of a spare when touring, the ~wssn Stradn,
l-ail be folded. Its made in Italy, and distributed in the LJnitvd States
r by Rrrlcigh dvalcrs. It iveighs about 17 ou~~cw
\i.ith an inner tube
-I
that is fairly lightiveight.
BaIloon tirvs, \\ith me and one-half inck CI-oss section or
mr )t-c, have more r$ling resistance than a narroiver tire suck as
thaw uwd cm li~hr~~eight.bi~!.~l~s.
Iubulars have a number of advantages over clinchers. The>ar:e lighter. Racing models \veigh about seven and one-half ounces
ii-ith inner tubes and touring models abkt 12 ounces ifith inner
iubks. Ho\vt~\~er-,for most t wring, a heavier tire n~~uld probabI>- be
more ~,e~i~eable. Tubulars generally have higher maximum presc;ur-t:s
tha~l ckch~rs.
Some used for track racing use 140 pounds or
mart. Ho\vever. 100 pounds is a more t>*picalfigurr for the touring
48
.- /~

of tulxdx-s, 2s r-onqx~rc~~t 0 ch~hcn, xc that


that!. ;II-C
nioi-~ tmil!. \voni out al~dpum~turt~d alid that the. art I~OI-C
tinits c7)rlsuiliiiig to rcyxlir-. Ho\vtlvvr, st~vvral spaws nith the* iiiiit7.
tubt~ alrc~d!. st\vil ii) place nilI fit untl~~r thcl saddlck.
Iii ,~:c~ntwl, tubulars arc ni01-cl tq~twsivcl tliaii c*liiic~hcn, although tht~rt~ is. sonlt ovtAappillg in prictbs bvt\\~t~tvi the IIIOI-C
:
t~spt9isi~-t~~~liiic*htmaiicl less t5peilsi\.cb tubulars.
It should be not& that tubulars usually- c-oI~~~
yith a ~ukop~mt !p \-al\~lsc*;llltYltht> Pwstcr l~trlr~c~.
To inflatcb \I-ith a scm-ic.tl statloll
air suppI!. or a conmoll hand pump. a sptlc*ial atlaptelis requirc~d.
i Illest; arc illcq~cmsivtl and rtlatlil!- availabltl at bilic shops. (>I- !.ou
em bu1, thtl t).pt of biq.Cle pump that \~ill fit tlitt Iwstc~ val~~c.
Cliilcht~i-suse a diffvrtwt t!-pc of rim thail tubulars, so the tires
arcnt iIlt~rc,ll,in~l:t~ablt~. Gerl~rall~~, int~spt~nsi~,e bic-!.c,les ancl
mcdiurli pricx>tlont~s up, to the high end of the pric,e railgct mill havt
clinchers. These are probably snore suitable for these bicyc.lcs
anyivay. To sl:;itch over to tubulars \vould invoive king a diffvrmt
typt rim to the hub. This is a fairly costly and involved optmtion.
Sonw biktks iI1 the upper--nnediu~n pricg rangy have tub&m
and the>. art quite ~o~n~no~~
on expensive biqx.les. I feel that it is
best for the novice to start out ivith 4nchers. It seen~s to me that
tubulars are only nwrth the extra trouble if you have a wal ntled for
the estra ptrformanw while racing and for long distance touring.
Flat tires are probably the biggest single problem facecl b!.
bic*!*cleriders. lVhile the particular tire n?ll have var>-ing degrees of
punrturt resist anw, man!. at t enlpts have lxyn made to go bc~~.oncl
this. 011~1nlethod is to add a liquid sealant to the insidcl of the ilinrr
tube. Thcw art rvaclil>. availahk at bicy.c.ltashops. ()I~cpopular
braiicl is (;m)~tl i?~ll~~.It is distributed iii tlitx L~ilitt~clStattbs 1~~~PtrCs
.5ywt, 011.., IS4 .2lni11 St., Kitig~~~~c~ltl
Prrsk, &\J07fXO.

-.

:\nothvr nlethod that has bee11 trkd is to fill thy inlltl- tuhc>s
\\,ith materials that trap air into t?n\. poc,I<tlts. There has becall sonata
s~~~~tss nith this, however, present methods adcl ~onsidcrablt~
Lveight to thtl tires. This is ver!. undesirablt~ from a pcrfrn-mancx~
staiiclpc~iilt.
A third method is latex inner tubes. Thew are so cblastic.that it
is cliffic.ultfor CVCII
a sharp object topenetratv them.
are HOVG
on the market and othcriarc almost sum
mvthocl has the advantage that IIO ~1st~~ \vvight i
\vhtxll.
.

* .,

49

111tb;~~hc~ts;tits importalit to deckle if thtl additional punc.turcl


rtslii5tiiilL,ci5 \\.c)I-[!I rhtl atldiiioi~al iost for the particular t>pt of
bic!.c.lirlg!c)Ll ii11 clld to C-10.
Wheels

Saddles

and Saddle

Posts

T!.pe, shape, qualit!-, and price are all considerations here. A


comfortable sadcdle-also call a scat-can make a considerable difference in the enjoyment of cycling.
The basic choices are \f-ide, narrow, racing or padded saddles.
Paddled saddles are sometimes called mattress saddles and some
evei1 hay<>coil springs. In actual practice, hwvever, there is more of
a c~oritinuum il-(,In one extreme to the other, than c1istinc.t t!ypes.
Tht> least expensive saddles t!.picall>r have a metal base, some
padding, and a thin plastic cover-or
with the padding as part of a
molded rubber or plastic cover. A slightly more expensive type .is
with a contour shaped base of flexible nylon or plastic covered with
leather or plastic materials. Depending on design and construction,
these are available from fairly inexpensive to very expensive models. These have, to a considerable extent, replaced the old standard
leather racing and touring saddles. However, the leather ones,
including hand liwked ones, are still around. There are a few people
around \ivho still think these are the best. Leather saddles generally
haive to be broken in. This means some uncomfortable riding until
either the saddle changes shape or the rider adjusts to the shape of
the saddle. My one experience with a leather saddle over a period of
50

a c.cjuplt~of vears of ~1st avas that neither of these things ever


happened. It still seemed as uncwnfortable after two years as it did
at the beginning.
,I
A hit\\.innovation, simpl!, c.alled Tllrl Swf:, \v;is developed and
is manufac~rured by TITt3
Jacobs Co@. , 6681 Araflhw Azwzzt~~,Roultide, CO 80303. I recently switched to one of these on my bicycle
-Pand I think it is the answer.
1Z~b%-ial.er, ,.I)irector of Produc? I)t~~c~lopmentat the Jtrtxbs
C!V$., supplied the following information:
, Thc~czt was developed to solve the problem that arises when
od\, meets a nonconforming material and has to stay in c0ntai.t
this hard material for a long period of time. The basic idea was
vcd at through our experience with the ski boot industry.
\
liith the advent of plastic ski boots utilizing hard shells, a
s;c\.ert problem developed in adapting the bones of the feet to the
LlIlChaJlj.$igmaterial of the shell. I)uring the course of a days skiing
pain and bruises ~vould develop. This problem was solved in the ski
industr!. b\. using SOJTI~ new foam materials of the slow memor\~
varitit\.. The flow-type materials provide a movable contact bet\\.ttw the plastic and /he foot.
T/ZCSwf \vas developed in the same manner, utilizing the exact
materials that revolutionized the ski-boot industryr.
, At the outset, the assumption \vas that we knew nothing about,
prior design of biq-cle saddles. This precluded ideas that Ivould
hinder development by preventing an open minded approach. In this
manner, thcl shape of the saddle Lvas redone in order to coincide
ivith the pressure areas of the body. These pressure
areas are
n;ainly the pelvic bone areas and the perineum, \vhich is between
thtl pelvic bonei and the genital area. At first, flo\v-ty-pe materials
B-ere used \tith various types of pad configurations that held the
flo\\. material to the molded body of the saddle.
After about 18 months of use, IW\V slow ~~~~~~uoyvfoams \vere
used in place of the flo\$laterial as thq~ provided the same advantages of the flow material with none of the disadvantages. A removably concept \vas utilized l+ith the fFame that also incorporated a
tension adiustment on the front of the saddle. :This is the first time
both these conce s were used in plastic saddles.
A new saddle, is being developed that is more adaptable to the
female anatomy7. To our knowledge, this will be $lw <first high
performance, lightweight female saddle available.
Thr?Swf is presently available in two models,a road or touring
saddle (Fig. 2-19) and a track seat (Fig. Z-20). I feel that TheSeat is

Fig. 2-19. Road model saddle called


Corporation.
r

The Seat.

Its made by the Jacobs

.,

a real boom to bicycling. The hne I installed on my bicycle was


L
comfortable right from the start, with no breaking-in period.
Its important that the angle of the saddIe be adjustable. This
might be part of the saddle post or saddle attachment bracket. Some
of the better saddle posts feature continuous micro-adjustment
capabilities. Less expensive ones, but still satisfactory for most
purposes, can be positioned only in notches and not between. The
difference is very subtle. bVhile it might make the fraction of a
second difference in iv-inning or losing a race, it probably would not
be worth the cost for ordinary riding. More expensive saddle
generally have a means of adjusting.the tension ivhich will make the
\
saddle stiffer or more flexible.
Consider* quality carefully. Some saddles will-especially
those \v<th Thin covering materials--wear
quickly. On some saddles, molded plastic or rubber covers can be replaced when they
wear out. Other saddles cannot be covered so easily and will usually
have to be replaced completely. Good quality leather saddles are
becoming hard to find-, but some will last for years. Inexpensive
leather saddles generally have short lifespans.
Iinportari t fac.tors to keep in mind \vhen selec.ting a saddle are:
--Suitabilit!. for !-our needs, especiall!. for c,:ornfort and riding
efficiency..
52

satltlle s;\\-itc*hclsin order to make a salt. This ~a11 often be used as


Itycmge
in gtltting esactl!- \vhat !.ou avant.
Inexpensi~~e saddle posts are often made of steel. Lighter and
more espcnsive ones are aluminum allo!.. ,21&e cwtai~i that it is
long r~lough so that several inc.hes [vi11extend C~O~VI~into the seat
tube at the highest adjustment that \vill be used.
Handlebars

Th&;cl arc available in a variet!. ofcoIlfi~~-atiolls. The three


basingt!.pes are flat, raised and dropped. The flat and raist4 hgndI allo\ys for better
Iebars allo\v riding in an upright position. This
\%ion \\-hthn riding in traffic. Also, riders \vith loi\. fitness and agilit!.
levels often find that these handlebars are suited to their needs.
\\ithin the flat and raised t!-pes are man! variations. ~Ioclels that
extend up\\*ar-da cwnsiclerable distance, called high-rise handlebars,
31:e pc~pular on childrens circles.
-4~) the novice e!.e, dropped handlebars might all look alike, but
there1 re actually many popular configurations. The choice depends
both on$. individual preference and intended use of the bic\>.cle.Some
offer more hand positions than others. Those that allo\v the most
erall!* i-ecom~i~e~iclecl for general riding and most t\.pcs of
ndlrbars are made from both steel and aluminum alloy. klost
raised handlebars are steel. The dropped type are available
/

F~cj.2-20. Track model of The Seat. The road and the track model of The Seat
are designed to coincide with the pressure areas of the body.

53

,-

ill both SttJcl :111(1


;1110!..In lhcb ,q~~llt~r;ll
liflcl of bil;c\s, thcl :~llo\. i5
t !.picAl!- fou~ld onI!. *on thrl mow CbSpclI1si\t
n~orlc~ls.Ihe~.usuall!~
51211
;1rourlclt!lo lllitltllt~of thtl IllcCliLllll-~i~ic.t~
ra~l~qt~..Stt~t~l
is strollgcr
;lllCl fol- [his Isc;ISc~l) tlltlletL;Il-t t~sptlllsi\~t~stetal olit~s for trac,li bil<CS
that

c;lIl t ClliC Il~tslll~~IldOUS fOleLTtS.

Handlebar

Posts

I~cx~ xv also called stems and goosen~~%s. They attach


insidv the fork tubt> or stem that pasws through! the httad tube of the
,bicyc*le framt>--b>- an expansion device. The cheap& types ha\vtl
1o it side tlxpansion and a regular protruding bolt head. Lore expensi\.e ones hx-e double expansion and eithc;r a reg~~lar protruding bolt
a
head or anA/lu~l nut. The ,411~~1nut prcstnts
a neater appearance.
>lan>. bic~>~clc
mc~c%anicxprefer the bolt head bc~ause it is easier to
StcuI-t?.

Hankllt~bai-posts arc a~%latile in stvtll alltl aluniinuni allo!-. Thv


latter is lightt>r but Ill01-e tLsptvsi\-c.
1
Ihc hantll~4~ar post has a btwing OIJ botJ the> height and
distant.: for\\x-d of the handlt~bars. lhtl height ~25 gtlnerall!. by
acljust~~~l\ivithili ;I cxbrtain raIikqtJ.It i5 inlportant to ha\yv al lcast one
alld ollc-h;~lf-illc.tldo\{.11irxitlc thtl forI\ tubv. Ec,r\var:d/bac.li\~~~*-d
a(lju~tnlt~llts uSu;lll!- rcquircl s\i7itc-hill,gto 211~
~thclr harlrllebar post
\iith ;I cliffvrt,Iit Icbllgth Iltx*l;. Ho\~~~~c~I-, LhcI-c art! also a fcb. haIItllvbar posts th;lt ;~ll(w adjustmt~llt of thchfor-~v~~rd/ba~k\~~~I-d
c1istxlc.v.
Grips

Kubbcbr or plastics grips art gvnerall!- ustd on flat and raisvcl


handkbars. In addition to a better appearance, these provide for a
better grip. help absorb road shock and provide prqtwtion from
injury by covering the ends of the handlebar%.
Taping

This is cgt~titr;ill~.
ustd iI1pl:ic~t~
of grips 011tlroppt~tl h~~~~tll~lxlrs.
\\.ith sonic c~sc.t~ptioIis,plastic. taptb is the>stla~id:irtl for int~spt~l15i\7t
bilivs a11clcloth for nlctliunl pricx4 a11tl t~spt~lA~.v OIICS.k)\~~t~\7t~r,
this cx~not by us;cd 21s a guicltl for judging the qualit !. of bic*!.c.lt-s.
Patlclt~l t;lpcs is also a\Aablc. This \\,ill help to absorb road
shoc~k. C!.vling gloves cwi be ustd. For short trips and utilit!. riclihg,
_, I recommend the padded tape.
Thy cntls of thy bars should al\f.r-i~.sbe pluggtAc1.Ihisis not onl~~
for holding thy tlntls of thtb tape in pla~v. but also for, safct!..
Head Sets

Ihc htlatlsvt is the bearings, CUPS.~YHWS,


and other parts that
allow the: fork to turn in the hvacl tubv of the frame. [Z-hen inspvc.ting
54

Brakes

-....
..

.._

Coast tar hralct~s ope&qb!- bac%lipr&lin~. fsnct\.


I,,- arc c~ommonl~
used on single-speed bikes and sometimes on hub-gexed models.
Jhtw v;~H-J
in prictb and qualit!-, but most \vill give good sqvicc.
Calipcrbrakes arc often used on hub-geal-ed~ilies a11cl 011 the
ninjorit! of (It~I-aill~ur-gral-~~lbic*!.c,ltls.These art opt~ratt~d b!. haIld .
ItJ\.ttrs \\,hiih press rubber pads against the sides of the rim. Ihc t\vo
. -~.
nwn t!.ptas in use are side- ull and ccalltet--pull. lhtb side-pull
type-btxxw
poorly clrs Id and cxHlstl-uctccl ll~c~dc~ls al-t2 often
us~(l 011c~hc~apbic*!.c-lcsrp are commonly- thought to bc inferior. But
this is Iiot al\\2!.s trut. Some of thy finest and most espt~llsive
brakcbs nladc, s~1c.h as the Ctr~~~/wg~~olo
,tr~/tlZPI(S brands, ;lrt~ sitlc~~111
(Fig. Z-21). In the case of most caliper brakes used on inespensive and medium priced bicycles, however, center-pull models
generally seem n-we satisfactory.
Both c-(inter-pull and side-pull types have two arms that rotate
in oppositr diwction to form a clamps. This clamp is the rubber pads
that fit against the rim. The pivot on side-pulls is at one point at the

Fig. 2-21. Zeus high quality side-pull

caliper brakes
i

55

Fig. 2-22 Center-pull

caliper brakes.

side. Center-pulls have a separate pivot point for each arm. They
have a transverse crossover cable with a sliding device to which a
single ~iire connects and goes to the control levers. This arrangement is shown in Fig, 2-22.
Some caliper brakes have yuiek release levers that make Lvheel
removal easier. Another feature to look for is a c.able adjuster to
take up slakli in cables.
l\hen, c*hecking caliper brakes on a particular bit!-<*le. make
t the!, spriiig back cluic~kl~.
\vhen the hand lever is released.
eal; spring ac*tioil is a COII~OI~ problenl \vith caliper brakesT
especiall!~ \vith lo\\- cost moclc~ls.
In practic-t,, c=aliperbrakes tend to ~vork poorl!~ in \vet lveather
L
a11clon do\vilhill runs. For this reason and others, disc. brakes are
gro\\ing in popularitl-. Llanv stock bic\.cies now come <\-ith these.
Some of these are not affected when they get wet and the cooling is
better than on brake pads when used on long downhill brake rides.
Disadvantages of disc brakes are they tend to be heavy, somewhat
complicated and expensive.
I)rum brakes are another possibilit!.. Ho\vever, ivhile the!, are
available, these do ilot seem popular on r&ar
biqvcles. Their
primary. use ,citems to be \vhen extra heav!. dut!. braking is
rt~cluil-rtl-suc.has on taiidem bit!-cles.
k\
1
56

,,

Pedals

The least espwsivr pedals cannot be dismantled for lubrication or c~verhaul. These are available i\+th metal bases and rubber
fcwt pbds and of all-metal constructirm. These pedals are generall>
fo~md: only. on the least expensive nlanufa~tur-ed bicycles. The?
gtwer;ally lack pre&ion and art subject to frequent brgakdomm. The
advantacgt~ is tht>.Iowcost.
=.
P~lal~ .>iith metal bases and rubber foot pads that can be
disasstmblrd fcirwpair and lubrication arv usuall), of better quality..
live- are popular for use OIIutility. bic.!.cles. lhelmbber foot pads
LX~bta ;-in~~rl\~ant:dgt~
over all metal p&Is for riding \vith thin soled
shoes and barcfoottd. The latter pram,tic-e places the feet in a
position L-u!v.crable to injur1. and sho&l be clis;couraged.
Tot c*lips and straps n-ill not orcliIlari1~~attach to the rubber
pedals. Hou.t~~~cr-,there are a fe\v pedals of this;?>.pv that co~ne\+ith
L-lips, straps or both. The use, advantages and disadvantages of
[lips and straps are clvtailed in the nest chapter.
Lletal pt+ls are called ~~~ttm~s (Fig. Z-&3) and can be used
\vith or \vithout toe clips or.strtips. A few bin?cles in the low pried
range coinr nit11 toe Aps and straps. Most oft?11 these are not seen
on biq.c.les below the medium price range. Provided the pedals are
of a suitable t>Tpe, the!. are an irwspensive ,ancl eas). to install
ac~~essor~~,Consider carefull!- JOUI-owed for them. The!. provide
greater peclaling.~ffi~iell~~., but tend to mar street shoes. You might
feel less cmfide~~t, espwiall!, in heav>- traffic, as it is necessaq. to
release thy feet in order to put them on the ground. It is a skill that
canbe clone quickl!, once mastered, but it takes practice to develop.
a

Fig. 2-23. A ra&ap

pedal.

57

Fig. Z-24. Zeus high quality racing pedals.

1Iost of the metal pedals have teeth to keep !-our shoes from
slipping. Racing peclals, holyever, generall~~ have no teeth (see Fig.
Z-24). Special shoes with cleats are \vorn to hold !-our feet in
position on the ptadals.
Regardless of the type of pedals, they should spin freely. Most
standard pedals are lubricated with grease. A few ped#s with
permanently sealed bearings are now on the market. S&ne top
quality racing pedals are lubric
d with oil; As a general rule,
inexpensive pedals are heavy and the expensive ones are light in
weight.
Crank

Sets

These consist of the bottom bracket bearings and assembly


and the cranks. The t.wo basic types of cranks are one-piece and
three-piece arrangements that make up the pedal cranks and axle.
The one-piece type is frequently used on inexpensive bicycles
and less frequen,tll. on medium-priced ones. These are made of
steel. The advantages of this type are t-hat they, are strong and
relatively, trouble free. The main disadvantage is extra weight. I
especially. recommend these foranyrthing beyond normal riding. For
yVoungcr riders,
Lvhere curb jumping seems to be the rule rather
than the exception, the one-piece type are much more likely to
stand up than the three-piece ones.
The three-piece type are made up of an axle and two separate
crank arms. Thereare two basic methods used for attaching the
crank arms to the axle. They are totters, called cottered cranks and
with bolts that are used to hold crank+rms on wedged axle ends.
This method is called cotterkss.
4
The axles on both types are typically steel. Cottered cranks
are generally, steel and cotterless are usually aluminum alloy.
As a general rule, one-piece cranks are used on the lowest
priced bicycles, the cottered on intermediate priced bikes and the
cotter-less on expensive models. There is, however, much overlapping.
58

ForthtA general IUI of stot*l<bit!.t-ltx, the lcn~th of t.I*aIlliarn~s


is fairly. starrdarized. Hut there are somt ~~ar-iations. I,OII~~CY- ;m~s
I-an gi\e btlt t er leverage for increast4 riding effic.itlnc.!., but thercl
must be adt~quate ground
f clearanc*e for saftk c,ornering for the t!.Pc of
riding int endt~rl.
Ilith the chain I-~I~IOV~Y~, the cxmk assembl!. should spin freeI!.
\i-ith no noise. Slost bicycles. have bearings thatare in retainers or
loose. A number of qualit!. bic!.cles now featurti permancntl!. sealed
bearings and other manufacturers a& slvitching to thaw. lht
a&vantage of not having to overhaul (clean and lubricate) the bottom
bracket assembly could be well worth the additional cost for man!
riding purposes.
Chains

These are extremely important. However, it takes a vyerq


esperitwc~ecl c>.e to even begin to judge qualit), just b\. looking at a
chain. In most cases, !.ou will just have to assume that the chain
used on a particularbicycle is of a qualit!. in keeping ltith the rest of
the bike. As a rule, makers of quality bicl-cles uill n t skimp on the
Y
chains used.
Control

Cables

These are used for both caliper and disc brakes and shifters.
The main thing to che+ckis that the cable moves freeI>? through the

Fig. 2-25. The brake control cable housing fits into the lug which is brazed to the
frame.

59

I
FICJ 2-26 Shlmano

Dura-Ace

10 chalnand

track model hub

Th? wmainder of the ~ornponents that go to make up complete


bicZI-cl~s--hain~~heels, rear sprockets, freewheels, shifters and
cxontrols-are, I feel, best mvered along with their Operation. One
of the most cmfusing things that a newcomer faces in selecting a
bicycle is gears. Not only must quality be considered, but also type,
nurnbtx- of pears and gear ratios.
Fixed-Wheel

Track

Bicycles

Perhaps the best ltiy ti) gain an understanding of gearing


s!~,tems and gear ratios is to start ifith a fixed-hub track biq-cle.
Thr basic drive mechanism is shoivn in Fig. Z-26. ,iotice that the
small rear sproc.ket is fixed to the hub. It G-illnot f-reewli&l. \lhen
the \i.htlrI turns, so does the chain\vheel and cranks.
2,
... 3%
,,The beaut!. of this s>xtenn is the sirnplic:it>-. If both th& rear
sprocket aI]d cThaiIlG5 1 are the same size and have the s~rn~
2.
number- of teeth, the *gt r ratio iyould be one-to-one (1: 1). Somt~
?a
u
small sprockets have rml~.ever!. other tooth, but in computing gear
ratios. thy missing teetl?are wunted as though the!. iterr there-.
One-to-one \f.ould be ?m el~tremel~~ low gear ratio. The biqxj?
~voulclbe easy to pedal, but JOUwouJdnt gi) very faJ*Lvirheach ptdal
c~!.~ltb.A more normal arrangement, with the chain\vheel larger than
the sproc.ket, is harder to pedal-but >ougo further \\ith each pedal
$
I
601

.1
;

?*

cycle. The formula for determining

the gear ratio is:

number of teeth on chainwheel


number of teeth on rear sorocket
K-(
If, for, example, there were 45 te,$th c)n a c amwheel and 15 on
a rear sprocket, the gear ratio wauld be three-to-one (3: 1). Since a
numb& divided by one is the number itself, the gearratio isJ: In
Fig. Z-27, thechainwheel has 48 teeth and the rear sproiket in Fig.>,
2-26 has 14. The gear ratio, rounded off to the nearest tenth, is 3.4.
In actual practice, gear values rather than gear ratios are
generally used. This is calculated as follows:
gear ratio, =

gear value = gear ratio x wheel diameter

<

In the example ab&ve where the gear ratio is 3.4, the gear
value is 3.4 x 27, or 91.8. The,geax value represents the-size the
wheel would be QFa direct drive (riun-fi-ee~vheelillg~ cycle wit& a 1: 1
gear ratia. In this example, the wheel would- be 91.8 inches in
.?w
diameter.
Notice that fhis isni$\he
disiance covered. To compute the
distance covered, you woulicl need to multiply by 3: 14. *However,
s
this isnt $orrnally done and the &-car,vahcs are used instead.
.- _~-- Virieus reasons have been given for not using tli& track distance. Apparer&y its because multiplying by the constailt, 3.14
would only serve to increase the size of the numbers. Sometimes
the reason. stated is that the ivheels are not .exactly 27 inches (or

Fig. 2-27. Shimano

Dura-Ace 10 crank set and track model. front chainwheel

61

I,
C

Fig. 2-28. Shimano

Model TB-100 three-speed

hub without coaster brake-.,

lvhatever). This seems invalid, as the same error also ivould enter
into the gear value formula.
Single-Speed

Bicycles

The drive assembly of a regular single-sired bic!.cle- besides


the fact that the track bike is an expensive, precision machinediffers from the track biqycle described above in that it ~srlllcoast or
free\vheel v,%en the pedals are stationaqv. This is accomplished b>.a
free~vheeling mechanism between the rear sprocket and the rear
hub. The rear lvheel cannot turn slower than the rear sprocket is
turning, but it c-an rotate faster.
Disregard coasting when you are calculating gear values. This
is the same as was donefor the fixed-hub track bike in the section
above.
Notice that \\.hile J*OUOII~J- h&e a single gear value on a
single-speed bicycle, you do have a choice of what that value is in the
sense that you can change to sprockets with differentnumbers of
teeth to obtain a new gear value. The gear value for the track bicycle
in the section above, 91.8, is extremely high. For ordinary riding on
a freewheeling single-speed bicycle, a gear value of about 60 to 80
would be more common.
Hub-Geared

Bicycles

These allow sixitching into two or more different gear ratios


Lvhileriding. On a three-speed-the
most common number used on
hub-geared bic!~~lcs-the gear shifting is commonly done b>.a lever
or twist grip. There is a set position for each gear,. These are
62

typicall!. marked *L for low gear, N for neutral or sprocket gear


ratios, and H for $h gear. The gear value for the N position can be
madtk by counting ?he teeth on the rear sprocket and chainwheel and
then making the calculations as though the bicycle were a singlespeed. Thy other two gear values can be determined onl~~with great
difficult!.. Hcjwever, the manufacturer should-and
almost always
does-have
these in the specifications. A. sprg;t;-ket OI- chainwheel
switch to one w-ith a different number of teeth will change all three
gear values. For example,. on a Shiwaw three-speed hub with a 48
tc,oth chainwheel and a 14 tooth rear sprocket, the gear values in
order of L, N and then H are 68, 88 and 120. This is an extremel>
high range of values for a three-speed. With a 16 tooth rear sprocket, the same setup would have gear values of 60, 78 and 104. This
would be about average for a fairly fit rider. A 19 tooth rear sprocket
gives gear values of 49, 66 and 88. This gives a fairly low range of
gears, but many riders would find this ideal for around town riding.
A Shimu)lo three-speed hub without a coaster brake is shown
in Fig. 2-28. One with a coaster brake is shown in Fig. 2-29. These
require shifting by the rider. Fig. 2-30 shows a Shimutzo automatic
tvvo-speed hub. With this unit, the gear shifts automatically from
low to high and vice versa according to the running speed of the
biclrcle. Since no shifting is rrqu@d, even a beginner can safely. use

Fig. 2-29. Shimano

Model TC-100 three-speed

hub with coaster brake.

63

Fig

2-30

Shimano

-De$aiIIeur-Geared

Model AB-100

tomatlc two-speed

hub

Bicycles

The best ~YI>. to stud>, the operaticm


of dcGlleur gcw-s is to
placta a cl~raillrur bic*J.cle511 a niaint~nanw I-ac.li or upside down so
that the pedals ~XI be rotated b>,hand and the shift lcvc~s opcratcd.
C~~unter-tcrpdelnoIlstrators that I~II!~ biq,cle shops have to a~.quaint potential ~~uskqrrs
with derailleur mechanisms \vill serve
the san1e purp<jsc.
c~~~~~=...~~~
First, consider a five-spemwas
a cluster of five S~IWCkets at tht>rear hub-each \iith a differeni??teeth.
A; ~vas
thy caw Liith thtl single-spwd, there is a free\l.h~~liI~g-~~~a~~
bet\veen thcl sproc-ket cluster and the hub. There is a single c$ain\vhYCl at the crml<.
Ihc gcw valut~s ~c?lldt~prnd on which of the rcar sprcjc*kets the
chain is on. Thert~ \vill be five cliffcwnt g,rear \.alues. For cwnlplt~, if
thy chain\vheel has 50 teeth and the war cluster from the largckst
inside sprotrkct outlvard is 28, 24 , 20, 17 and 14. the gclar valuc!s
from the loivest -which would be iiith thy chain on the 28 tooth rear
sprocket-to
the highest are 48, 56, 68, 80 and 96.
How is the chain moved from one rear sprocket to the next?
The chain is ar:tuallq: derailed from me sprocket & that it $11 move
over onto the nest one. With a five-speed mounted so that the
derailleur can be operated by hand, turn thtl pedals and then operate
the shift lever. If a l&speed bicycle is used for the demonstration,
simply leave the front derailleur ineitherposition and lvork only the
control lever for the rear derailleur. On the five-speed, there is only
orie drrailleur c.cjntroi lever.
64
3

- %

---?----

Fig. 2-31. Sun Tour V-%T reardkrailleur

Notice that the rear derailleur mechanism (Fig. 2-31 and Fig.
Z-32) pk-forms tivo basic functions. It moves the chain from sprocket to sprocke.t and,it takes:up the slack in the chain. The latter is
required. Withoit this, the chain%tension would be different on the
smallest rear sprocket than on one ofthe larger ones. Qn a single-

Fig. 2132. Another view of a rear derailleur.

65

.,_

-,-..^,. ,, ,I,. _
speed bicycle, a single chain- ie$h s;ffices~ On the derallleur
;~~st~nl,
man! lengths are needed.
The rtw- tlcrailleur mechanism has t \vo small pulleys \t.ith
~ag~sarwnd them that move inward and outward by means of
transvcrsing arms that are shaped in a parallelogram that is under
spring tension. The cage remains parallel to the sprockets. There
are a fe\v nc\v designs that var!. slightI!. from this. The in\vard travel
is b!. means of an operatin@shift lever and outward is bv$ction of a
sprisg
mec*hanism when
the tensii)n on the control lever Geleased.
.\
The chain is dera-l~+y
from one sprocket to the nest. Skipping
sprocke,ts lvhen JC>U
shift is poor technique and tends to damage
chain and sprockets. The chain must ,be moving, that is, the bicycle
pedalecl, for shifting to take place.
The pullet. cage is also under spring tension tolvard the rear of,
the bic!.cle. It is this that keeps the spring in tension regardless of
.)
the sprockets (front and rear) that the chain is on.
i
VC
The shift operating mechanism on most derailleur systems is
cmtiIlUcJUS
ac*tion. There are noset stops for each gear. The cable
---c
pulls the paI;allelopranl,~open. This shifts the derailleur mechanism
,I.,
.,
t&vartl the high side (largest sprocket but lowest gear). Release the
,,aL
2
%d
tension on the cable and a spring returns the mechanism to the*low
side (smallest sprocket but highest gear). Only the limits are adjustable. There are two adjustment screws. One limits the pulley travel
on the high side and the other limits the]pulley. on the low side. ,
.These are t!-picall>- marked by the adjusting screws with an H for4
2
, .I
high side and an L for low side.
The pulley that derails the chain is called .the jo&y wheel or
roller. The loiver roller, which maintains the chain tension, is called
the tc)lsion wheel or r-oiler. The rear sprocket cluster is often called
ths ,t~~~~~l~c~~l.
The hub of the sprocket% contains the freewheeling
mechanism.
Five sprocket rear clusters have become the standard
nuqber. Other numbers, especially three and six, are sometimes
i,
,
!
4
used.
@Thefive-speed derailleur system described above is made into Ia lo-speed by means of a double chainwheel at,, the crank (or
15speeds with..a triple chainwheel) and a separate front derailleur
system for this \vith its own control lever.
L7
The front derailleur mechanism (Fig; .2-33) derails the chain,
causing itto move from one sprocket to the next in a manner similar
:
to the rear derail&r. However, the front mechanism does not have
a device for maintaining chain tension. This is taken care . of. by the
rear tension delice.

Gsr/
.

66

--..

C.I

.I

,F,_

.I--

~,

,_

--

--

..-

.~

..,,

,_

_-,

__

I-$

Fig. 2 -33. Sun Tour front derailleur

Like the war derailleur: the front derailleur is cable operated


i and has t\vo limit-stop_ adjusting screws. The small (inside) chain-
Lvheel gives the lowergear, the large (outside) one gives the higher
<
gtw. This is exactly the opposite of the rear sprockets.
On most front derailku~rs, the lever pull deforms the paralthe chain from the
lelogram of the pantograph &tward-moving
smaller to larger chainwheels. The spring action when the tension
on the lever is released pulls the parallelogram in\vard. A problem
\iith this is that pulling the rear control~..lever toward you gives a
IOUYI-g&r, but pullingthe front control lkver toward you gives a
higher gear. This arrangement takes consid&r$le practice to get
1.
used to.
The Sztll ?ow front derailleurs lvork the oppkte of this. The
spring moves the cage outivard and the lever pulls it k-ward.
This
I.
simplifies operation in that pulling either control lever toiirard you
~-ill a1hvaJ.sresult in a lower gear. Pushing either control lev&aya>
will result in a higher gear-until
the limits are reached.
I<..., .
One problem that has long been associated with derailleur pIL_
s>-stems is the amount of skill required to operate them. On most
..,
>
derailleurs, the shifting must be done b>. feel, as there are no set
positions for centering the chain over individual sprockets.
In an at tempt to get around this problem, the Shimmo I1zdustunl Ct,.Ltd. , developed thePositro?z rear derailleur (Fig. 2L34). The
features are:
677
-.f

Fig. 2-34. An enlarged view of a rear derailleur.


3
r

+a

A positive indt&ing mechanism is built into the derailleur


to give carefree shifting. Its a click mechanism with
recessed cups into fvhich a steel ball drops.
111t~ich gear &ition the chain is centered on tRe sprocket. This eliminates slopp!. shifts and irritating noise.
It forks independentl!~ from the front deraillcur. Therefore,it can be used on five or 10 speed biq-cles ilrlthout
.
an>. problems.
\thile most derailleur systems use a pull-release s>xtem
ii-ith a single cable, the Prxifrolz uses a two cable pullpull s!-stem. This results in light and accurate shifting.

The Shiuzn)lo Co has also developed a derailleur system that


can be shifted e~vtwLvhen the rider is not pedaling. Its called theFF
.S~~Stf~w
t;wllt E~,c~c~~~~lz~~~~li~~g
S_\strsm. It utilizes a free\vheeling
mechanism \\-hic%h
is attached to the front chainivheel (Figs. 2-35 and
2-36.) This allo\vs the chain to continue to revolve even after
pedaling has stopped. The advantages of this feature are:
68

Fig 2-35. Shlmano

L-3?

Front Freewheeling,

(FF) System.

A particular gear Ican be presele~trcl tx~fore riding b).


shifting the lever ,and pushing the bicycle fonvard. This
allon~s the rider to shift from high to low gear befort
mountirlg the bike.

F lg. 2-36., A front freewheeling

chainwheel.

(i
4

69

Fig. 2-37. A rear frrctional freewheel


assembly

Yo;.can continue to shift the gears ei~en \vhile slovzing


do\vn to a stop and be in the proper gear \vhen you start
again.
/
BecaustJ shifting can be .done without putting pressure
on the pedals, the shift itself will be easier and more
e preList>. The tension on the chain becomt~s uniform
ivhile coasting. This results in unjgccedent ed snloot hncss in shifting.
Backlash due to shifting while pedaling backwards is
totally eliminated. Proper shifting can be accomplished
even while the rider is pedaling backwards.
Both derailleurs can be shifted at the same time to give
more precise control over gear selection.
The front crank is freewheeling. If an object such as a
pants cuff gets caught in the chain, the rear freewheel
(SW Fig.. Z-37) will engage and override the front
freewheel and stop the chain. This is an important safety
feature.
L1any-riders find it difficult to properly. coord%EIte their
B shifting while pedaling up a hill. With the FF S~stcu~, a
rider can shift into a lower gear without pedaling.
There is a mechanism that limits the movement of the
chain in both high and low gears. Even if the derailleurs
are out of adjustment, the chain will not fall off the
spro~kt~ts.
The FF S~stt~m will adapt to most bicycle frames without any
alteration being required on the bottom bracket. The Shimano FF
Systt)m is also used on a bicycle marketed by the Pan.asonic Co.,
C>W Pnnasonic
70

Wqy, Secauus,

NJ 07094.

Regardless of whether you decide on a five, 10, or 15-speed


tlcrailleur s~~~tc~ni,
!.ou iv-ill\varit to c.onsider carefull!. what the gear
\alucbs \fill be. &lost IWIVbic.!.c.les \+ill have a gear chart sho\fing the
gear values for the particular rear sprcxket s and chainwheels used.
If not, b.ou can cou11t the sprocket teeth and calculate them. A
t!.pical char-t follo\vs. This one happens to be for nn!. Azuki 8(iO j c s---2..
---~--&I$<TOli?TK
il
--._
Teeth
o11 Rear Sprockets
.
i.k
+A
- -.
34 8 22 18 14.
Teeth 011
Chain\vhctel

& -./:;11,:J&
52

i.__
The gear development-gear
valuesf?Wowest
to highestii: 37, 41, 44, 50; 57, 64, 69, 78, 89 and lOO.This.,~v~derange of
gears is for touring. Not all rear derailleurs will handle a range of
from 14 to 34 teeth sprockets. The rear derailleur on my bike is a
SW 70uu VGT alloy long armed model. The Grnn~! Towing indi- ..
catesthat it ~~111
handle a Gde range of gears.
On road racing bicycles, a narro!ver range of gears& generally
used than for touring. A few points that should be kept in mind when
selecting gear values are:

Fig.2-38.

Derailleur

shift controls

;F?

located on theChandlebar

stem.

The \vPight of the bic~>.c*lt~


is a1 important r,~)nsicle~atiol1.
111~cw~T;I~, ;I heavitbr bit-l-clcl should have ;I Iov,rrr 1y1gtl
of gc71r ~~;tlucsthan ;i light cl- b-vi&t b&c>.
E;catapin iiiind the intt~ndccl use. If J.OLIwill btl ricliiig in
nlouiltaiil areas \vhere there are a lot of steep hills, a
Iou,tx I;;~~igt- of gtm- values ~voulcl be c~alleclfor than if
nlost of !.our riding is to be on level I-oads.
c;car;

13iues

of ov&

a 11u11c11wl gtIlcIAl~-

21-t ncit IltYded.

\va!. most riders can handle these is b!. pedaling


slo\\4\-. This is generall\ muc~h less efficient than a louver
gtm\,alue
that can be handled at a higher cadence.
Tr!- to get the gear values !ou ~-ill be using most in the
middle of the gear range.
lvith the ivrong gear
i If you find the bicycle you want-but
values for you-in many cases a bicycle dealer ivill make sprocket
switches and therefore change gear values.
Loc*ation.of shift levers is another consideration. Until recently., almost all derailleur shift levers were on the bottom tube. This is
still the arrangement used on most racing bicycles. For touring, tlvo
other positions are popular. They are o11 the handlebar stem (Fig.
2-39) and on the handlebar tips. Each location has its advantages and
disadvanta&s and the choi.ce is an individual~matter.
The lever%,inc1udingsfick shifts, are sometimes located on the
top tube. For obvious reasons, this presents a safety hazard and I
recommend that you avoid these.
The

oni!.

THE TOTAL BICYCLE

AND WEIGHT

It is one thing to conside*r the components that make up a


bicyvcle, but quite another to make a selection ivhen they. are assembled together to form an actual bkycle. You might have some
choices in switching some components, but this- is -generally a
limited possibility-especially
in the case of l<ower priced models.
If each component on one bicyycle weighs just a little more than
those on another bicy-cle, the total weight can be considerably more.
That is why. so much emphasis is placed by manu!%cturers on
shaving off ounces on various components-especially
in the case
medium priced and expensive models.
As has been pointed out, light weight is not the only facto: to
consider. A bicj-cle must also be strong enough and have the desired
rigidity.
The .frame is usually, less than half the total weight of:a complete bic>,cle, so h*eavy,components can easily offset gains made by.
+.@ng a lighter lveight frame. Mast manufacturers match the quality
?
4
72

* am
.- b
. -

<

: .

THE RIDER AND THEblCYCLi

\\hilca elaborate char-ts have been cleviwcl for dyt errnining the:
proper bicJ.cltl size from body, nleakwients,
I feel that tnw simple:
rneasurcmcyts ar-e a much nlore practical method. The first is to,
; take off JXXUshoes and 3kaddle over the karne bar nith both feet:
flat OIIthe floes. There shoj~l?~,be at least a one-half inch,~,cle
i

Fig. 2-39. Some of the bicycle accessories

offered by AMF.

<

73

between crotch and top frame tube. If there is more than one inth
clc~arance, tr) thy nest larger frame size. d
The ~CYYH~~
mC;1surement is reac*h. This is the distance from
the saddle to the handlebars. \tith l-our bent elbow placed against
the for\varcl wd of the saddle, the extended fingers should reach to
the center of thtb handlebar clamp. If this distance is off, minor
c~orrt~ctions can bcb made b!. switching to a hancllt~bar posi \\ith a
different length 11ec.k..Also, adjuStment can be made in $he f&+
ivard/backivard adjustment of the saddle. For proper balance, the
forward tip of the saddle should generally be about t\vo inches
behind the crank asle center,.

ACCESSORlE$
\-(,u \{-ji] :;t""r-l
I'
cL,tc\
,,, Lonsider
wtra equipment in terms of \vhat J.OU

and ivhat is included Lvith the bicycle you choose. Since


ac.cessories add to the cost, the>. should be chosen carefull!,.
Its not ec.onoInic%alto purchase a bic>.cle Lvith accessories that
!.OUdo not avant. Sometimes a dealer will take these off and reduce
the price acwrtlingl!* or exchange them for spare parts such as
spa?r tires and tubes that you ~ill need in the future.
Accessories include fenders, kick stands, chain g~&r&, carr>.ing racks; lights. reflectors, tire pumps, lvater bottles and tool kits.
I feel that it is. most economical to keep the accessories at
approximateI>- the same general qualit!. as the bic>.cle. Choose
inexpensive accessories for inexpensive bikes and so on up the
price and quality scale.
Accessories add weight to the bicycle, so keep this in mind
xx-henm&ing selections. Always ask yourself if the compromise of
weight versus usefulness is worth it.
r~eeci

PRICE,-DESIGN,

QUALITQY AND WEIGHT

These are all factors that *dust be taken into consideration


lvhen selecting a bicycle. In the low price range under$l50, most
adult-size bicycles lsill weigH??Fpounds or more. Many yill scale in
at ove.r.40 pounds. Only in a cry few cases is the extra wcight used
P
to make a stronger bicycle than a typical lighter model in the next
higher price range. Most of thT8 extra weight is from using less
expensi-.re materials and construction methods.
.L In the mediun-price range of $150 t,o $230, most adult biclycles
\&igh t from about 27 to 38 pounds. The lighter weights are at the
high en,cl of the price range. In this price range, wme of the heavier
bicycles do use ,the added weight to good advintage. I have seen
~.oung riders use some of these bicycles for curb jumping without
74

apparent damage. I doubt if most lighter lveight bikes could withstand this t!-pe of use.
The point is, \vhtw comparing a heavier bicy& with a lighter
lvt+ht one, set how the estra weight has been used. Then decide if
this rnakc~s the bike 11lore suitable for theintended use.
Jhere is no getting around the point that lveight does affect
pt~r-foI-:ua:lc,t~.
Eight pounds differeI1c.e in Lveight of t\vo biq,cles that
L~.~I-c
equal iIl all other respwts \vould be inmediatel~~ apparent to
~IlIliOSt

LIIlJ. Iidt?I*.

IJI the> higher price range OVLY$300, J.OUcan expect light


\veigh t . The \veight is almost allva!.s under 30 pounds~ and freclutalltl>.under 25. 1Vhile a feLv road and track racing biq.&s are
available in the nlediu\m-priw I-arlgye. most are irl the high pr-ic.e
.
brac-litJt.

icycles

! get the most use and t,njo!,I


li.ill 11twl to c.omider riding, safclt!., Itgal 1x1
protc~c~tionof bicT!.c~lvs
alltl \v;tj-s of usiiig bi
RIPING

\.ou ~311.of ~oursc~,learrl to ride a hic.!,c*ltl\vithout u*lderstaiid-~q


ing
the forc.es that art at \vork to litlcp !OLIbc9anc~eclill m upright
position, just as J.OLI learn4 to ivalk \iithout first learning the
biomrc~hanic,s involved.
Ilith this in mind, it is often said that t\vo fortes--gS.roscopic
alld c~lltIifugal--enable balance OII a moving bic.\.c*le.
Liliv 2 to! g>-ros~opv, a spirmillg bic.!,c.le \vht~l holds its positiu/l ill spat-c~until upset b>- a11 outsitltb forcxl. This is OIIC~ f0rc.e that
tc~~ltls to l<tlttp a bic.>.c.ltl
ill bala~lct~ \vht~ll in motion. l-Io\vthvvr, SOIIIC
esptlrts c.onsider it to be only a niinor..fa~tor.
Cclntrifugal force is the effvct of pushing a;va!. from thy center
of a rotating bocl>..This fore is wperienwd Lvhen !.ou make a sharp
curve
iI1 a motor vehicle. 111bicj-r-k riding, a fall to one side is
~orrectecl bc turning the bic>.cle slightl>. in that direction so that
c,entrifugal forte m-ill push you back upright again. Bic>.cling is
basic*all~~a series of such c*orrections. The>. becxme so automatic
\vith practic*e that J-ou do ncti even have to think about them.
.A t\.pic*al biq,vle \vill, for a short distanw, maintain balance
c~cmting tlou~l a hill \\-ithout a r&r. It is possible to ride bicq-&s that
~fill not kcclp ba1anc.e \vhtvl coasting ivithout a rider. And one
77

specialI>. tlesignt~d bil.!,c9e that had the rider in a prone position was
abl: to reacbh c*oiitrolled speeds of 60 miles an hour with the rider
cwsting don11 ;I hill. \\ith $eclaling, c.ontrol \vas estremely- difficult
at 40 milt3 aii hour-.
p
lhc~cwnks give ltbverage in pedaling. In turn, there isa gear. ,
ratio \\vhic.hmost oftt)n allo\vs more than one \vhrel revolution for
4
eat% pedal rt~volutioii.
A niajor brt~~~kthrough in biq.cling c~anie Ivith the developnient
of fr-t~t~~~~hec~ling.
Ilntil this time, bic*!.cles ~vere fixed or direct drive
uiiits. One turn of thcl pedals gave a fixed distance-depending
on
the gear ratio to the ivheul-with no frec\vheeling. This principle is
still used for some r~pes of racing and artistic. bie>.cling.
Free\vhecklg gave a t?-en~er~lous boon to most types of bicq.cl-
ing. It also created a new problem-braking.
With the fixed drive,
F
braking is accomplished by slowing the pedal action.
Through the Jears various t>rpes of braking sy-stems have been
de\.eloped. On earl!. chain-driven bicycles, various gear ratios other
L
than one-to-one \verc~
used. Systems for changing the gear IJ
ratios
\vhile riding soon dev&)ped. It is interesting that new systems are
still being invented and tried. In the future, the derailleur system
\ Lvhichis the most popular toda!. niight ~v;ll bewrne obsolete.
Ithile sucxh things as braking and gearing systems have improved the efficricnc~!,of bic*!.cling,
they. also tended to increase the
skill required to operate a biq.ele.
Sluch of the earl!. development of the biq.cle seems to have
come about by trial and error and the efforts of individual inventors.
Only recently have computer models for bicycles been developed.
The results of this research might lead to further improvements and
a better understanding of the bicycle.
Learning

to Ride

The proper bic-!.c*lefor Iearniiig to ride is not newssarily the


right siztl after the fundamentals have been learned. The saddle
should be adjustablck and acljusted to the point where the learner uan
straddle the saddle and easil>- put both feet flat on the ground
outside the pedals. A single-speed bicycle with a,coaster brake is
generally best.Jf a geared bicycle is used, place it in one fairly low
gear and leave if there. Hand operated brakes tend to make learning
more difficult.
Forget about training wheels. It has been rn). experience that
these only- hinder learning, even for small children, but probably
more so for older ages. hever add blocks to pedals in an attempt to
make a large bic!.cle fit a small rick. About the only exception to
L
78

,-

this that I CJII think of is ti,adapt ;I bicycle for ;I rider wit,h ;1handir~ap
such as is sonletimes done Lvith the controls on automobiles.
AAlu~a!-s
\vtw- shoes \vhen ~wu arc Iiding a bie!.c*le.The bic.>.c.l$
should have ;I r.hainguard. A bt~ginner c~~Ildbe scriousl>. injured b!.
catChiIIg c-lothing between the sproc-ket and chain. Lcam in a lxgv
open area \vith a level su1fac.e that is hard, smooth and free of motor
vehicle 1raffic..
Begin b>. straddling the sadclle. Plac*e J~OUIfeet on thtl ground
outsjde the pedals. Ilith the bic!ycle in a stationar1. position. p1~ac.tic.e
lifting >(xIt-feet off the ground. Then p1ac.e thtnl do\vII again.
Se,t , learn to move forlvard b\. \valking !~our feet along thcl
_
ground outside the pedals. This is the way hobby horsrJs were ridden.
14s you increase speed,.but not too much, .&-ypicking your feet up off
the ground and coasting for a short distance before you put your feet ,qidown. Gradualljr increase the coasting distanc;e with your feet off -
the ground.

_.
Xest p.osA$50none pedal forlvard-usuall!.
the right one-but
use the left if It kels more natural. Straddle over the saddle. Grip
the handlebars, lean forLvarc1 slightl\; and ivith one foot on the
for~varrl pedal, push tlo~vn on the pedal. Coast forv,aI-d. Then place
both feet on the groundt
The next step is to start as above, onl~rthis time also bringthe
se~~~nclfoot up to the other pedal. Coast. Return J.OUI-feet to the
;j
ground.
Continue to practic and add additional pedal revolutions as !*ou
4
gain confidence. To 3~, back pedal slo~vl~,. \lhen the bie)-ele is
nearly at a standstill, take one foot-usually
the left-off pedal and
place it on the ground.
10turII, simpl), point the front ivheel iw the clirec$on >ou ifish
to go.
After >-!x~have mastrrecl the basics, the saddle can be raised
*for mart efficient riding.

Riding

Tips

An accomplished bic!.cle rider does man>. things differentl>,


than a beginner. In other ivords, there are skills-and techniques to
learn. 1Vith practice, these can become automatic and you will no
longer have to think about them. However, its important that you
dont allow incw-rect techniques to become habits.
Riding is a wmbination of things such as posture, balanvtl,
pedaling techniques, gear shifting, braking and even breathing.
79

Posture.

The most cwmfortable posture does not ;rl\f!ays offer


thca le:rst [find rt4stanctl. You might haveto sacrifice some comfort
if !ou avant rnaxinlunl efficiency. Dropped handl,ebars offer 3 choice
of riding positions. \fYth your hands,on the lmver ban.dlebars, lean
~~OUI-hcly
\vtlll for-\v;u-d. This offers less lvind resistance than ivhen
J~OUat-t sitting upright. The leaning forivarcl position might take
sorxt gtttiqq ustld to. Sore back and neck muscles might result at
first. Alttrnating leaning forlvard ivith a more upright posture is
often helpful: Flat handlebars are often preferred by those ~410 lack
the fitness or desire to assume an extreme leaning position,
lhc,rl-pt. and l?ight of sadd!e \\-ill also ha\:e a bt~at$g.w !~our
posturtl. Perhaps the most ~olnfortabltl-although
this point is
often debate&i:> :: V~I-J- lo~v positioned, padded mattress-t!-pe
saddle \r;ith thcbridtlr sitting nearl>- upright. Ho\\fever, this is not the
most effic+nl tiding position as far as
\find resistance OIpedaling is I-oI~~~~TI~~~~. Your leg muscle
t-t the most polver
,
\\,hrn the!- can be full>-extended.
A \\irlc satlclle interferes \vith leg+nl$on esprciall!, \vhen the
L-.g idle is positionec! u p high. A narro\i+ saddle-allows ~-our thighs to
brI airl;v~+c9ose
together. The saddle cari be placed high so that the
.
,,,%gs \~i+%e almost full\. extended \vhen they are on the pedals in the .
lo\s.est position of a pedal c!-cle.
i\
\ -_
On long rides, the question of posture becomes confusing. A
mm-~ relaxing posture increases
wind resistance and* takes more
effort to pedal the bike. Hun-e\-er, >.ou cat) make use of the \\ind.
LVitha tailxvind, ride upright so that your body acts like a sail. With
headivinds ride leaning well forlvard to reduce the resistance as
much as possible.
,,

~-1

Balance.

%lany balance factors are more complicated to describe than to execute. Up to a point, balance becomes easier as the
speed increases. Using low gears for starting out wil make bala-nce
easier ivhile getting LIPspeed.
Heginning riders frequentl>. exhibit considerable side-to-side
motion, but espetierlc.ed riders generall!- do not have much of this.
The difference sicems to be just a matter of practice.
Pedalling

Techniques.

First, there is the use of ankle and


foot actions to add additional muscle groups into the pedaling. This
can be done to a certain extent withouftoe clips and straps, but the
.clips and straps greatly increase effectiveness. They also allow
- lifting upward on the pedals as well as pushing downward.
.-

80
-3

?T.

important factor is thy p&ling rate or cadence.


This
is hart of the reason why bicycle gears are frequently called spoctts.
In general, bicycles are most efficiency ridden at a constant pedaling
rate. Most riders have an optimal rate of pedaling. This rate usualI>
somewhere between 60 and 85 pedal revolutions per minute. At
this constant cadence each diffrrerlt gear ratio Lvillgive a different
speed. Therefore, instead of saying a ten-gear bike, the term
tw-spwd hiirc is used.
- ihere ~-ill. of cchrse,
be gear ratios or riding c.oIlditions that
will not allo\v the rider to maintain th.e optimum cadence.
Beginners typically use gear ratios that are go high that they
cannot po&ibl!. keep up their optimal pedaling rat<>. Stop and start
pedaling, in spite of iThat it might appear, is inefficient. A+cl~3ations require much more effort than maintaining a constaut speed.
Experienced riders tend to spend much more time ped%ng at
their optimum cadence than beginners. Its extremely difficult to
convince a beginner that there is something better than to pedal
hard for a short time, coast and rest, and then pedal again.
Breathing. Closely related to pedaling cadence is breatPling.
Like endurance runner-s, bicyclists develop rhythmical breathing
pattePns that coordinate with their leg action. Except for short
sprints, \vece your breath can generally be held, breathing should be
regular. Otherwise, make certain that you do not hold your breath.
,glnothrr

GEAR SHIFTING

. Gear shifting is estremel>. important to riding efficient>-. The


hdumanbody operates most effiiently over a narrow range of power
output and the gears alloiv most effective use of this power. This is
the reason \vhy large numbers of gtxws art frequently used on
bicycles. The typical automobileengine can operate effectively over
a fairly wide range of paver outputs \yith only three or four gear
ratios. A bicycle rider can use 10 or even 15 to advantage.
To con&l!. shift most internal hub gears, stop pedaling, shift
inlo anijther gear \vhile the l$ci.cle
is coasting and then rcsume
.pedaling. The actual shifting is done lvhen the chain is f!ot moving.
Shifting can also be done when at a standstill.
FVitJh
practice, &ifting can be clone smoothl>. and quickl!- \f-ith
only a brief @ause in the pedaling.+nce each gear is in a d&inite click
-j
position, there is, no problem in finding the gear.
r)erail!eu_r gears generalI!- require much more skill to%perate
correctly. The gears areesu&g shifted by continuous mcition of the
changerdlever without hiving notches O;Fother set locationsJfor the
2
4, *

indil--idual &x-s. This means that shifting is largely a matter of feel


and it GHI taktb cx)n&derable practice to Itm-n this.
)-B
The limits cm he in a set position as far as the control levers
Ivill go clithtlr for\varcl or back\vtird. But even here fine adjus,tment is
usuall!, rc~quirccl
to elirnin>te noises from the derailleur
mechanisms.
To shift, CY~SC~
up on the pedaling. But do not stop pedaling
completely. fhw shift by slo~vl~*mc$ving the cxntrol lever. You
should onlv shift from one sprocket to tlxe next at a time. Avoid
skipping sproc.kets. After shifting, resume riormal pedal cadence
agaii. Practice shifting until it can be done smoothly and efficiently.
-.
,OII fiv&spwd bikes, there is generally only
one control lever.
This makes e?rey;thing easier. There is only one basic. pattern to
learn. Pull the lever to\vard you for loiver gears and push the lever
a\va>--releasing tension on control cable-for high$r gears.
011 lo-$peed and 15-speed bikes, the operation is compbcated
somewhat by having two control levers. The rear control levers are
genelall>~!ocated on the-right side of the bicycle-regardless
of the
lever locations. (;tvwr-ally, they are on the-bottom tube, handlebar
stem or tht> tips of luandlc~barsl The front derailler c.ontrol is on the
left side.
On most bit-yc-les, the front derailler ~vorks in the opposite
#dire&on of the rear one. Pulling the front derailleur lever toward
*
you shifts into higher gears.
SU,II Tour front derailleurs ivork just the oppo+te. Pulling
tolvard you sljifts into lower gears, just like the reqr derailleur.
After having used both t>.pes, Ibelieve the S2412 Toztr is a real
improvement for vasy riding.
I>o not shift both the front and war derailleurs at the sime
time. Tht~key. tec%niquv to master is a feel for ~-hen to shift in order
to maintain cxdtwce. In traffic, try to do\vn shift ivhile you are
sloning
do\\% so that you li,ill be in a lo~v gear \vhen you start out
again.
Shifting OIIhills generaIl>. pla.<tis the greatest stressys 011 thtl
dt~raillyur nlvc,hanisnis and c3haili.10niininiizr this, downshift early,
before !.OLIa~-v struggl@i to maintail, ~xle~~ce
and lzq@ng yith
slo~v, htlav!. pedaling.
Ttln-spcvtl alIt 15-speed hic!.~*lesmight not actuall!. have 10 or
15 effectiv-e gear ratios. Some
of the ratios &-, typically so close
together-or
possibly the same-as
to render them ineffective. It
is best to a\yoid the extreme chain angles-especially
from smallest
inside1 ChainLvheel to smallest outside rear sprocket and largest
82

I'
'"

-+

1: .'

Fig. 3-I.

RecreatIonal

riding

outside chain\vheel to largest inside rear sprocket. In general, try to


do most of your riding in gears where the chainwheel and rear
sprockets art) most nearly lined up. Of course, this lvill automatically he the case if the gear ratios are proprrly selec*ted in the first
place (we Chapter 2).

.-Ift(hi- shiftily to 2 11c\vgear, fine adjustnic~tlts to vlinliliatv


Y
tioist5 C~I bit niaclt~afttlr pt&ling is at I~oI-I~I;~c~;I~~cI~c~~~.
lhis is 2
v~br\. serlsitivv adjustment, hlovtl ihc cwntrol lviv~~rsfightl>~iii ant .
tlircc~tio;; urltil the noise has been eliminatt~d. If it gets \vorse, nlove
thy c~mtrol Ieve?% the other diwc~tion until the noiw stops.
Sil1c.tshifting is largvl~. 1~1.feel, !.ou have to get ;stld to ca~h
c
particwlar hic.!.c-le. A s;\\it& to another hic!.c.lv rtquirvs learning
anotht>r partic-ular bic.!.cle. Ihc adjustment ~211be even mow dif- _,
fiwlt if t hcb~~Tc;;II-ratios art cliffcrtwt, thcl bic.!.c.lvis light tar 6~ ht~avivr
01:theshift cx)i;ti-01is Iomtt~d iii c?diffvrviit plac~c~.\vith ~~lough ridiilg,
a pa1:tic.ularbic*!.clcbecxmcs like ;I part of !.ou a11c1
thv gtw shifting
becxmw so lmt&al that J.OLI dont ha\rcto c*onsc-iousli.think about it.
BRAKING

Perhaps the easiest s!.stenl to operate is thy coaster brake. A11


t!lat is required is simple baclipedaliii,~g.c There is sonie &ill ill ,
appl!-ilig tlitb rtquiwd amount of pwssure for the particular stopping
conditions. (;vnerall!-, thy braki!lg should btb do~lv smoothl!~ \vhcn
space and conditions permit-but
quickly in certain emergencies.
13ic.!.(.lc>s
\iith a siilgle, han&opvrat ed brak(t to thy rtlar \vhvol
s~lc:h ~1s;I disc brake, operate
similarI!. to coaster bl-akcs, txcvpt
83

that the braking c.ontrol is b\- hand. The peclaling, of course, should
stop when the braking begins.
Sonic bit!-cles have a rear coaster brake and a handoperated-usuall\*
a caliper t!.pe--front-~vheel brake. In this case,
appl!- the coaster brake first, followed b!. the hand brake. hever
apply the hand bralip alone \vhen riding at high speeds. This can
cause the rear of the bic>,cle to come off the ground and spill the
rider for\vard. This is often stressed as a safet!. rule. I violated the
rule just 10 see ho~v great the chances were of a spill actual117
happening. Im convinced that,+you would have to lean over well
forward or go at a prett!. good speed to actually. take a spill. Of
course, I, didnt carry my experimenting to the ,point of an actual
spill-so I dont know what the exact danger point is. I wasnt able to
get the rear wheel to even come off the ground. On the other hand, I
am convin@d that jamming the front brake at high speed could do it.
The principles are the same with front and rear hand brakes
except that*everything is done b>-hand. The control handle for the
rear brake is generalI!- located on the handlebar on the right side of
the bike. The one for the front brake is on the left. Notice that this
same pattern is follo\vecl for derailleur gearshift controls.
\Ihen you are first learning, start to appll. the rear brake
folln\verl b>. the front brake. Experienced riders generalI!, appl).
both brakes at the same time and about equalI>.. But this requires
practice.
\\hen
coasting do\vnhill, appl!. brakes periodicall). rather than
continuousI!.. I~ont \vait too long before starting the braking. Alwal-s keep the speed down to thepoint where you are well within
the capabilities of J-our braking system.
For tiding in traffic, brake safet>. levers (Fig. 3-2) allow braking
while gripping the upper portion of the handlebars. One complaint
Ive heard and seen written frequentI!. is that these levers are
actuall!. dangerous because the), will hit the handlebars before
effective braking can take place. Ive looked over the design and
arrangement of the setup on rn!- bicycle and I dont see any ivay that
this could happen. Regardless of brake adjustment or amount of
wear on brake pads, it seems to me that if the regular brake handles
will stop the bike so will th,e safety. levers. Also, the leverage seems
to be even better on the safety- levers. Perhaps there are sornethat
are not so ~vell designed? I think part of the objection to safety
2 levers is tradition. Of course, if maximum performance is required,
- the added iveight of the safet>r levers would be a disadvantage. It
takes practice to learn to apply. brakes effectiveI). fo_r particular
conditions and to get used to different types of brakes.
84

i7

Fig. 3-2.

Brake

safety

l&s.

CORNERING
Tq.

brakes

to

ccmt

[\-ill not

into
have

turns

to 1~

at

a slo~v

applied

during

enough
the

sp~~cl

so

that

the

turn.

If the bic*J.c,lehas a&w bottom brackt!t in relation to road level


or lcmg ix-anks, the pedal on the turning side should not be?n the
dons
position \vhen making a sharp or high speed turn.
Avoid high speed cornering on road surfaws covered mith
dirt, sand or gravel. These conditions can cause sudden
sideslippage of OIW or both Lvheels. 1
6

SAFETY

The mail1 cause of biq.cle-motor vehicle accidents, according


to one popular source, is the bicyclist violating traffic rules. If this is
.
true,
I thmk it 1s a swondar~. cau. . The real cause, in ml- opinion, is
that there are too man)* motor LTJhicles in the United States and in
man> other parts of the \YO
nd too much catering to tliem.
Ho\2-vverr the automobile II tality- the autcmobilr industry,
create3 meaningful jobs, etc. i~ee~~l~
to rule. All indications are
that its going to get worse m+th more cars, more roads, more
parking lots and more pavement before it gets better-if such a da>
ever does arrive.
Realistically, biqxles
ave not been given enough consideration in the United States.
ike lanes, paths and trails have hardly
---made a dent. In short, biqvcle riding, at least in the area where I live

85

First Rule. Obey traffic rules and signs. But keep in mind that

most traffic rules and signs are for motor vehicles.


Second

Rule.

Keep your bicycle in good condition. The


appearance of the bicycle is secondary to mechanical condition when
it comes to safety. Faulty brakes are a common cause of accidents.
Third Rule.

L.se safety

equipment such as reflectors and


lights for night riding. These safety accessories might be required
cby, law in the area ii-here yori are bicycling. Even if they are not, you
&ould ha\~e equipment that will add to the safety of the kind of riding

Fourth Rule:

Llhenever possible, use bikeways and bicycle


paths and tra&s. There are a groit$rg network of these in the United
States, but some areas have none. Not only is it safer, but also a
rn-uch more pIeasurabIe experieny
to be able to ride completely
free of ivorry about automobile traffic.
Fjfth Rule. Teach your children how to bicycle safely. Make

bicycling safer for them by creating riding areas and lanes that are
completely separated from automobile traffic.
.
\1.
I?Sixth Rule. Develop safe and sensible habits. For example,
watch the road for potholes, cracks, drain covers and rail tracks. Be
especially careful in ivet conditions. If caliper brakes become wet,
dry them out by riding with light applications of the brakes so that
they will be ready when you need them. Certain weather and traffic
conditiczs make it unsafe to bicycle-especially
at night.
Seventh

Rule.

Always be alert. For example,


opening car doors and cars par-king or pulling out.
86

watch for

Fig. 3-4. A Bell bicycle helmet.

.
1. -,.
._
-._

Eighth

Rule.

Yield the right-of-waj;-$nd show respect for


pedestrians. Do this even though motorists might not give you the
same Courtesy.
r
HELMETS

AND HEAD GEAR

Figure 3-4 sho~vs a Hr~llbic>,cle helmet, m&ufa~tured bj.yj,rll


Hcl~~lcts,
111~., 2850 Eat 21th St., Lo~zgB~~rc~1z,
CA490806. Its light,
!.et provides outstanding shock absorption. The outer shell is high
impact Lrmz~~, ivhich \vas chosen for its high strength to weight
characteristic. Beaded poljxt>.rene forms the shock absorbing inner
liner. Helmets and protective head gear are used not only for
competitive racing, but also for safer rwreational qx%ng.
LEGAL REQUIREMENTS

These vBr>rgreatI>. across the country. Find out what the>. are
for the area inhere JOLIwill be using l.our bicycle. Lit>., county or
state registration might be required and certain safety equipment
might be necessary. bClos;tbivl-cle dealers can give accurate info$
mation about the legal requirements for a particular area.
88

Be sure to record the serial number of !~our bicycle. If it is


requiwd, be swe to register
!*OUI- bike.
Sir1c.e bii>-c*lcthefts are COIIIIIICH~, its important to securely
l(~c~li
!~OUIbike. Looking bic!,cles is a lot of bother, but in most areas a
necmsity if J-CNavant to leave scour bike in a public area and expect it
to be there m+h&l!.OLIreturn.
There art t\vo basic locking methods. The first is s;Smbolic,.
Inespwsive &aim or cables and lo&s can be>used. This might
discourage amateur thieves and joy riders, but ~$41scarcely slow
bosy~i.a professional.
The stxmd <>.peof locking is more secure.
Perhaps the best
method is iiith U-shaped locks such as the Citcrtlcl Fig. 3-5 and
I<r:1ptc))zitc
brands. These locks will withstand almost an>.thing,
including boltcutters, \vhich are used in a high percentage of bike
thefts. One problem with the U-shaped locks is that em must find a
suitable objet,t to secure the biqrcle to. There have been instances
\vherc bikes \vpre stolen bp cut$ng the objects to which they lvere

Fig. 3-5. A Citadel vltra-high

lock.

89

m.

Fig. 3-6. Placing bicycles

- 2.

lo(~l;t~cl.I u~o~lcler
the lc,zlis.

on a roof-top rack.

if, h1 the+ lc4suw, the thieves

\\cI-c~

abk to remove

Ihv t!-pit,al lot%kingkcthod is to r&ove


the front m+eel ad
then 10~~1;
the front \vhwl, rear lvhqel and frame to a solid fixed
objtAc*t.Sorllc~ IOili Il~arlufa~turcrs nil1 pay up to a cm-taili amount, if a
hilie iy stolt11 ;IS ;I result
of failure of their looks to prevent theft.
\lhcll purc~hxilig ;I loc.kilig s!.stem, c*onsider hc)\v !.ou 211-t going
to ~xI~!~ the loc*l<s!.s;ttlnl. Somc~ CYN be attachtxl to thy ulldtmitle of
thtb satldlus. (!I- !.ou might nmt to ust~ a small bag that attac$es to
L
T(

Another nwthocl of prote&g


!*our bic.!.cle is \tlth bic.!.cle
insuranc%ck.Hic\.c,les a-e often. covered b\. homeonmers insuranw,
but thtw pcJi;ies usualI!. havtl a $3~ hr $100 declu~tible. Sonw
cover the proper-t\ only \vhen it is at home.
A number of bic%>.cleinsurance policies are available. Biq.cle
shops generall!~ ha\rtl information about these. Rates var!., but
about $15 ptr- >.cal- for the first $100 coverage and $8 for each
hu~~d~-t~l
therraft er sterns to be about average. These policies
t !.pic-all>.do not havt a dttcluctible. The>- usually. cover theft, damage
from acx.i:ltGlts ;iIiCl sonic nit&A expenses if !.ou art injured. The
I

an

polic:ies hart> some limitations, such as th& area the bic>vclecoverage


applies to (the c*ontinental Unitecl State) and that the bicy.c*lemust
be lock~l. rt~g-istered mcl~have annual safet!. inspections.
Ive heard ihat most of thtl companies lvill inmrdiatel), cancel
aft tr a11 insur;lIl(:c~pa!.off is made. The policies that I have setw have
*
&iuses in thtam to this effect.
TRANSPORTtNG

BICYCLES

of racks (Fig. 3-6 to 3-l()) for transporting bic!.cl&


011 automobilt~s x-t available. Ihc thrw basic types art rear bumptir
Glclis, IeOOflaLlC~liS;,
alld l-tLiIe ClCC-Ii12cTliS.
Ihvstl racks are useful in a nunlbc~r of \\.a!~. Hic.!.c%les
c-a11 be
transportc~d to the starting point of a sccliic* rick or tour or talit!Il
al011y on Yacatiolis.
Features to 1001;for in racks arc the number of bicL.cles thit can
br transpor~ed, tme of getting bic!.cles on and off the racks, secuw
methods of attaching rac.l<s to vehiclcbs and bikes to the racks and
A

IILIII~~~~I-

Fig. 3-7. Four bikes fit easily onto this Volkswagen

91

Fig. 3-8. Adjust-A-Porter

shown on a Yolkswageo.

1
% .

protection of \-chicles and biq-cles from damage. Fig. 3-11 shwvs


how cas!. bic>.cles can besplaced on a well designed rear deck rack.
In sornt caws, special protective padding (Fig. 3-li) is used. .
BICYCLE PARKING

AND RACKS

The largejincrease in the number of bicycles iu recent years


has resulted in + shortage of good places for parkjng thtm. Well
designed bicycle racks (Fig. 3- 13 and 3-14) provide not only a place
for each bicycle, but also something to lock them to.

Fig. 3-9. Four bicycles

on a Bike-Porter

.I.;.

I Fig. 3-10. A two-bike model Bike-Pohqr.


\

>

In some areas, secure biq-cle parking is available for i&fee.


Ihjsis ideagf >-(jucommute b\- biq-cle- to ~our place of emplo!x~el7~.~
I
.> -*_g.Coin operated bicycle parking devices with locking systemsI sin$lar in concept to coin-.operated lockers-are
available in some
areas and are be&n$ng increasingly popular.
t1

Fig 3-l 1. Placing btcycles on a rear-deck

rack. a

Fig, 3-12. A Protect-O-Pad

can be snapped on bicycle pedals, to protect a car.

The use of the vast majorit). of bicycles in the United States


probably falls into the utility category. This includes riding reasonabl!* short distances for fun, recreation, fitness, shopping, transportation and even to earn IIIOII~~~, such as is frequently done bs
!-oungsters \vho use bicycles for newspaper routes.
One of the most practical ways to put cyclinginto yourlife is to
use a bicycle for tr,ansportation. This can reduce or. even eliminate
the need for motor irehicles. If conditions permit, use a bicycle as a
means of getting to an&from work. This allows you to exercise and
save mane>.. Also, if ~.ou live in an area that hasnt yet beei?ruined
by- the automobile, the enjoyment of ifresh air hand.,scenery is a
I
bonus.
4 u
G
-: Biq,c%ngis a \va>*to go shopping too. The practicality uf this
varies @idcl~ from area to area. Bicycle,racks and baskets, which
C.OIII~ ins variet?, of shabes.and sizes, will allow carrying reasonable

(I

3-13

Park-A-Bike

Irack

exercise at the same time. Provided bit!-cling is safe irl \~OUI- ar-ta.
CJ-clingis an ideal farnil>-activity. There arc nnaI1ytimes Lvhen
brc!.clcs art used individuall>., but there are othtytimes \vhen-the
\vhole fannil). ian enjo! this activit) together. Sunda>. chive iI1
automobiles ~a11 be replaced lvith biq.cle outings. A pk-l;, t~spe~iall>.
if it has bike\vajrs or paths, is an ideal place (Fig. 315).
-

Ftg. 3-14. Park-A-Bike

rack allows otderly parking of bicycle

on both. sides.

TOURING

This can be done alone or with other people. The trips can be
as short or as long as J*OLI
care to make them. Bikexva1.s and bic>.cle
trails and paths art ideal. So are roads \vith little or no automobile
I
tmftic-if such a thing exists.
0 l\hw first taking up touring, start \f-ith a tripthat is iveIl \\ithiin
J.(mr cxapabilities. lhrn gradualI>- ~vork-.upto more ambitious undertalklgs. .4 stnrtillg point might be a ride that can be cmlpleted
cwnlfortabl!. ill a11hour-. In an!- cast, most people. start \\ith ridm
that tal;c 011eda\, or less-and are usualI!. completed in the da!.light
I
)hours.
,A few hmlth precautions are in order. If J.OLIare in a11~
doubt
about ~Y~UIl~t~alth, c-heck with scour doctor btlfore taking up c>x$ng.
And especially btlfcjr-e touring cl.cling. In most cases, the risks of
c>.clingto >-our health are far less than the potential benefits.
in gtlnt~ral, start out \iith short, eas!- rides. GradualI!. ~vork up
to IOI~QN-and mow strenuims ol?es over 101-rgperiods of time. I
suggest that at first the c,!.cling c.adwce bth,at about the sanw tlnerg!.
le\.eI as walking. Thcln c.atlcllc.c~s;houldbe suc.11tliat you can keep it up
long periods of tinw, rather than bursts of intense pedaling, thm
wasting to rest. Howe.ver, if JYXIfeel that a rest is needed, do not
hesitate to stop bicycling and take one.
\\,tiar suitable c.lothing. i!laliti sure that J.OU \+YIl.be \varIm
enough, but avoid clothing that lvill impede kculation such as
rubber s\vcat suits. Jogging unifornx are ideal for c!-cling. The\.
+low
frwclon~ of nlovemefit and pernllt good air tiirculatioh.
,4void o~eresposure to sun and heat. lYear a suitable hat, &lwrkts in thth sha-dtl and take a Lvaterbottle alo&. The t!.pe that fit in
c~lan~psattached to the bic>.Jt~ franw are convenient and rc~ldil~~
7
,availabk at bic>.cle shops.
For short touring,\vhere help is readi]!. available, repair eyuipment isnt essential. For longer trip<, itsa good idea to have at least
a simple tool kit, tire purnp,and tire patching kit. Advanced touring
cyclists also frequently carry selected spare parts.
Sonw people wwld consider the t>.pe of riding described above
as recreational riding rather than touring. For these people, touring
weans yre than one,dag:.
There are several basic methods. The nwst convenient, but
nlore expensive,is to sta) at hot+ and motels each night and do all
- of >,our eating at restaurants along the wa!-. This way, only a

rninimunl load .of spare clothing, etc. need be carried.


Sirmflar, bkt less expensive, is hosteling or touring with
r
96

&

.
.. .I, ;A
w

.r
.&

_
1
i
\

97

99

,
-.

+&P
~*oungstt~s are

taking up the sport. This seems to be a necxwitj, if


there is to be ari>~hope of Americans ever excelling on the intrrnational level.

There are t~vi, main types of races and racing biq-cleslroad


and track. Fig. Z-12 shoLvs a road racing bici-cle. Notice that it is a
10-speedC2Fig. 2-13 sho~vs a track racing bike. This has a singlespeed fixed, non;-fl-eewheeliilg
. drive. Within each basic type there
are many variatihns that de<&id on, among other things, the particular racing event and the preference of the rider.
Rat.ing is a vast subject. A large book could bawl!. begin to do
justice to a single specialized t>.pe of racing. The atte-mpt here is to
present a brief gei~eral introduction and suggest ~va~sJ.OLImight get.
star-ted if you think J*OUare interested in bewnning a racing biq+clist,
a coa~li or even a spectator or fan.
Road races are done on roads from point A to B or ori laps
around a ~wurse. Some of the races are quite short and others are
quite long -up to 1.3) miles or so. Some, like the Tosr)*tl~ FIYUICC,
are clonr in stages. About 100 miles arc c~ovcwd eac*h.cla>..Theres
t:ve~l rw-l~~-c~mss
I\-l1ic.his rlow ovtr ~wiecl t&-r-ain. I his c,onibinc>s
L.ycling \\ith ~~~~oss-~~x~liti-~
i-uniGlg. Ih~3~.!.clists frqueiltl!. pic*kup
their bic\.cles and ruin \vith tht~ni. A n~asserl start is used whc~i thtl
racers compete against eac*hother. Ihe first to C-I-ossthcl finish liiie L
is the \iinner.
Another ! \.pe of racing is c*allrd time -trials. 3H~~-c~,the cwni-
petitors race agaiiist the c%lock.The best time \vins. There are also
team events \vhere team members pace each other to faster times
J b!. trading off the lead position.
,

While road racing is t !.pic.all>,done outdoors, trac*k r-acing is


dont1 both iiicloors and outdoors.ori a special trac*k that is shapclcl like
a11 oblong
bowl.
There arcb riiki!. differenl events. S(~nie are time trials, sonic
a-~ I-rgular
racw \\.ith t \vo ~-iclers cornpetin~ against eat,h other and
still otheq are pursuit races. Iii pursuit races; individual riders or
teams of riders start on opposite sides of the track and try to catch
the other rider or team of riders over a prescribed distance. UsualI>., this doesrlt
happen and itsthe rider or team of riders lvho have
the fastest time who ~-cin.ILlan>-distances and varidtions are used.
.
Ont
fac.tor that has limited tracE racing in the United States is
that there arent nian<. tracks. The>. are expensive to build. ,,
So how can you get started in racing? I think the best way is to
join a bicycle racing club. These are in most areas of the United
States. One wa>. to find wt about them is to go to a bic*j.clr dealer
dl
.

who handles racing bicycles. Another way is to write to theAl?zatezdr


Bicylc

Lcugr.tr rf Americn, PO Box 664, Wall Stwd Stntiosz, New


York, ,WlUUUSl and request information about racing clubs in your

area.

I suggest that J-W join a club before J-W purchase a racing


bic!.cle. There are man!. different t>.pes of racing bicl-cles and
usuall!. the c-lubs can offer good advice on this.
IZIost racers train forp ~$?i.fic t!.pe of racing. Such as speed
eients or endurance. StrAtegies *?just ako by learned.
Be forewarned, ho&ver, that racing differs considerably from
touring. Racing is to win and you till soon find out what that takes.

101

ech,anics

TOOLS

v'

lou might dread!. havt> mania- of thtb tools JOLI \vill ntwl for
buildilig, niaintainiIlg, a~iclrepairiI1g bic.>.Cles.In aclditioll to reqlar,
tools, such as thos;c I~ornd~- found around the honlv and for aut onlobile rttpair.
,-. sionlt sptc*ialbit*\-cdtxtools \villalso bcl nvrdccl.
11011v~CYIIIgt~~~cl-all!~ bv sav& ill thy 101lg run b!. purchasing top
qualit!. tools fiiatl~ of hcbat trt9tcd allo!~ stvvl.
Etn-bt5;l wsults, l;vvp tools cdtm arltl organizcbtl. ;!ftcbr usirlg a
tool, \\.iptLoff tlirt alit1 grtbase \\-ith a c-10117.
Iicthp tools together in a
tcu)lhos
or OII ;I pcg board rat,k. Il;wp st>ts of \vrenches,
such as
s;7)c*1<vtb3
Allc~~sand so OII, togchther. Avoid using tools for purposes
otht,r than thostl for \vhidl thtk!, \vtkrtl clt~signetl. Time sP;ent kcitlping
tools cleai~-&ri
or&r \f-ill ac?uall>, save tinie in niakilig repairs.
For most routinr servicing aIl~rllaillterlall~~t~of biq,desI only. a
ft>n. tools are essential. Ho\vel.tar, thtw nil1 ntwl to be selectccl
c~art~full!~.
Not having the right tool for the particular job is one offthe
great (1st pit falls in nlwhanicx. Pliers, for exuawlplc, make very poor
s;ul)stitutc>s for \vrwlc*hes ;mtl almost thtl right size \t.rt~nch is Ilot thv
s:lmt thir!q as having the* right size. It c-all b>J a Illost frustrating
103

.
,
.
L

experienr-v to start on a job, get part way through it and then find
that \+)LI clont hav7e an essential tool.
- \&hi!e reelal- mechanics tools will suffice for many jobs, you
\vill probabl!. ivailt to have at least a few tools designed specificall>
for bic!.clcuse. Some of these look much like regular tools, but have
features that make them I~OR .convenient. For example, it might
have all sizes nt~cled for a certain job on a single tool or be shaped tJ I
fit in areas ~vher-e an ordinary vvrench \vont.
For
touring, !.ou \i-ill probably- want to have a lightweight,
portable tot)1kit 5~1.12~2souts ill II ~~~~(111
cxw thnf stmps to flw sndcflt~.
Ilft7fuc
is one good brand. Make sure that everything you need for
!.our bic!,cle is included. Before
buling, ~I-J. the wrenches on JY~I
bic>.cle to see that they fit. The kif should also have the materials
and tools for pgching tubes and some spare parts such as repair li+;lk
for the chain, extra pads for caliper brakes and spare control cable
ivire. It is also a good idea to have a tire pump, preferably. with a
built;in pressure gauge. hlake sure that it, ~$41fit the valve stem
arrangement on your bic>,cle and that spare tubes, if carried, have
the same arrangcmynt.
For at homt> usch, !.ou will probabl>, ~~ant..aclditiol?altools. The
aclvvaiitage is that \f.ckight and size do not have to be so carefull!.
considered as is the case Ltith the tools you take along.
For shop tools designed !especially for bicycles, I highly recommend those made by thePark Tool Compan~~,, 2250 Whitt~Bcur
*4LY.

Pml,
Crescent

, St.

MI*V 5510.9.
Wrenches.
The crescent

wrench is often thought


of as a tool that will replace dozens of wrenches, However, I believe .
that it is a poor substitute. Holvever, it is much?better than pliers for
use as a vtlrench. Crescent wrenches vary greatly in quality and the
low quality ones-especially
those with play in the parallel flats or
fingersIshould
be avoided. They can loosen or slip and this can
damage the nut or bolt. Generally, crescent wrenches should be
used only when a more suitable wrench is not available. However, if
you have only a limited tool kit., they can bcextremely v8uable for
fitting odd sizes.
O\:crall length of t!-pica1 crescent \\renches {Tar!.from about
four to 14 inches. A six OI- eight inch length \vill generall>v have the
most utilit!. as a bic.!.<le lvrench, but ivhen possible, have several
sizes on hand. Each has a maximum expansion and some might be *
too Lvicle<to fit cxWain \vork spaces.
Pliers. Pliers do have their uses in spite of the fact that they,
along with the hammer, are probably most often used for the wrong
jobs-especially
by amateur mechanics. Pliers should not, except in
104

y.

qa
,

an emergency, be used as wrenches. They will quickly damage the


corners on nuts and bolts.
Thtl prcqm- uses of pliers include bending, crimping and cutriiig. Therth are man! t!.pes of pliers. The most useful of which are
\.
gas pliers (commonly referred to as just pliers), vise grips, than-
nel locks and needle-nose pliers. There will be times when all of \
thcsc will be useful for bicycle work, so have as?rlany different
,types as possible.
Open-end and Box Wrenches.
These are available separately or in sets. The sets usually offer a savings over purchasing
the same lvrenches separately. The sizes, measured as the disnut or bolt, are
(1
tance between the parallel flats or fingers that fit
common!)--stamped on the ends of th
ycles require metJapanese, European and some Ame
ml to 2Omm will be
ric b~~~~d-ys. Usuall!. a range of fro
y inexpensive models,
adequate. Sc,i?ie Americ*ail bicycles, es
still use fractional or inch sizes.
.
lVrenclies from five-sixteenth of a lch to three-quarters of an .
inch ~~41handle most non-metric jobs.
lore secure grip than
Has Lvrenches gencrall>~ provide
point and t Lvelve-point
opts-end l,vrclnc*hes.130s wrenches \vith
openings are available. The six-point prc tics siiperior gripping,
n.h!le the tivelve-point provides a shoi-tcr swing. This is an advantage whtln working in tight places.
Since open-end \Yrenches contact the nut or bolt only, on two
flat sides, the>- must fit rye11 or the!. might slip and round off the
points or; the nut or bolt. Provided that J.OUhave good wrenches of
the proper size and the-nuts and bolts have not been previousl!7
,rlamaged, opttner~cl wrenches are usualIS. quite satisfactory.. There
are plan-es \vherc the!7 c-a11 be +~seclwhen box-\vrenches, cannot.
Socket Wrenches. These are ideal, but expensive. They are
convenient to use and with a ratchet handle they are fast. For doing
work on your own bicycle, the cost of purchasing these tools must
be c&&!fullylveighed against their usefulness to you. In most cases,
open-end and box wrenches are first priority. After you have these,
a socket v,-rench set should be available. They are available in both
metric and inch sizes.
Allen Wrenches.
Many bicycles have Allen head bolts, with
51nm and 6mm (distance across hex-shaped holes) being the most
common sizes. Allen-head bolts are most common on more expensive bicycles. On many inexpensive bicycles there are not any of
these. Some bicycles with Allen-head fastenings use a single size
XI& as ~IIIIII,throughout.

i:
\
i
/

105

Fig. 4-l.

Fractional-size

Bicycle

cone wrenches

FVrenches.

for use on hub cones

and lock nuts.

Special flat bicycle wrenches, commonly


called (o~zI
~c~w~~-~~~~.s,
are essentially extra thin open-end wrenches.
As the name implies, they are designed especially for use on hub
cones and ,lock nuts. Fig. 4-l shows a set of fractional cone
\vrenc.hes. Fikyre 4-2 shows a metric set.
Iht~rcarc also special \~rt~~c$es for caliper hand brakes, clerailleurs and so on. lhese arc more suited to the netds of professional
bike n~t~~ha~~i~~s
than for \vorking on ~-our OV,Vbic!.cle. Special
bic.!-c,lc-\~~twc~hc~\\.ith .a number of open-end and box openings in
the sanl~ tool arc illtlsptinSive ancl ii511generalI>. servtt the same
pm-posts as thtt mar(5 cLsptwsivt>\vrwc+cs1 A t!.picA ~~knc*h ~~oulcl
~atltll~l a11tl haIldl~bar ~-1a1llp~a11tl
fit 11~~pcclal~, cones, l~~~~li~luts,
brake-shoe pad IlLIts. lhew \~renc~ht5 21-talso ~~iinionl~~ inc.lutlutl
iI1 bic.!.c-lcrepair kits.
Spoke Mrenchest These are used for tightening and loosening spokes. They can be purchased at bicycle shops and are often
included in tool kits. IVhileits often possible to get along without
these, they Lvillbe needed if you want to true a wheel or replace a
.broken spoke. There are several sizes so make sure you get thq
x
size t,hat fits<.the spokes on your bike. .,
Two basic t$pes used are the common
Screwdrivers.
i s~w~vdriver and the Phillips screwdriver. Both types come in vari- .
ous+sizes. The c~orrer~tsize to fit the slots in the screws must be
used or damage ivill ozcur to the screw head or screwdriver blade.

Cable Cu.tters. These are useful for cutting brake and derail-

control cables. Select the type with V-shaped jaivs that will
shtw thy c%ableevenly. Wire cutters that flatten the cable make it
difficxlt or impossible to thread cable into the housings.
Tire Levers. You \iill need several of these of the small sizes
esp~ciall\~designed for bicycles. The kind \\ith notches that fit over
spokes, holding the tire bead off the rim, are generally most convenient to use.
Chain Tools. These are special tools for removing rivets
from c*hains. They are inexpensive and almost a necessity for
drraillcur chains. This is another tool that is frequently included in
,
portable tool kits.
solution is to invest several
Other Special Tools. One
hundred dollaxfor a professional C~U~~~U~~ZOIO
tool set and be done
\virh it, Ho\vrver, unless you are really going to be a professional
mw&x~ic, the cost makes this impractical. In fact, ~vhenever
monq
is a consideration, the cost must be weighed against the usefulness.
There are a number of other special tools that are either
doing certain tasks or else make the jobs easier or

leur-

-IQ. 4-2

A metric

set of cone wrenches.

107

Fig. 4-3. This

cycle

stand

holds

one bicycle

faster. Among these are tools for removing freewheels from the
hubs, brake arm clamping tools often called third-hands) and t.ools
for removing totters from pedal arms. These, as well as other
special tools are described along with their uses in later chapters.
Some of the moi-e expensive tools are sometimes purchased
b>.biq,cle ~.-lubsfor USCb>.the members. For something like a ivheel
alignment nrac.hine this is an ideal \vay to spread out the cost.
\I.hilr it might sound like there are an endless number of
biib-cle tools, only. a few tools are required to disassemble and
assemble ever\-thing on a particular bicycle. Of course, the!. must
be the right tools and sizes.
1
108

.:;

i
Fig

4-4. This cycle

stand

holds

two bikes

109

Fig

4-5

ClampIng

a bike on a stand

111

Fig. 4-6

Floor

mounting

plate

for a cycle

CLEANING PAiS AND SOLVENTS

SUPPLIES

11
2

stand,

Fig 4-7 This stand,


fw storage

made by Stat@Alumlnum

Foundry,

IS easily

disassembled

113

hi~~\-c~le~
c~ome\f-ith maintenance manuals cckplet e \iith
xhrmatic~;. T6rw can be a big help. If ~~ou-clo~~t have a
for
!-our par:icular .bilitA. try to get one from the manufacturer.
To Iearn.the \\-or-kings of 3 particular biq-cle, stud>- the bic!.cle
as you read about it. It helps to have the bicycle in a maintenance
rack. Youllprobably be interested mainly in
particular bike, so
\vhen reading through the maintenance portion of this book; you
might If-an; to skip over the sections tQat do;t apply. For example,
the section on de&lleur gears if yo
a single-spe+l.
Or you
P
might avant to read everything to compare .othq- bicyclex~vGth
your
. ::l& . -r
on-n. 5
Before starting an! job, make certain \ou.h?ve all the toc&&d
-P5
S;cm~v

~~mnual

your

_
1

114

.\
0

$2

.J
a
* 2)
e..

icycle Maintenbce

\
1

b
3

Im going to sa!. something different than kost books OIJ bi<!Tcling.,


vnless !ou reall\~ Leant to do more, do only,, the minimum amount of
caring .for and maintenance necessary- to keep your bic!rcle in safe
operating condition. This might sound odd from sori~eone
\vho
enjo>-s \vorking on and building q.cles, but I rrall). feel that this is
good advice. c
* - e$
d
J?Ole
illOSt
people, its the use of the bicl-cle not the
r
sati-sfa+on-or
lack of satisfaction-of
working on a bike that
._
;f A
60
counts.
* Be :
A bi~&t
is$ *ver?: forgi&lg machine. Considering the rela%
tively low cost of the iiiveskment, why make J-oursjeFf
a slave to
stlnt-cschingif you dont enjoy it? For ordinary riding, the differences
:
bqebveen a long, tink consuming maintenance program and a mini-
ma1 one is likely. to be slight-at least from a practical point.of view.
Of course, if \rou enjoy working on >.our biqrcle and keeping-it shin)
and new looking, then b>. all,nieans do so. Regardless,, do at least
enough maintenance-or
have it done for $ou--to keep the biq-cle
in safe operating conditio*+.
Keeping the bicycle stored out of the iveather, clr!,, ivaxecl and
,
properly lubricated is only common sense. But to ivhat extent YOU
do this is a highly individual matter. There are man). happy riders of
rust i \vonders. A shin!- neLv-looking biq-cle is not essential to
I
A
ever\-one.
:4nother kind of care is how thebicycles arc ridden and used. A
fine light\\Teight bike genera$~. ~\ill not survive curb jumping. Hmv-

.,
II

5
*

.PLdals. Conventional pedals often have a small hole for adding

qil. Add a fr\v drops of bicycle oil. Some conventional pedals and
most rattraps are overhauled with grease every six months. Do not
add oil to thtxv.
Control Cables. Add a few,drops of bicycle.oil to brake-and
gear change cables 1vher-e they enter housings.
Brake Calipers.
Add bicycle -oil to pivot points of lxake
c&per-s. A\-oid grt$ng oil on rubber brakepads.
0
.
ADiJSTMENTS
Multi-speed hub s,, derailleurs and caliper brakes should be
adlusted \vhttnyvtAr the!. arrnot
ivorking properly. InspecYions
d
^
~;hc~uld btx rnadt~ at nl~~!lthl>.inlervals.
v
<iLEANING,POLISHIWG :ND WAXING

Fr~quc~ilt \vipillg

of dust, dirt and rc,ab soil from thq. bicycl-e-1


~I-aI~~~~ ;mcl C~OIII~OI~~I~~S \vill help tti keep the bic>.cle.,intop cydition.
SOIUCJpeopltk \\,ash bit*>-clesn;ith
soap and water: but I do not
g-~~)mmtnd this. \\-attx- is likrl>.-to enter the internal workings and
D ?%T-&a\\.a!- lubricants. %l~-ou do use this method, dry the biqvcle off
as thrkjrcqhl!. a+ possible afterivards.
C)zaning compounds, polishes and \vaies can be used on
pain:tJd. plated and metal surfaces. But take special care here, as
man!. pwducts on the market can be mcx-e harmful than beneficial.
Avc)i.clespvciall!- harsh,and abrasive compounds. LVaxes especiall)
ccwpoundt~d for bi,qL.l~s are available at bicycle shops. Some
of
rhew arc in spra!.
c-ax:, Because of the high risk of breathing
harmful chemicals. I suggest that j-ou do not LWZ these. Instead, bu!the le.55 vxp&si\-r products in liquid or paste form and appl+ with a
cloth.
SIX-MONTH AND-YEARLY OVERljAULS \
/

j+n addition to the above, front hkbs, -head sets and pedals
2,-F
1&itilil b+r a!icn apart ,- cleaned, lubricaeed aAd reassembled ever)
6s months. Rear hubs and crank sets should,be overhauled ever>
! car.
I
Ihc basil, pIxJLtdurc
is to mount thk biq.& in a maintenance
rac.k arid
5erl.ic.c OIlt assernbl>. at a timti. For example, J.OUmight
n.arlt
to start if-ith the front hub. Remoye the front ivheel. Disas?t-n~blt- the hub. Clvan all parts in kerosene or cjther suitable sol\.cI~!. A pan (c- bcJ\v1 partly. filled \fith cleaqing fluid can be positioned
under the part t(J 1x clean&l. For parts that cannot be submerged in

a brush can be used for applying the fluid. An


leaningthe hub center of a spoked wheel. Even if
you havtl a big enough pan and enough cleaning fluid, dont submerge t& tire and tube-.
. After$horcrugh cleaning b!. soaking and br$shing, alloi, the
fluid to complrtel!~ drj* or evaporate. LVipe with a cloth io make
cxrtain that no cleaning fluid remains. Check .the ,c%onditionof all
components and make replacements as required.
I
Add lubrication to bearings. In the case of loose beatings not
htlcl in a ring retainer, the individual balls are held in position \\ith
. grease \\fhile assembly is being made. Reassemble the h& and
install the v,heel back on the bicl-clr. Then go WI to another compo-

1,

ne11t.
r

tinless ~.ou have fairIf advanced mechanical skills, I do r&t


recommend taking coaster- brake and internal gear hubs apart.
These are fairl!. complicated as bicycle assemblies go and have a
long life generally without overhaul. If internal repairs,%re require,d:i
I recommend that you tyke the hub to a,bicycle shop for repair.
.
,,a
There are several r$asoris for this:
-There are such a multitude of different-bbs in use that the
a$&%ility ofrequired replacement parts is&.restionable.
c.
-c; F -IEiis difficult for the amateur to determine the specific prc,b-,.1&n.
0
-The hub might noTbe Lvorth rebairing because the damage
could be so great that refilacement of entire hub is inoreec.ononlcal.
-The time required for the amateurto do the job can be
/
considerable and possiblgv not worth the trouble.
-Special tools might *be required. T
For routvie servicing, the advantages gained by overhaul whtv
no repairs are needEd ale probahll,- ?not worth the risks. If ~WUdo
want to tackle these jobs, try to get the assembly drawings for the
particular hub from the manufacturer if it isnot one included in this
book. If !.ou cant get the drawings, take special care to note the
order th-at the pieces con \ e apart so that you will be able to reassem=.I
ble~t.&n
again.
It
might
be
~~~~~i.~~.~!~--d.i~g~~rl~~:
In
ad~dition
to
-L
*heck
td.make-certain
that
all
nuts
the above, >.ou sfiould robtinely
&
+s .
and bolts are properl): tighdened. .
THE OVERALL MAINTENANkfkTURE

The above maintenance schedale is generalI>, recommended


for the average bicycle used for u&t,: and recreational cycling.
e<by with much less. I would
Holyever, man). people successful1
only
a .very small percentage
venture a guessthat in actual p
121

of tllt3 bic-!,c-les

ill arcs;, to~~l~.di-,ct~i~,t~

schedule desc$brd

above.

an>~whert~

nqu

the

maint enanc*e

;l~~~~-~ demanding
*
m~tintenailc~t~s~~h~~d~ile
&i;i be follo\ved. This i5 ~sp~$ailj~
true when
the t)ic*>.clt~ is riddeli long distances or under c;onditions calling for
+1..
Toufing cz.~list~gen~rall~~ adopt a maintenance
10;
pt~IfoI~IllaIlw.
s;ch~vjule;that-c-in,bp tarried out on the road. Bearings are servikd,
fA)rexample, ;~&~ti;.& dirt and gritare pi+ed up or the bici,cle has
b?en riddt~n inkivet \veather vonditions. $GItest xm th,e road,
bic!.c*lc
up a11c1hauc
S~~III~*OII~~
spill
wl~eeb
and*iurn crMs
for .sc,~&l of dirt aiid grit fn b&$r;gk. If present, cX,sa
.ornpc,:l~llts,~.l~~~~l,
lubricate andreassemble.
Ekp&enced t
c!.clists can->.ever!.thi,ng they need for this in compact, an
this is only- adequate for t111
place where the parts and equi&ent for
I
.
~
For

the

!liort~

d-e$cadd

~ic>~clis~,s,

fk

eve]!

a bicyck. E?en if
. I TireLs and tubes are a vulnerable part
.precautions 21-e take$$o
prevent puhct r-es
jther damage \vhile
ng, thtl tires iii11SJ~JWI- or later Gear t-RIP. TOWquality. and type of *
5 st~lcctt~cl~pla!san impwrtant part in the useful life you Can
esprcli, from a tire. The inro main t)-pes of tires, cliilchers, and
I- _ . tubulars, are discussed ;n Chapter 2, as areVmethc~ds fc;r achieviilg
s
$3
. puncture resistance.
I Keeping a tire inflated at proper .pressure is important *and
should become a part of the routine maintenances and servicing of
the bickvcle..Under ori over inflation can mal&riding more difficult
and less comfortable.
Both of these co&&
can lead totire and
tube damage.
* Changing tires OI- tubes and patching tubes~are relatively, simple repair tasks in the range of most bicycle users. Th&jobs are
fairly time consuming aqd Costly when you <avethem~do.ne f&f@
-it

a &-cycle--&op.

TireInflation

<;9

_ es

._I

.,

,;

I-

The. tubes used tvith clincher jires &neralIy haye Schraeder


type valves: Tubular tubes generally have the Presta t&e. Each
requires a clifferer-$air hose attachment-to fit them. However, there
is an inexpeasiveadapter that allows Presta*valves to be filled with
-*
the Schm~trr air hose fittings.
The Schraulw valve%-can be inflated with the conventional
pumps found at gas station?. Hand pumps are available for either,
t!-pe of tube valvei.
I
i
.
122
PI.j*
7

-T

-I
7

,
*

1).

It can bt~hk>* ttiinflattl tires at filling stations. The air,prcsstirr


available ,is muc*h gretiter than needed and this m;~kes blmmuts
possibftl. A hand bicycle pump with a built-in gauge is a rnuc~hbet t.er
Il~t~tllod. ?~Ial;e Certain thy pump !ou stllcct is eas!. t67vork and
effic-ient. Irlflating a tire is almost impossible ~-it11 some of the. c+tlaptlr onto that are on the market. If the pump does not have a
built -in gauge,
i-m a high-pressure tire kauge.,Thtsc cm be pm-c-hased at bit.!-c-It>shops and autonu)tive stcxes.
,
IJueto tilt>porosit!. of nlateljals, itsnorn~al for tubes,to 10s~~ailm*tr aDpclriod of time. The pi-tiper
tire pressure-usua11~~ given as a
rangt~ of pressures-is
shown on athe <side of the tire. if thtl valve stem is not straight 011an inflated tube, rerno8e.
smt of the a?r b,>.depl-.essing or Iooseningth~ vaivc in the. sttm.
$otate the tube insidgthe tire until the valve is Lti-aight in the,rim.
1
I
. . .#
:Ihrll reillflatg.
A c.omnl~~~~ problem nh~~ inflatildga tire isimproper seating of
the tirti on the rim. To avoi.d this, i>ar&aII>-inflate thetiI-e. Chtxj;
uit+.h
!our
.seating and aligninent. niiake necessar!- carre~tions
ha+.
Thminflatq to d&ired pressure. If seating ~~i;alignm
still incorrtxt , partially defla,te aid tr!- ;Ggain.
I

Changing
and Repairs

I*

: .;r**.

I-

, ,

*..

You ,f$fi%
need a tub: repair -it for clioches. These CQ lye
purchased at bicycle shops. blak &
itis the right kit for e,
l&1c 1ers
because the patching material is thicket than that &d for tubulars:
To make changes br repairs, $-St remove the wheel from the
biq-c,Ie. \\.ith a tire jevey-.the C6$e
mithL+anotch to h&
spoke is r~comm~nded4-lt~~~r~~ bead of tire over edge o
care not to pinch the tube-or stretch the w-ire bead an>n
ab~olutcI>- nccessar!.. Ho*okthe tire I&er tc!a spoke.
Ifq~,oul$~%!e
t)-pe tti tire lever without a spoke notch, hold it back bs. hand. Th&
difficulty is having enough hands..,This -zjs. jh<~ya-sm~-f~r the spoke
tn. -=ic
: .,
-5
.a
notches.
;
.,
.
\\.ith a se&nd @lever abtitit four inches from the&st one, lift,
byad over ri!x and lock lever to i-s&lie.,, If nq&&~,&e
a&i<d tire
lever about four inches fromime of the others: Free thi tirebead oil
me side ofthe tire from th: rim all the way aiound. On tubes mith a
nut holding v$ve-to rim, remove the nut. Retove the tube. b
Thoroughly check the tire
th inside and5ou -&&make
certain
.
I thaf.,Ghatever caused the puncture is not still @@sent.
/ Inflate the tube.jif it is important8to rn$e repalrs quirkI>.?tr>. to
logate
punctures,,b$ inspection. If holes caqri;lt be Iocaied in- thins
,?
.
:4
P
.
L

.
I

~mn~ler, place the inflated tube in a &An or pali of watt+ and m;atyh
-4
P
for a$ bubbles. Ilark h&es with chalk. If thewater test uTa-?j
used: a
Bb
tube must be allo\ved to dry thkoughly before patching.
,l
Patc.h a tube, as f~~llowsf
Cltban and rr~ghen area wlierc. a patch is to be Fapplied.I
, I$ought~~ around the hole with sandpaper or rasp-holes usually
found on the lid of a patching kit container. I)o this carefully. When
po!)rl~- donr. this is a frequent cause of leaking around the patch.
Spread an evtnla!yer of patching adhesive over the roughen+ area.
& Allo\\. adhcs,iCr to dr),. Ithile waiting, trim comers of a patch if thyy
are not roundt>d. Sharp corners tend to work loose. The adhesive
B.*

sh&ld be d1-J.before backing isremoved from a patch. - Lkhen * *


remo\-ing backing, take care not to touch tI& surfak of the patch.
/;lppl!- thr gaf~h, \iopking it in place and stretching it to the tube. If
G
the tubtl is to be replaced right .away, sprinkle talcum powder
\
.
aroun & tht? area c,f patch to help prevent sticking.
I-ia hr)ltJin the tube is on the rim side; ~samin~ the inside of the
rim. (YilebC~OIIIIIIOII prc,)blem is fur a spoke that has been tightened tczl
~;Qu-u& past the nipple. ,It x-ill punch through the rim iirler and
Qpjm~wtt
thetub:.
y
. - :.
Deflate the, tube. Insert th; valve stem in the hok7rim first.
\170rk the tube insidtx the tire all the wa>. around. Smooth the tube so
that there x-2 no tii-ists. P&h the tire bead bak over therim Ltlth
~.our thumlk. Inflate the tire to proper pressure. h4Zke sure that the .
tire is prhperl). seated and the valve stem is straight. If not, d&ate,
make adjustnlents and reinflate. If there is-a valve stem nut, thread
in place an$ tighten d,o~vn.Al\valx use a valve-cap to l&p dirt out of
-:the \-alve.
:* The proceduire for r&lacing a tire is the same except that the
.
srcond bead is also? rtmo?ed fr
,,the rim on the same side of the
..
rim as the first bead \tas removed. 110 this by hand.
Clencher tub? repairs can often be made in less than 10 mi- .
7
. c
nutes by. experienced toUfli$ cyclists.
_ c.
a
WV

~ Sew Ups

- ., : .:-o
%

x:- t- -.

Tubular repairsF usually. take lGn&r tharl clgnchers: TOIa.v&d


dela>-s, trkng c>*clistswho use these often carry extra, &--es with-,
ttibes alread). WMII in place. The!, fold up#an
easy to carry..
\ven on the road, a fk& tir; is removed and
ed @h one of
L
%these spares.
Hoivever, it is poss~k
to mak@ repair
;i
II the road. The,
\
-follo\t-in,: it en 1s are rJeede&:

Y.

_
4

-Pat~+es t&rat%e tiyall>. thin&


chers and adhesive.
.
c

tian they
.-

--CLm~td IltYdk.

--I.illtln t hrvad.
-RiIlI

u&d for clen: @


*:,

ctIlltrlt.

-Rought~ning lidt hat is often foundo~l patching


\ kit c.ontaintlrs
or swdpaper.
-Razor
or sti c-11 c.utters.
i
Ialc~urn
pcwdty.
I,

i~1alk.

step is
brtlak lose
cwlltnt
rerno\.t~ a
tk 2
hol@ng
tire to
rim. No
i-rons%rtl rtlquirc4.
ntlar thc&
tiryL off
rim. \\ork
5!~m. !Gng
thumbs, roll
around the
to Ioc.attl
ltlak befijI-t>
thv yubt>
tirtk., %
c
thrl hoIt,
wmcsving a
it-ill n1;AtJ possibltl to
of stitc.hillg.
is a
c.orIsuIl~irlg
job
its
leak (~11
important
ktbt>pit
mirii~num. Somt:iinles
located b>.
the object
caused it. !.ou c,ylt
the hole
,in this
pump
sonle
into the
and&ten for
leak. .If
*
~.r,ustill
locate it,
both the
and tube
.
the $eak
been located,
liithxhalk: Strip
the 4L
that coi.ers,the,
ches in
area. ,A
of inches
\vorking
is usualIy
Lsir;g a
blade or
cutting
nd a
of the
remove about
through thv
in the
K~nlc)~c ;i
of t
L?
and loiattl
in thy
Follo\v prOC~~LII-es
above for
*
clincher tubes
use a
thi;ner patch
for
se\v-ups.
11ork
tubeback inside
tire. Use
and thread
r&se\v the
Space stitches
three-eigh.th of
inch apart.
,
Cement tape
stitches with
cement.
rir;l cement
the rim-not
tire. Old
need
not be
IYait until
becomes tacky.
usaally ,
1
7. =+L
takes tivo
three miriutes.
the tire.
with
-.
the
..
i-a/w stem
LW$%t$e.
on arotin&the
in both
the valve
the tiw on the
dithe
around,
rotate
tire untilit centered. This
be done
Lvhilc
the
is still
An even
of side\vall
show all s
)
the
around on
sides of
tire.
Inflate the
.Allr~;vtime
the cement
s&t bt~fixcriding.
, If
must,ride i
atcl!., ridt;sltj\vl>.
awid turns
cwuld
m.
the tire
125 .

L
.

Fig S-l Shlmano Model HC-400 fror;lt hub Parts are: (1) hub shell, (2) axle, (3)
cone. (4) lock nut, (5) washer, (6) axle nut, (7) steel bqll, (8) dust cap, and (9)
axle se:
\

. HUBS AND FREE-WHEELS

A tl-pical, hub and bearing arrangement Lzith axle nuts for


securing the ivheel to bicycle frame isshown in Fig. 5-l., Figure 5-2
5;hw.s a quick release hub. Notice that it uses the same basic
bearing and cone arrangement as shown in Fig. 5-l. This arrangement is used on almost all front and rear hubs including those with
internal gears and coasterbrakes. In essence, the only link between
* the hub shell and the axle are the bearings.
A s;le\v,design trend is to use permanently zealed bearings.
These ian go ior long periods of time without maintenance. L$hen
the bearings finally do wear out, the sealed bearings are usual11
~,* rsplaced ll-ith new ones.
ADJUSTING CONES

.Afrequent cause of excessive wheel play between axle and hub


is loose COII~S.In turn, wheels that will not spin freely frequent11
have crones that are too tight. Simple adjustments icill correct these
prrJbieni5. Of course, it might be something more serious such as
lack of lubrication Or worn parts. But alwa1.s check the cone adjustment first. --
Cones WithoutLock Nuts
n,

These are similar to the hub sholvn in Fig. 5-l excepf that the>.
h2i-Y
Ill,
If Jck
Iju!.
The c.one is locked in place b>. the axle nut when
installed on a bic>.c%le
frame. This is a poor arrangementand is used
Jr
L

126

on inexpensive hubs. It difficult to


the wheel
losing the
.adjustment. A
improvement is
add, thin
nuts. IJs-ually
isample sp*ace
fit thesein.
adjust, 1oosenone theask mounting
It isnt
sary toremove
from the.bicJ-cle.
a wrench
fits

cone, lo&en
Then tighten
bearings are
firml\~. This
the two
closer together
both bearings
I

equalill>,.,Do
over tighjen
this can
damage.
ur
loosen thecone
one-half turn.
the cone
ihk *position
a wench
.tighten ihe
nut k+ith
-
*
.
sh&ld allow
iheel to
freely without
r 5
play.BIf not,.
making f&her
adjustments. Loosen
cone
9
,another
turn if
wheeldoes not
freely. Tighten
quarter
if thereis
play. If
such adjustments
601 correct
problem, it
means lack
lubrication ,or
, ivorn
damaged parts
the hub.
kill need
the hub
find and
the problem-as
later in
n

- >,
onlf

Coneswith-LockNuts

.,Loosen one of the axle mounting nuts. It isnt necessary to,


re.move the wheel from the bicycle. You will need one thin svrench

-Fig. 5-2. Shlmano,..$@$bnt


hub with quick release. P&s are: (I) hut&hell large and smaf :@nge .models shown,
(2) cbmplete
axle set, (3) axle, (4)
bearings. (5) &scab,
(6)cone, (7)key wash&,
(8) lock nut, (-9) complete quick
releaseunit.
(lO)skewer,
(1 l)volute~pring,
(12)nutforskewer,
(13)cav,l
ver,
, (14) body cam lever, and (15) cap .nut.

.I

.
B

i
I

%r

\,

tcifit thcbco,,t;and a,lothc~,-to fit the 1oc.knut. Hold tht Curt ivith OIW
. wrel,ch and loostm the 10~~1;
nut \\it.h other \\wn~h. Then tighten the
~0~~~unti! the bcwings art firyl!. seated. Take m-c nor to over
tighten. Loosc~n thtl cone one-half turn. Hold the COIICin this
position v,itk CHIC\I-r-twc*hand tighfen the 10~1;nut ag&st
the cone
i
with the stx~md ~in~~y.k Rctigbtrn the axle nut.
The fiheel slr\~uld iww turn frecl~~ \vithout txcxxsivc pIa!.. If
*ni)t, nlakc~ fine ac&stmwts as desc.,ibed above for- c.ones without
lock ,lut,s. ,If thisytloes not c.u,-cxthv problem, !.ou \\<I1 I,t~t~clto
overhaul thy hub :is detailc~d in this c~haptgr.
,
Hubs withQuick ,
Releases
,

d
m

Open the cpick release le\,e,- a~,d reniovt the \vheel from tht:
bit!-cle. Adjust cwc COIW as dtwribecl abovcb for cxmes ii-it11lock
,,uts. Rrinst$ll the \vheel on bic!.cle.
I
OVERHA;LING IjdJBS , r
OvtlrBauli,lg st epi i,!c,lude ,-rn1:,vi,,g th*e~vhevl fro,l> the bicyt--

c*ltl,disal;senlbli,,g the hub c*c,lter, cle&i$1g, i,ispvc*ting, replaCing


parts as r~~quirr~d.lubric~ating, r~a&mbli,lg aild rei&talli,,g \vhCc>l.
.
\\-hkl !.ou art touring, sag;; of these steps can scm~tinm be
I +~omitted until a bet it>,-\\~o,-karea is pcGible. For ~~sanlplt~, c*ltmii,,g
might
..i
_c by limited to ,\vhat c*a,lbeclone mitha-c.loth.
,
*$J ~cmplete m~c~rhaulis best, doncx with the bicyclt> i,! a repaii.*Istand. The foll~,ming basic steps;. nith noted differ&ws, appl!-*to
:n&st standard front hubs and rear hubs \zithout internal gears gr
Lbrakes. This i,,r*lucles those \vith fi<ecl and freewheel sprockets.
!
Rtm~~~r tilr~~vheel from the bicycle. If )Y)LIare going to ovtr- .,
ha.ul both fro,at and sea,: hubs, it is gtwtmll~~ btlst to do o e at 2 tillle.
Finish that \vhvtll a,,d install it back ol, tilv bic-!.c.cC
b2fortl startingJ\<v
second wheel.
.
* Asst~mblies it;; .the six basic. hub i>.pes !;I lvhic*hthc?ti inst,uc~1
tions applyare the f,%nt hub \iith aslv nuts (FigT 5-l); front hub \\ith
quick release (Fig. 5-z), rea,ihub for free~vhcel~mith axi? nuts Fig.
,5-S), rear hub for frtltl\vhceJ \vith quick release (Fig. S-4)., rearirack

hub \iith fixed sprcjckct (Fig: 5-5) and a rear hub fior-frec\Cheel and
disc br:,Kc (Fig. 5-G).
Ktyjn tlisassc~nlbl!, by re,nc)ving axle mounting nuts or q&k . b
1
,-elcasc assembl!.. The ,latt.v,-b!. holding CXNlever and unscrewing
the ,lutqfor sk~~v~,-, removing tension ;I,- solute spring and sliding 7
..
SE;c\ver out,of axly c%cnte,-.The rv,nai,ldv,- of the quick release wed
I
not be tlisassv,,,t2lcd unless pa:ts suc*h as the cam-lever, are to be
q
.
I-t-pl~NYd

4
.

lock nut,, (7) lock nut,

I.
..

.
.
.
.

*
..

.
r, (12) complete
ii
.;.
L1

>-

,_
I
/

_
. . _
*

i(

.v .

.
.

For hubs [{it11fret~\~hc~c~ls,the 11tixt stcbp is to ~-~w~o~~e


the
,
free\-\,heel. lyou \\-ill need a.sptGal tool for removing the frw~vhrt+
There are t \vo basic, t!.pes of rtmoval t 001s. Tht~!~a~-tb for free
~~het~ls \iith spliilt\s aiicl for frc~t~\\~ht~t~ls
\vith lugs. iYl;llzeSUI-clthat
_
!ou get ~hty~ht 011~for scour brand of frtlt~\\%ec~l.lhest~ tools cost
appro~matel~ $3. You ii-ill also need a vise ivith copper jalvs or a
n in Fig. 5-7. This is used in a
special axle vise such a
regular \-ise as sh
*a
the vice or a special asle
a complete wheel \\ith
\-ise as shoivn i
aappropriate wrenc*h, I-F
free\vheel a&L
e-hubs have a lock nut and a.
spacer. In this case,
removed first-then
the
I,
.
*
spacer.
Sclst, remc,~,~~~tht~axle and \vherl from the vise. ClamR the
- free\~~heel removal tool in the \isc \I-ith spljntbs or lugs, dtp~t~ltli@~OII
t!pe of tool for particular free\vlitkcl, faciilg up\$ard. \\ilh sproc~liets
do<-n\vard. slip the frce\vheel over the removal tool. Itith the tool
seated and aligned, rotate the \vheel counter-~lock\\ise until thebub
comes off the free\vh&l. 111 some cases, especiall!. $ith lug t>.pe
free\\-heels, it might be necessar!- to hold a tool in position&- usingan &le nut or reinstalling the quick release assembly. This&$only
necessar!. to free the thread hold initiall>-. Once the freewheel
center is started. remove the nut or quick reIease assembly and
turn the freeivheel.
lar. hub overhaul it isnt necessar>- to remove the
or SOIN~jobs, such as \vheel spoking, it \{$I be
lso halve a spacer ivasher betlveen spoke
est step is to clamp the lock nut on one end
old the lock nut \iith a \vrench on the
. If the hub has no lock nut, form me by
t the cone. Itith an appropriate ivrench,
4
*>/
..L
ii loosen and remove the lock nut on the up\vard end of the axle, if
y present. Thenremove the cone. Slide the axle out of the hub.
L.
There are t\vo t>-pes of bearing arrangements. \Iith one t!-pe
th.e b-earings are caged in a retainer and ~2-l~the $.h.er.typ-e Jhey are i?
5:.--L
lo~+&+-?:hgtsei~-~-e~air-ler~cari be r-e-myv??da< a u!$.-~?*h~&~.sekindJ7Z0
.are cv<~ered b!- d;st caps. Be>, can beremwed b>vpY$%?gthem &f.
Take out the individual bearings. T\veezcrs can be used for picking
3 out the bearings. Its a good idea to count them so that J~OLI
toil1kno\t
.
how man>- go bat%;;
.
Turn hub over and remove bear&+ from the c,ther end of th&
f.
hub.
,
I

130

'.
n

~_
.2
.

::4

t.

i.
N

i
fi .-.

Fig

5-7

Park axle wse.

L1
?

The remaining cone on the axle need no,t be removed unless -.t
required for inspection or replacement of parts. Before removing
this cone, measure thEdistance of the cone fcom the end of the. axle
so that y~ou\\ill know ivhere to position it later Lvhen you reassemble
L
I it.
Clean all parts in solvent. Check all parts and make replacements-as necessary.. If any. of the bearings are ivorn or pitted, its
generally. best to replace the complete set. Check axle, nuts and
cones for thread damage. Make certain that the axle is not bent.
.Assembiy: follo\vs reverse order of disassembly, except that
bearings a,re pacted in bic!.cle grease. The grease will also seA?e to
hold *individual kwse bearings in position until assembly. is corn-- .
plt-ted.
After assembly., adjust hones as described above in this chap>. ~+-@:.-+J(jldc;~fnein position and tighten the lock nut.
.
-py on hubs \vhere a free\\rheel was removed, reinstall the
fre&vheel. (hi quick release hubs, install assemblies through axle
centers. Install the ivhrcl back on the bic\ycle.
This sounds like a long involved job. dut after you do it a few
times, it becomes routine and can be done fairly quickly.
ff
0
132

The follo~ving description of the oper-ption of a coaster brake


applies to the t3tj!l&i-\-Mo(/~l 70 shown in Fig. 5-9, but nnost operate
in essentiall~~ the samewa!.. When the pedal direction is reversed
for braking (back pedaling), the drive screw (BB-502) is turned. -.
SCWW a$on causes the retarder
sub assembly
@B-159),
which consists of driving clutch, drive and expander and retarder
spring, to move toward the expander (BB-533). The camny,d 1
surfaces an the ends of BB-533 and BB-159. facing each othgr
spread the brake shoes @B-22) so that they create friction or a
locking action against the inside of the hub shell. This causes friction
between the expander @B-533), which is connected by the brake
arm (BB-510) clirectf? to the bit!, *le frame, and the wheei to form
effective braking action. In othe i words, the hub is joined to th,e
bi&*cle f;ame, b!. friction or a loyking action. If the bic!~clewheel is
turning when this happens, braking results.
There are many brands and tl-pes of coaster brakes in use
todai. Sincecoaster brabes are fairly complicated, I suggest that
inexperienced bike mechanics have overhauls and repairs done at a
biq,cle shop.
The overhaul instructions for the BendixkModel 76 coaster
brake. as shown in kg. 5-9,, are included here as an example.
To remove the rear wheel from a bicycle, place the bicycle
.
upside doL$q-preferably, in a main~enance rack. Remove both axle
nuts; u-nfasten the brake arm kion$ the arm clip -leaving-the arm clip
on t-he frame&rd
remove the chain first from front and then rear
^ sprockets. After removing mudguard braces, from the axle, pull the

rear Lvheel from the frame.


To disassemble, the arm end of axle should be clampedGina $iie
_ II_
2,
-.i^ with copper jaws to prevent damaging threads. The -axle locknut,
iir.
.
:-. .
9
S+i.~.,zi.BB-15, at the adjusting cone end should then be removed, as well as
e$$$the BB-7 adjusting cone. The BB-502 driving screw, LiB-20cone
.g./.&
*;: .
;*.rr
j; bearing and BB-516 bearing should be removed. Th driving screw
.
aa=<
gyp
;-7x
-3 can be removed- bs- unscrewing counter clockwise: The wheel
g;:;,.+n
r
:,/a.
should then be carefully lifted off the internals while you hold shoes
?&
;.-<,:
- _/ together \tith \-our fingers. Internals can then be easily .isassem1
#t
,I<:.. bled.
).;F
2 L+
Clean all parts-k solvent. Inspect parts and make replacements
s
._ .:
-s
g ; k ,_ as required. .
,II-I
To reassemble, the anchor end bearing BB-5i6 should be
.-.*
;
assembled on the anchor expander BB-533 with balls toward the

taperedsui-face. This bearing can be assembled easily if the follow1


ing procedure is used. Assemble a BB-533 anchor expander to the

iilc.11
be.>-ollrlthtl a&l square. Ihe bearing should then be greased
ar~l piac~~l in a 13B-,53J?dust c%ap-with ball; outward.
Using
thtl
p&i&l
the
as handle,
expandersub-assrlmbly,
BB-533
BB-4,.
be
throug?
btzq-ingun?il
bearing
in
Lace
shown
Fig.
x.,a
BE-510
arm
then
assembled
lciiked
place
a
axle
This
should
then
in copped-jawed
the
down.
L
end
retarder
driving
sub-assembly
should
be
on
axle.
light
of
should
applied
both
surfaces.
should
lightly
Lb-ith
and
on
surfaces.
inside
of
hub
have
light
of
Holding
shoe9
i.lth
finplace
hub
the
assen$ly.
must
taken
have
h{b
&-tiperl\The
end
(BB-516)
be
with

to\vard
htib
shown
Fig.

B&581-566
BB-510
BB-516

BB-502

B&~-J

88-556

BB-155
L

Fig. 5-9. Bendix Model 70 coaster brake. Parts are: (88-4) axle, (BB-7) adjusting
cone. (BB-11) arm clip assembly,
(BB-13A)
axle nut, (BE!-14A) axle washer,
(BB-15) lock nut, (BB-20) retainer, (BB-22) sub assembly,
(88-502) drive screw,
(88-510)
brake arm, (BB-516) retainer, (BB-532) dust cap, (88-533)
expander,
,(BB-558) dust cap and (88-581-586)
hub shell.

135

Fig

5-l 0

lnstallrng

expander-axle

sub-assembly

balls towa~-d the hub. 1HeBB-7 adjusting coiitshoulcl be I-UIIclo\vn


on the axle. Finger tighten the cont against the ball bearing. Do not
LQ~ a m-rench at this point.
,c I Unscre\\- the COIXa quarter turn. Hold the cm& in that position
\\-ith a thin is-r-ench and tighten the locknut mith a second \vrenc?h,. ,s
e
,j There should ,be a slight amount of side pla!* at the wheel rim.
Place a BB-538 dust cap over a BB-X)I! drive sere~v.
. .+
i*
Attach a sprocket on BB-502 so that the three lugs mate: 1uCg4
i
/L slots provided.
Install a BH-lx55 retaining ring in the groove nest to~sprocket.

Reinstall the wheel on the biq.ele. Form an arm clip (BB-11)


snugly around the frame at a point \vherc the bolt hole in the brake
arm clip lines up is-ith the bolt hole in the brake arm. Select the hole
in the arm the clip that holds the brake arm closest to frame. Install
an arrm clip screiv and nut but do not tighten J.et.
Install BB-14A ask washers and BB-13A axle nuts loosely*,.
Pull the \f.heel b&k to the tighten chain. Center the Lvheel so that it
_
does not rub Oil either fork encl. Tighten the axle nuts securel~y.
Tighten the arin clip nut securel!. ivhile the biq.cle is still
upside

d(JNYl.

It is inlprx-tant ,to test the bike for driving,* coasting, and


braking. If a \vheel does not rotate freel)-, the c-one adjustnient is
undoubtedl!. too tight and Imust be readjusted.
Fig. n-12 sArJ\VSBrj1zdix ,ZZodrl76 waster brakes. Overhauling
these is ver!. siniilar to the Lko~ll~l
70 deseribecl above. The main
136

1)

IhtIparts atld assenlbl!. of aSIli)\lcorr~E;-7)$c iogter brake are


sho\irl in Fig. 5-13.
Mu)ti,$peedHubs

Figure 5-13 sho\vs a Slzi)llullo FL4-~\7?cthree-speed hub sgld


c; o\ \ s a three speed hub \;ith c*oascer*brake. Unless
J.OU
Fig. 5-l.5 ,h
are an experienced bicycle mechanic, I .recommend that J-ou leave
all internal repairs to a bicycle shop. Fortunatel>., these hubs usual11
If-illstand up for !.ears with only- periodic lubrication added to a fiiting
on the hub shell.
The most frequent problems are external and making corrections such as cable adjustments are usually fairly easy. The cable
can be either too loose or too tight. Other problems include broken
cables and cables not sliding freely in housings and over pulleys. To
check for broken cable, work the control lever or handle and see if
the cable moves at hub end. If not, replace the cable.
i
With cable intact, check to see the cable slides through housing
*
and pulleys freely. If not, remove
wire and lubricate. If rusted,
i;
replace wire.
Cable adjustment varies with the make of the hub. For example, the Stwme~ Archer is adjusted-asfollows: For three and five

speed hubs, place the right control lever in the center position.
* Adjust the cable until the end of the rod where it joins the small chain
at the hub end of the control cable is even.with the end ofthe axle.
This can be seen through the hole. Adjustments are made by
turning the threaded end on the control cable. Tighten the locknut
Lsith yoqr fingers.
For five-speeds, a second adjustment on the left control cable
is required. The controllever is placed in a position that gives most
:
;q
,i

..,-,
-

66-516

Fig. '5-l 1. Bearings

.?

BEI-516

are installed

with balls

toward

the hub.

MODEL

Fig. 5-12.

Exploded

views

of Bend$h&del
,-at,.
I

76 -

76 coaster

LARGE

brakes.

FLA~x+B~ACK
k

LC

,g$+.
h

..I

139,

s1ac.kin the c*nbltJ.lht~i1adjust a11s1ac.kout of the>c,;iblc~.lhtl kiiurlt~l


nut is loc~ktxlafter adjustmt~nts ha\-c btlcv niatle.
Adjustments on Shiwcl~o thrtbe-spt.lcbd hubs arc mad<>differently. Dith the c,ontrol tcbicarin tht> c-enter position, the pointc>r on
the small arm should point to N as shoed in Fig. S-16. If the arm ~
does not point to N, loosen the lock nut on the cablcb and turn the
threaded metal arm as required so that the small arm does point to
a
I
N. Retighten the lock nut.
t
LMicult shiftirig that is not due to cwntrol levers or c-ables might
be caused b!. the c.hain being too tight, the axle not c.tviterecl in
.
frame or a bent axle. Check for these conditions and make adjustments accordingl>..
. If gears ~41 still not operate properI>. b!, operating control
levers, loosen the cable until it is completel>, slack. Place the bic>.cle
upside do\vn or in a maintenance rack. Crank pedals bj. hand and pull ..
the shift cable b!. hand. If the gears function, the problem is most
likely in the cable or cxntrol lever. If the gears do not \vork,,the
problem is likel>- to be inside the hub. The most likeI>- internal
blem is lack oflubrication. Add lisubrication through the hub shell
fitting. Also check to make certain that conesare proper-l). adjusted
1
and control rods at the ends of the cable are tight.
Freewheels

Instructions for removing free\vheels from hubs are given in


the sectionon overhauling hubs. I suggest that ~7oudo not tr>. to
disassemble the freewheel unit itself. Also, special tools (Fig. 5-17)
are required for removing sprockets from the free\vheels. If >.ou
need to remove these to make a s\f-itch or replacement, I suggest
J-ou take the unit to a bit!-cle shop and have the job done for you.
Fig. S-18 show the assembly ,of sprockets on a freewheel.
For cleaning, I suggestMat 170~soak freewheel and sprockets
a*a unit in
L:-@$<allow to dr>- and wipe unit.off with a cloth.
X brush can be used with the solvent for cleaning between the L
:5
sprockets.
kihen the.unit is completely clean and dry, oil the freewheel
with light bit>-cle oil. The unit is then read!, for reassembl)- to the
i
hub.
WHEEL-TRUING

To form a Lvheel, the rim is connected to the hub flanges b>


adjustable spokes. The two basic tl-pes of rims are the clincher type
itith a deep U-shaped channel for clincher tires and-the tubular type
140

18:
r--SAT%-x\

IY

2@ 27 2p

29' 32

45

33

Exploded

view

of Shlmanb

three-speed

hub with cqaster

35

46

38;39 40

Fig. 5-15.

34

48

brake.

.i
i
i-

\
,

with a sli& depression for cdmenting on sew-up tizes. When


spokes are properly adjusted the wheel will be true. That is, it &ll
I turn smoothly without wobble or UQ and down motion.

bIinor adjustments can often be madk without removing the


wheel from the bicycle and with the tire and tube left in place. There
.

551

b&II cr;ink

REtI
_-.-~,~

MARK
__-

k
i.

bell

crank

Fig. 5-16. Adjustment

cap

nut

indicator

11 68bell

on Shimano

crank

three-speed

screw

hub.

143

Fig. 5-17. This Parksprocket

tool is used td remove


A

sprockets
\

from flywheels.

. is some risk of puncturing the tube b.y tightening aspoke nipple to


the point ivhere the end of the spoke will extend throuSgh the nipple
and puncture the tube. A spoke nipplesis the-piece with internal
threads that passes through the rim and holds the spoke in place.
However, since most spoked wheels only have the nipple threaded
part.way over the threaded end of the spoke, this is usually worth
the risk. Otherwise the wheel would have to be removed from the
bicycle, the tire and tube removed and then the alignment made. All
to prevent something that probably wouldnt have happened anyivay.
a
the bic>.cle upside down or mount it in a maintenance rack
so that the \vheels can be turned. Using
. brake pads or the eraser

Turn

Fig. 5-18. Shimano


body. (two through

Model FC-3BO multiple freewheel.


Parts are: (1) freewheel
five sprockets),
(6) spacer A and(7)
spacer 6.

end of a pencil as a guide, figure out where the wheel is out of


alignment. Determine which spokes need to be adjusted-to bring it
into alignment. Use a spoke wrench (Fig. 5-19) to make the neces0 . sary adjustments:
1
:,
In most cases,,small adjustments to the spokes will be all that is
required. If the rim is off to one side a,rid too close to the wheel
center in the same area, the required correctjon would be to loosen
the spoke that is pulling the rim to that side and toward the axle. Try
. a quarter turn of the&&e. Then spin the wheel again and check for
trueness. Repeat this metRod until the rim is true.
One or t\vo broken spokes cztn sometimes be replaced &ithout
.,%removing the-wheel from the bicycle or the tire and tube from the
wheel. The wheel willhaveLto be in near alignment and thespoke or

Fig. 5-19. Spoke wrenches.

Fig,, 5-20. Park wheel

truing

stand.

spokes broken in such a way that J.OUcan unthread the broken


spoke out of the nipple.
If not, you stillmight be able to get b>yLzithout removing the
\\*heel from the biq-cle. Let the air out of the tire and ivork the tire
and tube to one side in the area lvhere the nipple is to be replaced.
Lift* back the rim liner. Remove the nipple. It is best to use exact
replacements for both nipple and spoke. Take the broken piece. to a
bike shop to use as a guide. In some cases the sprocket pla errient
iii11not allow inserting a spoke in the normal manner. In this / ase, an
extra long spt&e can be bent to the correct length. Cut off about
three-eighth of an inch past the bend and insert and loop in the hub
spoke hole.
146

ri

Fq

5-21

Bicycle

fork in me

used

as wheel

truing

stand.

The inlprcJ\.ist4 truing stand ii-ill allo\\. cw~tering the rim to a


fair dt*,t(rtaccLfr-lcxmracy..
If great t&rac.curac*!. is rrquirt~l, a truing
gauge (Fig. 3-L:
) )I or professional tL.pe truing stand \fith pwcision
t~rn!thg gauge is needed. .
A truing stand. in addition to c&~tering
the rim, is used to
determint, thg dtgrt~t~to \4,hich the \f.heel is round and its side-toside truent5s. I!c~%~;~~Hxcan be located and r7)rrections made by.
tightening anrl Ioo~t~ning spokt~.
GtJfory .ctarting the alignment of a previoust>. used \vheel,
rep1ac.e all brc)ktAnor damaged spokes. Tighten them approximateI\.
the same amount as neig:hboring spokes. The instructions that
fulloiv also apbl!. to a neivl!. laced lvheel. Techniques for lacing
\vheels are gi,?venlater in this chapter.
First, consider a-ii-h& \\-ith a flattened spot in one area and a
bulge in another. The procedure is to loosen the spokes in the
flattened area and to tighten those in the bulged area. The problem
areas can be determined b>, spinning the ivheel and Lvatching the
guide. Flattened spots if-ill show as the rim moves a\val- from the
gtiide. Bulges dills show lvhen the rim moves to\vard the guide.
\Ihen rhr ivhrel is conc~entric, the rim ~41 remain an equal distance
from the guide.
Adjustments in lateral trueness are done last. These genera&
have little or no effect on roundness. For example, on a 27-inch
\vheel. tightening a spoke one turn and loosening the next spoke on
the-rim onr turn \f-ill shift the rim about one-eighth inch to the side
ii*heTe the spokt~ \vas tightened. Thisc\\-ill have ver1. little effect -on
,
concentricit \.
: I
Keep in mind. ho\vever, that there is no point in loosening a
sprjkc that is ahead>. ycr!. loose. A Lvheel laced by the procedure
giien later 111this chapter should result in approximatel>. the right
spoke tens~c~n(Jr tightnrss. This can var!. for a number of reasons. If
P-J
!.CI.U
feel that the spokes are too f~rose, go around the Lvheel and
_I.
tighten each (Jnt? an additir,nal quart& turn. If the!, are too tight-!
loosen each a quarter turn. Both too much and too little tension can . L _ a.
lead :(Ibroken spokes.
Continue making adjustments until you
I are sati$6d with the
-.
VT.
1

148

I
4

Fig ,522.

Wheel

centering

gauge

149

Thy hub \\ill gt~nt~all!~havtl the sanw nun~b~r of spoke holes as


the Iin]. L~suall~~front about 18 OII somt~ VVI-\.sndl \vheels to 40
holes OII some 27-inch \vht;rls. For SOIIIC~
special projects dvscribed
in this book, other cwmb;jnations CXI sometimes by used. For
example, it is possible to s&ke ;I small l&hole rim to ;I 3%hole hub
b!. skipping ever!. other hole in the hub. This \vill \vork as long as the
pattern is symmertrical. You can get the correct length of spokes
,

Fig. 5-23

Using

a truing

gauge

to check

lateral

centering

of wheel.

and the spok&wheel will be sturdy enough for the intended use. If
for any reason thou cannot get the correct length of spokes, a
t
ivorkable substitute can sometimes be made by cutting bff and
- 1,
beI;ding to form a zig zag or loop at the hub flange hole.
CQerl~rall!-,high qualit!. spokes are the most economical in the
.
long run. I suggtlst that !you do not mix brandsin the same wheel.
Q-J
Kot all nipylcs fit all spokes. iLlake ctxtain you have ones that match.
\\.hcn !.ou are read!* to.lace a wheel-and have the hub, rim,
I
nippl& and cxrre~t lt4gth of spokes-the
first thing to note is that
tht> holtbs iI tht; rinl xv drilled off-miter. Every other hole is off to
one side of the riIII. The holes on opposite flanges of the,hub are not
directly across fr(mI each other. The>.~re half \vay between. A hole
on the flange on <ilitside lvill line ;~p exactly midwa!, betiveen tivo
holes OH the opposittl flange.
Some hubs have) cmmtersunk holes. These are n.ot ~to s& the
~ spoktl heads flu&, asmCight be imagined, but to reduce stress from a
sharp bend in the spoke. The spoke head will be on the flat side and
,J
not the cou~~tersunk
side.
c
I find it mlvt%irnt to drill a h6)le in a workbench sc?that the
axle, if in thy hub, IXI extend down into the hole to hold the hub
upright.
Begi b!, insertiIlg~pokes through the upward hub flange. P_ass
e\rer!. other ant through in .the opposite direction. If the hub%las
countersunk holes the!- will determine the direction the spokes ~+41
pass through. The spoke will be inserted on the flat, noncountersunk side. If there are no countersunk holes, the choice is
up to !.ou. Just make sure that ever). other spoke passes through in
the opposite dire4on. An eas!? wag to do this is-to ins&)t-tever-1
other spoke and pass them through in the same direction. Next,
e
insert the remaining spokes OHthat end of the hub. They will all pass
)
through. in the opposite direction.
.L

Ori most rear hubs the sprockets will have to be rcmovecl in


. order for the spokei to be passed through the hub. With clusters of
sprockets on freewheels, its generally easiest to remove the .
free\vheel yith the sprockets.
\lhen all thespoke
on one end of the hub are in place, bundle
and hold spokes so the!. dont fall out and turn the hub over. Position
I
the spokes through the holes on the other flange. Use the same
placcmt>nt prn~~clurepreviousl\. described.
:
\!ith the hub positioned withme end in the hole in the workbench, position the rim for lacing. Start on theupper hub flange with
I

an>- spoke that has the end of the spoke fa&g upward. Group all
I
152
/

:
_.
3

other spokes in a bundle to the opposite side of the rim. Turn the rim
so that it igpositioned with the valve stem hole b!- the single spoke
you have selected for starting. Insert the threaded portion of the .
, spoke into a spoke nipple that is inserted in the upper-closest
to
the top of rim as positionedrim spoke hole adjacent to the&valve
I.
hole. Depending on the particular rim, this might be either to the
right or left of the valve hole. Thread the nipple onto the spoke four
full turns. Ijo this for all spokes: This assumes that >ou are spoking
a hub that ~41 be centered. There will be variations when spoking a
derailleur hub that is off cente;. The differences ~fill be covered
later in this chapter. For now, assume that you are spoking a
centered hub and use four turns on 9
nipple as youinstall the
spokes.
Select the next head-up spoke on either side.of the first spoke
installed. This Jvill~bethe-second one away+ as the ne4;t one on each
side is head-down. This spoke will go to the rim in the fourth (s,jcip
three) rim hole from the one where the first spoke was installed.
Continue this pattern until all of the spokes on the top hub
.
tlange \vith the heads upward are in position and each are threaded
four turns onto the nipple. If, for example, theAvhee1 has a total of 36
spokes, nineshould now be in place. There should be three vacant
I~III holes between each spoke.
Twistthe hub so that the installed spoke++are tight. This should
*
be done in the direction that leaves no spoke crossing over th.e valve
.
stem hole. The spoke adjacent to it should angle awal..Cheik this
carefully. This is a common mistake, which, if made, will lead.to aQ. .
.
i
spoke being in the way of the valve for inflating the tire.
Take an! spoke in the top flange with the head downward,
Going in the opposite direction of the spokes already in place, cross
over the number of spokes corresponding to the crosses in the
spoking
pattern being used. This is generally, either three or four.
Skip one additional hole in the rim and thread the spoke into the
ni$ple of the following rim hole. This should be a top rim hole.
j
This is the regular spoking pattern.: If an intorlacd pattern is
desired, the spoke goes under-rather
than over-the
last spoke of
the crosses.
Regardless of which pattern is used, continue with the same
plan until all of the spokes with downwardriacing heads in the top hub
flange have been installed with the nipple$ tightened four turns. The
rim should be half laced at this point cvith aspoke in every. other rim
hole. The pattern should be consistent. Check these points carefull!.. ,Do not continue until any* errors have been corrected.
,
a
<
/
i

r'

153

--x

Fig. 5-24.

Shimano

Tourney

center-pull

type

caliper

brake.

&-J&x-n the ivhcel over. All unlaced spokes should now be on the
top hub. flange. Take any head-up spoke on the top hub flange.
Locate thespoke that is head-up justto the left of this spoke on the
bottom flange. Run the top spoke parallel to the bottom one ad
place it in the hole to the left of the bottom one. Th&ad it four turns
into a nipple. Notic.e that the upper and lower spolws with the
heads-up follow a consistent pat tern. The distance from the hub
flange b!. nature of the offset is th.e sa&e for ea.ch spoke.
Using this pattern, lace all of the head-upivard spokes in the top
flange to the rim. If this has been done correctl>., the pattern around
the rim ii-ill be consistent \ilth ever!. fourth rim hole empty.
Take the remaining spokes in the top flange. They should all
have htlads don-nivarcl. Lace tlyzm to the rim yith the same CI-oss
pattern that IV& used previousl!.. If an intcrlad
pattern is being
used, don% forget to go z~~l(lrvthe last spqke in the crosses. The
spokes should fit the only vacant rim holes that are in the right
positions for the ltwgth of the spokes.
If ever\-thing- has been clone correctl!, the spokes should be in
a consistent pattern. All of them should have four turns onto the
154

m.

.,

\,

1
,

REaAR BRAKE

FRONT .BRAKE

A-A

Type
1

CC 65

47mm

CC 751-57mm:2

Fig. 52.5. Exploded views


(4) radius bushing-l-front,
arm returnspring,
;z
:a
t

of Shimano Tourney center-pull


caliper
(5)square
seating pad-front,
(6) lock

(1O)flanged

for brake shoe, (17) brake


bushing-rear,
(22) square

thrustwasher,

(1 l)innerbrakearm,

I 7.8)-65mmi2

0
l/2)

59mm12
e
i 65mm(2

1/4~)-75mm!3w)

.?

1 2*

brakes. Parts are: (1) lock nut for center bolt, (2) toothed lock washer, (3) washer.
for*pivot bolt, (7) arm bridge with center bolt, (8) L.H. arm return spring, (9) k.f-l.

nut

(12)outerbrakearm,

(13)bushing,

shoe-left,
(18) brake shoe-right,
(19) brake shoe complete-left,
seating pad-rear,
and (23) arm bridge with center bolt.
:r

I3

516-1

(14)pivot
(20) brake

I
_

bolt, (X)centercable,
shoe

cqmplete-right,

(16)capnut
(21) radius
. ..g
,
,

Tp

-,

.
:
*,.

nipples and approximately equal tightness. If this knot the case, the -
P
.
problem is one of three things:
-You have made a mistake iri the spoking pattern.
-Youhave used the wrong cross pattern. T
i
-The spokes were the wrong length..
,,
If J.OUspoke a rear hub that has a dishing effect, the initial lacing
is the same except that different lerjgth spokes are.used for each
hub flange with the shortest length oif the sprocket side. A less
de.sirable but still satisfactory. method is lo useone length of spokes
and take care of the dishing by spoke adjustnylk
Lace the ivheel
first with four turns on each uipple the same as is done for a centered
hub.
For allwheels, the next step is to tighten all nipples. For afront
or centered Year hub and for dished rear hubs Lvhere t\vo different
,Wh,,,lengths
of spokes are used,ptighten all nipples until the threads on
.? the spokes ade just covered. For dished Lvheels where one length of
spokes are used, screk all spokes on the sprocket side homxuntil
the threads /i-e justacovered. The; tighten all spokes on the other
side until about four threads aredsiill visiable. The~dishing effect is
achieved bj.haviIlg the spokes on the sprocket side tighter. The
total.effect:is to have the rim centered ivhen nnountediil the bic!rcly
frame.
The \vheel is IIO\Vready for truing, as detailed previously iii this
chapter. It should be apparent that ivheel lacing and truing is both an
art and science. Its something that >-ouhave to,develop a feel for.
For high level racing, even experts spend hours truing a single
wheel.
L

CALIPER BRAKES

The t \vo basic t !.pes of caliper brakes are center-pull (Fig. 5-24
I _ and Fig, 5-25) and side-pull (Fig. 5-26). The center-pull brakes
consist of a hand lever, cable housing, cable hanger, cable, cable
carrier, transverse wire, brake caliper and brake shoes. The sidepull brakes consist of .a hand lever, cable housing, ca&,.brake
caliper and brake shoes.
Unless othmzise noted, the follo\ving material applies to both
P
types.
Hand levers

Fig. 5-27 shows one tl.pe of hand lever and Fig. 5-28 is another
t\~pe._nlmt levers are similar to me of these t\vr) tl-pes.
Some hand levers have a quick releas@clevice that allmvs
opening the lever wider than normal. This opens the brake-pad
calipers further than usual, and makes \vheel removal easier.
156

i ;

.d

05

01

Fig, 5-27. Shimano


Model MD-100
complete,
(2) clamp. (3) lever fixing
fixing nut.

brake lever. Parts are: (1) lever bracket


bolt, (4) lever fixing washer and (5) lever

To remove a hand lever, first clamp brake shoes tight against


the rim. Fig. 5-29 shows a special tool, called a third hand, that is
ideal for this. The holes fit over the nutson the brake pads.
Some caliper brakes have a quick release for slackening brake
cable. Some center-pull models have a means of disconnecting one
end of the transverse cable. If not, loosen the cable ,at the anchor
bolt and pull out enough cable so that hand lever moves freely. Trl
not to pullthe cable completely out of anchor bolt. It might be
difficult to thread back in. If you are going to remove the cable from
the housing anyway, dont worr; about this.

Loosen the hand lever clamp: A*,screw.driver can be used for


either t!pc. A special brake lever screwdriver (Fig. 5-30) is handy
for the ring tlpe. Remot,e the hand lever from the handlebars.
\
A:-b

Cable Replacement

Loosen the an&& bolt on thebrakecaliper and disconnect the


cable. The cable is pulled out from the hand lever end. On sl.c$ted
levers, the cable is disconnected from le%er before removal. .
A replacement cable should be at least as long as the old one
and have the same shaped lead end. When purchasing a new one,
take tkemokl oneafongto the-bike shop to make certain you get the
rightreplacement.
Gheck the cable housing and if necessary, replace it.
Lightly grease the cable. Thread the cable through the housing. Connect the cable to the hand lever. Thread the other enduof

Fig. 5-28. Shimano


Model MB-100 brake lever. Parts are: (1) lever, (2) lever
bracket, (3) pull up bolt, ,44) pull up nut, (5) clamp, (6) pull up stud, (7) flanged
thrust washer,
(8) cable anchor stud,
(9) lever adapter,
(10) cable set and
(11) outer

band for one-inch

tube.

,!

Fig. 5-29.

Park third

hand

tool.

cable through the anchor bolt. Do not cut off excess cable until after
-- the brakes have been fully adjusted.
Adjusting

First check. brake pads. .These wear out from use or harden
from age. Generally, all four brake pads are replaced at the same
time.
You can purchase either the rubber pads separately or you can
buy the entire brake shoes. The latter are slightly more expensive,
but generally worth the difference if the old brake shoes are even
slightly damaged-especially
the threads.
Two methods of attachment are in common use. One has a
threaded stud on the brake shoe. This is secured to the brake arm
by a lock washer and nu\---usually an acorn nut. .The other method
of attachment is with an unthreadedstud on the brake shoe that-fits
into an eye bolt on the caliper arm. I,t firmly holds the brake shoein
place and permits greater shoe adjustments than the first method.
The latter, however, is generally used only on center-pull designs.
In making replacements, remove old brake shoes. If replacing
pads only; slide out old pads and replace them with new ones.
Install brake shoes on brake arms. The closed end of the me@
holders, if on one end only, should face forward on the bicycle so
that friction against the rim when braking will not force the pads out
of the holders.
Regardlessof whether you are using brake pads that are worn
, or have installed new ones, the fir& step in making adjustments is to
,check the alignment of the brake shoes. These should be in line with
160
8.3

loosen the braktl shoe mounting, align the


the edge of the rim. If I
shoe with the rim and Y etighten. If no adjustment is required, you
should still make cei-tain that the brake shoe Jnountings are tight. .Both brake pads on a caliper should be the same distan:e from
mounting nut and turn calipers
the rim. If not, lo~wn the ca
ance from rim. Retighten the
until shoes arc both the sam
c*aliper nlountillg
nut.
Properly adjusted, the brake pads should.be one-eighth inch
from the rims n-hen hand lever is released. In most cases, some
adjustment is possible by turning the a$justing barrel. Try. this first.
If the required adjustment cannot be made in this manner, loosen

. .,.
Fig. 5-30. Park brake

lever

tool.

161

the anchor,cable bolt or cable lock lever. Hold sh&s one-eighth inch
from the rim, pull slack out of the cable by pulling it past the anchor
bolt or lrvtlr clamp and tighten the anchor bolt or lock lever.
Center-Pull
Calipers

Clcaningand lubricating can ordinarily be done llthout tt$~wing the calipers


bicycle. A second method is to remove the
calipers from the bicycle, then clean and lubricate them \\<thout
disassembling them. Another- method is to disassemble, clean,
assemble and lubricate.
On inexpensive calipers, replacement parts are often difficult
to find.
might have to replaw the entire unit. Replacement ::&
parts
usuall!, available fOr popular, expensive units.
A To remove the caliper from a bicycle, loosen the cable anchor i:
b6lt and slide the cable free. Unfasten both ends of the transverse+
cable. Remove the mounting nut and washers and slide the caliper!
free. If the caliper is to be replaced, always try to get the same
brar$ and model.
If you need to take the caliper apart, begin by removing brake
shoes. If
do i\ot habe asseinbly drawings, make a sketch so that
you can get the caliper back together again. Pry loose the ends of
the springs on the stops on t,he brake arms. Remoye pivot bolts and
separate brake arms. Remove sttings. They are not interchangeable. Mark left and right side springs.
Clean all parts in solvent except the brake Dads. Inspect for
wear and damage and make replacements as required.
Reassemble in reverse order. Lightly oil pivot bolts and holes
before installing fasteners. Avoid getting oil on brake pads. Be
careful \vhen installing springs. They can injure fingers if they slip.
Adjust brakes as detailed in the section above.

from
the

You
21-t

J.OLI

Side-Pull
Calipers

There are many brands of side-pulk


cal@er&usean$most
are
__~
--~
41-a.
-BeforEd dlsassemb~l~g~~~p~rs to replace broken or damaged parts, find out if replac&ent
parts are av$laMe. If not, you
might have to replace the entire caliper.~esI;ecially inexpensive

ones.-

..

To remove a caliper from the bicycle, loosen the cable anchor


bolt and slide the cable free. Remove the mounting nut and washers
and slide the caliper free. If you replace a caliper, use an exact
replacement that is the same brand and model if possible.
If -ou need to disassemble a caliper, begin by removing brake
shoes. If !Y)LIdo not have assembly drawings, make a sketch so that
X~ou
can assemble them again.
J
162
2

Troubleshooting

Aio~t co~mno~~caliper brake problems are:


Sticking brakes. UsuAl!- caked b?. a bent caliper part or
hand Irver or a cable sticking in the housing because of I -
damaged housing. After the problem area is located,
corrections ml often be macjc by bending paf-ts slightly.
a11tl
appl!-ing lubrication.
3

Fig. 5-31. Shimano

Model

MB-l

10 brak6

lever with extension

lever.

Parts are:

(1) lever, (2) lever bracket, (3) pull up bolt, (4) pull up-nut, (5) clamp, (6) pull up
stud, (7) flanged thrust washer, (8) cable anchor stud, (9) extension
lever, (10)
extension
lever spring, (11) cable set and (12) outer band for one-inch tube.
t.

163

brake pad. Ch~c;ai shoe adjustments.


The
c.aliper shc~uld be centered when reltlased. A problem
ounting nut or sticking pivots.
aIs;10might be a loose
r1\7c)iclgetting oil oh brake pads. Sometimes the pruhjem
.;
,
is ivtitlc4 alignment.
Ih-aggi11g

Cable frequentl!. breaks. Usuallt, some part of the cable


J housiiig is causing chafing. Check for burrs, bends and
kinks in cable housing. The usual corrt~ctiun~,~.r~~~
rhc-housing.
SafetyLevers

Fig. 5-31 h-h ()\vs a safet!. or extension lever. A frequent modification is to add eNtension levers. Safety. extension levers are available to tit most staildard brake levers.
Hydra&c CaliperBrakes

IIOLV
on

1Ientivn of these should be made, as a few are


the
market and others are likely to folloiv. These use fluid and you bleed
them to get the
out of the system.
s&

air

DISC BRAKES

Disc brakes are becoming increasingly popular. They7 offer


all-iveather performance, smooth bra.king action and allo;, contii uous brake application on long downhill slopes (Fig. 5-32).
\
Figure 5-32 shows the assembly and parts of a cable operated
i
unit. Hyydraulic models are also available.
Disc brakes can also be added to many bicycles, but a special i
rear hub (Fig. 5-33) is required. The disc plate is attached to the left
side of the hub in a manner similar to-a fixed sprocket on a track
bicycle.
*
-; -

The three basic tyypes of pedals are those that cannot be taken
apart f(Jr overhaul or lubrication, the t>pe \v<th two rubber pads
attached to a metal base by. bolts Lthese can be disassembled for
overhaul-and
rattraps ivhich are all metal.
n
PedalsThat Cannot Be Disassembled

These pedals are the least extiensive. They are available with
both one-half inch and nine-sixteenth inch thread diameters. Make
certain you get the right ones for your bicycle when selecting replacements.
*

164

1
s
ul

FIN. 5-32 Exploded view of Shimano Model BC-100 disc brake Parts are: (1) covet ftxrng bolt. (2) bracket cover, (3) adtustrng bolt A. (4) adtusttng
bolt By ~5) setting bolt. (6) settrng nut. (7) adtustrng rubber A, (8) adtustrng rubber B, (9) bracket, (10) flange nut. (1 1) nut. (12) toothed lock washer.
(13) non-turnrng
washer. (14) return spring. (15) adjuster, (16) holder A: (17) cable adjusting bolt and nut, (18 jball plate. ( 19) ball retaining plate.
-(20) dust cover. (21) steel ball, (22) stop ring, (23)-brake arm, (24) cable fixing bolt, (25) cable fixing washer, (26) cam plate wrth center pin. (27)
thrust washer. (28)pad B, (29) non-turn spring. (30) countersunk
screw A, (31 ) countersunk
screw B, (32) pad A. (33) holder B. (34) through bolt.
(35) spring washer. (36) clip band, (37)disc plate,d(38) lock ring, (39)spnng
washer, (40) pad lock nut, (41) bracket fixing bolt and (42) bracket frxrng
washer
.

This t.ype. pedal is lub$%&d externally by squirting oil on the

bearings. If they breik down, they are usually discarded and rei
placed with new ones. For. sidewalk bikes, this might be more
practical than it seem!! at first-thought. They usually give adequate
i
serviceand are inexpensive to replace.
, Left side pedals have left hand spindle threads. Turn clockwise.
to remove them. These are generally marked L,pn the threaded end
of the s&$le. Rightside pedals have COnVehtiOnd,
right hand <,
spindle threads and are tirked
R. Turn counterclockwise to rei
\
1,
.
move them.
The,$edals are not interchangeable and trying to thread them,*..

on the, wrong side will damage


the
threads.
t
/
- ~--- _~__~(
,
RybbWPad Pedals That C&I Be Disassembled+
r

;:
-

*
While these pedals can be.disassembled for overhaul and reI
rbair, the vast majority that are in. use probably -have*;netrer been
taken aR;ut. These will generally, give long service with no added
Iubricanon or you can squirt oil on the bearingsl,periodically.
Q :
To disassemble, remove the pedal from the bicycle. Remove
//
nuts from long bolts that extend through rubber peda1cpads.i Slip
-.~pedalpads, bolts and dust cap off as a unit, Thisassembly only needs
- to be taken ap8tAf replacement bf any partSis necessary. The most
,
*.
typical replacements are the rubber pads.

Clamp the pedal spindle& a vise. Remove the lock nut, key
wa$er and bearing cone. The two types of bearings are loose ball
:
bearings and bearings in retainers. Remove the bearings, bearing
cup, splindle housing, iFner be&&g cup and inner bearings.
Clean all parts except rubber pedal pads in%Avent. Replace
0
parts as required: With many inetiensive pedals, a ben&spindle-or----/-other major damagemight make it preferable to buy a new pedal p
r rather than attempt to buy replac kment parts. Replacement parts to
Qrnost pedals, including spindles, -are Jeadily available.
When reassembling, add bicycle grelse to the bearings..Hand
- tighten the bearing cone against bearings. Thenback off a quarter
turn. Keeping the cone in this position, slip on the key washer and
then thread on the lock nut and tighten,
-.
Rattrap
Pedals
*
-YTo disassemble, remove the pedal from the bicycle. Remove
the pedal spindle cap. This might be threaded on or held in place- dlwith small bolts. Remove the locknut. Slip off the khyed
fockwasher. Thread off5 the cone and collect loose .Ibearings.
or
7..
_I
,
\
s
.166 *
3
m
/a\
l

QJ~
.)
*
v-.-e

Fig. 5-33.

Shimano

disc brake

set.

remove the caged bearing assembly. Slide off the pedal bodyr.
Collect loose inner bearings or remove the caged bearing assembly.
Clean all parts in solvent. Inspect for wear and damage and
replace parts as required. When assembling, hold loose bearings in
cups in pedal body with grease.The pedal body should be positioned
with the inner cup upright. Slip the spindle in place. Hold it firmly
against the bearings and turn the pedal over. Install bearings in
grease in the outer, cup. Install the cone. Assembly is greatly
.I
simplified when bearings are in retainers.
Finger tighten the cone. Then back (off about a quarter turn.
kistall the keyed lock washer and locknut. Install the pedal spindle
cap after checking to make certain that the pedal turns freely
*
without end play. If not, make necessary cone adjustments.
While most rattrap pedals; are lubricated with grease, some
expensive racing pedals use-oil. These require mo& frequent servicing, but have the advantage of minimum friction. I ..
\.:-_

Toe Clips,Strapsand Cleats

Toe clips and straps are seldom used on pedals with rubber
pads. Rattrap pedals with saw-tooth notches to prevent shoes from
slipping can be used with or without toe clips and straps. Racing
;
pedals generally do not have the saw-tooth notches. Shoes with a
.- special cleat that fits the pedal are used with these. Cleats are not
I
used fad most other types of cykling.
Pehals with clips and straps already attached can be purchased
or you cahpurchase clips and straps that will fit most rattrap pedals.
The toe clips are generally bolted tothe pedal and the straps pass
through notches that are in most rattrap pedals.
167
.

Straps are 3vailable \+-i{hbuckles and quick release attachments. Tot c-lips are sometimes used alone. But most often the
clips and straps
acement from time to time. The clips
Straps might req
efor-e replacement becomes
generali!. have a
sarv.
\ihile most cyleats are used \\<th toe clips and straps, a few
cleats clanip dirtlctl\. to a special plate and are used \\rithout toe clips
and straps.

xcu

long

~wces-

CHAINS

Chains used on single-speed and multi-speed hub geared bikes


are usually classified as wide. Those
derailleur and single-speed
track bikes
classified as narro\v.
The \\ide, chain is one-eighth inch wide,-the width of the
rollers-usuall!.
if-ith a one-half inch pitch Lvhich is the distance
betn-een the centers of the rivets. These chains have a master link
for joining the ends together.
Narroly chains also generally have a one-half inch (12.7 mm)
pitch, but have threelthirty-se :ondinch
\+idth. These are
connected at all links by rivetb Master links cannot be used on
chains for derailleur bikes. This \extra width will not pass through
the derail&r mechanisms or-A!it betlveen the sprockets of the
ccluster.
The Shimmo Indzutvinl Co has recently introduced a 10 millimeter pitch chain and matching components called theDura Ace 10
S>~stE~1z(Fig.3-33). The 10 millimeter pitch system reduces the
overall Lveight and size of the conip ents and offers the fczlloting
outstanding features.
The miniaturization of the components. The components arz smaller in scale and lighter. By changing the
chain pitch from 1.2.7mm to lOmm, the front chainwheel
and rear sprocket wheel diameter have also been redueted by a tori-esbonding factor of 10/G!. 7. The weight
actor of (10/12.7). In terms of
has been reducedby
ainwheel can be made 21 perpercentage, the fron
gly, almost 38 percent lighter:
.&cent smaller and, am
a MIncreased efficiency,
en the rotating parts are made
lighter the acceler$ting efficiency is increased. The
energ). of the rider is.transmitted to the bicycle faster
and \tith less power loss due to components mass and
friction. This means that hills cab be climbed faster and
pedaling on the straights is also easier.
.a
L
168

a-t

on

(Z.%hn)

.-c
:

-- --

,0
!

Fig. 5-35.

A screw-type

chain

tool.

I
1
1

Smaller components withstand deflection better. Since


the front chainvvheel diameter is smaller, bt~nding or
warping due to deflection is. kept at a rnininnunl. This
results in less wasted effort and aIso contributes to
increased speed.
Gear shift&g is ea$er. Because the teeth of the rear
l
- sprocket wheel are shorter, the derailleur need not raise
the chain so high in the shifti!lg p*rocess. Threrfore, the
shifts arefaster and srnoother~with less power loss.

,I

Chain Removal

1.

If you have a wide.chai;, loon the rear hub axle nuts and slide
*
the hub forward to slacken the chain. Locate the master link which is
wider than a normal link.
Fl& the chain and prlr the master link off
with a screwdriver. Remove the link posts and backing plate. These
slide out as a unit.
If you haves narrow chain, a rivet extractor tool is riquired. .
The two basic kinds of extractors are the screw tyde (Fig: 5-35) and
blier type (Fig. 5-36). Open the,extra&.or tool and slip it over the
chain. Line it up with akivet and then Close the extractor until t&e

rivet is~free of all but the last plate. Do,not drive the rivet all the/way
out. Figure,,5-37 and Fig. 5-38 show the use of extractor tools.
a
Remove the extractor tool. The chain can now,be separated.
Afte; removal, clean the chain by soaking it-in solvent. A stiff brush
can also be used. Alloy the chain to dq-;I
1
a I
8

170

*.

Fig. 5-36. A pl!er-type

chain

tool.

Lubricating

Sc)ak the claaill in pan of biq-cle chain oil. Il~tk hang chain up.
preferably ovg-night and allow it to drip dry.. Use a collection pan.
Obviously,, this is ,ilot ;I job to do in !.cyr- living room. Aft tr the c.hain
has dripped A-!., use a caloth to ~-e~no~e an!. remlining escess oil.
The c.hain is thm wad!. to by r~installt~cl on the b~.lc~~rk~..
,
Chain Installation

\Vith a \\-ide chain, place thti c$nin ovcr the front and war
sprocket teeth. Insert the backing plate mith tlvo posts in holes in

Fig. 5-37.

Using

a screw-type

chain

tool.

:,
+,
_,

the chain to join ends. Position the master link and bend the chain
towards J~OU.Snap the link into place.
Reposition the rear hub and tighten axle nuts. The chainshould
have approximahely one-half inch of slack in it. It not, loosen axle
nuts and readjust. nlake certain thewheel is centered between
frame drop-outs.
IYith a narrow chain, the extended rivet should face away from
the bicycle. Feed this end of the chain around the smallest chainwheel. The other end is fed around the smallest rear sprocket and
throughjockey and idler pulleys. .Bring the two ends together and
use the chain tool for driving the rivet back into position.
ReplacingLinks ~

A broken or defective link can be replaced by driving out rivets


&ith a chain tool. Replace links and, if necessaqr, rivets. Use the
same tool to drive them back in. Rivets can be started into a side
plate b>- holding them. in position Ltith needle-nosed pliers and\
tapping them in place.
; On a wide chain, a defective link can also be replaced--with a
master link. Use an extractor tool to remove adefe&ve link.
a similar manner, adjustments can be made in chain length.
\Vhen selecting a new chain, use the same length as the old chain.
i
-!,
I
In

172

* I,

TightLinks

This is a frequent problem when chains are not oiled periodicall!.. If bic!*cle chain oil will not cure the problem, use a rivet
extractor tool to move the rivets of sticking links slightly to one side
and then back into position. A freeing oil can also be used to
advantage here. Apply oil, use the tool to move a rivet to one side
and then back.
If side plates are bent or if the above,stbps will not cure
I
tsticking, install new links to replace sticking-ones, If there are man>
sticking links, its generally best to get a new chain.
.
CRANK SETS

For our purposes, a crank set consists of an axle, crank or


pedal arms, a chain wheel-plus
the necessary bearings, cups,
ivashers and locking devices to hold everything in place in the
bottom bracket of the bicycle frame.
c
Types of Crank Sets

L,

=?JRiTee b asic types of crank-axle assemblies are used on modern bicl-cles:

CRANK

ARM

SPROCKET
STATIONARY
CUP

----CRANK

Fig. 5-39. A cottered


*

crank

assembly

ARM

173

CONt
RCTAINEF?

\ \

Fig. 5-40. A one-piece

crank

CONE

and hanger

assembly.

-0neTpiece
steel forged axle and cranks in a single unit, Fig.
5-39.
-cottered
crank assemblies (Fig. 5-40). Pedal arms are attached to separate axle by means of totters which are tapered pins
with a threaded end for nut tightening.
-Cotterless
crank assemblies (Fig. 5-41) with crank arms
drawn on to wedged ends of the axle by crank bolts.
The axles for both cottered- and cotterless -assemblies are
almost always steel. The pedal arms for cottered assemblies are
generally steel. Those for cotterless
are usually lightweight
aluminum alloy.
A few J-ears back, bicycles were laigely in price ranges b)r the
type of crank assemblies used. The least expensive had the onepiece, the medium priced models had the cottered and the higher
priced had the cotterless. There are many exceptions to this today.
Ive seen cheap versions of cotterless assemblies used on 10speeds sold at discount stores for about $100.
Overhauling

The basic procedure is to disassemble, clean, inspect, replace,


parts as required, lubricate, and reassemble.
174

T;
0-l

Ftg. 5-41 Shrmano Dura-Ace


Model GA-100 crank set with track-type
chainwheel
Parts are- (1) crank arm dust cap. (2) spindle bolt. (3) spindle
washer
14) rr+ht crank arm. (5) chainwheel.
(6) chainwheel
fixkng bolt, (7) chainwheel
fixing nut, (8) left crank arm. (9) R.H flxed cup. (lO)steel
ball
retainer for bot!om bracket. (1 1) bottom bracket splndle. (12) L.H. adjustable
cup. (13) lock ring, (14) dust seal. (15) hexagon wrench key, (16)
cotterless
crank extractor and (17) peg spanner

Fig. 5-42. A cotter

tool.

.,

Disassemble one-piece cranks as follows:


Remove the chain guard and chain. Remove both pedals. Since
the threads are left hand threads on the left pedal, turn the pedal
spindle clocknise. The pedal on the chainlvheel side is turned
counterclock\\jse for removal.
Remove the lock nut on the left side. This has a left hmcl
thread, so it is turned clockwise for loosening. The required lcverage is gained by using a wrench on the lock nut while holding the
crank arm lv-ith one hand. After the lock nut is clear of threads, slide
)
it off over the pedal arm.
Remove the,keykd lockwasher. Remove the adjusting cone by
turning it counterclockwise L\ith a screwdriver in one of the slots.
When the adjusting cone is clear of the threacls, slide it OII off over
the pedal arm.
Slide out the bearing and retainer .as3emblyr. U.rdess some or
damaged, the hanger cups need not be .rmloved. The crank can now
be slipped out on the sprocket side, of the frame. Remove the
r
bearing and retainer assembly from the sprocket side.
If its necessar! to remove the chainwheel from crank, remove
i the stationary cone. The sprocket can then be copy out a wood
dowel extending through the bottom bracket hole from the opposite
side of the frame and a hammer.
Clean parts in solvent. Inspect all parts for wear and damage.
Methods for doing this are given later in this chapter. Rep[ace parts
as required.

:n

176

reverse

Rcasstwbly is basicail!, the


of disasstmbl>. except that
bit!-c*legrtme is added to the bearings and cups. The adjusting COIW
is tighttmc>d until the cranks still turn freely, but without pla!.. J:ht;n
install the l<eyed lock washer and lock nut. The>. should be tightened
finnl~-. Install chain, chain guard and pedals.
IVith the biq-cle in a nnaintenance rack or with the ljack of
bic!.l.ltl held off floor, ~vork the cranks. The>. shoulcl turn freel!, and
have almost no play. If not, rtmove the lo+ nut and lock washer and
, .
readjust the ml;.
The crank set should be serviced in this manner onct-*a
!-ear or
mox often. However, most bicycles ivith thi,s t!pe of crank se,ts are
not serviced at all. AlthLmg6 there is a loss of precision, most still
<givelong swzice. At an!. rate, I feel that this t>rptof crank set is!lie
best bet for utigt\, biq*cles that are goingto have miniinal or nqr
regular maintenance. On the other haI!d, (he overhauling is wall\.
quite eas!--tspeciall>. after the first time-and probabl,\ well ivorth
the

>

troublc~.

Forcotterecl crank ass&blies, clisassembl!. begins b>.rtmov- .


ing the cot ters (Fig. S-40). A special tool, shown in pigs. 5-42 and
5-43, is used for removiilg,~otters. First &move the nut and lock ++
ivasher from cotter. Open the ja\v:s of the cotterremo\ial
tiwl.
Position the tool as shown and turn the liandle tc) drjvti the wtter
.
out. The same tool can also he use,d tu set totters.

Fig. 5-43.

Using

a cotter

tool.

If thtl special tool is not available, the totters can be driven out
nit11 a hanimrr. IIo\\~ever, this method leaves muck to be desired
G,aud rlmag~~
to
c2rtters frtqutwtl!V results even if care is taken.
10use the hammer method, loosen the nut C)IIcotter until it is
flwh \\ith the end of the cotter. Place the pedal arm on a bench or
block so that tapping out the cotter will no_tplace stresson the
bearings OI-axle. -4 block of.\vood can be used betiveen the hammer
2nd the cotter, but a single, sharp tap to the cotter directly with the
hammer ofttAn \vcrks just; as \~ell.
\
After the cotter has I=iemremoved, work the crank arm free of ,
the axle. 011 th& chain\vhe\el side, the chainwheel will COIWoff \f-ith
-I
the crank arm. Some ch$inwheels are perman&nt!y fixed to the
-.1 peclai; ~-rank.
Others c-an be disassembled b!. removing mounting
_ ~bt)lts. .1. . t
Mei both ~xml; x-n+ have been removred, unfasten the lock
r-ii& front th:)left side (Fig. 12-l). There is a special hook spanner
.a
+- tool for this. If 1.6-rdont have one, >.ou can get by with a punch and
~~mn~l-.,~~4lthi,ugh, again this is poor technique.
,
Rem&e the adjusting cup with a wrench by turning coun.1
ter~~l~xkwise. Scjnle model$ require a peg spanner wrench. Some
Y
have loose bearings ,and others have bearings in a
_.h. cr+i!sets
\ . 2 refakwr.,If 1.o~ are uncer!ain about yours, be prepared to catch
z.e lock; beatings. Tal$ the adjusting cup all the way off.
Ifbearings a~$in a retainer, remove it from the assembly. The
\a,ule can now be pulled out the left side; Next, remove the stationar>
i cup on the right hand side. If bearings are not in a retainer, catch the
loose bearings. If the bearings are in a, retainer, remove this from
.
the housing.
Clean all parts in solvei\t. Inspect parts for wear and damage.
hlethods for dkg this are giien later in this chapter. Replac~~parts
as required.
For reassennbl>., reverse order of skps for disassembly ex <, cept that lubrication is applied to bearink. Loose bearings can be
I , held in place bv positioning Jthem in grease during the assembly.
Tweezers are $ancl~~for placing the bearings. The adjusting cup
should be tightened until the axle turns freely with only a trace of
end pla!,. Install and tighten lock ring.
The best \va>vto seat totters is with a cotter tool. Position the
crank arm on the axle. Position the cotter in the hole. Position the
cotter tool and then tighten until the cotter is firmly set.
If 1.70~do not have a cotter tool, a substitute method is t,o
position a block of vvood so that .stress yill n6t be placed on bearings
l

178

il

Fig 5-44 Shrmano Duar-Ace Model GA-200 crank set. Parts are: (7 ) ciank arm.
dust cap, (2) sprndle bolt, (3).spindte
washer,
(4) right crank arm: (5) chain
,
r
guard. (6) guard fixrng~bolt. (7) guard fixing spacer, (8 and 9) ch,ainwhe+,
(101 : - y

charnwheel
frxrng bolt; [I 1) chainwheel
fixitig nut, (12) R.H, fixed cup, (13) steel

ball retarner for bottom bracket, (14) bottom bracket Spindle, (15) L.H. adjuslable cup, (16) lock ring, (17) left crank arm, (18) dust seal, (19) hexagon wrench
.
key. (20) cotterless
crank extractor
and (21,) peg spanner
I.
;
I

or axle. Then ta&hr cotter Lcith a:hammer toseat it., Install the lock
Lvasher and nut and tighten do%-n,.
YIake certain that cottersare firmly seated. This-is a frequent
source of trouble. A slig~htplay betkeenthe axle and pedal arm will
quickl!. lead to Lvear and damage. Itss good idea to
.: check this,again
k
after the bit!-cle has been ridden. 1
Fig. .5;43 shows a cotter-I.&s assembly
and thy twls needed to
,
ovchaul it. Other than the metho8 of attachment and removal of
pedal arms from aile, +overhaul is basically the same as- described
above for the cottered crank asseanblies.
The procedure for removal of crank arms is the same for both
arms. Begin b!r removing the dust cap. Some models require an
LUen lvrench and others a wide-blade screwdriver. Next, remove
the crank or spindle bolts. A socket wrench or special tool (Fig.
J

__
,

P!

Fig
c

$45

A tool for removing


)

cotterles_s crank

bolts

EiwrcJ5-46 sho\~~s thy Illethod for using the


SptAzialtool. .A so~~kvt \vrench is used similarl!..
-4 cutterless Ix-ank est?actor tool (Fig. 5-47) is uwd as shown
in Fig. S-48. This one has .the handle included, but others are
available that can be turned ivith a ,wrench. The extractor is
scrtl\ved into rhe dust &p threads, ivhich applied pressure against
the end of the qcle, forcing the crank arm off. For the rq-nainder of
thy disassembl>-, follow the steps outlined Above for Cottered crank
assemblies.

$43

c-ii11

Fig 5-46

LIXYI.

Pemoving

a crank

bolt.

Fig

5-47, A cotterless

crank

extractor

tool.

Afttlr clea&g parts, inspe?t for damage and \vear and rep1ac.e
parts as required. Lubrication and axle assembl!~ in the bottom
bracket is the same as for cottered crank sets.
The crank arms can be positioned in any of four directions. Just
make sure that the two arms face opposite directions. The crank or
spindle bolts
should be tightened securely and then checked after a
b
short ride. For the first 15.0 miles of riding, retighten after every 50
miles of riding. If a bit>-cleis ridden with loose crankbolts or with
crank arms thatare not firmly seated, damage will quickly result.

Fig. 538.

Using

a cotterless

crank

extractor

tool.

Inspection
forWear and Damage

FOI.;dl t! pts of ~.l*;tlll<


asst~inblic~s, I() for thtb follomin~ after
-- ,i; D
?O
0
.o
1
~lt~;iiiii!kq
p;11-15
iii 51~l\cliit:
0
@
I~tbp~k~.t
Iht~
asIt
10 i\ijilitl
~xlrtaiii it is ilot hr11t.
This is
rat-clly ;I problem on otle-pic>ce C-rmks.
Q Pedal arm straightness is btst checked before disasstmbly \f?th the pedals still in place. AnITuntrutmxs ~zill .
show up in riding the l$q7clth sinc.e the pedal centers fill
not be @rallcl to the axle.
* Check all threads. Parts Lvith stripped or damaged
ihrtlads, unless
extremely minor. should be replaced.
.
* 0 Htd,ngs
and cones should be smooth and unpitted. It is
generally best to replace all bearings at the same time
regnrdltlss of Lvhether the bearings are lor)sr or in a
rt~tainei-.
e
Chc~c,l;c-hain\vhcc~ls for bent teeth. Tht~se can sonletiiilt:, be ~rraighteued. Lsuall>,the chain~vheels lvill have
to be wplaied.
,
e
ChtliE;all other parts. Especiall!. irnportaht are totters,
axle notches for totters and cotter holes through the
crank arms. Early replacement of parts her,e often pre,
\-ents
IMOI-e
costly. damage.
/
i.

DERAILLEURS

j The basic principles of derailleur gear systems (Fig. 5-49) are


covered in Chapter TV,-o. For adjusting and overhauling derailleurs,
place the bicycle in a maintenance rack. Another itjssibility is to turn.
thq bicycle upside do\vn. Jlake certain that part of the biq.cle such
as frmt brake cables ~-ill not be damaged. A wooden frame with
notches for the handlebars can be constructed to hold the bicycle
upright and protect the brake cables. Hovvever, it is generally. most
con\-enient to have the bic>Tcleright side up. The irn rtant thing is
to be able to turn the pedal cranks b>. hand and war he gear shift
controls.
c

AdjustingRear Derailleurs

3 wnmon pr-ohlem is slack in the control cable. The cables


terid t(i, stretch \fith use and the cable no longer pulls the derailleur
cxge all the \~a). t(J the largest sprocket. In turn, a cable that is too
tight \\.ont alloyedthe cable to releasefar enough for the derailleur
mec~hanisrn spring
tr, pull the cage back to the smallest
sprocket.
. JIincjr adjustments to the cable can be made by unscrewing the
cable if it is too- slack or tightening it if the cable is too tight.

182

.s

FIN 5-49

Sun Tour V-GT

rear

derallleur

L%djustments are made on the barrel where the control cable joins
the derailleur mechanism. If this will not go far enough to make the
required correction or your t!rpe of derailleur has no adjustment
barrel, loosen the cable clamp nut and loosen or tighten the cabIe as
required. Then retighten the cable clamp nut.
If there is enough slack in the cable when the control lever is
released-pushed
as far forward as it will go-and the derailleur still
will not return- to the cage so the chain will derail to the smallest
sprocket, the problem* might be sticking pivots in the derailleur
mechanism. Adjust by _.oiling the pivot points on the derailleur
mechanism.
The control cable must slide through the housing freely to
allov the derailleur spring to pull the derailleur cage to the smallest
sprocket. If the cable does not move freely in the housing, tr1
adding a few drops of light bicycle oil to each end of the cable at the
housing.
,
If this d(Jes not cure the problem, remove the cable from the
housing. First, disconnect the cable from the derailleur. Then
disconnect the cable fromthe control lever and pull it out ofthe
/
.

b
._

Ir

housing. If the cable is rust) or appears damaged, replace it with a


new
Other\tise, apply a light coating of bicycle grease to the
original l\ire and reinstall it in the housing. If the cable still will not
slide freel!., the problem might be in the housing. Kep1ac.e the
housing if necessary.
Ifhen selecting housings or cables, take the old ones along
\\ith-y@l to the bicycle shop so that you can get exact replacements. *
New cable should be at least as long as the original and have the
same type of end fitting for connection to the control lever.
Apply. a light coating of bicycle grease before inserting the
cable into the housing. Turn the cable Lvhile threading it in&, the,
housing. Connect the cable to the control lever. Pass the other end
of the cable through the an_chor bolt. Adjust the cable length and
tighten. Do not cut off an!. excess cable until all adjustments have
been made and everything is \vorking properly.. Al\~%ys leave
enough extra cable for-future adjustments. Its a good idea to cap the
end of the cable so that it will not unravel. Caps are available at
bicycle shops.
The above procedure for replacing cable and housing also
applies to front derailleurs.
Mith the control cable working smoothly and adjusted to the
correct length and the derailleur mechanism pivot points oiled, the
next step i
consider the range adjustments on the rear derailileq-. T l-Id+%
is accomplished by stop adjusting scretvs that limit the
travel inward and;outward of the derailleur cage. If the low gear
screiv indicated on most dcrailleurs,with an L is too far out, the chain
can go past the largest sprocket. If there is no spoke guard, it could
damage the spokes. If the low gear adjustment screw is too far in,
the derailIeur cage cannot guide the chain to the largest sprocket.
If the high gear screlv, indicated on most derailleurs withan H
is too far out, the chain can pass the lowest gear and go between the
smallest sprocketandthe bike frame. When the screw is too far in,
the chain cannot reach the smallest sprocket.
Rhen you make adjustments the control lever should be in the
extreme forirard position (slack cable) for making high gear adjustments and in the back (tension) position for making low gear adjustments.
7 If the derailleur tends tojump out of set gear, the problem is
most likely in the pressure plate adjustment of the control lever.
Check to make sure that oil has not gotten on the pressure plate. If
oil is present, disassemble and clean the pressure plate in solvent.
Dr.? off and reassemble. Adjustment of the pressure plate is made
by tightening the screw to increase friction and loosening to der

one.

184

.i

il .

it. +ying screws are used or1man>~control levers for easjr .;


adjustment.
If shiftingis difficult eve11
though the control cable is p&perIjT
adjusted and \vor-king fret+,, the chain cage might be. bent out ,,f .
line. If so, 1.r~~inight be able to straight
t by bending it back in 1
line. Take care not to bend the mounting
e on the bic!.cle frame.
m
This.generally isnt a problem on derailleurs that attac*h on the axle
,
bolt.
.y

crease

Adjhting FrontDerailleurs

&.,

addition to making adjustments in the limit screws, the _


derailleur unit can be repositioned up or doivn and twisted, at its
In

1110u11ts.

First check, the cable and hoiising. l?ollow the same procedure
4 ag.~$ve11
above for rear derailleur controls, When the cable is
\v&%ng properly., adjust the cable length. Then make adjustments
as required \iith the t\vo adjustment screws for limits otcage travel.
On most front derailleurs, cable tension moves the cage outward to
the largest chain chainwheel. Spring action in the derailleur
mechanism pulls the cage inward when tension is released. Sun
Tour front derailleurs (Fig. 5-50) work the opposite of this.
Oil all pivots so that they move freely: Thisis a freqiierit
. soul-G tiL-!
-.~..,
of difficulty
-- -F

Fig. 5-50. Sun Tou ir C:ompeV frond derailleur.

It might be ntlces;sar\. to repositiw


the front derailltur
nit~c+ani5in 011it 5 mounts so that :
- The ihaiii guidcl is parallel to the c=hain\\-hc~els.
-\\hcli! the <-h;iinis on thelargest fi;ont chain~vheel and largest
I-L~Usprc)c,krt* it dock not -touch the chain guide.
-\\ht~n the c-hain is on the smallest front c*hain\vheel and
s1~~1~~1l~st
t-ear sprcx-!cet it dgws not t wch the chain guide.
-lhtl c=hairiguie 1clears the largest front chain\vlieel h!. about
ae,2%.
one-eighth inch.
_
Chain and SprocketProblem3

The chain is frequentl!. responsible for deraillrur shifting problearns. A tight c.hain ,tink c*ai>cause difficulties. hIethods of freeing
tight chain links are c-overed previousl>. in this chapter.
Probltws CXI also occur from \vorn chain and bent or worn
spr?jckct tc>clth. This might require replacement of the chain or
;prkl;et 5.
Thy ~-ear axle might be angled in the frame and cause rear
sprockets to bc&it of alignment. Loosen
the Gear axle nuts or quick
release devi~~s,;~traighteI, the ivheel in the frame and retighten Pthe
*

Figure 5-51 shows a derailleur assembl:;. LVhile most are


similar, there are some variations. I suggest JWUget the assembl>
dra\tings for the make of your bike. For routine overhaul, the unit
itself need not be disassembled.
To remove a derailleur from the bic>.cle, first remove chain.
Disconnect the shift cable from the rear derailleur. Loosen
the
mounting hcjlt or nut and rernot*e the derailleur unit from the bicycle
frank.
Clean the derailleurunit in solvent. Inspect the unit for wear
and damage. Inexpensive derailleurs are often replaced as a unit
\vhen wornpr damaged. On more expensive units, the mechanism
can be disassembled and defective parts replaced-provided
of
COUI-se that the parts needed are available.
Lubricate pivot points and pullel- wheels Mrlth bic!.ele oil.
Reinstall the unit on the bicycle and adjust as detailed in this chapter.
OverhaulingFrontDerailleurs

;i
.,

Figure 5-52 shows a derailleur asscnlbll.. While most are .


similar, there are some variations. Its hc4$1 to get the assembly.
186

las 6u!x!] alqer, (s;z) pur?Alqwasse aleld Aallnd (pz) Inu pue M~JDS Jaldepe (6~) M~JZS Gu!Wpe (z) aleld a6ez Jalno (1~) 6uysnq
<$
Aallnd (0~) Aallnd (6 1) de3 Aallnd (81) ajeld a6w JCXNJ! (~1) IloqA~lnd (91) 6uysnq a+ld (~1) ~u!J dols (PC) 6uysnq Jaidepe (EC) vu 6~~4
alqw (~1) ~aqse~ 6u!x!y alqe:, ( 11) iloq 6u!x!y alqw (0 1) ay-zld 6u!Isn[pe (6) AlqLuasse u~s!uey~a~ ($3)Bu!Jds uo!sual-d (L) 6u!Jds uo!suaks (9)
]loq Gu!lunoLu ayeld (5) yoq Gu!iunoiu JaldEpe (p) Inu Jaidepe (c) MaJ3S Ja#epe.(Z) JaIdepe ( 1) :aJE sWd Jnall!sJapkaJ Is!ll!l OuW!llS LS-S .6!;l,i,\b,~,l\,,Ucl,,,
@p \P.
A

Fig. 5-52. Shimano Titlisf front derailleur.parts


are: (1)mechanism
unit IOWer
inlet type, (2) clamp bolt, (3) cable fixihg bolt, (4) cable,fi,xing nut, (5) adjUSting
bolt, (6) adjusting plate, (7) chqin glide spacevb;olt,
(8) chain guide. spacer, (9)
toothed lock washer, (IO) nut, (11) chain guide, (12) pin A, (13) clip A, (14) chain
guide spacer z&d bolt set, (15) cable fixing bolt and n$ set and (16) 1 -inch
*
t3>
bushing.
t
G
.
c;

<

u+?-.
i

! \
drawings for the one 01~your bicycle-especiallj.
if iou inte+Ildto

disassemble the unit. How&r,


this isnt n~c&sar;4. for a routin
e
i.
,
I
overhauJ
1
. \
With the ~hain~r&no$l,
discor&ect the-shift cabls.&n
the
front deyailkb- unit. Unfastei rnoun&~g,4&.
R&IOVG the derail- _ k
a
*ia
.
1
leur unit from the bicycle &ame.
Clean the derailleur in solvent: Inspect for damage arid wear
klinarilyj
the unit need not be disassembled unlesqartkreplacem
b
- _,
iiwnti
are necessary.
Oil the pivot points arid r@!stall the unit &-the biq.cle. Adjust
_
as described in--this chapter. i _ .
*
,
B
ControlLevers

.1

.
%)erailleur control levers are located variously, with down tube
(Fig:%-53), st em (Fig. 5-54) and handlebar end (Fig. 5-55) shifters
beingimost popular. Shifters are alsomade for the top tube, such ihe . .
stick shift. But this is generally a dangerous pJa$e to have them.
Disassembles of shifters islgenerally simple.> Remove the lever
fixing bolt. The iarts then slide off. Make a drawing of the parts as . .
you.take them off if you dont have the assembly drawings so+hat
..
you can reassemble them.
188

-z

i, Clean:& p&&solvent
and.wipe with a clean cloih. Replace
_,.Jx&
broken an d-ivorn parts as required? Do nott.apply lubrication.
Friction is$$xssary
to prevent the lever from slipping. .,
After Gverhaul and adjustments, make a final check with the
bit!-cle in a maintrnance rack. Run. through the gear )changes a
number of t&es. Gear changes should work smoothl!;.
Relocding Shifters

This,is a frequent modification. IVherl making changes, I recommend that I-ou rtick to shifters made by the manufacturer of
c ;your derailleurs. &lost-.-offer down tube, stem and handlebar end
shifters for their derailleurs. In most cases you will need to replace
cables, housings and shifters.
All shifter lot
IIS are a compromise. The bottom tube location isstill the standard for racing, but the stem and handlebar end
. locations are frequently preferred for general riding and touring.
1
.
I

Fig. 5-53. Shimano


Model LB-400 shifting lever. Parts are: (1) wing bolt, (2)
coned disc spring, (3) non-turn
washer,
(4) spiral spring, (5) lever, (6,) leaf
spring, (7) screw, (8) washer, (9) clamp bolt, (IO) clamp nut, (11 )+lever clamp for
iO-speed
and (12) lever clamp for 5speed.
d
m
0
E
.c

189

:
I

HEAD SETS AND HANDLEBARS

A htlad stxt is thcl dcavice through \vhich the st et~ring mechanism


piYc,ts (Fig. S-,X). It is made up of the bearings, cups, crones and
iit.~t~~~!~ iastc~llirlgs and lot-king devicx~s for holding the fork head
or stcbn1 in thtl franltl head tube. 1PIen assembld,
the onI!. direct
c-onnt~c-tion btlt\vcwl thti fork and frame arc> the bearings. This
array~nlcnt allonx the fork to turn in the head tube. The handlebar
post mcxnits inside the fork head
stem. The handlebar post
usually t~xtcnds up\~~-cl and then angles for\vard to the clanlp that
holrls~the handlc~bars.
Ideall!., the head set should be disassembled, cleaned ..? inspected for \vear and damage, parts replaced as req&-ed, lubricated
and reassembled at least once a !.ear.

or

OverhaulingHead Sets

The t\vo t>-pes of handlbar post bveclges in con~n~o~~use are


external \vrclpe andinternal \vedge. The external tj,pe place35all the
stress on one side of the fork h.ead. It-is less desirable than the
internal t>vpeis-hich better.distributes
the stress on the inside of the
.
fork head.
t
Both t>.pes are disassembled from the fork head in the same
\\a!-. First, loosen the.. stem bolt a fe-& turns.. Do ~zot continue
turning it until it comes out of the wedge. IVith a block of wood over
bolt head, tap the block ifit a hammer. Remove the handlebar post
from the fork head b!. twisting slightly back and forth while pulling
uplvard on it. Use liquid wrench to help free it if it is %rustedin place.
Use a wrench to remove the lock nut from the head set. On
caliper brake bikes, slip off the brake cable collar guide. Remove thk
the adjusting cup.
lock ring or icasher. Use a wrench to
Turning it ~ounter~lock~nse until it is free of the fork head.
,
If bearings are loose, r-enlove them from the upper stationary
cone. Then, holding the fork in the frame, turn theframe over. Pull
the fork from the frame. The crown cone ~-ill normall~~ stay on the
*
fork. Remove the loose bearings.
If,bearings are in retainers, pull the fork out of the frame and
then remove retainers and bearings from the stationary cones. lr~u \vill not need to remove static~l~a~~~.~cones
from, the_frame i
hc>ad tube unless the!. require replacement. If )xIU-need to ren?ove
t ht+n, USC
a v,~ootldo~vel a.nclcarefull!; drive thenrout
from the inside .
a

renm~e

of the frame head tube. The crown cone can be removed by sliding it
_
off the fork head. ,.
i
190

Fig. 5-55. Shimano Model LD-500 bar-end control shifting lever. Parts are: (1)
anchor bolt, (2)segment
assembly with spring, (3) body, (4) lever assembly with
lever cap, (5) lever cap, (6) spring washer, (7) lever fixing bolt, (8) inner cable,
(9) lever end outer casing,
(10) outer casing,
(11) cable guide, (12) outer
stopper and (13) outer stopper.
/. 2

Next, clean all parts in solvent. Inspect for wear and damage
and make replacements as required.
Reassembly is essentially the reverse of disassembly except
that bic!.cle grease is gdded to the bealkgs. In the case of Ioose
bearings, begin assemblyh>- turning the bic>rcle frame upside down.
Apply grease to the lower stationar!, cone. Insert /thefork head part
way in the frame head tube. Place individual beprings in grease.
Tweezers are had>, for handling the bearings. Slip the fork the re$t
of the wa>. into ihe head tube and hold it firmly. in position while
turning the frani< upright. Fill the upper stational-!- cone with grease
.and position the:individu~al bearings.
The adjustk@cup should be LighterTed until the fork still rotates
rfreely-but
without end pl2p. When this has been achieved install
remaining parts of the head set.
Adjust the handlebar post to desired height, but make certain
that at least ~\VOand one-half inches remain inside the fork head.
-This is-n-eccz-z,m fw=&kt$
.

HandlebarGrips

Straight and upright handlebars commonly have rubber or .


plastic hand grips. These sometimes need to be replaced. If you
,
192

I n

.,

--

cv-.

.-AC-

_
4

I,?.
.
,
.: .

/ ,rm

. %

c
0

c
cann0ttwis.t the old.haridlebaSgrips 06f& hind, cut them off with a .: I
J
, . 1 shar?p kn$e. Glue the, new hankbar ,gr?ps bn with rim or gasket ,,
-cement.. Clean of$excess c?ment with a,>loth.
II) .,
,
- \
,
- ._
iE I
Taping Handlebars, f
aI
.
(_ - i
. Dropped handLebars- are cor-&~o~&~~
taped. The tape can be
4 . , *# cloth, plastic,: or rubber;: .Begin wrapping about three inches from
,
< the clamp in the center of the handlebars. Work outward, pulling the _
tape tight and.oy,erlapping about: a quarter of an inch. E%her skip A
over or take a wrap around the*c&per brake handle mountings. At (z
.Y
II_-.
.
the end of thehandlebar, run the tape off the end, leaving a couple of.;
.inchesofextra tape on the end an-dlcut it off. Stuff the end of the tape
I ,.,: inside the end of the handlebar andinstall a plug.
...
.. .-.-P. J. The two basic types of plugs are a push i.nto place plug and a
;.
L t
type with an ,-expansion,bolt for tightening.
>*
n ._
I..
1. -_ SADDLES AND ,+EAT,POSfS

A well &signed saddle and seatpost assembly is relatively


troubleJr6e. The1important t,hing to selects good saddle to start
with and.Lthen a&t it propeP+., 1.11
this section+?
wilI~di&uss only
,.tl-k regular, s$@ post saddler?
..
A regularXaddle can normally %e adjusted within a limited
range for heighp; ~angl~a$$forward/backward
position, *Thesaddle
tin also bet urned, so, that it doesnt point straight.forward.
The
-nor-ma1 position% to have it straight forward. In addition, many
saddlbs have a tension
I Y adjustment. ,
Heiiht9*

,,

i.

II ; I

D
** -B
- r&;
6 s i

Lj
it Adjustment is usually made by loosening the seat post clamp at
adjusting the seat postup
_....-. .1the t?p of the fraine seat tube
_. ,. ---7 or
_ down to the desired height
e
There acealsopYgdg&type
.. .$andle-bar posts. To adjust,
*.
to,@-:turns. eT ap to drive the wedge loose. Adjust height and re>
$$iten the bolt. A big problemwith this type adjustment is that the
,
saddle. often has to be removed
tie get at the atijustmentbolt. t, ,.i
*s
For safety, its generally recommended that,at least two and I -#
1
one-Half inches of the seat post be down in the seat tube of the
frame. If this 3loes not give you the required height,,purchase
a
II
b
amionger seat post. P
LB6
.,,. This generally allows adjustment of both forwar>/backward
pokition and angle of saddle. Loosen the clamp. -You can now. slide

L
Bps
, i
,
@
5
Saddle Clamp j

.191

?
,

Fig. 5-57. Adjustment

of saddle

height.

the saddle forward or backward. The normal adjustment is with the


front of the saddle about two inches behind,the crank center.
Normal tilt is within one notch of level position, but some riders
prefer a more exaggerated tilt. Retighten the clamp when the
saddle is positioned the way you want it. Some of the more expensive alloy posts have a saddle bracket that can be adjusted more
= I
precisely.
1
TensionAdjustment

c.

Some sadcllcs~have tension adjustments. This allows J~OLIto


tighten OI-slacken the saddle top. The adjustment is Usually. made b\.
.
turning a nut under the saddle.
Saddle Covers
:

or

Some s&ldles have plastic or rubber covers


complete tops
that can be replaced ivhenthey- ivearout. Other saddles have to be
replaced completely., although on mbre expensi<ve saddles the
mounting clamp need not be replaced. Inexpensive saddles generally*c~ly- Cognac\\ith the c;lamp included.
. c.

Reconditioning:
Modifying
atid Build-ing Bicycles.

*
iL

In man>- cases reconditioning and,paint& can restore an old bicyrcle


to like-new condition. While the inforn~ation in this chapter is geared
prinnaril~- to regulir bicy-cles, it can also be applied, \\ithfe~~~illodifications, to novelt> and specialt!. c!.cleS. r B
c
You might already have an old-bicycle that you Leant to reconclition or you can purchase a secondhand bicycle for t+is purpose. A
third possibilit!. is to purchase a frame and componentb afidi-vcondis 1
tion and asSemble them into a bicj,cle.

..

- An>* of these possibilities can be* an, inexpensive means of


improving or obtaining a bicycle. In the prhcess of~i-econdifioning,
you can learn a lot about bic!.cles and have the satisfaction of doing it
IS,
yoursrlf.
*
0
Tlk FkAME

_.
P
q
.

_You need a sotind frame on which to build agood bicycle. Dont


i~orry about the finish since painting will take care of that. The
important. thing is that the frame-is straight; undamaged and of ).
sufficient quality that the finished bicycle will be suitable for your
purposes.
*
In some cases a damaged frame canbe repaired, but generally
this is only practical if the damage is extremely minor or cosmetic.
Chec.k especially. the frame joints. &minor fracture in a welded or
brazed joint can be repaired by taking the frani? to a co~mrx&al
shop if you dont have the skill or equipment to do this y.ourself. Its
generally safest to use brazing rather than welding. The lower heat
4
1:
-L
+

Fig. 6-l

Frame

arid fork end alignment

tool and gauge.

of brazing muall>- has 1-s a&e& effects on the tensile strellgth of


4
.
the steel;
-4 bent frame can be a more serious matter. Ewn nliilor
-damage can be difficult tocorrect \\ithout special tools such as thtl
frame wd fork ellcl alignment tool and gauge shown in Fig. 6-1, l?ig.
6-2 and Fig. G-3. These tools are also used to straighten and align
. the rear drop outs on a bicycle frame. The calipers ark used to
mtxkure the proper \iidth of the drop outs for the hub that.is being
used. The toolk can also be used on forks.
.
itell-equipped bit>-cle shops usually, have a number of special
tools and devices for strajghtening and aligkng frames. J!?thCii
these, it is ve;!- difficult to makeeven niinor repairs of this nature. If.
the frak appears to be of high quality to be wbrth the ex$ens&, I j
suggest that J.OU take the f&m to a bic!-cle shop and have it
straightened and aligned for JWU.
If you do want towattempt frame strai.ghtening yourself, I
suggest ;.ou do it by-placement of props and applicatio>l of hand, foot
or steady pr>*ing pressure rather than b>. using a hammer. A badl!.
bent fork can be Ireplaced with a used or new one. However, the
replace!;xnt should be the same size and shapehot all forks will fit
.T a
all frames.
Regardless of whether or n6t you intend to paint the frame, I
suggest that all ccxmponents be disassembled, cleaned, mm-hauled
d ,i
B
198
8,

Fig. 6-2. Straightening

rear drop-outs.

Although this can be done one


c-()mpoIle~ntat 21time, the frame should not be paintd.
If thcl frame ii-ill be painted, strip all compor~e~~ts off of it,
includiiig the fb)rl<.It is almost impossible to do a good job with the
components in placerey.en with careful masking. If its just an-old, I
rusted functional bicyclc$nd you dont care about the appearance, a
feiv coats of rust preventative paint can be applied to the assembled
.
bicycle to help slow down further detkioration.
Bi
PAINTING&i ^^^^_.
~....----._
....._I_
, ---.---.,---.~~~~~e-?w;re about it , ~~~~~~~a~~s-._b.!!th
an art and a skill.
, -.,
-_._
..__l_._._
T..----.
Alost bike o\vners ivho avant to paint their o\vn bicJ.cles are further
,.han~erecl b!. bck -ofprofessional equipment and a dust free painting
, ,xwitionment \Fith cwntrolled temperature and humidit\, and good
., lighting. Ho~vever, \iith care, a reasonably good paint job can be
.
1.

done.
The firsi step is to disassemble all components fromthe frame,
!including bearing cups from the bottom bracket and head tubes.
Keep all parts in order and make dra\fings Lvhere necessary so tha.,,
J-ou \vill be able to reassemble ever!.thing later. PVhile its possible
to do the painting with the fork still mounted in the frame, I suggest
that !.ou rer$jve the fork and paint the frame and fork separately.
/ You \iill probably wants to disassemble the head set for overhaul
an!wai..
..
1ku might also avant to paint c,;her parts of the bic>.cle, such as
fenders. chain guards and even rims. Its generall>. best to have ,
each part separate for painting.
\\hether or not you need to remove all of the old paint depends
on the condition it-is in, the tape of paint !.ou intend to apply and, to a
and wplacecl

back OII the frame.

z
7 ,

399.

,.*

c,ertain tlsttllt, the c~~lorof the old-paint andlhe IW>V


paint yw intend
to.ustl.. If the old paint tends to peel awa). when rrou try to sand it,
thtbi~it.\vdl pi-tdx~bl~~
have to be~renmvecl. Since putty is oftrn uScd to
fill ~j~*ksa~ldclcbntsii! rlmufactured bikes, I suggest ihat J~OU
rtmoye
paint b!, fiiie saildin~rather than with paint removers. Paint I-CIIIOVtend to remove fillers%oo. If thou do use a paint remover, be
appl>. new putty.
$Iost honle-doIlcpaiI1t jobs are d~~~meclto appear amateurish
because of inadequate preparation of the surface. In general, dont
expect the paint to fill defects in the surface. Avoid using coarse

tm
prepared
to

* grades of iandpaper.

~,he.

Y, .
;.
:
>

Start. with medium grades and work,down to

You \\-illi&d to.decide ivhat type of paint you w&t to u&z. This
can be lacquer, enamel, acrylic, epoxy or whatever yo$prefer. Use
only- $airlt designed f&- metal surfaces and.,make[certai~l~that it iis
compatible lvith old pa&it if the frame is not strippedbare. Once you
have decided
the type of paint, JWUwill need to get filler and
prinler,FW-if
req.uired, that& compatible&th the paint selected.

I.*

.s

on

Q&oteuS Design Inc., 9.@5 Baltimore

B&d.,

College Park, Md.

20740, offers a paint kit that includes a can of activator for epoxy
primer, a can of epox>primer, a can of a@ivator for top coat, a can of
toi coat and a can of thinner with enough da;nt for one bicycle frime.
Kits retail for about $15.,50.
Spray* painting Lf-illgenerally provide the.smoot.hest finish, but
only if you have the necessary equipment and l%ting know-how.

Fig. 6-3. Drop-outs

are now

in alignment.

Also, without adequate safet!, precautions. ivhich most home-shops


are not equipped to provide, spra!. painting can be extremely
hazardous to ~;our health.
.
The common altrrnati~~acrosol
spray cans. have similar or
greater health hazards. My. own recolnlnelldatiorl is that,lou avoid
these, as it is almost impossible to avoid breathing the fumes -even
if J-ou paint outdoors.
The alternative is brush painting. If you get the right kind of
paint, a good job can be done in this manner.
After frame and all other components to be painted have been
sanded and are ready for painting, find a way to sort them so that
you can best apply the paint. Goodlighting and a dust free area are
important. However, for safety reasons, I suggest that painting be
done outdoors. Do the painting on a dry, warm (but not hot) day in a
shaded area out of direct sunlight.
If primer is required, apply.and allow to dr!,. Additional-light
sanding might be required before the application of the finish coat or
1 coats of paint. Follow the paint manufacturers recommendations
regarding Ldrying times between coats. Allow paint to thoroughly7
. dry before reassembling the bic!vcle. 1
. CLEANING PLATED COMPONENTS

Pits and bubbles of,rust can be removed from pla-ted; metal


surfaces by light rubbing with steel wool, followed by metal cleaner
and polish and finally wax. In many cases, parts that look quite bad
.can be restored to-good,appearance in this manner.
You can, of course, have parts chrome plated at a commercial
shop. I suggest that you paint over plated surfaces only as a last
resort. If this is done, the plating should be completely removed so
that the paint will bond properly.
ASSEMBLY

Before assembly, clean, inspect and replace parts a.s detailed in


preceding chapters. The wheels will probably require truing. In
most cases its advisable to replace bearings throughout and wires
in iontrol cables. Tires might also require replacement.
.*, ,After assembly, make final adjustments and the bicycle is
ready for use.
MODIFICATIONS

While you are reconditioning, you might also want to make


some modifications such as changing to different components. A
number of kits are on the market for making gear and other conver-

,I
I

sions. You nlight also want to add accessories: These can be


functional, sub as lights,
decorative, such as flags and stream-

or

stl-S.
_ .+

'

III thcl reIllailGllg chapetcrs of this book, a number of building .


and Inociific,ation projects are inc~ludecl.lhese are planned so that a
minimum of skills arc; requirecl, and \vherever possible, easil!. available bic.>.c.lcand t ric.>,cle ~omp~~~~t~~ts
ancl frames are used.
7. 10build cvtll a simply c!.cle from ra\v materials ~~oulclbe an
inc~r~tlibl~~difficult process and +f,ewc~,cle manufact+xcrs even do
this. YIost LW at least some components or frame tubing manufactured elstt\\rher-c. Some of the projects are fairI>.specific and others
less so. 111casts \vhc~rt~there art;man!. 1val.s to acxx~mplishing about
the Samoa thing, suggestions and iclcas ;u-e given rather than
specifics. lhis ii-ill enable J-ou to make use of available materials.
Also, and I feel that this is important, considerable allo\vances are
made for J.OL~
to possibl!. add scour own icleas. In man). cases, JXUiii11
be able to thinl; of a bette-r or less expensive \va!- of accomplishing
the same thillg. This will often be suggcstecl b!* the parts and
materials that \ou have available. Crclating originals \vh~~ >Y)LI
gclt
into 11ov~1t~~
and spclcialt>. c>.cles cal>be a lot of fun. Ihthrc is a lot of
roon1 to appl\. J.OLI~ ideas here.Y
\
at
Befortl going irlto actual building nlrthod , take a brief l~~~~li
cust on1 bit*!-c*lefranlc builcling.
CUSTOM

BICYCLE FRAME BUILDING

\,

'

With seemingly eviry type and style of b cycle available in

manufactured versions, you might wonder why th e is any need for


custom frame building. Especially if the result lo ks pretty much
t
like the manufactured produd. Actually, .custom fr mes are rarely
used for purposes other than racing and advanced tc uring. At least
where value for money is any real consideration.
~lanufac~turctl bic!*cles c~)mc in sizes. 10get \ a 1 tbsact fit, ?t
might be ~lt~cessar!- to go to a custom built pi-oduct. l$is is cx)stly~.,~ 2
and for most uws the manufactured versions will have to do.
Building a custom fralile requires considerable skill~nd &per-ienc~. If !ou havtthacl considerable shop and brazing expeyienco and
LvaUtto get started in frame bu.$$ng,, I suggest that J*OLs&xt Llth a
PIo~~w I)CJS&V~
frame building l$%+&~~b& from P~otcz~ Drsign
Inc.,

.9225 Baltimovc

includes:

Blvd.,

Park,

MD. 20740. k .)3e kit

-Re~noi&

531 double butted tubing that has 21/24

English threads and diameters.


r

Colkgc

:;
\

.In addition to the tack ckscribed ill Chapter 4 for basic bicycle 2,
mailltcI1;~nce
and repair, SOIIICothers \vill bi ~~twleclfor nlan>~of the
projects clt~sc$bcd. 1Vhile J.OUmight be able to get 1~~
iiith just ha&

&Ian!, of the projects squire brazing, ~velcli~lgor both. HOLY~ter, brazing-and svelcling are spedali?ecl subjects and space cloes
not permit ~ovrrage of thm hew. Also, unless you plan man>.
projds,
thy cost of the equipmtant ,Gncltinltl k~~~uired to I&m the
:2
._
skills \vill pi-obabl!~ make this imprac~tlcd. 5
In most ceases, loiv-heat brazing is USLY~
Ic~spec$lll!~ for joining
frame tubillg. Ho~vever, there arc ~Y~SVS
\vhck \velcling LYIII
also be
used. IZithwrtain metals, welding might cvenbc tly best method.
Wl~n indoubr, its generaIl!. best to get adviw from a professional
\(
\V&ltT.
You :a]; generall>- have the brazing or \velcling clone quite
reasonably. at a conmer~ial shop, provided you have ever!-thing

read>*-parts shaped, fitted and so OII~SO that onl>- the \velcling


need be clone.
(317deprojects are ideal for classes and courses in metal shop
and \\dding. 111man! ceases the!. are nlore meaningful than the
t!.piml shop projects. I know one high school student who has
203

constructed an impressive number of all types of unicycles. He


makes many of the components and d&s much of the brazing and
ivelding in shopc.lasses at the high schoof, he atknds.
._
Manp adult education classes %.;hop &rd welding are available
across the,cc)untry. In many c,a.ses tl&se have low sr non&&tent
tuition fees:.These crasses a$ an excellent place for learning skills
and they also provide ~01s and*equ@nyent. It is a goodwayifo get
,_
T&,.
..
started in a cycle buildingLhobby.
.. ,
IS
.-,,
/I
$&
ct
PARTS AND MATERIALS

'.1

L!setl kc\-c.les and part:are ideal for thesc~rojecks~ Damaged


bi:!.clcs are often 311inexpensive source e,f parts: For &a
bit,h-Clexith a franc damaged or beiit he~~ncl practi?al repa
still provide most-,of the parts for building 2 u$c>Yclc..
. , J
The?best places that Ive found for buling used bicJxk@-41IIWS
-.
and parts are cit!. ancl count)!$$nnps tqt have &sale >a~%. Of
as&very\vhere,
but in several to&s
cockle, this might not be t
in California Ive found t&
ards to have la
ecfions of junked I
.be pukhased
I\-. ILlany bic>,cle
bicJ.cles and p&ts that cc
she s havb used bi~c.>-cles
and parts forsalc, but my esperiencP has
P
bee% that you can expect to pa+- top,prkes here. ILlost bic>rc*l
dealers know the valu6 of these iten7 2 and willZtry to get @&muchas
possible for them. k1 many GQCS the bept placc..t$ select parts for
novelt!- and spccialt!~~c~*cleconstruction is from discount and auto
suppl!. stkres*.that handle bicycle prts.-The)often have a gcx)d
selection of parts at low $ri<es: LVhile the qualit>- is often low, it is,.
. 1 G l
sufficient ,for use on man!- of these/projects,.
- As a general rule, stick@andar$
steel frqes
and parts.
Aluminum allo>. should be av_oidecl \yhen ,ivelcling or brazing is
required. Speci$al equipment and knti~v-how is n+&cl for thii, and
even t,hcn the joints might be inadequate.
?tI
For some of t.k~e~~~.~ojects,
stock materials &ch as steel tubing
and rods are needed. Ii? most cases, used materials will be
9
,

adequate.
As a general rule, I sugge;t that Lou use materials of size and
thickness an0 shape that ~v$l be considerably: a~bove the minimum
strength ncces&r-I-. Allow plen4t 1
- of margin, .especially, where failure of the part or materialmight present a safety hazard.
BASIC TECHNIQUES

- -ii,><

A number of construkon techniques are used on two or more


projects describecl in later chapters. A few are covered here and
.
others [vi11be detailed along with.~specific p,rojects.
204

-&

_)

:
f..

Man!. of, that projects rcquirc asscmbli*l,b and clisass~mbling


bi~~\-~9c5.alltl
c.ompont~nts. This asptx-t has bclctn c~~vt~eclin Chapter
FL
, .,
.
1,
Cutting Frames-.&d
Forks. There are many instarices
. . k \vhe,n you will need to cutframes and forks. i)n,e-\vay to do this is
with a h&ksa\v. A tube cutter can be used whena perpendicular cut
is required on round tubing.
1
Flattening Tubing.,One ~vayto do this is in the jalvs of a vise
*i
l
. as sho\r%in Fig. 6-4.
Straightenlng3Forks:The
fork blades on most bicycles are
? I 8.cun&. A number 07 projects require Straight forks. Sometimes
. forks can be feud that will still be long enough after the curved , .
, sections have been cut off. But there are many cases when it will be
e

n&essary ttks,traighte; them. This can b.e done by clampjng the fork a*
0bet&en two blocks of wood in a vise pith the curved portion of the
-w ..I
fork blades extending outward. A section of pipe that. wili,just fit
II
aver a fork blade is then used to straighten the blade.. WoTk carefully
_
towayd the end of the blades and readjust the,fork.betweeii
the
blocks of wood as necessary. Dents must be avoided since they will,>
*.: greatly =\vealcen hollow tubing.
,
.

Fig. 6-4. Flattenin-g

the fork end in vise.

205

:
J
r

?
i
.

Drilling.

I~rilling holes in metal is frequently required. While a


drill press
is hc~lpful, a hand electric drill will suffice for most of the
,projticts in this book.
Grinding and Filing.

A bench type p&ver grinder is almost


.essential for a few tasks. Filing is another frequent job. Most of the
filing can btl donc~ with flat files, but round, rattail files are also
useful.
Installing

Small -Crank Sprockets1

Several projects require replacing a large chainwheel with a small sprocket. This can be
done \\ith either a.one-piece crank or the right crank of a cottered
assembly. Both methods are satisfactory.- The choice swms to be
on
\vhat ~ompon~nts you have available.
.
.) .In niost c~lses, an exact match of the rear sprocket is used. If a
different. size alid number of teeth is used, it must fit the chain.
,(.)!I one-piec.t> c~a~ll~s,the first step is to r~nlove the original
chainwhec4. Then grind off the c-haiiiwheel set lug. Centering and
aligihig tllc S~lsOC~liCtis estrenicl~; important.. A ,good wa!. to do this
is to fit sp;ic3tJr>bt~t\\.ecn the small SpI~OC~lit?t
and the ~oiltthrt~ads on
the c~a~llia11dthcti tighten thcl statioiiar!. c~)titagainst the sproc-ket
as sho\;.;i in Fig. (i-0. Before brazing the sproc*ket in position: test
centering and alignment b!. installing the>c.raiik bac%kin the bot ton1
Lbrat,1ie.t and spinning it. If centclring or alignment is off, it \iill be
apparent. hlake the requirecl corrections before brazing the sproc.ket in pIaGe.
If a ~oltc~etl c-rank assembl>. is used, the normal pr-ot~tvhq-e
is
to repilac*e the chain\vheel on the right crank arm \vith a small
sprocke.1. Irl sonlt (,a& an additioilal matching small sprocket \\ill
be !liouiltecl on tli: left crank x111. This arrangc~nieiit is gt~nerall!.
inipracti~*al \\iih a oiit~-piec*e C1-Flllli.
lhcrt> is ii(; eas\ IiIcaiis of
allowitig clisassenil~l~- for servicing and rt~pairing.
Chainwheels are usually. either%plined clirec.tly to the right
crank am or bolted to mounting ar%s that are connected to the
crank a1x1. In either case, these must be removed fn)nl the crank
arm. An easy \va!. to do this is to grind the splint4 portion (if the
IllouIiting, a\va\;.
VT
Nest, position the small sproc*ket. Center and align it and then
braze it in plac-e. The same method is used for attaching a small
sprocket to a left crank arm except that there is no c*hainw%eelto
I~tIllo\-t.

Fixed Rear Sprockets.

sprock</ (non-freewheeling)

A number of projects require.a fixed


on theyear hub. Fixed track hubs can

F,[g. 6-5
v

The sbrocket
*

is positi%ned
.
. .

o,n the crank

and ready

for

brazing.
d

be,us;d. Howk;yer, for some pi-eject-s these might not by completely


.
satisfactory. They tend to slip when the pedaling direction is reversed. This is fine .on a track bicycle where all the pedaling is done
in one direction, but problems Lx-e frequently encountered iz-ith
>.
these hubs 0% chain-driven unicycl& and artistic bicycles that are
pedaled both forivard and backward.
One solution is to tack \ve.ld the spi-o&et in p1ac.e.Sme hubs
\\ith la;-gtl spoke flanges cx~ still be spokt~d after this is C~OIIC>.
If not,
tkc tack t~~t~ltl
can br cloilt \viih the hub alreacl>. spoked to thcl \vl~~el.
If spolicr-~pla~.~~nellls are ever requited, +est~ can lx na:lde b<
c.utGilg and beiItling extra lo& spokes-2s
d&tailed in Chapter 5.
k A similar tack \velding procedure CYIIIbe us4 to lllal<e fixed
h&3%out of single-speed , coaster brake hubs. The general methodis
[o rimove all ;coa$er brake parts that interfere with the free turning S _
of th&hub. The sprocket is then tack welded in place.
Kcgardlesss the t>Tpeof hub used, avoid allo!- hubsif ~vclcl~i+~c~~
_
brazing is to be clone. It is nearI!- inlpossible to do a saGsfactor!. job
on these.
,
r. ,
x
GENERAL C~NSTRUCTItlN PLAN

3'.

-1

If !.ou plan to have brazing or welding clc~neat a commercial


shop, i-tis generall!- most econonnical~to have ever~~thitlg CLL:,fitted
and held in place%ith a jig ivhen JOUtake it in to have the rvork clone.
P

,"207

In most COWS,its best tv stkk to steel. Brazing cggwelcling two

clifft~reut f!.ptls of matt~rials together is frequmtl~.. a probley. Its


bt~~tc) c.ht1c.k\vith a plofessional wclcler first to see if \vhat JYJUhave
ill rlkd \\dl \\.(gl; satisfactoi-il!..
.

.
1:

Portable &cycles
.
A nuniboer of folding and collapsible bicycles are

available. The
basic idea is that the bit!-cle can be transported and stored in less
space than is required for a regular bicb-cle. In esch&ge for this
added convenience, some sacrifice in riding qualities, such as smalo
ler Lvheels and added, lveight, generally must. be made.
!~lost regular bit>-cles are collapsible in the sense that they can
be made more portable bj. partial)!- disassembling them by removing
\vhwls, pedals and handlebars. This is essentialI>. the nay many
bikes are shipped in -cartons from the factory. However, all this
takes considerable time. This m$thod of achieving greater poi-tabilit!. is not ver> convenient although it might zuffice if J.OUonlv
,- need to
do it once in a Lvhile.
=
1
First consider- if you :eally need this por,tabilit>T..Perhaps a .
regular bicycle and, car rack, as described in chapter three, ~~41
,
T
seme !.our purposes just as well.
If you require.a good quality lo-speed that quickly breaks down
into &fairly smalLpackage, but not as small as folding and take-apart :
frame bikes, the Gitmes Trnvcllw might be the ansner. Quick
release devices allow easy Wheel removal: locvering of ~the saddle
and turning the handlebars and fork ar-ourid so that the fork blades
cur-v-etoward the frame and the handlebars are just above the top
. tube. 1-h:chain is held taut by special clips. The bic>rcle $an be
collapsed in less than one minute vvith no tools require,d. It fits in a -2
. carr!;ing bag that comes with the bicJ,cle. The bike in the bag weighs d
30 pounds and makes a package approximately 36 x36 x 15 inches.
now

.-0
5

E
,o

p\
r0,
ii

Fig.

7-2.

A lever

separates

the frame

This is quite good \vhen J.OUconsider that the frame itself doesnt
fold or conit apart mcl that J.OUhav,t~,agood lo-spt~cl for riding. The
! biq.cle, imported b!~L1l~~l
Pillto I))lpods 112c., 8~io~~l~la~ltl~Il~~Ko~Irl,
Falls CClun$, VA 22042, is available froril Gitanc bicycle dealers in
many parts of the United States.
The idea of malijng bic>.c%lcs
ilit frames that tvoultl fold is 1101
IIC\V.Sorllc bilit~s 1ili.Ythis \\trt aroulld in thtl Cal-l\. 1900s. Photos of
German soldiers ii) \~orltl Ilar I sho\i. rhc5tl bilics slrapped ts) thclir I
PdiS.
I
I
,MANUFACTURED MODELS
e 7-1,Fig. 7-2 and Fig. 7-3 show a Przrgot take-apart

bike
an automatic shift t\vo-speed hub \vith coaster brakt~s.
Jhe saddlc post and handlebar poqt have> cluic.1;release clamps SO
that the stidclle ai<d hancll~bars cm be adjusted and lo~~~recl for
greater conqxi~~t~~rss.
Most of the manufactured modek cxrrrntl!. a~~ailahl~USC1tiinch, 20-inch or 24-inch wheels. S~ialler wheels reduce the;s;ize of
/the folded orlcollaps&&blcycle,
but generally provide less effiqent
riding. However, this disadvantage can ofte-n be offset by the
eeater ea?s of carrying the bicycle along on buses, trains, boats,
travel trailers, campers, airplanes, car trunks or storing in small
areas where space is at a premium such as in cabinets and small
closets. Often two or three collapsed bikesswill fit in the same space
as one fegular bicycle.
Cdmmon methods of achieving compactness includ hinged or
take-apart frames that allow the bicycle to be folded in ha 7f or broken
down into two sections. In addition, many models have features that
I

211

Fig. 7-3. The saddle is quick-release


adjustable.
The same applies to the
handlebars.

allow lowering saddles and lowering or turning handlebars to further


reduce the size of the .package. Some even have folding pedals to
reduce the width of the collapsed bike. Chris-Craft (of boating fame)
offers a portable stainless steel bicycle that is ideal. 1
Portable bic%!.clesare available in single-speeds and \\-ith hub
ancl deraillcur gear systems.
M:hile most nlcx~~lshave small wht& and frames, the>. c-all be
acljusLcc1for adult riders. nlaii!v c011ic\\.ith special ftbaturc5 suc*h as
carr!Ang rac*ks, lights ant1 kickstands.
CONVERSIONS

'I

Regular birxycles can be cwnvtx-ted to folcling tir take-apart


mocJels by adding couplings, available in a kit, or making up and

Fig. 7-4. Springs


-+

212

hold sections

together

when

couplings

are separated:

Fig. 7-5. The fuidmi

bicycle

has wheels

held

together

with shock

cord.

adding J~OUIovh hinging or clamping s>~sterm For either method, I


suggest that ~.ou use rml~.stud>., heay- anh inexpensive frames.
The Gia;r~~diCI$i)lrtrilg Co., 114 .l/luill St. , T~~ko~~slza,.VI
490.92, offers a kit for cmverting a regular bic!Tcle to a folding or
take-apart n~oclel(Fig. 7-4 and Fig. 7-S). 11~~~
franle separates in the
(:c~lltcr ant1 is hr~lcltogether b\. springs that allow the frame to by
folcletl in half. Ilithout the springs, the bic%jxdeWI bcl tlisn~a~~tlecl .
into i\vo separate se&cm. The basic procwlure is to cut tht~ frame
into t\vo sec*tioIls (Fig. 7-6) and epox\. bond and bolt the c.ouplings to
the frame pieces. The kit can be used on two-bar-frames, but I
suggest that onl!~ the heairier, less expensive type be used.
Inst~ctions co~ne Ltith thekit for deternnining inhere and at
\$hat al!gles to make the frame cuts. Often this ~,-illbe nlicl\vaJ. and
perpelltlkular t&a line clrawn betLveen the axle centers of the
\i,heels. \Cith this arrangement; the front Sanclrtar \vhcd cent&
Lvillnlcet wllcl! tht~~bic!~cle
is fol&cl. You might prefer to remove the
front ivheel-wing nuts or quick releases can be used-and
have
the frame cuts positioned so that when folclecl the fork blacks meet
the b(!ttoni of the rear whFe1. Orl~nan~* bicycles this mill allolv the
handlebar to overlap just above the rear wheel. The folding is
generall!. clone on the non-sprocket side of the bic~des.
After marking the frame where >OLI
want the couplings to be
plaoxl, cxt the frame into two sections uith two cutslone
iii each
frame bar. Llhilea hacksaw can be us&, it is generally easierto get
a straight cut uith a tube cutter. In either case, if care is taken little
or 110touch-up on the paint will be needed.
Acm-ding to the instructions that come with the kit, adding
, bolts is optional on a frame with standard sized tubing. It is nc&esI.
4

213

Fig. 7-6. Frame

cut is shown

Fig. 7-07. A regular bicycle


converted
duty-hinges
purchased
at a hardware

I_214

to a folding
store.

model

by adding

heavy

Fig. 7-8. A regular bicycle


from stock materials.
/

converted

to a foiding

model by adding

hinges

made

plac-r ar~cl then drill the holes arid add the bolts after the epox!~ has
set.
Before epos~ boilding, take special care in preparing the surface of both the inside of the frame tubes and.uthe couplings in the
bonding areas, The surfaces should be clean and roughened. If the
bolt holes have already been drilled, the bolts can b,e used to hold the
couplings in position after the epoxy has beenappded. If not, devise
a system of blocks and clamps to hold the frame.inlposition and
alignment.
When eveqthing is read!., mix ;hr ep%x!* according to the
directions provided. Then appljr to both the coupling mounts gnd
inside the fr;ame tubes where bonding contact will be made. Install
the couplings. Allow the epoxy. at least 24 hours to set.
This might sound like a long and involved process, but its
actually. bnuch easier than it sounds. Without trying to hurry, I made
the i~lstallati~~n-rnclt
counting waiting for the epoxy- to set-in l,ess
/ .
6
than t\vo nours.
MAKING YOUR OWN

'

Ive made a cquple of folding and take-apart conversions of


re<gular bikes (Figs. 21-8 and 21-g). Both are hinged, -but the hinge

7,
I

215

/
,_I
./

$
n

f
Fig. 7-9.
materials

Hinges

made

from

stock

>

pins can be removed. The oneshown in Fig. 7-7 has heavy duty _
hinges obtained from a hardware store. I.made my,own hinges for
the one shown inFig. 7-8.
These hinges are 2 x2 i?& heavy-duty loose-pin hinges. If you I.
cannot find this size, larger nnes can be cut down to size.
For- the other bike, the hinges are made~from steel stock and
sec.tions of on+quarter inch inside diamete? pipe (Fig. 7-9). The
sectiol~s of pipe are brazecl to groove~~ made ilth a grinder on the

.I

Fig. 7-10.

I -.
.216

Hinges

-1

brazed

to frame

,.,<

pieces.

..

Fig. 7-l 1. Oulck


D

release

seat-post

clamp.,

For both mtlt hods., ftiur ,&oles &k drilled ,thrr@gh each folged
hing> for thumb,bolts. Nu_tsfor these are brazed in pla,& to the hinge
LA
1
.
plat cls.
rXter the hinges haye bwnmade,
the nest step is to de-cicle,
\vhere i.011 avant toposition them in the frame. f12 order for the ,,A
bic!.cke to fold,properl~-, the-hinges will need to be in line as though .
one long hinge pin were used for both hinges. Pins will be on the side ,
of the bike a~va!. from chainwheel. Information on placement of
i
hinges is given in the section on installing the kit.
.
Once J-ou h*ave decided on the position, mark the locations on
the frame. The rcniainder of the inStallat&n is best done kith the
-,

bic\.cle stripped of \vheels.


the
Cut out a section the thickness dfnthefolded hinge,in on
I
frame tubes. If..&e cuts areperpendicular to the bar, a tube cutter
can be used. If not, use a ha&ksaw, but iake special care to make the B
1.
cut *strai,ght and at&e proper angle.
Nest, position one hinge and braz,e it to the frame tubes (Fig.
7-10). &lake certain the hinge pin is on the side away from thq
chainwheel. If JOUare having a commercial shop-dothe brazing, its
.
generall>- least espensiv.e if you have everything read!. so that only
ne for you. Any. cutting or positioning of
the brazing need be
hinges that is done f you b!r the shop will increase the cost.

After the first hinge is in place, clamp i.t together with the
thumb bolts. Slake the cutout for the second hinge. This must align
with the first hinge as though the hinges were on a door. Position
the second hinge. A good way to align them is to remove the hinge
pins from botl 1 hinges. Leaving the thumb screws in place holding

<

_I

F
I

.b

kb

*- the hinge plates together, run asingle small rod through both
hinges: This must be a near exact line up, otherwise the hinges will
buckle. S&
offset can be taken care of by having the pins (often
Jbolts ax-e used) slightly smaller than the mount&g holes.
,
\\llen tJver!.thiifg is set, braze the second hinge in placc.
Finish the .project b\. cleaning up the l)razillgi-illclillg, filing and
sailcling. Thc~11tough upi the frame and paint the hinges. Keassemblc.
the comprment s t 0 t htL bicl-cle:
7
For ~aclditii^mal
~cwmpactness, you might \vaut to add a quick
rele~lst~ seat-post *clanlp (Fig. 741) .\vhich \vill allow lowering the
saddic all the \~a>- tlo~vn \vithout, a \vrench. A similar gooseucck
arranger~ent \rill allo\v the hai~dlebars ttibe turiied.YA cluic-I\release
ifont hub or te~lacciwnt
of axle nuts \itth \ving nuts -(Fig.L 7-12) \yill
,
: allo\\. quick rcintaval (if the froul \\.hcel. 111
.- this \~a!., the handlebars
lca~~be tun~cd as sho\vil ii1Fig. ~7-13 so ,that the!. do not stic*kout to
the sides of th? frame. This is acmnpli$-ed \\ithout the need for a
quick release g(joseiiecliY The quick release clevicy describeclS
, above arc available from hike shops and mail orcler,~ouses.
Shock &jrcls \vitli hooks 01; the cuds can be u&l fh- securiiig
the bolted biq-clot: If the front \vheel is removes, thou can hold
tverg.thiiig iii a single pagkage-as
sho[vn iI1 Fig. 7-13.

A c:ompact bir.!-cle \vre!lc;h &n be used,~~ take the place of


CjUiCli l-elVaSf2devices;. This is some\vhat less~~~~~~~ellient,
but it will-save having to purchase the quick releaserdevites.
Quick rel&e pedals are also a possibilit!.. Usuail!-, these are
usecl ml!- OILthe pedal on the chainivheel side. -Iou ~41 only- need
ow per bike. This allo\vs the peclal ti) be folded.z so that it nil1 not
stick out to the bside. Ho~vever. c1uic.kretease peclils are fairl>a

Fig

of the front

_a

.
I

q1uick

wheel.

I..

218

7-12. Wing nuts allow

ren ioval

Fig. 7-4,3. Folded


P

bicyclEheld

as a single

package

with shock

cords.

.expensive ancl sometimes difficult to find. Consider the need for this
convenience carek,Jl~-. A substitute is to use a bicycle lvrench to
remoye the peclal or pedals. The). can be threaded into the oppos&e
side of the crank arms when the bic!.cle is folclecl (Fig. 7-14).
YEu migh.tb;;llSdwant to sew a canvas or &tic carrying case.
By removing the- &e&s, saclclle, handlebars and pedals from the
frame, all of the parts of me of m!-folding bikes fit iii the case sho~v11
i
in Fig. 7-15. ,
~
6
MAlNTEFiANCE AND REPAh

This is generall!. the same as for regular hic>.cles. The folding


and taky-apart mechanisms generally, require lit tie or no servicing
other than perhaps a little hic!*ile oil now and then.
TlPs.0~ USING.PORTABLE BIKES

While hinging and GJamping meIhocls vkl., its important thzt


the clamps be firn>ly tightened before the bic!.clesare ridden.
l?id%g

219

Fig. 7-14. A folded

bicycle.

3
i
I
,

Fig. 7-15. By removing


the wheels, saddle,
frame, all of the parts fit in this case. *

handlebars,

and pedals

fi-om dhe

vt~hi~~l~t alit> spscial care as to ho\v the biktl is packed and stored.
\lhc~~lnlis~d in \vith other- heav!. itenls, suc~11 as ill th.v tieunk of a c*aiG
thtl bic-!.c.lc1x1 bc cla~mgt~l b\. sliiftillg items.
I3t>fore taking thtl bic),clc along lvht:ll J.OU travel b!, publicIrallsportatioil. cartifull!* rmsidcr the \vright. I 011~x2
trichtlti-avcIlillg
ill E:u~;opc~\\ith a ?A)-pound portable bic!.clv, UT
1~t fit ill a spcc*ial
c.arr!.ing cxtb. This, alting i\ith a small light 7i Pas?, provt~l to bc
311iniprac?ical load to carr>*. After- a fe\v citie$rk
I gave up on the iclcla.
Irmgine. for tbsample, struggling \ivith 40 pounds B$CWtr!$lg to
make a train that is just pulling a\va>..
Hopever, this idea does have poSsibilities if the bicycle is
;:-+a
h
PL
checked as baggage. The idea would be to ride to the depot, fold the
bicycle and put it in case which \vas previously carried strapped to *.T
rack of bicycle and check,case as baggage.
As morr~ and &xe public transportatim s!xtenls allo\v regular
bic*>.c%lesbc tramported as baggage, the value of having a portable
bike \\.ill becxcmlcless. Ho~vcver, at the present time, ~nan!~transpcxtatioll s! stems require that the bic*!.c.lcbc ill a box or crattx. If
_
thcl!. dont furIlish the boxes, as is frtqumtl>. the exe, !.ouI-toin
trouble. This se&
FObe a ~~111
in the LJllitetl States. In
t(J

i :.
L
-e
1_

5
,

li

.
b
I
;

IStationarv ExerciseX~cles
1
ah Bicycle Rollers
going no~vher~, has
Bring able to pedal a q.c.1~ in one
applic.ations for esercising, training
ph>.sicA fit ntss testing.
As a method of exercising, I feel t at pedaling in one placx~is
certakl!- more boring than riding
outdoors. However,
there~m people \vho for one reaso11 04 another do not \vanv to bc
use a ..stationai-y c)V~leor
seen in public riding a
privaq-. Still others use
bicycle on rollers in their
a regular biq-4e. With a

training generally implies the long ter$l effect oi rsercise usuall!.


clone fur ph>xical fitness and to improv perfomanc~e. It is interest4
ing to note thai racing bicyclists often (l&agree among thenqelves
about the value of cycling in one place. S(me make estrllsivt; use of
this t;chnique and others avoid it conipletel\-.
A thii-d use of stationary q~clin$ is fo; ph>.sical fitness and
perfrmlance tvsting. It is often advankagwus to have the person
being teskd in one place so that various paranle@rs such as the
ele~trocardiogranl
OI- ox~gen coms~u~~lptim can be. monitored.
223

..<

/
m

Fig. 8-l.

AMF

Roadmaster

Exerciser.

FVhilethese things ian sonictimes be-recordt~d cluring~l\-picxalout-door riding, it is gynerally e@x- and lest espknsiye to-do it with
0
s t ationaq- cycling.
Stationaq- c!.cles allow the workloady & be adjusted and con.trolled to a much greater extent than is generally possible on a .
i
regular biq.cle. Howe~-, these things can generally. o111~
be mea- ,
sk-ed and c.ontrolleclw~ espelxive laboratol;~- stationar>. q~cles. The
ones ~on~~nonl~~
sold foi- home use--,\vhile alk)\lring the rcsis!ance to
be adjusted-haveno
method of gauging the \yorkload or anwunt of
IVOI-1;
doily.
Thy t\vo maiIl,,nwthods of stationar!, &cling are on a stationar!
device-usuall>. shaped iike thefront half of a biq.cAe and ikunted
S on 1egsLthat allow p$aling against a resistancei. and riding a
regular biq,cle-either
ifee or suppQrfed++ith the rear wheel onl!:
,
or both \vheelk on I-&i-s.
There are also vatiqy rnqtqr-driven pedal exercise devices. It
c
swn~s to nle that these violate a basic principle of eserke
for
fitness, nanlel>v,that I-outrnust do the work ~~ourselL~,oreap the :
benefits. Sonl~ of these .exercise machines, ai the!. are some- \;--<
, k
times called, are sold b,v high pressure salesmeri?$nd cost several

hundrecl dollars. Used ones, are frecjuerltl~,~dvertis~~ in newspaper 1

classified ads for low p&&s or consid&%n~~ trade,. I think ,.the point
.
/
\, .
is obvious.
EXERCl$E CYCLES

' 'h,-.

-'

~,

*y-

There- are;ma~y stationa 1exercise cycrles on the market.


The lowest cost mod+ ark&it 5 ivith components similar t; those
used. on childrens tricycles and are generally of yerfl little value.
Quality model:=, are .b&lt si@lar to bicycles and prices on these
generally start around $50 arid-run @wards, to $160 or more. As is
*.
th; cas; \Cith bicy&s, you usu_all~ get aboti what you pay for.
Fig. 8-l Show; an A+lF Kc~~r<~,~a.stcu.
Egc~rtisu. It features a
sturdy welded frame, tension adjustment control and speedometer
aild (inner (Fig. ,8-Z). Ihe,spe~~d~)rnet~rmeasures miles per hour
2
/C,
s,and the, Mlomeler< shows mjles.-4Tered.
WSdzwilifl D~~lzl~c
Exfrciwr is OWII in Fig. 8-3.*It features a
convenient c!mtrol panel with sp domet q mileage indicator,
nut
contid
dial. The
timer and a11Adjustable pedal r
9
-. ha\:e .foot straps.
.-. or: wiclt; saddles pla
Since wind resistance isnt
loo are generall!~ used. When set&ting an <xerc*iscl c\.il
, tertain that the saddl; feels
comfortable and is acljustablc. to the
0
desired height. The q~cle sl~oulclpedal smoofhl>. and the resistance
be adjistable through a wide I-&Y
of workloads:

Fig. 8-2. yension


bike.
I -
-

control.

&$hrnent,~-timer
,

,.

,-.

,.-.

and speedometer
/

,on an qercise
:y,
/

225

?..:
.,3,

...

<lg. 8-3. Schwinn

Deluxe

Exekiser.

Timers, speedometers, mileage indicators and resistance indic.ators a-v important features since the~yl-perrilit you to carefull!.
\vork out a11exercise schedule.
6. 7
CONVERTING BICYCLES'TO EXERCISE CYCLES

;.

'.

I built the one shown in Fig. 8-4from inexpqsive used bicycle


parts. An old, damaged bicycle provided the
k of the materials.
Construction of the stand can vary consi,derabl>,, as can the parts
used in the construction. I used an inflated tire, but the smoothness
of th; ride ky,uld probabl). be better with a solid tire. Mine works
well as longas the tire is full]. inflated. The wheel on mine is
freewheeling with a coaster brake, but you might want to use a fixed
lvheel, sprocket like those used on some track bicycles, artistic
bicycles and giraffe uniq~cles. See chaptek six for construction
2,
1P&0c1s.
The exact dimensions are not critical. However, the stand
.,3
should be sturd!,. The base must be large er)oughso that the cvcle
226.
I

*: >

CJ

Fig
ii

8-4. A home

bull

Fig. 8-5. An exercise

exercise

cycle

cycle.

during

construction.

Fig. 8-6. The resistance


made by turning a wing

wheel
nut.

is pivot

mounted.

Adjustment

of resistance

is

~$41not tip and high enough to give ample clearance betmwn pedals
/
and ground atlov, points in pedal cycles (Fig. 8-5).
Th& rear ~vheel, Lvhich becomes the front wheel on the
exercise q-cle. is nlounted so that the chain tension can be adjusted.
3 Rear dropouts cara be used or 1.0~ can make up mounts from flat,,.+
steel material.
The resistance ~yh_eciis pivot-mounted l@th an adjusting bolt
as shmvn in Fig. 8-6. The small ivheel should be lined up with the
he arrangement sho\vn allcnvs hand adjustment of the
:
have a chain guard. I made the eke shown
ard, ivhich was seversed, and then had an
lded to it. An>. t>.pe chain guard that will
keep clothing from getting caught betmwn chain and chain wheel
\i-ill suffiixe.
If !.c)u prefer, a speedometer with mileage indicator can he
added. A bell tinner is also useful. The household type are inexpensilve and m-illserve the purpose.

,228

..j ~

.i
':I?

BICYCLE ROLLERS

IhertJ ;lrt t \vo basic t !.ptAsof bic.!,c.l,hrolltw.

011~has ;I roller

Eiguti 8-7 sho~vs a franltl stand ivith a single rollc~ for thy I-MI4
\vheel. Figurt~ S-H sho~vs the stand attached to a bic->.c.ltx
and the
bic>.c.lc in usta. This arrapgtwwnt allo~vs shifting of multi-speed
biktls;. suc.h as the-1bit.yule sho\vn. The stps in attac.hing the dtJvic.tl
to A l,ic.>Tc,lc
art sho\vn in Fig. 8-9 and Fig. 8- 10. Its c.alled thy
E7-C~~c-lc
and it is manufactured byK~r~L)olIm~. , 15235 Hz~u~cII)-iry,
S (Il(l(1jp ) C.i 95070. Important fmtures art> that no tools 31-v
rrqulrt:d for att;tc-hmcnt to a bic>rcle aild its not n~~~cssary to :ittac-h
^
an!-thing to the aslv bolts.

Ftg

8-7

Kar Dol frame

stand

Fig

8-8

The stand

attached

to a bicycle.

A slightI!. different arrangement that does require attaching a


stand on the axle of the bike is also on the market. But the +Y-c~.~le
s;ttn~sto be a nluc,h better idea.

Bic.!.c,lvr;lcersgcnerall!. ride \s-itl&u t an!. support dvviws for


the bicy$.cle. Hut this requires wlsiderable
skill. The stand and
230

Fig. 8-9. Positioning

the Kar Dol Stand.

231

--

Fig

B-10

The stand

is held In place

with stkps.

An mportant advantage t5c-J.c-lerollers h2L-c ovcr stationag


t~xcwisc~c*!.c~;Yis Ihnt the rollt~rs allow J.OUto USCscour O\VIIbic*>.c.lv.
This is a11important advantage for racing q.clists. While riding on
rollc~s is oftell boring, it comes much closer to sirnulating actual
riding thm using ;I vxtwise bike. Riding on the rollerS without
;In!,thill,g supporting the bike does demand the riders attention.
ESS PROGRAMS

,2la11>.
pecqlcl use stationar>- exercise c~.des and biq.de rollers
for ph!-sicA fitness. Its al\va~x a good idea to check with your doctor
b;xforv !.ou start OH;I progl-am. A set exercise schedule should be
~-~~c~o~nnlt~ncl~~~l
that the \vo~-l<lo~dbe easy

99.

8-l 1. Rollers

Fig

8-12. Stand

for simulating

and clamp
CI( *
5 :*
b
Ji?
r* .

riding

conditions.

for use with

rollers.5

I>

*233
.

+
I_ .- w

I
.

:.

&cycle Jnotocross racing-racing


around a special cot&e with a
variety of jumps, turns and obstacles on special bicycles in time
trials-is a pop~11ar
sport for youngsters. It continues,. to grow and
spread across the country.: I
Bicycle.moto&ss
competition has not yet been standardized
to the point ~$ere
there is a standard motocross bike. For fun
ivithout competition, ordinary high rise bicycles are suitabletip to a
point: Howe\:er, most manufacturers warn that their gtandard
models are designed for ordinary sidewalk and street riding and not
fop off-road use.
A number of bicycles designed especially for bicycle motocross
use are no\v on the market. Figure 9-1, Fig. 9-2, and Fig. 9-3 show a
sanqling of these. They ar-e designed and constructed to take the
punishment that is typical of motocr&s riding, including jumping.
It is interes?.ing to note that Sch~~liwz, well known for their
outstanding guarantes,;-wiU not cover claims on their standard
high-rise bikes that are dama>ed vvhile being used as motocross
vehicles. Instead, they have debeloped the Sclzzckz Scr~imblers
(Figs. 9-4 and 9-5) u rhich are desik ned for this purpose and fully ;
guaranteed for this use. This illu.strhtes the point that motocross
bikes are special bicycles that must b\ ,able*to withstand stress far
beyond that placed on or&nary bicydles for sid$valk and street
c.
1.
\
riding.
.+
\
Rhile standard high-rise bikes c n be modified to a certain
9
extent for motocross use itwould bebfficult
to list all the bicycles
>
*/

23.5
.
\

a
j

. _
- .

-.
c

__.._
1

bikes is still contrm~ersial. The basic, idea is t-0.+$YPthe>bic->.zIcl


ridtar
:
a softtlr landit~g frcun jumps and ;I bettyI- rick! o\.tkr ruts and bump<.
At the sanlt~ timi. it must not hawpt~r the c~ontrol and safvtf of thtl
ritlt7-. A nunibt7- of iria,iufnctui-~I-sofftlr both rigid arid spring sLis.-

to be about m;Gnunl forabiktl that is to t)cbc.onlpt>titi\.ta.


.4-nimportmt differvnc.v bt>t\\.(~(~I1
ordinar!* high-ristk bic-yc.lr1s
and nlotocm)ss biktls is thti fr-anlr. ~1anL1f~~c~tL11-ci-s lla\rt~ gollt to +
zr)nsidt~r;lblt~tlfforts to dt>sign and construc.t framtls that cm take
the rougher trva%$.that
if-ill btl clt~mndt~d of them.
?Iotocm)ss stJ.le handlvbxs look likt~thost~ on a n~otorc~!x~lt~.
* ?h~~.g~~Ilt~~-;rll~
LIW rubbtlr grips and 1lx.t~ the: handlc~bar km)ssbar
and goowne~k paddt~d. Thtw art> gmt~all~~ s;afcat>rI-t~cluirenltlnts
for cx?nqxtition.
Hva\->.-dut>, ~~~1~~1s
are used \vith ,,tl1ic.k c~l~ah~~t~l
rims, 20 s

2. 120 tires and heav!- 120 or


spokes. Thirty-six to 40

spokm pt~r \\.hvtbl is the standard 011 tllCvbetter nnr-lnufactul~c~d


models. The tires art fat and knobby. I-ItlavJ,-duty hubs are used. The
lac.ing is tJ*picAl>\fith a four-cx)ss spoke patttm:
e
~Iagnesiurn and aluminum alloy. \vhc~4s (Fig. 9-X) xc SOI~Ctimes used
nlotocmm bic>.cles. Thvse a-c bracx:d lvithout the
usual \i.ire spc~kts. ?ht>y x-e light and strong. Ilhvther or not thtl>
~
\vill incwascl perforniancx~ in Coriipcttition remains controvt~rsial.
Stwl rattrap pttdal:, of spy&l hka\.>.-dut!* c~onstruc~tion ha\*v
btAc.onwthe 5tandard tlpc for nloto~m)ss use. Landings from jumps
arr tl-pic,all>.mack \vith the rider standing on the pedals tvithout
1d,5'cga~q.y

(JII

238

._..
I. _

.*

c
c

,
1

s
4

,
i.
a
i
c
L
I

n
I
I

I
0 str+!idup to this
0

>._.

- .fYhtn nlotc,~m$s first staItc>d, bana@ typt saddleg$&e most


~~mm~on.A4~lightl~.~~nodifit~d
vtwion is still popular, but n~ny bikes
nmv use ;I singlt>-p&t saddles. That see@ t-ooffer s~mlc ad\-antagt~
btvxw of lighter wight and having thcl IAd&-further fomxcl. Likcl
so Ilml\~ things +jut niotocm)ss, this is ;I coritro~.t~l-si:~l
ilrc3.
\
Y,.
:
d

____

..

Fig

9-5

Schylnn

Scram&bler Model

6X5-6

competition

bike

:1

i
d

242

Ftg 9-9

A typlcal

blcvcle

~~~o!ocross

race course

1-1;11- \\.htbtbl II lllS;l

SAFETY GEAR

245

7 1.
-.
.-lJ

-r/
,
2

..._

..

-
2
z
-

.-.

r
r
,,
_-.

5
r\
=

248

ci,

al
m
i

cu
d
ch
Li

250

:$q

Fig

1O-3 Schwlnn

10-4

Schwlnn

Sting-Ray

with

5-speet:derailleur

Fair Lady ,3-speed

gears

model

Y
,.

251

..

+_

Fig

10-5

AMF

Renegade

high-rise

bicycle

nipplt

2.

252

I
c

m
c

253

HIGH-RISEAND PIVOT BICYCLES

254

;lliC
lllt~
ali!

Fig

IO-8

The Swing

Bike

.-.

-.

--

__--~

-.

i,

257
*
_

--

\
\
\

iI,

..

-.

TRICYCkES FOR ADULTS

Fig

260

11-l

This standard

tncykle

1sconstructed

of rugged

14 gauge

stekl tubing

I,

:.>,,,.

261

Ftg 11-3 This Garton


nLi?fber plate

262

motocross-style

trtke.has

knobby

tires and competition

Fig

11.4

FIN 1 l-5

A Incycle

A pedal

with

extra

cap IS used

long motor

bike style

to hola the pedal

Sauule

IIT place

263

e
Y

264

Fig 11-8. AMF dual-drrve


differential
both drive and braklng modes

provides

equal

power

to rear wheels

in

265

-5
-c
m

266

CONVERSION UNITS

;1 numberof uIlits that attac% to wgular bic!-tdtls and cxnvert


them into tricy.c,ltJs arty 011the nwk~t.
Hi&ius of England makes a unit for c&vvrting a lo-speed
b~c.\.c~lv
into a lbsped
tric~~~~lc.-Thrconiersion unit is a\.%lablv from
.IIv.F. Hr~ltlsr~~~~*fh
Ltd.. Lolc~r Kic.h)llo)lll K!md, Prrt,lc;y, S. 11. 15,
E)~glr~~z~l.The unit is bolted to thy hic.>.c.le.making s\fitc%hing hack
and forth bet\veen tric,!.cle and hic%>.clv
prac%cA. The unit c-an also be
uwd. \\.ith a%ttmspeQd tanclcm bic.>c%lc
tc~i~formA ten-speed tandem
tric1.c.k.
267

.-,:,?,

Fig. 1 l-12.

Bridgestone

Kabuki

Picnica

Wagon.

Its desiGned

.-,

F,
for fun and shop-

ping.

--

268
.

YI

cn
Li

f
.;
..

1.. .,.~ .
(; :. \. .,.:.
:

\
+.i
1

,.
;e+
.

Fig. li -17. The Schwinn

..

Lil Tiger

has a banana

saddle.

ie has a removable
Fig. 11-18. Schwinn Convertiblg
sion from a boys to a girls model.

top bar for easy conver\

273

I:,

til
)t

Fig

274

1 1- 19 Garton-l-6-lnch

wheel

~CO~NESII& chaLn=dFI-ve b&e

._

Fig

I1 -21

Rldlng

r7 decorated

trike-bl,)c?

275

_.

276

Fig
12-1
The Hign
wheeler
IS an exact
1880s perln\ -farthIng

h igh3f the

ENDING ANTIQUE PENNY FIWHIMX~

0 i-u11into
I thilili thtl

278

MODERN MANUFACTURED

VERSIONS

Iii thtl Iriittd Sta~t~s, thcw~ 3-t

BUILDING PENNY FARTHINGS

CA

I>tJtails for c~onsiIxcTiIlg a c,hilds inodt~l pcmiy farthing \vere


gil~en in cliaptt2- ninta. Ihc $mr c.orlctyt cm by applied ivith bicycle
everything except thv lieId tub< and t\z-0
\~-het?ls. For twl~plc,
parallel bars can bc cut from a girls or ~~oma~s bic*yclv frame. A
standard unicyc.lv ~vhet~laswrnbl~~ (see thv c*haptc~ron urticy~*les) is
attac*hyd to thtl fork. A ~1nal1fork Liild\~htk~l ~II-C
added to thtl ~earof
the frame., .A short scc?ion of s;clat tube is \velded to the frarnc.
Notch the upper md for a stbat post clamp. The saddlv and post can
then ~briinstallvd., Ctknpleted assembly \vill hc like penny far-thing
shokk in Fig. 25-2, eswpt that main franw Lvillbe ivith two parallel
bars instead of single tube.
-Since versions \f-ith i,aiqe \vhwls are estreni~ly difficult to
ccmstkct, cLetailsfor their asstmblp~ar~ not given hcrtl. Ho\vwtr, if
J~OU
h&.e had c.onsid~rabl;I~~.!,~.l~
building tqxrirrl~~e, you might try
purc%hasingjust tht> big ~<kwl frcm one of the maIdactu~-ers
and
then ~30nsti-ukTing
- -\70ur o\vn frame.
.?
RIDING PENNY FARTtiINGS

-.?

For safety reasons. thv penny farthing should he used only in


arc~is a\\.ay km au,tomobil,e traffic.. (?thtsr thanSftrrparades, thtty artA I
not for strwt USC. The big-\vhwlers generail! have a foot peg on
thv main franiv tube for mounting. Ilith hands on bars, stand be,hind
the penny farthing as ;ho\\-11in Fig. 12-3. EIaceyour right foot oh the
CI
279
..

Fii.

12-2:A

manufactured-version

of a penny-farthing

for youngsters

peg. Push the cycle forward scatter fashion with your left foot a@
pull !-ourself up. 1lwnt, find prdals and ride. SOI< down b\. sloning
pedal action. I)ismoum b!. carefull,? sliding !-our right foot do~vn to
the sttc~p. Place >-our left foot cd the ground to slowl~~ stop the
high-\vheto-lrr. \\htw thy q.cle is at a zomplyte stop rmove ~-our
.
right foot from the foc;,t step.

iare shouicl be talcGIl v~hcn !.ou are braking bj., slo~~-ingthepetlal a&m. ( Jthcrnise the rear whwl might cxme off the ground.
\!*hen co$?,ting do-downhill,
old-time ridtc rcportcdl>~ put their legs up
over the hrmdl~bk-s n*ith the idea, ?hat in case of a spill fonvarcl,
thcrc V,TISa possibilit!, of larltling feet first. It sttms
tc, nlt~, ho~vt\.tr, that an!. possibilit!. of sloning the bike ii-ould also ha~c bee11
,giWll tip:
i ,,
h+.
P
/
280
1
,

1
.r

I
0
i

Fig. 12-3. When mounting


a penny-farthing,
(A) place your hands on the bike
wrth your left foot. (B) Place yourdght
foot on the step. (C) Push the bike with your
left foot. (D) Pull yourself up on the seat: (E) Get comfortable--find
the pedals
and ride the bike. (F) Slow down&by using your legs. (G) dismount by sliding your
right foot down to the step. Pus& yourself off carefully.
(H) Placeyour
left foot on
the ground and begin to stop the bike.

282

1
Iaridc~nlbit.!-c.lrs illc~lude bic%!.Clchs
mith t\vo or mort~ i-icltys-one
ridtlr btlhind anotht~r in line.Ihe most popular tal~denl, but certainly
not the only me, is for tv;o ridqs and it is sornetimt~s called a
bic!.clv built for t\vo. Tandem bikks for t~i.0 and three riders are
dsed in racing competitions.
A novelty bike \\ith 32 ricltm \\-a; first rlc~~lolls~~-atecl
at Far\~a!, .Ik~on, Ikgland, i,n August 26, 1973. It is 62 feet long. The
main topic of this chapter \vill be tandtw bic,>-,clesfor .t\fw riders. On
almost all tandtms, \\-ht~11oI1.trider pedals both srts of cranks go
around. There is no ~frw~vheeling bet\rwn thv t\vo crank sets.
Ho\vcvu.
the r-m- hub is usually frce\vheeling as on~a regular
bic!.cle.
I>-pimlinespensive tanrlfk~s arr singlt+speeds. !LIore clspensive models arc aiGlablF nith internal hub gears and derailleur
J
s!3teIn.s.
Kegardlrss of the t!.pt, tankms rrquiret a ~oordinatrd effort of
. t\v:) or more people. ~vho do not ne~essaril~~ havtl to be equal ii1
strength, twduranw or c~>.~~ling
rsperien~,e.
MANUFACTURED

TANDEMS

The most readil!. available tandems are thv equivalents of


lCJ\v-priced standard bic>.c*les.These art Cgtverall~. ivith singlespeed, coastcr brake hubs. Ihv). are ivhat 6ywld br considered as
nliddle\veight in a regular bic~>.cle.These al-v d&&&d forutilit>use.
For limited recreatirmal riding, the>- ;w generall~~ quite adquat e.
.
Runtal tandems are muall>- of this t!ye.
283

Fig 13-1 Schwtnn


weighs 64 pounds
-

Deluxe

Twinn

tandem

has 5speed

deralll,eur

gears

and

Fix longc~ ridcls and touring, ;I lighter \i.L4,ght1nodc1 \\-ith IIIOI-C


precCioii is galled for. Iht5t- \\ill, of cx&se, be niore espeiisive.
Bec.ausc of thtl linlitcd clt~nI;~Ildfor thtlsth, Ilot nlany bicy!-cly shops
1lai.e them in stoc-l*r.thou m$~t be able to get them to special order
.

for >-ou..

Qualit!. tandcws are sprc*ial dt$qns and nc,)t just e1llargc~d


regular biq.cTlcs. Ihc;po\\~er OIIthe tlrivv s!xttw is apprrGnlatel!.
double that ofa l-c~~laibi~~.~l~
and double thv \\Gght canbv carrivd.
The 101+yr franlcl ltlllgth poses additioml struc~tural problenls. QuaIit>. tandtms ;ITYc~ortstrur~t~d of li,qht\vt+ht tubing, but of Iargcr
diameters thm those ~lorn~all~~used OII reg~~lar bic.>.cles of sinlilar
qualitj-. ()\-a1 tubiiig i$ sometinic~s used to improve rigidit>- bct\\reen
c~rarlkhklgets.
\
Thtl marY cspc~ns~lls
1:,\.pic*all!.
Have dtTailleur gear
sJ.stenls of five, 10 mtl 10 specdk (Fiks. 13-l alit1 Fig. 13-Z). Other
1 ,III
numbtw art- son~etimcs usrcl, but thtl\. are LH~~~oI~H~T~.
The tivo tlvpes of drive units bct~vcvn cx-anks are the
crosso\-er, \vhi& has the chzn and sprrotkets--iowle~ffryS the two 4
*
cranks on the left side, and the oneside drive system.
As far as deraillttur gears arty c~IKY~I~~~,the ~roywer
drive
has the acl~.antage of allr,\vi& a triple c,hainwheel WI the rear crank
se9, for 15 spwd gem-s. Grnerall~~, this al-i-angenient piri~w much
more stress 011the rear cl-allli aslv. 011the other hand, the one-side
drive generalI>- allo\ix a masinlum of -10 speeds, \vith three &ain
.
~~1~~1sCJIIthe right SICJ of thy rear cx-anliset. One of these is for the
---Y
&air1 connec~tion to the front c*rallli svt. 1h~ aclvantagv of the
onv-side arrang~n~~~~tis that it plaws 1~s~stress OIIthy rvar crank
and axle. .
284
a

,
I

I-

1.
\

i
.

-.

--..
,

Fig

13-3

A tandem, built by joining

two frames

together.

If J-OLI
pwfcr, il~tt~rnalgiar hubs ~a11
bv ustd. If thchrear hub has
no t-oasttr brake, a caliper brake ~-anbe added to the I-KU wht~l. In
this cxt, a stwnd cxliptar bralit> shc~uld bch installed to thv front
\vhwl. Xl cxmtrols iuii to the for~vard riding position., It is ~~1~0a
good idea to beef up the braking on a tandcnl \\-ith a cmster bral<,&b!.
adding a cAiprr brake to the front \\*heel.
TIPS ON USING TANDEMS

'

Riding a utilit!.-t!*pc tandvnl at slo\v to moderate speeds requires little speCia1 mnsiderations.
These types are frequently
rtmtvd to inesperienoxl taildenn riders and most make out quite
\vell.
For nmre serious tandenling, thecfront rider is the captain.
On most tandems, the cranks arc set in phase, with the fmvard and
rear cxmks in thv same position. Somvtimc~s the cranks are set out
I_
of phase-in ati attempt to-get more <on.tinuous po~ver flow fron; tht
pedaling of the tno riders. The possible advantages are debatable
and it irm-eases the possibility of hitting a pedal on the ground during
a fur-n. In phase, both riders would have the pedals on the turn side
.
in the up position.
The rtw riclrr shoulcl not tr!. t~,~tur~~.A11>.Jcaningin an attempt
to cxmtrol the bic!.c%ltl
c;mcmse a n-l$pping ac.tion and possible spill.
Ihv t\vo riders should learn to m~$ togetl<vr.
\\ith drrailltwIL nlodt~ls, thcar is thy z$clitional proble;ll of
shifting. Sonic Captains ~211signals -0 that tht; war rider Lvillknow
\vhvn to I-alas pwssuw OII thta pt4 \ 1s. Hon~cver, c~x~mie~lcecltandcirn ttwm often ~vork togvthvr h.y iltlnt signals throukh the pedals.
k.,
1P
288

Fig

13-4

An example

of a double-decker

DOUBLE DECKER BIKES

Double-deckers, also (*alled high-hikes and ~t~sid~~-do~r~z


hikes,
are fun novelty cycles. Ric*ycles up to ZPfeet tall hai:e been ridden.
Only re~llardoubl~-de~kers,
approximately tmice the height of a
rq$ar bicircle, will be covered here. Ilith simple additional modifi-7:
cations, taller biq-cl&can he constructed.
\Vhilc cloubl~-dt~~~lirrs ;II-Cfrt~cluclltl>~riddtWG~~~stltlt>tS \\ith
autolnobilc traffic., this is unsaft> a11tl ill nlan~ a~tasillqq~l. Ihis is
stric.tl>. a nc)velt~. c!-clc and should by consicltmxl as ~(41.
Ihes;e c~.cl& a~ not nmlufacturck~, but convtrsioll of rtLgular
hi(.)-cles is fairl!. ~inlpjt~. I rtc-o~lmt~lcl that olil!. old, incspc~nsivc~
i)ii-!,clt3 iw usual.
CONSTRUCTION OF DOUBLE-DECKER BIKE_S ,

Figuw 13-4 sho\vs ant nlL>thod(,;~.onstrul.tic,li. 1lltJ fl-aIllt~ of


one bike is brazed OI- \5-~ldecl to that of another bic.>,cle. Ihc head
tuhvs of the t If.0 bikes arc lillvd up so that the fork of thy lc)\vcrbike
call bc esttL]-idctl up through tllc hwd ty&rl of the upper biliti b\,
,
r_

Fig. 13-5
I

290

Riding

a double-decker

bicycle.

Fig

13-6

A double-decker

with decorated

wheels

TIPS ON USING DOUBLE-DECKER BIKES

Ho\ve~'er-,011 arcgylar bic.\.clc, \.ou art t~rtrc~mrl\. limilcd ~$en


it wmrs to feats such as this. Thv fac>t is, that artistic, or ,c.ircus
bic.jTclesare vx:y spe4
~~~~ie;. lht~\. usually ha\.r fistId ~-cm- hubs
(no frep\vheeling) ~~Iid.one-to-oIlt~,drivtl ratios, straight (no rake)
front fork blades and a dwply cx17tclsaddle (Fig. 14-3) that arches
up high in thtl back and is mountt~d further to\vard the rear c,f the.
cycle than is normal on a wCgular bicyc*le. ILVO
other important
features are that the ~y~lt\ is lightweigk~nd the scat tube and crank
brackets are ~l&e to thv rear whwl. This is similar to shortvnrd
frame ksttcl,on sprint racing biq~vlrs. %lany artistic bicycles also
have axle vxttnsions fck, use as foot stands that make additional
stunts possible (Fig. 14-4).

293

Fig

14-l.

Fig

14-2. Ridlng

294

John

Jenack

riding

an artrstlc

an artistic

bicycle

bicycle

on one wheel

on one wheel

while

seated

on head

tube..

Fly

14-3

An artlsllc

bicycle

saddle

Fig. 14-4. Axle extensions


about two
to two and one-half
Inches
long,
called
dorrrs.
are used
as foot
stands. They make addltional
stunts
possible.

295

&g.

14%

One-io-ape

dire&drive

arrangemeni

icr an artistic

bicycle:
.

.b.

296
u
c__

P
---

---T-

c
-__

__

)0

--7

..,,..,y

~ _~
.

iv

....- ~.
:&

*
.-

-\
also
.I

work-and straighten (remove rake) thefronf forK.-Methods


:.for making these rnodifi?%tions are detailed in chapter six. The chain
have to-be shortened.
See chapter five,for methods ofI
r
I
For making a much ,b.etter model, similar to [he ones used in :
.,.
a-lightweight bicycle,can be modified.
racing- bikes .with:shortened frames
A short frame with the seat tubeand
rear wheel is best.
afixed rear-hub if&e-Track racing bicycles
modification is a ratio obl
tamed by replacing ihe chaintiheel;.with a sprocket that matches the
one .on the,,,,rear. Eairly.large sprockets, about24 to 28 teeth,,@e>
generally used. Thk front fork is also straightened. Techniquys for-
making these modifications are covered in chapter six. .,
A proper saddle can be a real pr&blem.. One possibility i to
slacken the tension in a racing,saddle and u&an. L shaped, seat p t
angled backwards and. positioned like. the .saddle on the artistic\
.:,bicycle~showh iz pig. 28-3. The saddle should be,.positioned well
baczkandshduld be curved upward a$ the rear so that rider will not
slip off when riding with front wheel in the air. : .+,.S.b.-
Dropped handlebarsturned
over can be used on the artistic
bike. Rubber hand grips should be used.
y
The artistic,bicycles used in competition also have axle darns,
Fig. 28-4, which are extensions that thread on to the ends of. the
f -axles. If these are to be used, its agood idea to go to a larger front ,*
hub axle that is-the same size as used on the rear. Then it will be!
strong enough to hold the weight:of the rider standing on the dorns.
,I
s-. CARE;. REPAIR A&D MAlNTENhNbE
_ , Repgrand maintenance of artistic*bicycles

_,

is $&nti$lydthe
- same as forregular bicycles. Certain stunts, if done improperly, can
-be very damaging; to, the bicycle. Especially avoid ,cbming down
: hardon the-front wheel from riding on one wheel and sbinning,the front wheel when riding forward or backward with weight on both
wheels. When professional performers do what appears to be this
wheel spinning stunt, they are actually riding almost e&rely on th,e
rear wheel %jth little or no ,weight on ,the front wheel.

-ilPS

ON USING~ARTISTIC

RIKES )

T-o-learn to ride on one wheel, start by doing *\vheelies. YOU


should wear a safety helmet whenever you attempt a stunt. Gradu-
L
-4 I
h
+a
297
.
P
/
L m
J
c
7
\

. .
>f--

b.

0.,..

e ally work up. to the point where you can ridie long &stances with
control. If. !pd.utip backward, take your feet off the pedals and
straddle .your legs off,+backward iso that you are standing. With
practice it should be possible to make turns and circle patterns while
riding on oneiwheel. &- you can spin the front wheel,wh& on the
e rear wheel a,s!shown in Fi.g. 14-6. It is more difficult to ride back-.
ward while on one wheel or to rock back and forth in one place with
alternate direction half or full pedal cycles..,.
. &Whileits ap%ssible to learn these. one-wheel stunts without
---beingzrbMo ride ~~~~-~~nicycle~~ar-i~~oI-i-fhe
reffularunicycle a
first should,c.ertair$y make thing.s easier (see Ghapter 29). Riding on
: one -wheel while straddled over the head tube, as shown in.l?ig. ;
-14-7, is .similar,to &ling a chain-driven, giraffe unicycle. Riding on
one &%eel without, holding onto the handlebars (Fig. 14-l and Fig:
34lcij ismuch more d&cult, than@with holding handlebars.
\
z In artistic bicycling competitjon- stunts are done1 using the
b
darns, standing.on the saddle anal,handlebars while coasting. Doing
a handstand on the -handlebars.& an extremely advanced stunt.
: lieAS

FOR Iii~lSTlC-BICYCLING
,

You might want to.form a club. Artistic bicycling.goes well with


unicycling so you might want focombine tliesecactivities.
T,o,my knowledge, there have not been any artistic bicycling
Icompetitions. held in the United States to date. However, artistic.
9176 Nitional .Ulicycle Mee.t: and
.bicy@es were demonstrated in t
s
.

Fig. 14% Spim-tifig the front wheel while riding on-one wheel.

/ ./
/

2.

..,

I
-.

: . ,TT!o~~~.~s--SkD,
@z~sths.sr 7TiWcst Gc&m?f~l). Artistic .*bicy&ig is , , I
:*
j
~p&ktlcecl. & Switzerl%d, ..France, Be!lgitim, Denmark, G;erman ~_
(
. . Demdcr~tic Republic, Akstri$, Japi,, Czechoslovakia-,: Nether+
!
s la*hs, S+~echq West GernxUy, It&, Po!aqd, 2nd fo a limithed
I
extent the United States.
1
.. .,III the Unitedq States, the organization [Aat is presently rn?kt>
/
, closkgr related to artis& bicycling js. the iJnicZ)ding So&ety
.,
Amwica I@. , PO Bbx 40534, R~~$rct, MI 48240.
j .
about this;brganization is give? in
A the n?xt ch&ter,
:
I
P
,.a_

.:

4 ..
r
!

*
Q
:

.?.

e
_
I

32
.

ra
X
_

.-

-.
5

,:

ii
c

!
s+

k
.
1.

ii P

-7
.a

-3

.I

,1

.
,

i?
?A

13

I
...

_,-.-.

__,_^,_,_,

1.3

._,...-,- ,-,--.y-

..b., _ ..<--,_. ;~~.A.,. ,_..I -I.v-.-

-.

c
:
:
ii

0
*

*.

,$I_._.
.-.

._._

long time
i After its introduction, probably in, the ;87&, the
unicycle,- remained almost exelusive1yG-r the profession51 domain.
Today, it. isjZas( being disc0vere.d. by youngsters, teenagers and
adult@alikeas a hobby, recreational activity, competitive sport and ?
..
perfo@ng art. .Its estimated that at least 50,000 people in the
_I
_Cl,___l...
y--- d
J United &ates have learned to ride ,and the number -continues to. -grow (Fig. 15-l).
I-.
-_
,*
While unicycling is most popular with children and teen-agers,
hundfeds of adults have*also learned to.ride. Rid& ; does require a 6,.
certain l.evel. of fitness, but &is is generally much
le~thanmigbr~~be..-.~~~~-.~
-.ll...~..--I,
.
exp&ed. The most important EequiEEe%b for su.ccess seer& to
be a sincere desire to learn. .At least ,one senior, citizen .who had
never even mastered thebicycle picker du~_
kill. Several blind
I
..--.
1
..peo$e have learned- to ride.
Unicycling has mu,ch to~&fer~~Its a. fun activity with fantastic
/ Omaneuverability. You can.make wide sweeping turns or spin around
in one spot. Wile some people who take up the activity are conte.nt
.,
I justto be able to pedal along on a s.tandard unicycle; marry go on to
.
trickriding and chain driven g&ffe unicycles.-Regardless of the skill n. ,
level t@e challenge remains.. Theres always another stunt that .you :
, /
( .,,:I .i ; :..
* ,.-.car&&n or one that can be done ,better. Anvunicvcling has a large
I ..
:fitnes~ selernent. sBecause of the ;fun and challenge of-the activzy
itselt@ou rnrghtnot think of it as, Rhyslcal activity, but the w+, thereiall the samexlike:
a? unexpected r&~ti~~~~~
,
_i!
j.
.
,i.
c
.
,..,..:I,r
y
:%
..:
I.:_.

-,

.,

I
I

.. -

$L
:-

..

P,

:.

-,

ip
a
f

..- --. __._~__

!,

1;. ~>;;y. ,,

44
3UI

,,

<.

I.
.,

._

"
,-' BRIEF H-IS;T$Y OFjJNidYCLES
.-<.
;;..-"
I
- t,."f
S$lonocycles, one-wheeled devices v&h the ride-r inside, the

wheel, iwere ar;?und before the unicycles The rider was positioned
.,
,,,_
above the *wheel and usually fnounted on a saddle. However, it
,q
.
, sgems lik& that the tmicvcle came about independently.
,,, IJ?i,cy.cling~~as.,probably discovered in the lS?Osby accident .

&ile someone was riding a penny~farthing. The front&heel of these


cvcles
(see chapter 1.2)was fixed to,the pedal cranks (no freewheel1 ,+ng).lrke-the modern un$ycle. 1 o Make on tne penny farthing, the
w ;, pedal action1 was .slowed down. If done too rapidly, the small fear
1 wheel$vould raise off the ground. Often; a ridder -found himself
=
traveling .along on the front,wheel alone, with the rear wheel in the
* l:
..
an-, before the rear wheel returned to the ground or the cycle flipped
2:

I
f&&ard.
E.
.
It seems.logical t&a;one day someone ,would get the idza of
t
, - -removing the back half ofCapenny farthing altogether and riding on
?.
th$ front wheel alone; It is interesting to note that a number of early
. i
,
-1.
cyclists made the claim of having done just this. Who was actually
. first remains controversial. It could well be that this was done by a
*
.__number of people independently. 3
Professional performers were quick tocapitalize on the idea. .--I
For many years the t&cycle remained almost exclusively their
I property. Unicycles were rarely seen outside the professional domain. As penny farthings disappeared from the scene with the
.._
adv$nt of the safety bicycle, people were less likely to discover the
u&$cling technique by accident. This further proteceed a secret
. the professional knew only to-o.tiell/ unicyc~ng is much easier than it
1
Q.
!
I
a
I looks,
As time,pa$\,s/ed, a few people outside the professional ,acts:
I-.
which were usu@!lypassed down in a family- tried unicycles. They
-2 .,.* *
found, probably to,&e dismay.of the professionals, that unicycles,
,-.\once the. basic tetihnique is mastered, are fairly-easy,to ride.
II
P
The Secret was out, but the_re was still another factor that
; &-nited the number of participants. There were no manufactured
i
.
I
I i
,.unicycles.
- ..
*Even so, the number of unicyclists increased gradually and in, :
,t
the lat2 194Os.and e&-ly 19150sa few companies, seeing that there!

I :
was some demand,started making unicycle& The activity started~
i
r
1
I
A
to
takehold.
I
,i
.
.
;
1
William Jena&, a computer technician in Long Island who has j ! I
7
abeen riding unicycles since the early 1930s was one ,of the1first to @
see the tremendous potential that;tinicycling had to offer as a
\;
&
: I:
.I
1

I <-+ r
I

?i

.,
\--

I recreationalactivity and sport: He started correspon&?g with other


unicyclists, not only in this country, but throughout the world.5He Y.
taught hundreds of other-4 of all ages how to)ride- and formed a
.
demonstration and,pArade group called the _J~~znclzCyclists. b
By the late 1970s there-,were hundreds of in&vidual riders
___- and
anumber of clubs had formed. In 197.3,,.largely .through the efforts of
Bill Jenack, the U~~icycling$ocicty ;?fAL%x Im. , was formed as a

vi nonprofit organization to foster, so& iI and athletic interest in, and


.
* promote the sport of unicycling
g youth and adults of the
i
country by establishing, voluntary
rds of performance and
:
nal,Jneets.
The
Ol-gaIiza-
sponsoring and. overseeing local
,
tion also disseminates inf~mat
1 phases of the sport to
r$ via $ n&slettel- alld
interested par-tics throughout
J..
i&rmation service.
.i
,
/
There are%presently over 600 members. and the yorg&ization is
growing raiidly. Membership, which$in&des ,a quarterly newslet-ter, is currently $6 a year. The mailing address is: Uni~jZGz~3o&~).~
~o;filmencn,Inc., P,O Bo24.0534, Redford, MI 48240-.-$he organization sponsors a national unicycle .meet, held annually in different
sections of\ the United States,with competitiqns in racing, parade
0
_.
and artistic riding.
*Today there are dozens of largg unicycling clubs and groups,!
including the Panti& U7zi~a~list~in .Pontaic: Michigan; the RelifQrh
"
Tbl.wzship.Ulzicycle Club in Redford, Michigan; the San Qieqo.VIZicycle Club in San Diego, California; 1.e Co~zcorii U&qdi.$
in
Y
Concord, California.;. the Paul FO,XUG$&z Cl& in Marion-, Ohio;.
the CHEl$RjOS in Longview, Wa,shington; the Uniuwsity of,
Pittsburgh UGcycle Club and the &!.I: T. 4biizicyclc Club. Many
anijteur circuses a&&s the county include ur$zycli,ng acts.
c_

Unlike typical fads, .people who ta.ke lp unicyclirig oftenstay


with the activity for a period of years and sometimes it becomes a
LgJ
,
lifetime endeavor. /
. ?
INTRODUCTION

TO UfkYCLES

>

_A

p .

For our purposes I will define aone-wheel d pedal cycle with


the riders center of gravity above the center of,,ihe ,wheel as being ai
unicycle. However, &other type of one-wheel cycle with the rider
inside the wheel and the center of gravity below the center ,of the,
wheel is sometimes also referred to-,as a unicycle. The -trend in -:
terminology, which I will followhere, is to call the cycles w&the -w
riders center of gravity. above the whegl z&dyclcdand those,,,$th
the riders center of gravity below, the center of&he wheel KKVZOC~-c1
7.
i,;
t
-(3
i $3
3
I/
*
i
.**,
25

)I

.
,

if

;/
,

_
? (:I!

,i

;,,,
i

Ya

,1

c/q. In older writings and tranqdted materials, these distinctions


often do not apply.
Most unicycles are of7o e of two basic types. Some have axle.......
and crank arms co@nectkd&ectly to-the hub. These are referred to
~a-re@i5&G~zc
fgi~~&+v&i&follo w&Las s~**ti*~~
same basic principle as e-standard unicycles, exce$ that there is a
e drive between the hub and the cranks.
chain-drive or other
~.~chapter 14, can be ridden on one

ost others

f unicycles, hundreds of variations


ill being invented. At the present ---.
dels readily available are a fairly
cles and one six-foot high giraffe .
must be special built, either by. doingthe
a
^
ne for you.
-~-~- ~~ ____.

m tricycle-type con
The ones. available range all the wa
truction to the ,high quality bicycle-type construction of professional models. At first though&-.$ might seem that the tricycle&e
/
unicycles would be the best buy for children .and th-e pi!ofession$
models for adults. But in practice thislogic seldom works .out. In

, Fig. 15-l. John a-HeGd%Q


\
s

304

ast;j,ndeibycle.

I-

A
T

.
---_ ----___ -.
._

d
d

Fib. 15,2. S&h&inn ?4-inch


n - .and 20-fnch wheel qnicycles.
.+* .
yi
i .
.:,

.
. .

-.

every case; theprofessional models prove to be-the best buv


all age<. Provided, of course, the ui-riiycle can be adjusted to it
the rider.-T&s migh.t be the case for thetricycle type. They could be.
used by young children who can not fit a professional model unicycle
at the jowest saddle adjustments. B,ut the manufactured,ones,
at
leas,t the ones Im, familiar with, seldom adj&t any smaller.
: Two. common f+ures make the, tricycle-tge
urii~ycle gener:
ally.,$adiequate. They lack precision, making the$ difficult,to ride,
.
,,and-they are subject to. fre,quent breakdoivns.
I
At one time, these u-n@yclescould be.ident&ed,by the&$&d or
semi-pneumatic tricycle-type tires. However, iome of theseicycles
now h&einflated bicycle-type ti es &I fhis4s n%longer a good guide,
7
for ,identifying -them. Tricycle-type bearings a&! perhapss better
j .~,.
b . ( =
i
;
identification.
To add to the confusion,,theri
are a number of unicycles. in
between the tricycle and prc$essional models. Some have a mixture
of good and poor feat%res:eheck especidly the, hub and: bear&g
asse.mbly. A frequent source of trouble is pla~-~~~een:;hg~jl;eel
.,..-.
z
1
,and the unicycle frame.

:
1.
:.
!
: 305
for7

.--

<ZD

./
;. : -./

,
.

,II

/.

L
~_
.

.-

;
s-

~~~ ~~~___
L

About the
good point I can think of in favor of the tricycle
type unicycles is the price. Some sell for about $20, .
The professional mod.el unicycles presently retail for abou
-quality- PJ-operly cared for, these-unicyclescan last for ma
The tricycle type often break down almost immediatel.
Three top quality unicycles manufactured in the
Schwim (Fig. .15-2), Matthem (Fig. 15-3) and
the imported uriicyt-les that Im familiar

recommend

the

type. Most all unicycles now. come these,

but they.vary c

post.. Make sure it fits the


,
&
,.
.s p *.
ur$ijcle. c ., I it r --~: --~;.,, -~
All of the top quality unicycles that Im familiar:with have. . thr.ee,pi.e,ce.cot~ered crank assemblies. The only one-piece cranks
>that Ive,seen used on u~cycies have been tricycle;type ,unitsC.. ,.
The three-piece c-f inks come with crank arms in .various
lengths. I prefer+hefjve
and one-half to six-inch length for. most
typesof riding, %Hteveryone seems to have his or her own opinion
here. ,.
For learning and stunt riding, I recommend the 20-inch wheel
for both children and adults. Larger wheel sizes are an advantage for
riding long distances and onrough, surfaces..

,
Several companjes now offer giraffe unicycles. Included are
the Qxfovd P21 -Hi. Boy (Fig. 15-4) by Oxford Irlternatiomzl, the
Sclixfim U-72 by-Schroim and the Pelzquisz,
by ---the PeTxquin Cycle
_~__~-~
-CO.

I suggest that you try local bicycle shops first.. If they


have what you want in stock, you,nl;lght be abIe to& them to
for you. If you cant.get what. you want this way,.you can mail
.from Je.mck cycles, 67 Lion ,Lme, Westbmy, JVY 11590.
4
-.BUIlDING
g-..

UNIChLES

.r

Building unicycles is a fiscinating hobby. Its generally


to save money bx9building ra.ther than buying, although this
on how inexpensivelyyou can get the required parts and
and if you have the necessary skills, tools and equipment.
/
306 :

dont
order
order

possibledepends
material
Perhaps

_
\

~.~~-

Fig. 1.53. tvlatthew$ unicycle.

307

\
.

the.;r&?st importa$t advantage of building is that you can make types


of micycles that are not manufactured, includi.ng:or&-inaldesigns. 1
-The basic sourh;e of. materials is old bicycles,,and bicycle parts,

.withperhaps a few3 items


being purchased n&v.
\
.STANUkfttfUNiCYCL
ri
I
,.,,..7,I,.
?
Fig-tire f5$ shows the basic parts for a,unicycle that I made..
I
The fivekeighths inch axle stock is center?d with shims or washers
in a rear hub that is$ymfietriM
on both ends. The axle sh&dbe
long enough for spacers, bearings and crank arms. Th.e spacers,are
used
both sides of each bearing to give clearance for.the.b.earing
braze the- axle
hub lyhen you have it centered ~. to the
-- holders..
~
1
_*
exactly.
---J. ~
The bearings should fit Snuggly over the axle and be approximately three-quartIe& of an Tnch wide ora little less. .Figure 15-6
show a bearing positioned over one end of an axle brazed to a hub.
= Flatten areas placed diametrically opposite each other are filed
.+near theends of the axle for crank totters. I suggest that you use a
. cottered axle from a bicycle as a model. Fl-risjob must be d&e
carefully, as otherwise the cranks might not be held firmly or be
exactly opposite each other: $
.
Make a trial assembly of spacers, bearings and cranks otithe
axle,- then disasw-nble and lace the hub to a rim as detailed in
ch_apter~fiwz~.~$yg
: 2. can be done after fork assembly-is completed

v
p

,,:,.,,.,.,:.

011

_2:
:I
:,b

.a
.,-*-.,

1 309

i
I
c
: ,
I
3
*

FiQ. 1.5+3. Bearings should fit snuggly over the axle.


\
I

I
I
~
~
i

by-mounting the wheel in place and usi,qg the unicycle, frame as .a


truing stand. Clamp it upside. down between blocks of wood in a
vise.
~
For bearing holders on the unicycle shown in Fig. 15-6, Fig.
.
.
15-7 an?lFig. 15-8, I used iarge seat post clamps that, when opened
slighily? $ould just fit over the bearings. A bent bolt isused through
,, the two holes to form a ring around the bearing. With the bolt
tightened, the bearing is held firmly in Dlace. Two holders are
rebuired for-the unicycle. I mounted them in place over a piece of
pi@ the same diameter as the bearings I used to ,@osition the
holdersfor brazing to the fork. This is shown in Fig.. 15-8.
~~__
~-

Fig. 1.57. Seat post clamps are used for bearing


i
\

holders.

I,

r
I

A straight fork is required. See. chapter six for: how t,o


straighten a fork. ,Bearing holders are then brazed to fork ends. ,
A notch is made ii1the head ei;d of the fork for a seat post clamp
(Fig. 15-9). Before making the notch, I cut the threaded portion off
,r
B
opthe fork. A standard seat post was used.
For a saddle, I added padding to a standard njetal-base saddle
:
and taped the padding in place as shown in Fig. 15-10. A sewn cover
~
&s &stalled over this as shown in Fig. 15-11. Another possibility is
to purchase a unic$zle saddle *at a bicycle Shop:
\

.*
/..

..

-&.

... ..

z ..:....\:.... ., : ,.,PF::,~
,y,..- ,..i.;::::-~,::-:~:~.:.~
.
., . ... ,..
:,

..,. .:.. ;:,::

s: ... :v... ..:...,\.,.... >..

15-9. Make a notch in the fork forthe seat post Clamp.

I had the q&):cle framechrome plated, ,but if you preferpaint


I
itill also serve.
An alternate method of constructing b&a?ifigholders is to make
up split blocks, but this> is much more difficult than ihe*.method
,

Fig: 15-10.. Foam rubber paddin,


/

312

._

1
I

,:i

is taped to a standard

metal-base

saddle.

,.

-I ---. -~ ~~~

_~
:

I.

_~

.;.

.I.
,

Fig. 15-12..Split-block

bearing holders.:

.:
,,,

Ir
8

a
:

313

,.;-
:.,

,.,
~,

CT

0
0
0

314-

unicycle that. 1 constructed according to the method described


above.
b
The giraffe unicycle wheel. has fixed sprocket: This has been
.T
described previously, The. frame consists of
a straight0 fork, a
..
section of tubing between the fork andthe crank hanger which can
be ,cut from an old l.$cycle frame, and the .seat,post tube.
A chainwheel id generally replaced ti\h a sprocket to match . ,~
the one on the wheelkor a one-to-one gear ratio,but other sizes will
also work. Methods. for installing sprocket$ are given in. chapt,er
,
five:
*
d
While most unicycles are constructed of round tubing, Bernard
Crandall, Director Qf the
uses one-inch square
tubing. Two,sections from tj-re crank holder down to fork spread out
and one piece 20 inches long is above thecrank holder for seat tube. -.
Figure 15-15 shows a number of frames of varying sizes constructed in this manner. Figure 15-16 shows completed unicycles,
starting with an M-inch standard ,unicycle and ,going- up to a 12\
e footer: All &segt the imallest are giraffe, unicycles.
0
,_

Pmtiac

Uniqclist,

.b

,315,

.I
..,

^-

;, .

,,

D
v

CARE MAINTENANCEibID REPAIR'DF jjNlCYCLES


L

.,

How ~;ou ride a unicycle is important .The biggest sin b,i e factor .
in unicyciing damage; *I believe, ,is $lropping, them. . earn tly2 _
4r
technique for catching a unicycle b! th% saddle $&en c~smour~t7ng~L
..
Methods for doing this. are given later in this chapter: i
; .
Curb jumping and_other_similar~stunts will obvious/y be very
hard on unicycl,es, &especially on spokes, pedals, cranl/ arms and
:
.axles. Im not suggesting that you netessarily not do th$se*stunts,
only that you realize that they can be hardon, the uni&$le.
Another .impoi-tant type of unicycle cdre is when you are not
riding. Always-dry the unicycle off if it, getsdamp or w.et. Keep the
unicycle,ouiof the weather as much aspossible. Keep the unicycle
.
,
clean and \i;aFed.
I,
For maximum tire life, keep the&ire inflated to recommended
_
pressure. For stunt riders who tend todo most of their spins,~$h
the pedals in s set position, the tire life can be increased byjletting
0
the air out of the tire; rotating it to a new position and then inflaw
*
.
*
it.
Wkeel~cat-e especially7 wheel alignment and keeping the spokes :
. - * tight, is similar to that-of a bicycle. Standard unicycles generally
have sealed bearings that do not ;equir-e any-addition.al lubr$ation.
On giraffe unicycle.s,. pedals, .wheel hubs, crank sets and chains are
Aaintained in Ithe same way as similar units .on bicycles.

.1

1.517. Riding an Oxford,


Hi-Boy Unicycle.

i.

.I,

.
,

\,

Giraffe unicycles. ?hat us.5 fixetl-trac:~~~~~~~~.


sometimes, have a
.-.
1 ..;.. tei~dei~c):,to slip. One solution is to ride with the sprocket on the left
side. This is opposite to that normally used on bicycles. This will
cause the cgreatest prssure, that ,of mounting, to back thre;ld .tlTe
sprocket into a tighterhold.
Forward riding usually places less
tension (311the sprocket and the sprocket generally willn~t slip.
Uniqxles are especially vulnerable to theft. Be careful where
~7ouleave them and tr>yto store them inside your house or garage
whenevei- possible.

.+

I
LEARNING TO RI

A UNICYCLE

c
I suggest
at you learn on a standard uniqicle with a ZO-inch

wheel. Acljust r'


the saddle height -so that you; legs will,,be nearly
?estended.at the low points of the pedal cycles. A cornrnon mistake is

_
to have the saddle toglow. This makes k$ding much more difficult,
I
..
The main. skill you will need to learn is forward/backward
u
balance. Onceq~ou have mastered this, JOUwill probably automatir
tally be able to keep side-to-side balance and make turns.
The basic idea is to keep the wheel hub under your center of ,
gravity-. With good riding posture, this will be approximately above
~
,.
the .center of the- sacldle. When riding forward, both the hub and
- saddle shoulcl n?ove forward.atthe same speed. If t&e saddle gets
too far forward, acljustni&t is made by speeding the pedal action, If
:
the saddle falls- behin& the-correction is to slow or stop the pedal
action so .the saddle can catch up. Essentially you move the hub by
pedaling in the .dir&tion the saddle and your center of gravity are
. falling.
Good posture, with the body heldupcght and the head aiid
shouldq,rs in line with the unicycle frame, makes?$ing much easier.
Practice this right from the start; Mai$ain bahnce by pedal control I
rather than by moving your upper body or swinging your aims.
, To help you learn, I suggest usimg two helpers. They do not
_
.
:
necessarily need to know how to ride. Learn on ahard srmooth
surface such as concrete, asphalt or wooden floor. On first%Jernpts

at .rnounting, the wheel can be backed against a curb or ,block of


wood. Position the pedals so that stepping on one of~theril will force
the wheel to roll into the curb or block. Stand on the curb or behynd
the bldck. Tilt the unic$cle back toward you, straddle the saddle and
.- place one foot on the,p&l
thatis back. With your two helpers

1 stand&at your sides, hold h nds with then1 and mount the unicycle \
/ by stepping the foot frorn th $ grouncl~t~othe free pedaI.and bringing
,
,
I
/ the saddle up over the wllekl.
a
, Ii
.I
I
I318
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,

./
a

.l

.A,
I

, '\
\

.-!
I

._

.h

La

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_.

,
you can concentrate on the for&$-d/backward b&jnce.
. To haskn learning, take ,dhalf-pedal r+$&ti.on At,a;tinie akl
strive to avoid letting the sdddle lag:behin~.~tfi&,~it usuallp works
best tb freeze.the.pedak
in the hoyizot~tal.pos!tionmhen you think
4
t
yq:. have lost balance. If S-au try .to regain $XK balance by ro&iilg
;
I the-p,edals back and forth it might tend to .conf;se the help&-s -.
*a
For dismounting, come to a c;6mplete stop with one pedal in the
down position. Release one hand from a helper and firmly grasp the
saddle51 front if you~want to come off behincl the unicycle and in back
if you want to come off forward. Step from the upper-positioned
pedal to the. ground. Catching the unicycle is extremely important if . m
c ,you are to avoid damaging it.
Continue practicing with the two helpers until ihe forward/backward balance becbmes autbmqtic and only light band
holding with helpers is required. Try to always maintain good
posture and use, the pedal actioi for balance correction.
/ ,.
The next St&p is to ride with only one helper. Gradually use
alld less hand pressure uktil jw can &lo. How long this will
2
take daries greatly-. Some peo$e learn in less -than an:hour, others
less

1,t%ke a week or more of onehotir.ia$y practice sessions. ?he n&t


inipoi-taI>t thing is -that you !earn, nht hoiv rnany hours it tak+.,
Aft&-learning basic riding,. most people @ant to go on and l&-n
t&&s .,such tis making turnt5;.atid figure patte&,
I!lounting in th&
@el;l$thout help, r.&ir$ the tinicycle back and forthin.one spot,
._ and backwards riding., Y&I might also Glut tq learn, to ride giraffe
;:unicycl& (Fig; 15-17). For this I suggest that you waituntil falling or
accidentti dismounting no longer happens on a siandai-d unicycle
and that you start with a giraffk, unidycle that is urider
I sixfeet tall.
.I

Fig.

j 320

15-19.

This kang

roo unicycle
ii.

has adjacent crank arms.


II

s
\

' IDEASFOR UNICYCLES AbiD ~NL~YCLI-iG'

ii.

In this section, a.s&ies of ideas for u@ycles and unicycling are


presented. These, of course, are only a few of many possibilities .
:
.
8
afid.-@J. will probably think Df others. The purpose her? ,is .to

.-L
4: stimulate your thinking.4
D
4@any-Saddle Unicycle. The
unicycle sh&itn,
Fig; 15-18 is paft df William ,,vI:~Jendcl-& &xterisive colle&on of .* 3:
I%
IF
noveltf itnd specialty cycles. Coristtictiqnis
basically,th& replace- .
Y
qnent ot the saddle pn a standard unicycle with a pony, such as- the ,
Itype used on- an-iusement park, rides. These can sometimes be
0 purchased at flea markets and jtink yards.
.,
* : ~ =
Kafigaroo.Unicycle. The czmk arms are set adjacent to each
other as shown in Fig. 15-19. A standard unicycle can be c&?:Fvert&d
.
by, removing one craiik arm, filihg a cotterpin &tch opposite the
original one on the axleand then reinstalling the crankarm in the,..
?I
C
new position. John Jentick is shown riding 3 kangq~oounicycle in Fig; **
.
1:
I 15-20,and Fig: P5-21. The difficult part is getting t,he qedalsover the
top part or hump of the pedal cyc&.

,a

-_

..C

-,

i)

ri
.A

Big-M$eef qnidycles.
The:big-wheel unicycle shown in Fig.
15-22 was constructed by Bernard Craudell. It has a 44-inch,
, I 46-&h with rubber ,tire, woodeil buggy: wheel. The wheel was :a.
made of oak by the $CI.EI%)C~
l/T/o&$ in Mill&burg,
Ohio. ..
\
Figure 15-23 .$&vs 14-year-old Liz Axenroth riding a unicycle i -,
with a 42-inch wheel.iThis. is the unicycle that Wally Watts iode
across Cailada in 197Ai. Wally re&ntly rode a sinilar unicycle,with a
.
43-inch wheel around the world.
Riding Witg Feet On Wheel.- JohI! Held &lds a new dimen._
sion to unicyclin if by riding with ,his feet working against the wheel
I

Bug&i

,i

Fig. iSi21. The difficult part is getting pedal

bver tpe tsp of ,the pedal cycles.


-,
1

322

.
ST
(J

325

,
e

Fig. 1527..A tandem unicycle.

326

_--

J
;

,=

.
.

-4

*
c

.,

;Fig. 1,629. Novelty giraffe unicycl k s used .by Great Y Circus. 17


< _
8,

I
li
i

*-

329

I
,

I
i

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*

Fig. 15-32. A giraffe unicycl-e with an airplane

.,

wheel.
*

330

s
.
*

Fig. 15-35. Jim Dandy performing The Minimum.


, 1
?
1

1? :

.
,*

333

yig;. 15-36. Jim Dandy performing

334.
,

.c

2
8:

.-

.jheMaximum.
/.
.,I
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;,
-

-. ~-

I
I

i(
; --_
,
I -1

-A giraffe with .an airplane tireis sho~yn .& Fig. 15-32. l?igkre
15~33 and Fig. 15-34 show giraffe uni~jxl~s wit11 more than one
.B
.
,
wheel.
The Mir&bm
and The Maximum.~ Jim Dandy, a
professional perfoimar, is shown at age 70 pelforrijiig what hecalls
Ma&zzm (Fig. 15-36). No
theseunbelievable feats.

The purpose
Y here is to give ideas fo
novelty cycles. These should sel:ve
similar circles and even to go on to
0
ji)
MINIATURE BKYt=LE$ ,

I have seen a number of profes


smal\est bicycle in theworld. Obvio
smallest bicycle unless there are a
size.
1
*~There are two basic types of mi
ridden standing (in a squat position)
a saddle.Ther.e,are
s.omewhat.large
_.- ~.
-saddlp such as the one shokn in Fig. 16-l.
. ~
7 i/ Building these tiny bicycles re
metals and machining techniques..
small, but also sturdy, This is Ii@
-.WALkINGMACHIliES

,B.\

driven waking machines have. beer:, de. A number of pe


signed and built. The i a is that the rider pedals and the machine
de* by &as. R. Siple, of a
Figure 16-2 i
\
cted by Alvin Drysdale. The
.,
p@al-driven walking math
. c$$le is now on display in the private cycle museum of Eve, Metz in j
3
\_
.h
a
Freehold, New JerseJr.
.
or
I

dks.

.n Jenack rihg

CLESb:

rhi$aturebicycle.~
I

,'

~;

"..j.

d.
,.

'

9..

reclikcl siking are &xv~~ in Fig. 16-3 through Fig. ..


shows 2 kicyc;le &acbine $ith a f;-ont wheel drive.
haye sewq-al dvancages Qver sGikk~-cl bicycles:
ng is easier dikeI t@ ride? is r^iot.in a, $-ouch&l
=9
\
dumb,ent,bil;e is easier and more comfortable
clarcl bic);clk.

16-2. Sketch of a walking


machine.
0
c

Fig. 16-3. Bicycle for reclined sitting.

/ :

-Popvering !:a recumbent bike


Therefore, the riders arm and back mu$cles can
-Catching pedals on the ground or curb
ners is eliminated with a
the handlebars
if
II.
m ?

;.-.

Various types of doaferjpecially


small pontoon modelsi have
been pedal powered-u&ally
:by means, of paddle wheels.
.
,
./
>
./
* >

heavier-than
deSi.gn andbuild a pedal power fl>ing machine .that i-s
c
1D
air.
A nur%ber of;p&l-pmvered
craft have got ten off the ~rouncl.
-blhe
GOSSUIIYY
Co~lldo~complet.ed a flight around a sp&ial course to
i win the ,liremer Prize of 50,000 pounds s t erlirlg for iTS-designer. .>
The Gossamer A.lbatms, made by the same designer, ha5 alr;acly
cornple_ted a flight of 14 miles and also completed a flight acrossthe,
I
English Channel to win -hn:e%.en larger prize.
_,
*b
-_
.. --_
,i

I v
n
Orfe G$-to-make
ube of, the thousands ?f miles. of unused
milggad tracksYin the United2&.$e~ is to adapt a standard bicycfe so %
that itcan be run on raih-~ad~t&ks~Qu~e
16-7, and. fig. 16-S e
illustra& tw6 &h designs..
$
.
_.
Ip YTiis cl&vice shou1.d
n&er be us~eclUonrailroad tracks where
i safety
or legal problems
could ocmr.
.*
n
,
~TLROAD BICYCLES *

Fig? 16-5. Bicycle for reclkeT,sitti\i

with a small fcont wheel.


II

,:,

__- \

cttL.>_7m -- ._I.L!+_

F ig. l-6-7. A standard

bicycle convkted

trxks.
_

for ;se on iailroa

.1

/ I
r .+

t
A,
lawn mower wheels is oiie way to adap a bicycle for use on
I
.

Fig. 16-8.Attaching
railroad tracks.

344

I
;
e

j
,
J

In Fig. 16-8, f our-inch lawn mover wheels are ihown set at 45


degree angle?. Attach the wheels to seven-eighth inch square i
tubing which telescopes into one-inch tuiii~gso t-hat $0~ can rake or
lower the wheels. The whe,yls are held in $,ositiokwith lock nuts.
The square tubing is connected tith a yol;e\,and held iIIplace with
r
two-inch channel iron.

to,,generate energy. :- . . II
bicycle-driven- mechanism can
~Notlon@ift$r the bicycle-firs ecame popular, a great quantity ~
- of pedal and treadle machines were invented. The invention and

,transportation systems pbint,out the advantages of bicycle technoi. :


--~
, ogy that is structurally and mechanically efficient.
ycle works so well is that it uses the
t 60 to 80 revolutions per minute and ,
effectively by utilizing a sprocket and

i..

.
<-

T
.

<
*.

.,.

,.

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I
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t

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P

.,
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,

346

.r_----.

. .

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1

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/

._
~
c
. . .
_
9

assembling this unit, The tools you will need are easily available.
They include wrenches, Allen wrenches, clamps, files, pliers, a drill
6. ,and,a hacksaw. Youwill also neeh; welding equipment to.assemble
the .&me of the unit. ,
->

I
I

MATE.RlALS

a i,
ankle iron-each two feet in length.
------ F$vesectimo!one-inch
A,standard bicycle frame i$cluding rear and fro&, forks.
j T&o sections of one-inch angle iron-each 10 inches in length.
Two sections of-one-inch angle iron-each 12 inches in length.
Two sections of one-inch angle iron- each six inches in length,
A standard bicycle chain. /
-- ~-~-p&&,&~&bi~,.&e
p&&
-~ -~
-

A standard bicycle pedal {rank.


The DriveMechanism

1 I

;I

.
Four self-centering pillo\j blocks with one-half inch bore.

-H&e?oGtion
of steel block thafis one-half inch in diai ,

meter with a one-halfinch, 24 thread right-hand thread.


Four bushings with one-half inch bore.
A one-half inch; 20 thread right-hand threaded nut.
A 20-thread one-half incl/i Jacobs chuck. _
Two step-sheaves .with.e/ther three or four steps .with one-half
inch bore. C
I
A ,$4-inch seption of steefstock that is one-half inch in diameter
with d one-half i&h, Zp thread left-hand thread.
$ ten-to la-to,oth bicycle sprocket with a one-half inch, bore.
A V-belt. I :
1.
A one-h& inch,, 20 thread left-hand threaded nut:
Eight one-quarter inchibolts, washer and nutsfor the pillow
I
blocks. .
I
The idleMechanism

.A

I
1
i.

I,
:
A gate hinge.,
An eight-inch section of steelstock with the same diameter as
,,
/
1
the bushings.
. I,
:
A grinder shaft mechanism with bushmgs.
A pully that is two inches -in diameterand fits the shaft.
A spring-size
No. 62. L
--The.Tabk

II

.
A three:foot seqtion of steel stock that is, three-quarters of an
2
I.-.
: idch thick.
.One section of threequarterinch
ID steel tubing-s1x inches
.
..
in length.
r
I
-;.
(
:;, :q..> - / , L
350
,!+.p
.>;.p
.
.:
,,i
e

.
..

-I

- ?

_.

~
Three three-eighths inch nuts.
se Three three-eighths inch bolts.:>
~
Three sections of one-quarter4nch steel stock-each
twiknd :
,y
.
.
one-halfinches in length.
Two sections of three-quarter
inch ID steel tubing-each
O
4
three inches in length.
,
A hardwood board that is 16, x 11
A section of three-quarter inch steei
. one-half inch .at one end-six inches in
Two three-quarter inch nuts.
J
Two three-quarter mch washers.

Ip

._
The Seat

.*

Two sections o$ one and\ one-cfuarter.inch square metal


,
tubing-each is
one foot in length.
\
Two pieces ofplywood that are 12
15 ,X % inch.,!
;.
Two piecesof foam rubber that are 12
15
4 inch.

Two pieces of vinyl cloth that are 15


18 inches.
An eight inch section of s%eel shaft that is seven-eighths of an.
1 .
.incbin diameter. 1

CONSTRUCTION STEPS.

, Turn the frame of a standard bicycle so that the back of the


bicycle will bec,ome the front.of the unit you are building.
Cut a two-foot section of,angle iron.and tack weld it across the
a
bottom of the front fork>of the,bicycle (Fig. 17-l A and 2).
i
Construct a T-frame,brace for the front support from a twoP foot section of angle iron and two vertical sections (Fig. 17-1 B and
t+., ,I When the vertical pieces are welded onto the horizontal brace J
I-d
and back fork (Fig; 17-1 D) they sho!.rld be,positioned so that they
n four inches above the floor.
are a little more
,
#,:i
,.
angle iron between the front horizontal brace
Weld a piec
,p-
, ^ and. the frames crank section (Fig. 17-1 E and F).
To build a power support, cut four se&o& of angle iron that
will reach 38inches from the floor to the front fork (Fig., 17-1 Gl and
y

G2)..

Place a support onboth sides of the front fork near where the
bicycles seat connection had been (Fig. 17-1 H).
Position a platform on top of the four columns tophold the two
pillow blocks (Fig. 17-2 .I). The placement of the second,set of
supports is determined by the width of the,pillow blocks. They will
I..

ii
,

Fig. 17-4..The unit is designed so thatslack is removed from the (Z)V:belt. A (a)
I
spring are part of the design.
0

--~
-_

.,

X.

_/~
;

~~~-I~-~---:
be three or four inches forward. M&e ceqtain that the four supports
---_-.-- it?:-level.
Clamp them in place and tl?e!i weld.
.
,.
Cut two six-inch sections of angle,iron and weld:them acres?
a the top of each set of braces $0 for>D<, platform.
:
_, .,-:: 1
Drill hoIes and then bolt two one-half inch self-centering pillow n
blocks (Fig. 17-3 J-and I<). Insert the tfireaded portion of aone-half ..,
inch by one-foot steelshaft in the right pillow block. Put two one-half
inch bushings on the shaft and insert the shaft in the othei- pillmv
:::::,:.L...~_
block. Thread one-half inch nut abou< three- ,quariers in--,and.-then!.
,..
\*! thread theSJacobs chuck onto the shaft against the nut (Fig. 17,-3 0). Y65
\
,sP@tion the shaft so that the chuckis as close as idssiblelbut

I s,
0
:a,
.not t uching,. the left pillow block.
L -.
_1
.,
! osition a step-shL,*qve on the right edge dof the&aft (Fig. 17-3
. 4.
:
7.
p>.
,
Drill holes at ;he top of the T-frame brace for the bolt and &VO :.-
d
D
: ,_
pillow blocks and insert the threaded edge .of the-14-inch shaft into
0
? .;
0
the right pillo\?i .block.
f
1 1,
In the following sequence, positioii a-bushi,ng, sbrocket; chai$>
q .,I~
ai9d a second bushing on the shaft and put the shaft into the ot.her
,!
pillowblocl~ (Fig. 17-l,S,T,U,V and W). A flyvh,eel cay be.attachedk
1
I.
,
to the threaded edge. The right edge is for the other stepsheave: if
,
you mount the top sheave with the-pulley on the ~inside, make
certain the large sheave is on the inside of the lower shaft. 1._
,.*.-*i
If the chain does not fit the sprocketafter you have installed it,
remove the master link ai;d add oi- delete links to make the-chain fit__
?,
0,
P
properly.
I
:
3 When you have the chain in position, move the pedals .forw&l
-,
.
.
_. to align the front sprocket. Next, align the bushingsand sheaves and
I
\ .-file flat areas on the shaft where the allen screws al-e positioi?e-d. Be
Cd
5
4
sure to oil the pillow blocks.
Install a V-belt with enough Slack so that ch@@ggears is not

difficuli (Fig. 17-4 2).


In orcier Loinstall an idle device that~will remove slack, n~ount a
gate hinge on agrinder shaft mechanism (Fig. 17-Lb an&a). yeld a:
gatehinge to the frame a littlebeloyr the main supp=ort. Thehinged I. : :..i.
edge should point toward the front end of the unit and open $QO /
j
degrees.. Bolt one end of the unit to ihe fleiible portion of the hinge
1
and put an eight-inch shaft through the bushings (Fig. 17-lc and d),
,i.:.
Place a two-inch pulley at the right of -the shaft and file the:
(.
t4
surface of,the shaft on one side. Fasten pulley with an allen screw: I,
. I:
spring between what
s the seat hole ofthe ,

,:,> ,,:,
:
i
shaft mechanism.
..
I
:I
_
( ., .~Z
0

,,0
4.:.
(
7
a
a
_i)
/,
~, II
... , .,.I)
~
,,

0,..>
L
T

,,

. .

,,.

..(>
/

,.

.*

,
I

/
i
7
, .

,r D
, qp ( .,.:.
$

.! iv

I
i,

.~

.
li

s,giooth the ipside of the tubing to give the table brace the greatest
_.
possible mobility.
Make two additional brace3 from three;i;lch sections of steel
tubing (Fig. 17-6 1). JVeld them at a 90-degree angle and place one
onto the table brace. Use the other one -to brace .the table.
.o
-,.&$l& T-bolts for the bar braces .(Fig. 17-6111).
. Use a 16, x ll-inch cut of three-quarter inch hardwood for the
- table top (Pig% 17-6n).
,
+.
.Thread one and one-@aIf inches of a six-iiich section of a
\
three-quarter inch steel .rcad.
,-,
\
Pl.ac$ a three-quart,er inch rlut and a <vasher oil,the rod and put*
the shaft .into a dr&led hole if>the table. Position- the, shaft into the
:
brace tubirlg.on *fhe table suppoktg,: *
..,< . : .
l:..
a Construct a padded seat \vit.h two oiie-foot sections of~onP,a~~@ow&quarter inch square metal tubing. Cut two pieces+ of. ogle- : _;.
quart&i&h ply%~oodone foot lorig by,.l? inches wide..P&the seat
,- ._...
with.:foam rubber and oyer1a.y it with vinyl fastened to ply?vood (Fig..
b

17-I t-v),

Weld an eightinch section of seven-eighth inch*steel shaft .to


the tubing undei-the seat and place it in the hole that was used to
support the .handlebars. of the bicycle (Fig. 17-k).
If the seat is too far from the pedals, cut the shaft.:io fit.
Construct and attach a safety- guard to shield the pulle>r: A fl~xhtiel
will not be, needed for all jobs. Bolt it in place as hecessar!. (Fig.
17-1X and- 17.

--

> , s

h.
;.-

.,:

Fig. 17-7. A ;iedal-driven winch


designed to be operated by two
..
.-. %,people.
j -.
i
:..
:
-1.
--&
:
.;-.:.r-:.
2
-_
._
. C

.\.

i,J
I

e.
!

_
.

~_*-w

-z
_
1

.P
.a
I
?T

79; 17-8-4 .pedal-driven

w4nch desrQned fgr use by one person.. 0. :

PEDAL

,,

SHAF

F 19. 17-9 A pedal-driven ArchiTeclZt,s s&w that is designed with 4slope of 30


I
degrees and a length of 20 teet. \
.
:
*.
k
< ,,,
\ ,I
2.
( .
1;.
,_
\
.
1%.
359..
..
.- -1
h
_.
_
----_
-..-_
_
\
,
.. %,
i.
Lc,
. J
l

I?

<

x.
*.
\

__,

_^.

-_

..

*>
i.l,
...

._-..

I-

./

-%
B
.*

!I flexible s&et
*
will be flexible en
I
from the pump to
. .
bc-approsimatcl!, three-quarters
of,an inch.
*
9
c,Adjustn~;nts to the length of thspedal shaft can easily be made,
if you constwct the uni[fwith a full-length a **hole to hold the &d;.~ IIe 9
_
You should also 111akt2
couplings that.*till tigY tly clamp the rod with,
r
P
two
pins. To asser&e_.the unit;
.I cycle-type.cotter
L
-1nsert. the kod into the pump coupl!ng.
-.
? _
he pedal shaft o$& the higher pbrtion of the r&
s,
$ace
the pedal shaft on <its frame$ork.
p
ii
,
--Clamp the rod at the htiher.p;brtion.--- ----;--The- framekw~ cane&it!-: be made from two sets of dthree
m,: ,
jl
,
a-. sturd>-poles plus: a seat ijolr and a handl,ebarpole. Bind the sets of
.a thr;ee pi-$eesto form tripods: Be Sure to over-lap the shorter regs of

the*tripods to form .i 2upport for the shaft of .th2 pedal devite. A


u
met.al ring can be used to secure ihe bearing to the tripod. ..The i., 3
!
bearing aiso holds the shaftof the pedaldevice.
h
__-,
_-.

BOREHDtF-PUtiPS

---

- -

A borehole pump can be used to draw~waterkrom-depths of 20


O,
to over 300 feet. Figure li-l@ is a design for a pump that uses 8 ped&generated power. A horizontal a&its two sets of-pedals that
are-placed at 45 degrees to insure smdothpedaling. Bearings at
both ends are supported by poles that are crossed. The fio7es at
both ends cross the- second hogiiontak pole to make a seat for. the
Iiedalers. The pedalers can hold. ontos third and fourth horizontal .
pole

for

support

and

balanc3;lt;_\li~~

,&&&IJ&&~~---~~

,--- --.-- ~- - ...

=--, A~--

The main pedal shaft is extended at both ends by a steel shaft


that passes throu&.the bearings. A regular bicycle left-hand crank
and pedal is placed at one.end and a regular chainwheel and crank
with X-inch diameter is placed .at the other end. Connect the
left-hand pedal to a cable yhich is drawn over a bicycle wheel rim
_.
-.&, and used -as a pu-lky:
The wheel is braced bl- a regular bicycle frame suspended from
jntal poles. The other cable end is attached to
pump.rod. Use a strand.of l&the
if,-ch g@&~.rim or cable. The c
B
k ~i;rh:@$~Bf!
LJhL&& fi&
~&~z.q,$]izi
fk%; &jJiee
.,: --a- 7-_
.j-,;-~r -;.,;;m:!.-y-I
<The R>-\vheel for this device can be constructed
cle wheel: FiIl.in the area betweenthe hub
or wrap ii Withh-eavy-gauge wire. The
,

----

-;

_
:

3.

d-1
w

TWE CRANK PIN IS.


,
IAnnIl cs

ATTACHEDTo
THE FLYWt$!EL

.
___

__

7- :
.

_: ,;
*.:

---

d@@
; ; **.. ._
: , ...

; ?g. 17-l 1. A ped&driven

.-

- --FO-R-CHAINTENSIO;

borehole

ATTACHtiENT
pump-designed

to draw water from depths of approximately

_a
300 feet

-a-

: -.
i

1 ..

1.

, >

.w

-3 c

..;frdy the top poles so tha($e tension in the gh$m or; belt c,an-be
,
.z_ aclj~$ted.
.
-- L J +
Figure 17-11 is a pedal-drive!1 unit designed for one.p&son to
op&ate. Theehainwheel drives a bicyqle wheel rinl that is &led ktith
cement beiween the hub and rim. A second chain transfers the drive
from the sprocket to a seoond chainwheel and pedals which are:
pos~ionccl ab\ pve. A cable is conneked to the seeoncl chainwheel.-1:
is used as a &ley and attachecl b>rstrut to ,the colun~l bracing the
- fliwheel ancl,~t,hesecond chainwheel. Tension in the f&t -chain cali
be resistecl l$~.using the front fork of abiq-cle: Place the threaded
po;tion oi 11~4fork through a hole in saddle post. Use a thi-eaded,nud ,
to,adjust the tension of the. cl?ain..

.1* For the seconcl ~h&n, adjust the tension by using a screw which
raises one end of the h~~izrintal,menlber that holds the pedal shaft.
The front end -of the &da1 shaft is hinged :td a lower n~e*kber
positione.cl on top-of the! left-hancled brace.

P
Figure 17-12 is auo[her design for a borehole pump.-This pukp
can be used -on cleepey! boreholes. It is &)nstructecl utilizing acI1
Y
,
)

_.

,, .-..2

REAR PO,RTION OF B,&fCLE


.SUPPORTED,Bi

ADJ,USTABtE

;
,I

HORl;ONTAL

CH , k
Y

FRAME
POLES

,-?ECbiLS
ARE SET AT 45
DEGREE ANGLE TO THE

Tt?E PEDAL SHAFT

L
~b

PUMP ATTACH,MiN;T

*
t

,
0

fig. 17-12.-A borehole pump that is designed

io de used by two people.


0

363

BUILhNG A,FLYWHEEL

\\

, 1.

I,

1f.a \z;eighted flywheel i~q&&red in the design of a.&nitTyou


can build a flywheel from a bicyck~vheel and cement. 2cl-L
first step
is to fill the shafthole of the bicycle iyheel with a thoroughly greased
ilar solid rh$d object thzit is the proper
Iaft. The bro&n handle must be vertical
\\
c
~IIthe shaft hole.
:,~~$~war the bicycle Tim info th,e exact &enter of a cylindrical
, contarner that has been @-easkd. Pour in thekement
mix. Make
/
sure the cement is smooth ark. evenly distributed. Allow enough
time for the cement to/thoroughly harden before you-remove the
f
~ -flywheel fr.qm the coqkiner.

s.
.
PEDAL-DRIVEN PUMl$
I

.\:

- !
0

; * Figure 17-$13 and Fig. 17-14 are e?amples .of ped&driven


pumps that use standard bicycle frames and. mechanism- to draw.. .
water.,from wells. These designs, a~e-illgI~~.-~~~~.t~a
less t$k~?;_,
so&&kthe-warker
than tll~~~~~*~~a;bhand-pu~l~ps!ls(el7i:sin~e
th?%,,;w
_,
4 .
3
-\*
36i
i
.,:.

,
- I/:

<
.

TOP VIEWPOINT

OF LQG SPLITTER

comparison
gr
components
ednv@rsions
i
I
custo~miiing
dernillcur
do~ubte deeker
fixed-wheel track
:
htstory
how thcyrc ridden I
how theyre used
, _
hub-geared
/
important factor%
insurance
90
24
internal hub multi;speed
making your bwn
minit.alur6
i_ 337
215
modifying
17
motocross
238
plastic
_
I
45
polo
15
-atable
= ,
14,219

-A
3
Accessories
:
74. s
, Adjustments
.i
120
Adult tricycles J
14, 260
.
AOIOYOIsprn)l cni7s
201
AmQagnolq IC@ set
107
Archimedes screw
359
*
Artistic bicycles
. 14, 29s
'1
care ,
297
rnairitenance
297
rnqnufqztured
295
I rep&r
297
tips on using
297
Artistic bicycling, competitions
16
ideas
29a
world championships
293
Axles to bicycles, methods
46

-1
d

,Ijj.-

__.-I >!:&w---;.-~-:~~~

Balloon tires
.
Bearings
caged
loose
permanently sealed
Bicycles, American
a@.the rider
& weight, total

hall
bronco
buildi& 1
~
building with kits
building without kits

racks
roll,ers
rules
safety
,
serial number
22
serious compromise
sidewalk
73
single%peed
72 s
r
15
.T storing
247
technical inspection
track
17
transporting
17
-,r.m.
17
. water pedal

22, 48
c

46
46
46
47

!
"
*

92
229
86-80
.12
89
20
271
22. 62
117 '*
245
32
:-.
g,
340

'

6
1.
0

,A_,

i
c

:I,
n
5

bicycle ,'-.
Bicycle parking
: coin operalcd

cleaning plated
modtfrcations
-, Bicycling, family act,iv~ty I
94 * Con&lion
for trgnsporfation
9,
Bikes, pivot
.
14
Cones:. adjusting
i
with lock nuts
iight one for you
19
without lock nuts
$4. 255,257
$wing
Control cables, lubrtcating
120
Bolts
114
$
0
Bonestiakers
12 ,Control IevFrs
188
Cornering
K b5
Brakes
55
Crank. cottered
1 55. lZOt+l%
5'8'
calipei
q
coaster
3
one-piece
22.82
53,
disc
164
,three-prece
i
58
- drum
56 \ Crank sets
58
IflSptXtiW
.
shoes
a
160
I.
182
Brake calipers. l&rrcaling
I
overhaul
120
174
.
ly-pcsBrake pads, adjustrng
~
1CiQ
173
Braking
Crank sprockets. rnstaltrng
83
206
- Brazing
,
CTS
203
173
custom rbrcycte frame building
@Breathing
,202
81
brcycles
17
Bronco bicycles. construction
24'7 * Customizing.
253
Cycles, recumbent
-r.
338
tips on using
38
Cycling gloves
- -9
i
54
Butting process
Cyilo-cross
238 '
..
I

-e
'.,

CilblC?S,

A
,f

COJJtrOJ

'+

sJrn120

:,

1.

gearing
24.
cultsrs

107 4 Dtqrlleur
overhaul
i82
housings
-
60
8
Derailleurgeared
b~cyclcs,
* replacement
159
gear
values
Caliper brakes
64
55. 12Oe 156
sludytng gears
64
center-pull
.
. 55, 156
Derarlteur mechanism
2
119
hydraulic
164
front
side-pull,

66
* 55, 156
. .
lubricatin+
D _

119,
troubleshooting
16%
rear
when wet
66
56
$
benter-pull calipers, maintenancg 162
shift operating
=
66 .
Ce%rifugal force
I ,il,
Design
77
19,74
-5
chains
de Sivrac, Comte
59, 1,19,168
9
I
,
installing :
171
Disc brakes
164
lubricating
I
119 & 171
Dishing
i 148
186
Double deck& bicycles,
,problems
construction
removal
170
289
i
v
replacfmg
links
>l
72
tips
on
using
291
J
tensioner
- - -1:
286 ai Drop-owt>$&;2, _,_
39
_,~,y -2
Y&;-45.
Chrome pl$ing
*
;tj;&;I?&:
:I,- .= E
Cleaning
Exercis>-cycles
* 112
* 225
pans,
r
solvents
I-.@, 120.
.J converting b?kes to.
-.
stationary
y---Mg
Cleats
$; ,-'I
67

;s Clincher tires

47, 122
e
2 cf F
advantages
_
12
*
Coaster brakes, rear . , :. I .ii., .Fj@@.& .: 2: _13.~ ! I ~~:
ordinary
..
-~.
12
,; Coaster brake hubs, overhaul
:penny
12, 277
Coasting, downhill
,84
46
Fasteners
114 ;Components, aluminum alloy
FF
System
assembly
201
0 68
_
Y ;;,

'

.a

."
B

ieatures
68-70
flat
53
Flanges.
46
made of aluminum alloy
53
Floor mounting plate
110 I
made of steel
53
Flyiqg pedal cycles
34i.
54
I
posts
Flywheel, building
raised
364
53
.
Forks
-3.9 .
taping
%
194
cutting, .
205
Handlebir
grips, replacing
192
205
Head gear
straightening
88
I
Ftame
34, 72, 197
Head sets
*

54, 190
overhaul\ncj
J90
aluminum o.
.
44
n
eavy
eights
22
amount of rLigidity
;
.
:
j&f+
r&.. 2.
angles
88
1
,a
1gg
High-riser bicycles, conversio?s
296
bent
; <,
charadteristics
36
High wheelers
.
277
closed triangle shape
r^40
modern manufactured
279
34 1 Hobby horse, .steerable
custom
. .
9
*.
67
cutting
\ wooden
205
9
;
disassemble
-X

.I 99
Hub-geared bicycles: switching
45
gear ratios .
finish
62, 63
L.
45
Hubs
graphite .) .*
46, 126
:.:c. .
light weight
a
construction methods
46
36
lowest cost
-mqlti-speed
119
-:.36
overhauling
obdball shape;
128
341
with quick releases
128.

.20
:
parts
.
size
34
i
b
-_
.,
_
stainless steel
- - .44,- ~.. ...~
I -_
stock manufactured
34
lnsuranlce
e
3
90
,= tits-nium
45
Internal hub,gearing
24

vajables
45
advantages
24
Freewheel
66, 119,1.26
disadvantages
24
c
lubricating

119
Internal hub multi-speed bicycles 24
.*
i:Ljo
I
overhaul
J
. Freewheeling

78
Front derailleurs
Jockey wheel
66
66
adjusting
Joints, pressure-molded
44
-
.
185
overhauling
186.
*
K
Front Freewheelifig System
68
Kerosene
.=.
.112,120
. r
-r ~.
w
i
7
c
G.
*L
Gear chart
.
?I- .
<81 Lace patterns

,47
I
shifting
47
g:
three
cross.
Gear iatio, formula
61
88
.
Gear values, formula
61 -Legal requirements
78
:.;..
@#
pain!? in selecting
71
Leo ride
Gitane Tfaveller
,
..
209
Lexan
88
Grips
54
Light, weight bicycle,$dvantage
. 22

plastic
c Links, replacing
54
bd 172
173
rubber
tight

54 *
Gyxoscopic force
LiQuid wrench
77
+o,
Locking
89
how to carry system
90
f
w
--~ Ha~&&y&-ptt,z+
.. _ ..__
~_
-123
2.-basi-c.mettsods~.. ..._..~. .~~~._. ...8.9...__
-_.Log splitter, pedal powered
367
Hand levers
156
158
Lubrication
118
H&d, third
L
Lugs
>;
\_
39
Handlgbars
-~: 53, 1.90
purpose
t\
39
dropped
.
-30, 53
_
_
~--~-.
_I_-~
0
\

,
m
-

-proper uses

.rvl-

Machine screws
Macmillan Kirkpatrick
Maintenance, some basics
stands

I
Manufactured models
,
Michaux, Ernest e
klixte
Modifying, bicycles
Monocycles
~~-Motocross bicycles
:
,
conversions
~
Motocross bicycling
J
courses
Multi-speed hubs
*
overhaul
\

-:

105
105
120

,-

vgg

I.10
211
12..
42
17
303
238
242
15
244
119
137

Portable bicycles, tips on using


Posture
Powered bicycle, construction of
construction materials
Precision Price
Primer
Pumps, borehole
pedal-driven
-----Pursuit races
, .
x
=.,
,

--~.

219
79
352
354,:
19

_ ._

-I
360
364
100

- .

x,,

,
32, 74.,
46

114
R
\
1154
\.
^ ,
Races
*
s
~! 15 ~~~- -- ~--\ road
<I
pursuit
0
1d+
Racing,
99
21,
Oil maintenance, monthly *
l.
2 main types
100
..
FkIcirrVbidycsfes,
marrtyp~-5j --100
a,...
Overhaul
Racks
91
,,

. maintenance li icture
rear bumper
.
91
i
121
d
rear deck
91
six-month
120
yearly ;
.
120

roof
91
_
.
R&e
39
C ., P
Rattraps
57, 166
,
Panniers
Reach
36, 74
.
parts*
..I,&
IT2
Rear bumper racks
91
deck racks
gt -.. ._:.-.
i L- ----Pedalcars t
..
271, 340
Rear
derailleurs
66
.
Pedal cycles
12
adjusting
182

today
*
x
12
---overhauling
J-i--. __ __--_--qgf=j
&g$---.---.-. ~-.- ----14. _.
Nuts
: self-locking
wing.

.Q

Rear triangle
.
36
Pedaling cadence
81
Riding
77 6 rate
81
in
traffic
-84
techniques
80
learning
79
Pedals
57, 120
posture
30 :
lubricating
:
120
:
79,
246
.
._.
tips
metal -. :- ~-- b
57
I
rubber pad
___--- 166
-Fm$
47
*
.156.
.
strii~hEiiiag
----__ -~--__
that cannot be disassembled 164
Penny farthing
.- 12,.277
Road races ~
loo-. --Roller
building.
-279
66
#
Roof racks
finding antique
_
278
. 91
a
novelty cycle
16
_
S
I
riding
279
variation ___ ..282--_ Saddle
30, 50, 194
-- w
19
adjustrnright,
- -
Performance
194

Physical
..-..,...:
+...gg ..---...- .-.c~nsider-qw-aiity--.-.~.;.._..,_,,
_,.^. fitness-,.-._....
j
,_,_,,_
_,,
52
.
,._._.._._,..
.
..I
..II-covers
m>2y~L. -.C.%,- -,-~,:.,
232_.
~.-~
~~~~--.
.>.. .-i-;
-programs. -. __~~__
Pliers
104
important
factors
.
52
.--.-

374
._.

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,
t

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-t=i?\:

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--

r
Ir
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a
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--~- r

le&e;~.--),
metal base
:
narrow touring
addled,
- -

-~..

~--

,5$:
changing a
123
clincher
:
50.
47, 122
.L
fixing flats -30
49
- Ib
-.----_.
L
flat
$0
-- 49
--_
__.
195
inflation
122
0
.__-.-..-..
leers -...-I ~-.- _...-30
-~~ ~-- -; 707
Saddle posts
!:
50, 194.
maintenance
i22
53
repairs
123
\
t
0
sew ups
85
924
a~ tubniar
~ -- 245
47.; 122
164 Toe clips
57, 167,Screwdrivers ~ .
106
Tools
103, 263
types-y:-:.
:
_..... I.
..T1ofk---z_.m
ch.aim:- L
: l-07_ L
Shifters special
fi
,
1863
107
disassembly
* 188 Touring
96
relocating
exposure to heat
s 189
96
Side-pull calipers, maint,enance
?62 I
exposure to sun
95;
Singl&speed.,bicycles
health ,precautions

22, cg
96
i .----22~
-~~-portable to&kit
advantage
- 104 22 _ ~._ repair equipment
i ~1
96
.
disadvantage-no
suitable clothing
_
. _--drive assembly
!3J
: ~_ --62
1 -T&
200
Transporting
*
_ Spray painting
.. d
47
Transporting bicycles, features
Spokes
I
D
to look for
butted types
91
47
47 Tricycles
holes
14
adult- ?
__
-14.
made from
~-47
conversion units
* ,- protruding
267
150
converting to two:wheeler
straight gauge
275
47
industrial
Sprockets, fi-xed rear
._
267 -~
207
-maintenance
sproblams
259 I
186
Starley, James
L ,:
12~
manufactured
ga
260
John K. -repair
259 & 271
:.,12
Steel, chrome-moly ,
tips on using
271
38
. .dhrome-molybdenum.
38 Truing sta-nd
.
148
low-carbon ~. -A., .36- Tubes
36, 122
. manganese-m-olybd~nm---:38 . -, ~-Thanging
-~ -- -I
IQ-seamless high-carbon tensile 36
maintenance
122
Atevens,
Thomas -...- . .._.
~. _..
-1-2.-__ -.--7repairs.. --/ ~.- .-..- ----~124 ~Stick shift
:se,w, ups
~
188
125
Straps
57, 167 Tubing, flattening
205
SubmaAner
42 Tubular tires
47, 122
x, *Sun Tour
advant,ageS
67
48
Supplies
disadvantages
49
112
Swhg f$ke r
* 14,257
.
U
Unicycles
.\
T
14, 301,
l-3.
-- kigaheeLr.
Tandems
- --A,L
..~.322..-\*
brief
history
30-2-building
285
\..
~~.283~
building
-----manufactured
306
-77
--:233 ~---L -,,
care
tips on using
.
.- ._.- 316
.._/
:
li ...
J-~p~-;.~~~&d

54
giraffe
-- .304
$i$
Taping
juggling while riding
323
-Jerkon--iwheeL
_.
FiFi.r
- kangaroo------L-3L.
The,Seat
51
\:
troduction
303
_ 1-. -.
.--. Timg~trialSm
100
lea
ng
to
ride
318
Tires- -----~~
\
---- 47,122
mainten nce b
31 c-.*.
--I,
1 .,.,... ..-;:..
\~~
_). .mxil-- .,-._
.,..... ,,_._.
I,
,. ,,......
,..
,.......---- . .._..
. . ,.....
.. . . .._ ..-..T
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d

37-5.
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1

:;
manufactured
3 340
_. 304 -Water pedafbicycles
.
novelty giraffe
323 I, Watts, Wal.ly
35,
pony saddle
321
%Waxin,g ,,
e,
118,.120 J
.
racing
15
Weigtit
19, 74
:
repair
j
a
,
316
Welding
,. 203
.
riding with feetoff wheel
322
Wheels

50, standard
309
adjusting
148
landed
-~_~ ~. ~~ - i-m 323 --aligning gauge.
149 - ,
ultimate wheels
323
lacing 1
, 150
Unicycling cornpetifions
I 6.
training
78
Universal replacement parts
113
truing
140
varying degrees of truene%
50
4
122
Winch,
pedal-driven
I
358
Valve .&hra&j&--:.
Wrenches
164
<resta -.

_ 49, .I22
alien
\_.
105
van Drais, Karl
; 9
bicycle
.
106
.
box .
\
: 105
,. w.
crescent
.

Walking machines

337
,,
104
115
v open-end
Washers c
105
..
socket
115
flat
105
sp&g
\
~~~
~~- ~~.~~
~~~
.~...-.- 106- _
~~IO&._
l__--LP
--I 15
~~__.~~ __----~~~~ ~-.
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