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Clinker Coolers

Learning Objectives Clinker Coolers

Know the two main tasks of the clinker cooler.

Know the definition of the cooler efficiency.


Know the cooler types and their main features.
Know symptoms and cause of the most typical

problems of grate cooler operation.


Know main design and sizing criteria of cooler types.
Know typical operating parameters of clinker coolers.

Clinker Coolers
Content
Tasks of clinker cooler
Cooler types and definitions
Planetary and tube coolers
Conventional grate coolers

Modern grate coolers


Trends
Typical problems
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Tasks of the Clinker Cooler


Clinker cooling
Heat recuperation

generating hot air


Tight for clinker and air
Provide maximum cooling velocity to avoid

unfavorable clinker phases and crystal size

Energy Turnover in a Grate Cooler

Definitions
As for other components of the kiln system, specific figures for
clinker coolers refer to 1 kg of clinker. This eliminates the
influence of plant size and allows direct comparison of clinker
coolers of different types and sizes.
Cooling air
is the air which passes the clinker thus being heated up while
cooling the clinker. It corresponds approximately to the
combustion air requirement, only grate coolers allow additional air
for better cooling.
Primary air
is the air which is required for proper functioning of the burner.
Ambient air insufflated by a separate small fan plus the air from a
pneumatic transport system, amounting from < 10% up to > 30% of
the air required to combust that fuel. Some precalciner burners are
equipped with primary air fans (for cooling) as well.
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/

Secondary air is the hot air entering the rotary kiln via clinker
cooler. Its flow is determined by the combustion of the burning
zone fuel.
While cooling the clinker, it reaches temperatures of 600 to over
1000C, depending on type and condition of the cooler.
Tertiary air is that part of the combustion air which is required for
combusting the precalciner fuel. It is extracted from kiln hood or
cooler roof, and then taken along a duct (=tertiary air duct) parallel
to the kiln to the precalciner.
It reaches temperatures near or equal to the level of the secondary
air.
Efficiency
expresses the quality of heat transfer from clinker to the air which
is used for combustion in the burning zone and precalciner firing.8
/

Middle air
(grate cooler only) is extracted from the cooler roof if drying of
process materials requires a temperature level which is higher
than the waste air.
If the quantity is small, up to 450C can be expected at normal
cooler operation.
Waste air
(grate cooler only) is also called cooler exit air or cooler
excess air.
The total cooling airflow from the fans is normally higher than
the flow required for combustion (=tertiary + secondary air).
The extra air, which has normally a temperature of 200 to
300C, must be vented to ambient via a dedusting system.
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False air
is cold air entering the system via kiln outlet seal, burner opening,
casing or clinker discharge. It either dilutes secondary air thus
reducing recuperated heat or adds load to the waste air system of
grate coolers.
Specific air
Volumes are airflows per kg of clinker (m3/kg cli, Nm3/kg cli).
Independent of the kiln size, airflows of cooler systems can be
directly compared.
Specific loads
express the relation of clinker production to a characteristic
dimension of (t/d m, t/d m2, t/d m3). Exact definitions vary with
cooler type.
Radiation losses
from the cooler casing/shell are particularly important for
planetary coolers, where they actively support the cooling of the
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clinker.
/

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12

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Cooler Efficiency h cooler

h cooler =

S Q loss

Q combustion air
=

Q clinker from kiln

1 -

S Q clinker from kiln

14

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Types of Clinker Coolers


Rotary:

Satellite (planetary) cooler


Rotary (tube) cooler

Grate:

Travelling grate cooler (Recupol)


Reciprocating grate cooler

Fixed grate cooler (Crossbar, Polytrack)


Moving grate cooler (h- cooler)
Vertical:

Gravity cooler (G-cooler)


Shaft cooler (not used in cement industry)

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Heat Exchange Types in Clinker Coolers

Rotary:

Counter flow heat exchange in a suspension


(solids in gas)

Grate:

Cross flow heat exchange in a layer (bed)

Vertical:

Counter flow heat exchange in a layer (bed)

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Rotary Coolers: Planetary Cooler I

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Planetary Cooler II

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20

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Planetary Cooler (internals)

24

Planetary Cooler: Typical Problems


1) Too high
clinker temp

4) Too high velocity


5) Breaker bar
missing

2) Uneven
clinker temp

6) Cracked kiln
shell

3) Clinker dust leakage

7) Short life of
high temperature lifters
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Satellite Cooler: Range of Control Parameters


Heat Consumption
Efficiency
t sec air
Spec. cooling air
Surface load
Cross section load
Air velocity in tube
Air velocity in elbow

3500
5000
55%
68%
730
600
0.9
1.3
1.8 - 2.0
70 - 80
< 4.5
< 25

kJ/kg
%
C
Nm3/kg
t/m2 d
t/m2 d
m/s
m/s

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Tube Cooler

27

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Reciprocating Grate Coolers Terminology

Positive pressure!

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30

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Significance of Fan Pressure in Grate Coolers


p, T
pexp = f(T)
p1 > p 2 > p 3 >..... p n

pexp
pexp
pcli

p c li

x
p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

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Grate Cooler: Range of Control Parameters


Modern
Heat Consumption
3000
3500
Efficiency
71%
76%
t sec & tert air *
1070
990
t sec air
1230
1170
t tert air
950
850
t waste air
300
300
grate speed
10 - 15
first grate pressure
80 - 100
Specific grate load
45 - 50
Spec. cooling air
1.8
* TA extraction from kiln hood

Conventional
3500
5000
68%
64%
890
610
940
850
240
200
10 - 20
45 - 55
35 - 45
2.3

kJ/kg
%
C
C
C
C
min-1
mbar
t/d m2
Nm3/kg

33

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Problems of Conventional Grate Coolers


Uneven clinker distribution

Red River
Air breaking through (Geyser)
Overheated / burnt plates
Thin clinker bed

Poor UG-compartment sealing

-> Poor recuperation (low hth)

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Influence of Clinker

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Resistance and Clinker Granulometry

coarse

Air distribution:

Vc

Rf + Rg
=

Vf

Rc + Rg

Vc
= 1 si Rg >> Rf, Rc

Vf
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Conventional Grate Coolers: Gaps and Holes

38

The Key to Excellent Grate Coolers

Correct allocation (= ratio) of air to clinker


Sustainably narrow gaps
between plates
rows
plates and wall

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Holcim HGRS Sizing Rules for Clinker Coolers


Grate size / specific loading

<= 45 t/(m2d)

Grate width load:

1000 1500 t/(m d)

Installed cooling air:

>= 2.0 Nm3/kg cli

First fan pressure:

>=100 mbar

Resulting in estimated

Grate speed
Clinker temperature
Efficiency at 3100 kJ/kg

10 to 15 strokes/min
~90 + t ambient
~70 %

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Key Features of Modern Grate Coolers


Fixed inlet

inclined with ducted aeration


Modern grate plates

tight, high p, thermally flexible

Fans with higher p and less V


Sections with adjustable

aeration (Trend: decreasing)


Modern side seals & plate

fixation
Roller crusher
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IKN Pendulum Cooler: Main Features


Fixed Inlet KIDS
Coanda Plates with built-in resistance (p)
Single grate design with sustainable gaps

Pendulum grate suspension


Hydraulic drive with optimized characteristics
Cassette roller crusher with electric drive
Retractable heat shield
Pneumatic hopper drain
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IKN Pendulum Cooler

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IKN Pendulum Grate Suspension

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IKN Coanda Nozzle (Plate)

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Langley-CPAG Cooler: Main Features


High Efficiency (HE) Module for <= ~5500 t/d

Cross Motion Grate (CMG) for > ~5500 t/d


Wear protected slot plates, no fall-through

(still available: Mulden plates)


Inclined and horizontal grates
Aeration: direct (ducted), fishbone (hybrid), chamber
Compact Swing pendulum grate suspension
Hydraulic drive
Roller crusher with hydraulic drive

Level Radar for direct clinker layer measurement


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Langley-CPAG: Current Technology (I)

Slot grate plate with


wear protection

Fishbone aeration

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Langley-CPAG: Current Technology (II)

Compact Swing
pendulum grate suspension

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Polysius Repol Cooler: Main Features


Static Pregrate with integrated air blaster
Wear protected (hardfaced) Jet Stream plates

Older installations: Jetring plates


Aeration: direct (ducted) and chamber
Center guide roller for grate
Hydraulic drive
Roller crusher with hydraulic drive
Intermediate or end crusher
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Polysius Static Pregrate

Cooling Air

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Polysius Jetstream Plate

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Benefits of Modern Cooler Technology


Smoother cooler operation
More stable kiln operation
Good recuperation (high hth)

Control of Red River


Less or no clinker fall through
Smaller waste air system
Less space required
(Lower power consumption)
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Problems with Modern Grate Coolers


Nose wear from Sneak Air

due to inadequate seal air


(only with direct = ducted
aeration systems)
Reduced life of nosering-

liners and burner refractory


due to very hot secondary air

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Sneak Air (direct aeration, low seal air pressure)

pfan p(ducts+plate)

pUG (seal air)


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Clinker Crusher: Hammer vs. Roller

BLOCKAGE!

NO PROBLEM
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New Developments (Reciprocating Grate Coolers)


Two layer cooler REPOL ZS

(Polysius) -> 2003: no longer available


Mini pendulum grate suspension

Compact Swing
(CPAG) -> 2003: Standard
Pneumatic Hopper Drain PHD

(IKN)

-> 2003: Standard

Internal Linear Pendulum

(IKN)

-> 2003: First unit in operation

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Fixed Grate Coolers


SF Crossbar Cooler (FLS Fuller)
Main Features
First radically different grate cooler!
Fixed line; no moving rows
Mechanical flow regulators; 1 per plate

Crossbars for clinker conveying


Standard modules; pre-installed
Different speeds across width possible

Size < 45 t/d m2


Air installed: ~2.0 Nm3/kg

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SF Crossbar Cooler: Crossbar Design

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SF Crossbar Cooler: Crossbar Design

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SF Crossbar Cooler:Mechanical Flow Regulator (MFR)

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Fixed Grate Coolers


Polytrack Cooler (Polysius)
Concept similar to FLS-Fuller Crossbar!
Fixed line; no moving rows
Flow regulators; 1 per plate
Walking floor system for clinker conveying
Standard modules
Different speeds across width possible
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Polytrack Cooler

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Polytrack Cooler: Principle of Conveying

Conveying direction

(Slide by courtesy of Polysius)


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Moving Grate Cooler


h-Cooler (CPAG):
Fixed inlet (HE Modul)
Horizontal main grate (negative inclination)
Clinker conveying by Walking Floor principle
Different speeds across width possible

No fall through -> no riddling conveyor, flat bottom


All welded steel parts (no cast!)
Modular system
Simplified compared to reciprocating cooler
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Features ETA Khler


No grate riddlings
Complete autogenous wear protection
No conveying elements in the clinker layer

Long strokes = Low grate speed


Variable stroke length over the cooler width
High transport efficiency
(Slide by courtesy of CPAG)
/

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(Slide by courtesy of CPAG)

Principle of movement 5 lanes


1
2
3
4
5

Start position

1
2
3
4
5

Forward stroke lane


1-5

1
2
3
4
5

Backward stroke lane


1 and 4

1
2
3
4
5

Backward stroke lane


2 and 5

1
2
3
4
5

Backward stroke lane


3

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Cooler Upgrading by Static (Fixed) Inlet I


Scope

Replacement of first 5 to 7 rows by static inlet


Replacement of 1 to 3 subsequent fans

Benefit:

Eliminates wear, fallthrough, burnt plates


Improves clinker distribution
Allows higher clinker bed

Assessment

Proven solution
Implementation during scheduled kiln stop
Relatively low cost: appr. 250000 to 400000 USD
Short payback
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Cooler Upgrading by Static (Fixed) Inlet II

Polysius
IKN

Satarem

CemProTec
/

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Grate Cooler: Typical Problems


1) Waste air temp
too high

5) Strong dust cycle

2) Short life of
grate plates
& side plates

6) Snowman,
red river

3) Excesive
fall through

7) Thin clinker bed

8) Clinker dust
spillage from
double flap gates

4) Too hot clinker

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Impact of Cooler on Plant Performance


Recuperation

Heat Consumption

Fluctuations

Kiln Operation

Dust Cycle

Wear

Plate Life

Kiln Availability
Maintenance
Building Volume

PERFORMANCE

Clinker Cooler
Power Consumption
Clinker Temp.

Handling
Cement Quality
Grinding System

Clinker Quality

Grindability

Waste Air Flow

Filter Size
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