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5 (a) ans - Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing, also known as just-in-time production or the Toyota

production system (TPS), is a methodology aimed primarily at reducing flow times within production
as well as response times from suppliers and to customers. Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing is a
production model in which items are created to meet demand, not created in surplus or in advance of
need. The purpose of JIT production is to avoid the waste associated with overproduction, waiting and
excess inventory.
Just-in-time manufacturing was a concept introduced to the United States by the Ford motor
company. It works on a demand-pull basis, contrary to hitherto used techniques, which worked on a
production-push basis. To elaborate further, under just-in-time manufacturing (colloquially referred to
as JIT production systems), actual orders dictate what should be manufactured, so that the exact
quantity is produced at the exact time that is required. Just-in-time manufacturing goes hand in hand
with concepts such as Kanban, continuous improvement and total quality management (TQM).
Just-in-time production requires intricate planning in terms of procurement policies and the
manufacturing process if its implementation is to be a success.
Highly advanced technological support systems provide the necessary back-up that Just-in-time
manufacturing demands with production scheduling software and electronic data interchange being
the most sought after.
5 (b) ans - Acceptance sampling uses statistical sampling to determine whether to accept or reject a
production lot of material. It has been a common quality control technique used in industry. It is
usually done as products leave the factory, or in some cases even within the factory. Most often a
producer supplies a consumer a number of items and a decision to accept or reject the lot is made by
determining the number of defective items in a sample from the lot. The lot is accepted if the number
of defects falls below where the acceptance number or otherwise the lot is rejected. A statistical
measure used in quality control. A company cannot test every one of its products due to either ruining
the products, or the volume of products being too large. Acceptance sampling solves this by testing a
sample of product for defects. The process involves batch size, sample size and the number of
defects acceptable in the batch. This process allows a company to measure the quality of a batch with
a specified degree of statistical certainty without having to test every unit of product. The statistical
reliability of a sample is generally measured by a t-statistic. In quality control, the
statistical procedure employed in determining whether to accept or reject a production batch. If
the proportion of the units having a certain negative characteristic exceeds the acceptable limit for a
given batch, it is rejected. Two types of acceptance sampling are (1) Attributes sampling, in which the
presence or absence of a characteristic in the inspected item is only taken note of, and
(2) Variable sampling, in which the presence or absence of a characteristic in the inspected item is
measured on a predetermined scale.

5 (C) ANS - Plant and machinery in the initial days always perform to their fullest capacity but as time
goes with regular wear and tear, this becomes increasingly difficult. If proper and regular maintenance
is undertaken than production capacity can be maintained at a more or less same level. Maintenance
also requires replacement decisions. Replacement is a substitution of existing fixed asset with a new
asset, which may enhance features capable of performing similar function. The need for replacement
may arise because of normal use, obsolescence, early service failure, destruction, etc.
Maintenance is defined as a process in which working condition of plant or machinery is maintained at
the optimum level as to give maximum output. Maintenance is done through repair, partial
replacement and total replacement. Following is the significance of the maintenance policy:

Maintenance policy ensures that equipments are always in ready and reliable condition. This
ensures company is able respond to any sudden change in demand.
Maintenance policy ensures that equipments are always calibrated to provide good-quality
products and competitive advantage. This ensures that there are no sudden and frequent
breakdowns and reduce production of defective products.

Maintenance policy ensures that there are no major breakdowns. This ensures there is no
lose of inventory or market share for companies following JIT philosophy.

Maintenance policy ensures that costs are always controlled.

Maintenance policy is particularly important in capital-intensive industries.

If organizations are not able to implement an effective maintenance policy than it can result in the
following results:

Full capacity utilization may not be achieved.

Increase in production cost as fixed labor cost cannot be reduced.

Increase in maintenance cost as more spare parts are required.

Reduction in product quality and increase in wastage.

Safety of workers and operators in jeopardy.

Maintenance management is process where available resources are regulated in a manner that plant
and machinery can perform at specific levels. Maintenance management involves planning,
scheduling and execution of maintenance-related activities. The main objectives of the maintenance
management are as follows:

Minimum level of production loss and minimum incidence of breakdown.

Minimum level of wastage.

Optimum usage of maintenance equipment and personnel.

Quality of product is improved.

A spare part, spare, service part, repair part, or replacement part, is an interchangeable
part that is kept in an inventory and used for the repair or replacement of failed units. Spare parts
are an important feature of logistics engineering and supply chain management, often comprising
dedicated spare parts management systems.

Capital spares are spare parts which, although acknowledged to have a long life or a small
chance of failure, would cause a long shutdown of equipment because it would take a long
time to get a replacement for them.

Spare parts are an outgrowth of the industrial development of interchangeable parts

and mass production

spare parts can be broadly classified into two groups, repairable and consumables.

Economically, there is a trade off between the cost of ordering a replacement part and the
cost of repairing a failed part. When the cost of repair becomes a significant percentage of the
cost of replacement, it becomes economically favourable to simply order a replacement part.
In such cases, the part is said to be "beyond economic repair" (BER), and the percentage
associated with this threshold is known as the BER rate. Analysis of economic trade offs is
formally evaluated using Level of Repair Analysis (LORA).


Repairable parts are parts that are deemed worthy of repair, usually by virtue of economic
consideration of their repair cost. Rather than bear the cost of completely replacing a finished
product, repairable typically are designed to enable more affordable maintenance by being more
modular. This allows components to be more easily removed, repaired, and replaced, enabling
cheaper replacement. Spare parts that are needed to support condemnation of repairable parts
are known as replenishment spares.

A routable pool is a pool of repairable spare parts inventory set aside to allow for multiple
repairs to be accomplished simultaneously. This can be used to minimize stock out conditions
for repairable items.

Parts that are not repairable, are considered consumable parts. Consumable parts are
usually scrapped, or "condemned", when they are found to have failed. Since no attempt at
repair is made, for a fixed mean time between failures (MTBF), replacement rates for
consumption of consumables are higher than an equivalent item treated as a repairable part.
Because of this, consumables tend to be lower cost items.