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Urban renewal

For other uses, see Urban renewal (disambiguation).


property for city-initiated development projects. This
Urban renewal, which is generally called urban re- process is also carried out in rural areas, referred to as
village renewal, though it may not be exactly the same in
practice.[1]
In some cases, renewal may result in urban sprawl and
less congestion when areas of cities receive freeways and
expressways.[2]
Urban renewal has been seen by proponents as an economic engine and a reform mechanism, and by critics as
a mechanism for control. It may enhance existing communities, and in some cases result in the demolition of
neighborhoods.
Many cities link the revitalization of the central business
district and gentrication of residential neighborhoods to
earlier urban renewal programs. Over time, urban renewal evolved into a policy based less on destruction and
more on renovation and investment, and today is an integral part of many local governments, often combined
with small and big business incentives.

Melbourne Docklands urban renewal project, a transformation


of a large disused docks into a new residential and commercial
precinct for 25,000 people

1 History
The concept of urban renewal as a method for social reform emerged in England as a reaction to the increasingly
cramped and unsanitary conditions of the urban poor in
the rapidly industrializing cities of the 19th century. The
agenda that emerged was a progressive doctrine that assumed better housing conditions would reform its residents morally and economically. Another style of reform
imposed by the state for reasons of aesthetics and ef1999 photograph looking northeast on Chicago's CabriniGreen ciency could be said to have begun in 1853, with the
recruitment of Baron Haussmann by Louis Napoleon for
housing project, one of many urban renewal eorts.
the redevelopment of Paris.
generation or regeneration in the United Kingdom, is a
program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to
high density urban land use. Renewal has had both suc- 1.1 England
cesses and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the
late 19th century in developed nations and experienced From the 1850s onwards, the terrible conditions of the
an intense phase in the late 1940s under the rubric urban poor in the slums of London began to attract
of reconstruction. The process has had a major impact the attention of social reformers and philanthropists,
on many urban landscapes, and has played an important who began a movement for social housing. The rst
role in the history and demographics of cities around the area to be targeted was the notorious slum called the
Devils Acre near Westminster. This new movement
world.
Urban renewal involves the relocation of businesses, the was largely funded by George Peabody and the Peabody
demolition of structures, the relocation of people, and the Trust and had[3]a lasting impact on the urban character of
use of eminent domain (government purchase of property Westminster.
for public purpose) as a legal instrument to take private Slum clearance began with the Rochester Buildings, on
1

HISTORY

struction of shoddy housing by building contractors.

Part of Charles Booth's colour-coded poverty map, showing


Westminster in 1889 - a pioneering social study of poverty that
shocked the population.

the corner of Old Pye Street and Perkins Rent, which


were built in 1862 by the merchant William Gibbs. They
are one of the earliest large-scale philanthropic housing developments in London. The Rochester Buildings
were sold to the Peabody Trust in 1877 and later become
known as Blocks A to D of the Old Perkins Rents Estate. Angela Burdett-Coutts, 1st Baroness Burdett-Coutts
funded an experimental social housing estate, among the
rst of its kind, on the corner of Columbia Road and
Old Pye Street (now demolished).[3] In 1869 the Peabody
Trust built one of its rst housing estates at Brewers
Green, between Victoria Street and St. Jamess Park.
What remained of the Devils Acre on the other side of
Victoria Street was cleared and further Peabody estates
were built after the Cross Act of 1875.[4]
In 1882, the Peabody Trust built the Abbey Orchard Estate on former marshland at the corner of Old Pye Street
and Abbey Orchard Street. Like many of the social housing estates, the Abbey Orchard Estate was built following
the square plan concept. Blocks of ats were built around
a courtyard, creating a semi-private space within the estate functioning as recreation area. The courtyards were
meant to create a community atmosphere and the blocks
of ats were designed to allow sunlight into the courtyards. The blocks of ats were built using high-quality
brickwork and included architectural features such as
lettering, glazing, xtures and ttings. The estates built in
the area at the time were considered model dwellings and
included shared laundry and sanitary facilities, innovative
at the time, and replaces in some bedrooms. The design
was subsequently repeated in numerous other housing estates in London.[3]
State intervention was rst achieved with the passage of
the Public Health Act of 1875 through Parliament. The
Act focused on combating lthy urban living conditions
that were the cause of disease outbreaks. It required all
new residential construction to include running water and
an internal drainage system and also prohibited the con-

A Cellar dwelling in Nichol Street, illustration for More Revelations of Bethnal Green, published in The Builder, vol. XXI,
no. 1082 (31 October 1863)

The London County Council was created in 1889 as the


municipal authority in the County of London and in 1890
the Old Nichol in the East End of London was declared
a slum and the Council authorized its clearance and the
rebuilding of an area of some 15-acre (61,000 m2 ), including the Nichol and Snow estates, and a small piece
on the Shoreditch side of Boundary Street, formally Cock
Lane. The slum clearance began in 1891 and included
730 houses inhabited by 5,719 people. The LCC architects designed 21 and Rowland Plumbe two of 23 blocks
containing between 10 and 85 tenements each. A total
of 1,069 tenements, mostly two or three-roomed, were
planned to accommodate 5,524 persons. The project was
hailed as setting new aesthetic standards for housing the
working classes and included a new laundry, 188 shops,
and 77 workshops. Churches and schools were preserved.
Building for the project began in 1893 and it was opened
by the Prince of Wales in 1900.[5] Other such schemes in
the 1880s, where newly cleared sites were sold on to developers, included Whitechapel, Wild Street, Whitecross
Street and Clerkenwell.[6]
1.1.1 Interwar period
The 1917 Tudor Walters Committee Report into the
provision of housing and post-war reconstruction in the
United Kingdom, was commissioned by Parliament as a
response to the shocking lack of tness amongst many recruits during the War; this was attributed to poor living
conditions, a belief summed up in a housing poster of the
period you cannot expect to get an A1 population out of
C3 homes.
The reports recommendations, coupled with a chronic
housing shortage after the First World War led to a
government-led program of house building with the slogan 'Homes for Heroes. Christopher Addison, the Minister for Housing at the time was responsible for the drafting of the Housing, Town Planning, &c. Act 1919 which
introduced the new concept of the state being involved
in the building of new houses.[7] This marked the start

1.2

United States

of a long 20th century tradition of state-owned housing, sites were then given to private developers to construct
which would much later evolve into council estates.[8]
new housing. The phrase used at the time was urban
With the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, increased redevelopment. Urban renewal was a phrase popuhouse building and government expenditure was used to larized with the passage of the Housing Act of 1954,
pull the country out of recession. The Housing Act of which made these projects more enticing to developers
1930 gave local councils wide ranging powers to demolish by, among other things, providing FHA-backed mortproperties unt for human habitation or that posed a dan- gages.
ger to health, and obligated them to rehouse those people
who were relocated due to the large scale slum clearance
programs. Cities with a large proportion of Victorian terraced housing - housing that was no longer deemed of
sucient standard for modern living requirements - underwent the greatest changes. Over 5,000 homes (25,000
residents) in the city of Bristol were designated as redevelopment areas in 1933 and slated for demolition. Although eorts were made to house the victims of the demolitions in the same area as before, in practice this was
too dicult to fully implement and many people were rehoused in other areas, even dierent cities. In an eort
to rehouse the poorest people aected by redevelopment,
the rent for housing was set at an articially low level, although this policy also only achieved mixed success.[9]

1.2

United States

Large scale urban renewal projects in the US started in


the interwar period. Prototype urban renewal projects include the design and construction of Central Park in New
York and the 1909 Plan for Chicago by Daniel Burnham. Similarly, the eorts of Jacob Riis in advocating
for the demolition of degraded areas of New York in the
late 19th century was also formative. The redevelopment
of large sections of New York City and New York State
by Robert Moses between the 1930s and the 1970s was
a notable and prominent example of urban redevelopment. Moses directed the construction of new bridges,
highways, housing projects, and public parks. Moses was
a controversial gure, both for his single-minded zeal and
for its impact on New York City.

Under the powerful inuence of multimillionaire R.K.


Mellon, Pittsburgh became the rst major city to undertake a modern urban-renewal program in May 1950.
Pittsburgh was infamous around the world as one of
the dirtiest and most economically depressed cities, and
seemed ripe for urban renewal. A large section of downtown at the heart of the city was demolished, converted
to parks, oce buildings, and a sports arena and renamed
the Golden Triangle in what was universally recognized
as a major success. Other neighborhoods were also subjected to urban renewal, but with mixed results. Some
areas did improve, while other areas, such as East Liberty and the Hill District, declined following ambitious
projects that shifted trac patterns, blocked streets to
vehicular trac, isolated or divided neighborhoods with
highways, and removed large numbers of ethnic and minority residents.[10][11] An entire neighborhood was destroyed (to be replaced by the Civic Arena), displacing
8000 residents (most of whom were poor and black).[12]
Because of the ways in which it targeted the most disadvantaged sector of the American population, novelist
James Baldwin famously dubbed Urban Renewal Negro
Removal in the 1960s.[13][14]
The term urban renewal was not introduced in the USA
until the Housing Act was again amended in 1954. That
was also the year in which the U.S. Supreme Court upheld
the general validity of urban redevelopment statutes in the
landmark case, Berman v. Parker.[15]
In 1956, the Federal-Aid Highway Act gave state and
federal government complete control over new highways,
and often they were routed directly through vibrant urban neighborhoodsisolating or destroying manysince
the focus of the program was to bring trac in and
out of the central cores of cities as expeditiously as
possible and nine out of every ten dollars spent came
from the federal government. This resulted in a serious degradation of the tax bases of many cities, isolated entire neighborhoods,[16] and meant that existing
commercial districts were bypassed by the majority of
commuters.[17] Segregation continued to increase as communities were displaced and many African Americans
and Latinos chose to move into public housing while some
whites moved to the suburbs.[18]

Other cities across the USA began to create redevelopment programs in the late 1930s and 1940s. These early
projects were generally focused on slum clearance and
were implemented by local public housing authorities,
which were responsible both for clearing slums and for
building new aordable housing. In 1944, the GI Bill (ofcially the Servicemans Readjustment Act) guaranteed
Veterans Administration (VA) mortgages to veterans under favorable terms, which fueled suburbanization after
the end of World War II, as places like Levittown, New
York, Warren, Michigan and the San Fernando Valley of
Los Angeles were transformed from farmland into cities In Boston, one of the countrys oldest cities, almost a
occupied by tens of thousands of families in a few years. third of the old city was demolishedincluding the historic West Endto make way for a new highway, lowThe Housing Act of 1949 kick-started the urban reand moderate-income high-rises (which eventually benewal program that would reshape American cities. The
came luxury housing), and new government and commerAct provided federal funding to cities to cover the cost of
cial buildings. This came to be seen as a tragedy by many
acquiring areas of cities perceived to be slums. Those

HISTORY

residents and urban planners, and one of the centerpieces being priced out of urban areas into suburbs or more deof the redevelopmentGovernment Centeris still con- pressed areas of cities. Some programs, such as that adsidered an example of the excesses of urban renewal.
ministered by Fresh Ministries and Operation New Hope
in Jacksonville, Florida, Hill Community Development
Corporation (Hill CDC) in Pittsburghs historic Hill District attempt to develop communities, while at the same
1.2.1 Reaction
time combining highly favorable loan programs with In 1961, Jane Jacobs published The Death and Life of nancial literacy education so that poorer residents may
Great American Cities, one of the rstand strongest still be able to aord their restored neighborhoods.
critiques of contemporary large-scale urban renewal.
However, it would still be a few years before organized
movements began to oppose urban renewal. The Rondout neighborhood in Kingston, New York (on the Hudson River) was essentially destroyed by a federally funded
urban renewal program in the 1960s, with more than
400 old buildings demolished, most of them historic
brick structures built in the 19th century. Similarly illconceived urban renewal programs gutted the historic
centers of other towns and cities across America in the
1950s and 1960s (for example the West End neighborhood in Boston, the downtown area of Norfolk, Virginia
and the historic waterfront areas of the towns of Narragansett and Newport in Rhode Island).
By the 1970s many major cities developed opposition
to the sweeping urban-renewal plans for their cities. In
Boston, community activists halted construction of the
proposed Southwest Expressway but only after a threemile long stretch of land had been cleared. In San Francisco, Joseph Alioto was the rst mayor to publicly repudiate the policy of urban renewal, and with the backing of
community groups, forced the state to end construction of
highways through the heart of the city. Atlanta lost over
60,000 people between 1960 and 1970 because of urban
renewal and expressway construction,[19] but a downtown
building boom turned the city into the showcase of the
New South in the 1970s and 1980s. In the early 1970s
in Toronto Jacobs was heavily involved in a group which
halted the construction of the Spadina Expressway and
altered transport policy in that city.

1.3 Singapore
Main article: Urban renewal in Singapore
The history of Singapores urban renewal goes back to the
time period surrounding the Second World War. Before
the war, Singapores housing environment had already
been a problem. The tension of both infrastructure and
housing conditions were worsened by the rapidly increasing number of the Singapore population in the 1930s. As
a consequence of the war and the lack of economic development, between the 1940s to the 1950s, the previous evil of housing conditions continued to happen. As
much as 240,000 squatters were placed in the Singapore
during the 1950s. It was caused by the movement of migrants, especially from peninsular Malaysia and the baby
boom.[20] In mid 1959, overcrowded slums were inhabited by a big number of squatter populations, whereas
these areas lacked the existence of service facilities such
as sanitation.[21]
Since the establishment of the Republic of Singapore,
urban renewal has been included in the part of the national improvement policy that was urgently put in action.
Before that, the 1958 master plan had already been designed to solve the city problems. However, due to the
lack of urban planning experts caused by the deciency
of professional sta, criticism came from many urban
practitioners. The professional team recommended by
the United Nations then was asked by the government to
cope with the urban renewal matters and its redevelopment plan in 1961. Based on the UN assistance report,
two pilot developments were initiated in the end of 1964
by the government. These redevelopments then led to the
success of Singapores urban renewal because the government could provide sucient amount of public housing
and business areas.[20]

Some of the policies around urban renewal began to


change under President Lyndon Johnson and the War
on Poverty, and in 1968, the Housing and Urban Development Act and The New Communities Act of 1968
guaranteed private nancing for private entrepreneurs to
plan and develop new communities. Subsequently, the
Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 established the Community Development Block Grant program (CDBG) which began in earnest the focus on redevelopment of existing neighborhoods and properties, 1.3.1 Reaction
rather than demolition of substandard housing and economically depressed areas.
In the establishment of urban renewal programmes, some
Currently, a mix of renovation, selective demolition, diculties were experienced by the PAP government.
commercial development, and tax incentives is most of- The obstacles came from the resistance of people who
ten used to revitalize urban neighborhoods. An example used to live in the slums and squatters. It was reported
of an entire eradication of a community is Africville in by Singapore newspapers that those people were relucHalifax, Nova Scotia. Gentrication is still controversial, tant to be replaced. This became the major problems of
and often results in familiar patterns of poorer residents 1960s redevelopment schemes.[22] Aordable land value

2.1

Africa

also became one of its reasons. Another problem was that


the government had to purchase the private land owned
by the middle and upper society to make the land vacant
and be used for redevelopment.[20]

Tan of the National University of Singapore has this to


say Singapores self-image of having achieved success
against all odds puts tremendous pressure on its government and people to maintain and exceed this success. The
push for progress and development destroys many things
in its path, often indiscriminately, sometimes unwittingly.
To cope psychically with such losses, Singapores cul2 Around the world
ture of comfort and auence has been attained through
the self-mastery of repressive techniques. Desiring ecoThe Josefov neighborhood, or Old Jewish Quarter, in
nomic progress, upward mobility, auent and convenient
Prague was leveled and rebuilt in an eort at urban relifestyles and a world-class city.
newal between 1890 and 1913.
Singaporeans have had to repress the loss of their sense
In Rio de Janeiro, the Porto Maravilha is a large-scale urof place and community, family ties, passion and comban waterfront revitalization project, which covers a cenpassion, Asian customs and values, openness to the rest
trally located ve million square meter area. The project
of the world and even the discipline, hard work and thrift
aims to redevelop the port area, increasing the city center
associated with earlier capitalistindustrial attitudes. But
attractiveness as a whole and enhancing the citys comno repressive eorts can be complete, consistent and fully
petitiveness in the global economy. The urban renovasuccessful, even in dominant hegemony. Therefore, the
tion involves 700 km of public networks for water supnow is always a complex and fractured world of disjuncply, sanitation, drainage, electricity, gas and telecom; 5
tive values, attitudes and ideals. The supernatural intrukm of tunnels; 70 km of roads; 650 km of sidewalks; 17
sions featured in these ve lms should tell us something
km of bike path; 15.000 trees; and 3 plants for sanitation
about the impossibility of a coherent world of ideology
treatment.
and experience.[24]
Other programs, such as that in Castleford in the UK and
known as The Castleford Project[23] seek to establish a
process of urban renewal which enables local citizens to 2.1 Africa
have greater control and ownership of the direction of
Alexandra Renewal Project, Johannesburg, South
their community and the way in which it overcomes marAfrica
ket failure. This supports important themes in urban renewal today, such as participation, sustainability and trust
Chiawelo, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa
and government acting as advocate and 'enabler', rather
than an instrument of command and control.
District Six, Cape Town, South Africa
During the 1990s the concept of culture-led regeneration
Joe Slovo, Cape Town, South Africa (planned)
gained ground. Examples most often cited as successes
include Temple Bar in Dublin where tourism was at River City, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the
tracted to a bohemian 'cultural quarter', Barcelona where
Congo(U/C)
the 1992 Olympics provided a catalyst for infrastructure
Luanda Bay, Luanda, Angola (U/C)
improvements and the redevelopment of the water front
area, and Bilbao where the building of a new art museum
Lagos Marina, Lagos, Nigeria (u/c)
was the focus for a new business district around the citys
derelict dock area. The approach has become very pop Malabo, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea (u/c)
ular in the UK due to the availability of lottery funding
Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda
for capital projects and the vibrancy of the cultural and
creative sectors. However, the arrival of Tate Modern in
Kigamboni, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania(u/c)
the London borough of Southwark may be heralded as a
catalyst to economic revival in its surrounding neighborhood.

2.2 Asia

In post-apartheid South Africa major grassroots social


movements such as the Western Cape Anti-Eviction
Campaign and Abahlali baseMjondolo emerged to contest 'urban renewal' programs that forcibly relocated the
poor out of the cities.
The politics of urban renewal which frequently relies on
the states dominance in the discourse of removing the
character and infrastructure of older city cores, with that
which is required by existing market based constituents
has to be examined further. Professor Kenneth Paul

Cheonggyecheon, Seoul, South Korea


Eskisehir, Eskisehir Province, Turkey
Sentul, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Lee Tung Street, Hong Kong
Girgaon, Mumbai, India
Lower Parel,Mumbai, India

2 AROUND THE WORLD


Mahalaxmi, Mumbai, India

Port Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia[29]

Tardeo, Mumbai Central, Mumbai, India

Pyrmont and Ultimo, Sydney, NSW, Australia[30]

Wadala, Mumbai, India

South Brisbane, West End, Woolloongabba area,


Brisbane, QLD, Australia[31]

Byculla, Mumbai, India

Southbank and South Wharf precinct Melbourne,


VIC, Australia[32]

Mazgaon, Mumbai, India


Reay Road, Mumbai, India

South Yarra (Forest Hill zone),


VIC[33][34][35][36]

Lalbaug, Mumbai, India


Parel, Mumbai, India

Melbourne,

Westwood Urban Renewal Project (Angle Park,


Manseld Park, Woodville Gardens, and Athol
Park), Adelaide, SA, Australia[37]

Naigaum, Mumbai, India


Worli, Mumbai, India

Wynyard Quarter, Auckland, New Zealand

Prabhadevi, Mumbai, India

2.5 Europe

Girangaon, Mumbai, India


Pallikaranai, Chennai, India

Haussmanns renovation of Paris, Paris, France


(1853-1927)

Ambattur, Chennai, India


International Tech Park, Bangalore, India

Euromditerrane, Marseille, France

Electronics City, Bangalore, India

MediaPark, Cologne, Germany

Devanahalli, Bangalore,India

Rheinauhafen, Cologne, Germany

Salt Lake Area, Calcutta, India

Medienhafen, Dsseldorf, Germany

Connaught Place, Delhi, India

HafenCity, Hamburg, Germany


Neumarkt, Dresden, Germany

2.3

South America

Plagwitz, Leipzig, Germany

Projeto Nova Luz, So Paulo, Brazil

Dublin Docklands, Dublin, Ireland

Porto Maravilha, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Temple Bar, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Bogot, Colombia

Ballymun, Dublin, Ireland

Malecon 2000, Guayaquil, Ecuador

East Point Business Park, Dublin, Ireland

Puerto Madero, Buenos Aires, Argentina

2.4

Citywest, Dublin, Ireland


Park West, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Oceania

Birmingham City Centre, England, United Kingdom

Perth City Link, Perth, WA, Australia


Barangaroo, Sydney, NSW, Australia

The Bruce Report, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

Central Park, Sydney, NSW Australia


Dandenong, VIC, Australia[25]
Fortitude Valley, Tenerie, Queensland Brisbane,
QLD, Australia[26]

Docklands,

Melbourne,

Irvine Bay, Ayrshire, Scotland, United Kingdom


Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain

Green Square, Sydney, NSW, Australia[27]


Melbourne
Australia[28]

Clyde Waterfront Regeneration, Glasgow, Scotland,


United Kingdom

VIC,

Oscar Niemeyer International Cultural Centre,


Avils, Spain

2.6

North America

Croydon Vision 2020, London, England United 2.6 North America


Kingdom
Lawrence, Massachusetts, United States
Edgar Street Grid, Hereford, England, United King Grand Rapids, Michigan, United States
dom
Neithrop, Banbury, Oxfordshire

Atlantic Station, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

Easington, Cherwell, Banbury, Oxfordshire

BeltLine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

Ruscote, Banbury, Oxfordshire


London Docklands, London, England, United Kingdom
Ordsall, Greater Manchester, England, United
Kingdom
Liverpool Waterfront, Merseyside, England, United
Kingdom
Wirral Waterfront, Merseyside, England, United
Kingdom

Rockville, Maryland, United States


Downtown Jacksonville, Florida, United States
Downtown Los Angeles, California, United States
Downtown Oakland, California, United States
Downtown San Diego, California, United States
Downtown Montgomery, Alabama United States
Distillery District, Toronto, Canada
East Liberty (Pittsburgh), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Manchester city centre, Greater Manchester, England, United Kingdom following 1996 bombing

Miller Beach Arts and Creative District, Gary, Indiana, United States

Salford Quays, Salford, England, United Kingdom

Hayti District, Durham, North Carolina, United


States

Park Hill, Sheeld, United Kingdom


Waterfront, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
Ulus Historic City Center, Ulus, Ankara, Turkey
Fjord City, Oslo, Norway

Fillmore District, San Francisco, California, United


States
Gateway District (Minneapolis), Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

Nowe Centrum odzi, d, Poland

Government Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United


States

Parque das Naes, Lisboa, Portugal

Hyde Park, Chicago, Illinois, United States

Porto Vivo, Porto, Portugal

Koreatown, Oakland, California, United States

Redevelopment of Norrmalm, Stockholm, Sweden

McCauley, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

22@ in Poblenou, Barcelona, Spain

MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, New York, United


States

Diagonal Mar, Barcelona, Spain

Pei Plan, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States

Granvia l'Hospitalet, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat,


Spain

Penn Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United


States

Eastern Docklands, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Regent Park, Toronto, Canada

Wilhelminapier, Rotterdam, Netherlands

Scollay Square, Boston, Massachusetts, United


States

Moscow City, Moscow, Russia


Porta Nuova, Milan, Italy

West End, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

CityLife, Milan, Italy

Worcester Center,
United States

Centro Direzionale, Naples, Italy

Yesler Terrace, Seattle, Washington, United States

Sulukule, Istanbul, Turkey

The Gulch, Nashville, Tennessee, United States

Worcester,

Massachusetts,

5 SEE ALSO
Downtown Bualo, New York, United States

or kept. In Niagara Falls, however, the convention center blocked trac into the city, located in the center of
Downtown Niagara Falls, New York, United States Falls Street (the main artery), and the Wintergarden also
blocked trac from the convention center to the Niagara
Saint-Roch borough, Quebec City, Canada
Falls. The Rainbow Centre interrupted the street grid,
Southwest, Washington, D.C., United States
taking up three blocks, and parking ramps isolated the
city from the core, leading to the degradation of nearby
neighborhoods. Tourists were forced to walk around the
Rainbow Center, the Wintergarden, and the Quality Inn
3 Long-term implications
(all of which were adjacent), in total ve blocks, discourUrban renewal sometimes lives up to the hopes of its orig- aging small business in the city.
inal proponents it has been assessed by politicians, urban planners, civic leaders, and residents it has played
an undeniably important role.
4 Notable urban renewal developAdditionally, urban renewal can have many positive effects. Replenished housing stock might be an improvement in quality; it may increase density and reduce
sprawl; it might have economic benets and improve
the global economic competitiveness of a citys centre.
It may, in some instances, improve cultural and social
amenity, and it may also improve opportunities for safety
and surveillance. Developments such as London Docklands increased tax revenues for government. In late
1964, the British commentator Neil Wates expressed the
opinion that urban renewal in the USA had 'demonstrated
the tremendous advantages which ow from an urban renewal programme,' such as remedying the 'personal problems of the poor, creation or renovation of housing stock,
educational and cultural 'opportunities.[38]
As many examples listed above show, urban renewal has
been responsible for the rehabilitation of communities
as well as displacement. Replacement housing particularly in the form of housing towers might be dicult
to police, leading to an increase in crime, and such structures might in themselves be dehumanising. Urban renewal is usually non-consultative. Urban renewal continues to evolve as successes and failures are examined and
new models of development and redevelopment are tested
and implemented.
An example of urban renewal gone wrong is in downtown Niagara Falls, New York. Several failed projects
such as the Rainbow Centre Factory Outlet, Niagara Falls
Convention and Civic Center, the Native American Cultural Center, the Hooker Chemical (later the Occidental
Petroleum) Headquarters building, the Wintergarden, the
Fallsville Splash Park, Aquafalls, a multi-story parking
ramp, an enclosed pedestrian walkway/bridge, the Falls
Street Faire/Falls Street Station amusement complexes,
parts of the Robert Moses State Parkway, and the Mayor
E. Dent Lackey Plaza closed within twenty years of their
construction. Many demolished blocks were never replaced. Ultimately, the former tourist district of the city
along Falls Street was destroyed. It went against the principles of several urban philosophers, such as Jane Jacobs, who claimed that mixed-use districts were needed
(which the new downtown was not) and arteries needed
to be kept open. Smaller buildings also should be built

ers
Octavia Hill
George Peabody
Thomas Kramer
Louis Lesser
Robert Moses
Paul Tishman
Urban Renewal Authority

5 See also
Big City Plan
Community development
Cost overrun
Housing Market Renewal Initiative
List of planned cities
List of urban planners
Megaproject
New town
New Urbanism
Overspill estate
Phase I environmental site assessment
Principles of Intelligent Urbanism
Urban decay
Urban economics
Urban renaissance

References

[1] Chigbu, Uchendu Eugene (2012). Village renewal as an


instrument of rural development: evidence from Weyarn,
Germany. Community Development 43 (2): 209224.
doi:10.1080/15575330.2011.575231.
[2] Lobbia, J.A., Bowery Bummer: Downtown Plan Will
Make and Break History, The Village Voice, March 17,
1999
[3] Proposed Designation of Peabody Estates: South Westminster Conservation Area (PDF). City of Westminster,
Planning & City Development. 2006.
[4] Palliser, David Michael; Clark, Peter; Daunton, Martin J.
(2000). The Cambridge Urban History of Britain: 1840
1950. Cambridge University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0521-41707-5.
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[19] Lewyn, Michael. How City Hall Causes Sprawl, p. 3,


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[27] Vision & planning - City of Sydney. Cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au. 2011-11-02. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
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[14] Harsh urban renewal in New Orleans: Poor, black residents cannot aord to return, worry city will exclude
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[34] About the Prahran renewal plan. Prahran Renewal. Retrieved on 2013-12-06.

[15] 348 U.S. 26 (1954)

[35] Public housing no longer needs to stand out.


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[16] Race, Place, and Opportunity, The American Prospect,


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[18] Bullard, Robert. The Black Metropolis in the TwentyFirst Century: Race, Power, and Politics of Place. Rowman & Littleeld Publishers, Inc, 2007. p. 52

[36] Forrest Hill Precinct | Bird de la Coeur Architects Melbourne, Australia. Birddelacoeur.com.au. Retrieved on
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[38] Neil Wates, 'Urban renewal: US and UK' New Society 31
December 1964, p. 15

10

7 FURTHER READING

Further reading
Klemek, Christopher (2011). The Transatlantic
Collapse of Urban Renewal, Postwar Urbanism
from New York to Berlin. Chicago: Univ. of
Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-44174-1.
Grogan, Paul, Proscio, Tony, Comeback Cities: A
Blueprint for Urban Neighborhood Revival, 2000.
(Business Week review of Comeback Cities)
Pernice, Nicolas M., M.S. Urban redevelopment
of Lawrence, MA a retrospective case study of
the Plains Neighborhood, 2011, 136 pages ISBN
9781267218490
Zipp, Samuel. Manhattan Projects: Rise & Fall of
Urban Renewal in Cold War New York. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2010.

11

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