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Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10e (Robbins/Judge)

Chapter 11 Communication
1) Communication must include both the ________ and the understanding of meaning.
A) transportation
B) interpretation
C) writing
D) transfer
E) intention
2) The means by which a communication is passed between a sender and a receiver is called a
________.
A) medium
B) conduit
C) conductor
D) transmission
E) coder
3) The receiver of a communication is most likely to ________ a message initiated by the sender.
A) explain
B) reproduce
C) reflect
D) decode
E) discard
4) In the communication process, which of the following steps occurs first?
A) transmitting
B) decoding
C) encoding
D) understanding
E) analysis
5) During communication, the ________ initiates a message by encoding a thought.
A) receiver
B) channel
C) sender
D) speaker
E) leader
6) During a discussion with Matthew, when Jennifer gestures, this is considered part of the
A) medium.
B) channel.
C) message.
D) noise.
E) decoding.

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7) The product of a sender's encoding is the ________.


A) channel
B) message
C) transmission
D) medium
E) feedback
8) The medium through which communication travels is called a ________.
A) transmission
B) message
C) media
D) channel
E) vessel
9) Mary telephones her employee, Joe, to let him know that today's meeting has been moved to
one o'clock. In the communication process, Mary is the
A) sender
B) receiver
C) message
D) channel
E) encoder
10) Mary telephones her employee, Joe, to let him know that today's meeting has been moved to
one o'clock. The telephone is the
A) sender.
B) receiver.
C) medium.
D) message.
E) decoder.
11) Mary telephones her employee, Joe, to let him know that today's meeting has been moved to
one o'clock. Joe misses the one o'clock meeting because he misunderstood which meeting Mary
was referring to. Joe forgot to ask Mary to clarify which meeting she meant. Joe's
misunderstanding therefore occurred due to a lack of
A) encoding.
B) decoding.
C) noise.
D) feedback.
E) channel.
12) John writes a memo to his employees. Putting his thoughts onto paper is an example of
________.
A) encoding
B) noise
C) decoding
D) channeling

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E) cryptography
13) Formal channels of communication traditionally follow the ________ within an organization.
A) communication chain
B) authority chain
C) influence chain
D) transmission chain
E) social chain
14) What step determines whether understanding has been achieved during the communication
process?
A) decoding
B) feedback
C) channel
D) encoding
E) transmission
15) A receiver who translates a sender's message is engaging in the process of ________.
A) encoding
B) decoding
C) transmission
D) feedback
E) recoding
16) The final link in the communication process is ________.
A) noise
B) encoding
C) decoding
D) feedback
E) messaging
17) The communication used by managers to provide job instructions to employees is ________
communication.
A) downward
B) lateral
C) formal
D) directional
E) diagonal
18) Which of the following is an example of downward communication flow?
A) suggestion boxes
B) envelope attitude surveys
C) feedback on job performance
D) identifying with and discussing problems with the boss
E) letters to your senator

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19) All of the following are examples of downward communication flows EXCEPT
A) managers assigning goals for subordinates
B) managers informing employees of procedures
C) managers pointing out problems that need attention by employees
D) employees completing attitude surveys
E) managers telling employees to work more quickly
20) Suggestion boxes, employee attitude surveys, and grievance procedures are examples of
________.
A) organizational structure
B) horizontal communication
C) managerial communication
D) upward communication
E) diagonal communication
21) Which of the following is not an example of upward communication?
A) performance reports prepared by lower management for top management review
B) informing employees of policies
C) suggestion boxes
D) grievance procedures
E) a letter to your boss
22) All of the following are recommendations for engaging in more effective upward
communication EXCEPT
A) try to reduce distractions
B) avoid meandering discussions if you want t get your boss's attention
C) prepare an agenda
D) try to meet in your boss's office
E) support your position with actionable items
23) Communication that takes place among members of work groups at the same level is known
as ________ communication.
A) tangential
B) cross-functional
C) job
D) lateral
E) downward
24) When can lateral communications create dysfunctional conflict?
A) when the formal vertical channels are breached
B) when members go above their superiors to get things done
C) when bosses find out that actions have been taken without their knowledge
D) when members go around their superiors to get things done
E) all of the above
25) Oral communication messages that are passed through a great many people will most likely

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suffer from which of the following?


A) disruption
B) distortion
C) lack of non-verbal cues
D) decoding
E) formal communication decay
35) A(n) ________ network of communication would most likely be found in direct-line
authority relations with no deviations.
A) vertical
B) direct
C) chain
D) all-channel
E) box
36) A(n) ________ communication network occurs when a checkout clerk reports to a
department manager, who in turn reports to a store manager, who reports to a regional manager.
A) direct
B) all-channel
C) vertical
D) chain
E) horizontal
37) When all communication is channeled through one person, a ________ communication
network exists.
A) direct
B) chain
C) lateral
D) wheel
E) box
38) The ________ communication network is best illustrated by a self-managed team.
A) wheel
B) all-channel
C) interpersonal
D) circle
E) box
39) In a(n) ________ communication network, any network member can communicate with any
other member.
A) wheel
B) all-channel
C) interpersonal
D) circle
E) free

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40) The most effective communication network for facilitating the emergence of a leader is
________.
A) chain
B) all-channel
C) wheel
D) direct
E) box
41) Harriet has been assigned the task of setting up work teams for a complex software
development project. Each team has different work requirements. Harriet must choose the best
structure for each team, based on its specific requirements. Team A must operate very quickly to
meet stringent deadlines. The quality of the final project depends highly on Team A's output, so
Team A must also work very accurately. Which of the following network structures should
Harriet choose for this team?
A) chain
B) wheel
C) grapevine
D) informal
E) all-channel
42) Harriet has been assigned the task of setting up work teams for a complex software
development project. Each team has different work requirements. Harriet must choose the best
structure for each team, based on its specific requirements. Team B must promote high member
satisfaction to improve employee engagement. Which of the following network structures should
Harriet choose for this team?
A) chain
B) wheel
C) grapevine
D) informal
E) all-channel
43) The ________ network best serves to promote high member satisfaction.
A) direct
B) circle
C) wheel
D) all-channel
E) box
44) Which of the following types of networks is most likely to promote accuracy?
A) chain
B) direct
C) wheel
D) all-channel
E) circle
45) An informal communication network is typically called a ________.

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A) gossip monger
B) grapevine
C) chain
D) contextual system
E) free-acting system
46) It was found that about ________ percent of individuals hear about matters first through
rumors on the grapevine.
A) 10
B) 25
C) 50
D) 75
E) 95
47) Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the grapevine?
A) It is used to serve the self-interests of outsiders.
B) It is perceived by employees as being more reliable than formal communication issued by top
management.
C) It is generally used as an anti-management tool.
D) It is usually inaccurate.
E) It serves as a formal communication channel.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 149
Topic: Organizational Communication
48) Studies have shown that ________ percent of the information transmitted through the
grapevine is accurate.
A) 55
B) 65
C) 75
D) 85
E) 100
49) The grapevine is valuable for all of the following EXCEPT
A) tapping into employee anxieties.
B) giving managers a feel for the morale of their organization.
C) identifying issues that employees consider important.
D) serving employees' needs to create a sense of closeness and friendship.
E) replacing the need for formal communication.
50) Rumors would most likely flourish in situations where there is ________.
A) well-communicated change
B) ambiguity
C) a trivial issue at hand
D) assurance by management
E) a chain communication style

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51) With regard to the grapevine, a manager should try to ________.


A) ignore it
B) destroy it
C) minimize the negative consequences of rumors by limiting its range and impact
D) discipline those those involved in the grapevine rumors
E) control the information flow
52) There is a rumor in your organization that layoffs are inevitable. Which of the following is
the least likely way to reduce the negative consequences of this rumor?
A) Explain decisions that may appear inconsistent or secretive.
B) Emphasize the downside, as well as the upside, of current decisions and future plans.
C) Discount the rumor.
D) Openly discuss worst case possibilities.
E) Discuss deadlines for decisions.
68) A process of organizing and distributing an organization's collective wisdom so the right
information gets to the right people at the right time is known as ________.
A) the grapevine
B) knowledge management
C) organizational communication
D) the rumor mill
E) effective feedback
72) When a person purposely manipulates information so that it will be seen more favorably by
the receiver, he is ________.
A) using selective perception
B) filtering information
C) using politically correct communication
D) suffering from communication apprehension
E) using ineffective communication means
73) Jake tells his boss only what he believes the boss wants to hear. Jake is engaging in
________.
A) filtering
B) selective perception
C) communication apprehension
D) emotional block
E) selective selection
74) Receivers in communication see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience,
background, and other personal characteristics. This is called ________.
A) communication apprehension
B) filtering
C) selective perception
D) emotional block
E) projection

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75) An interviewer may project her own interest in family into communications she decodes
from others and therefore believes female applicants will put family ahead of career. This
interviewer is using ________.
A) prejudice
B) selective perception
C) values judgment
D) filtering
E) the self-serving bias
76) During the communication process, which of the following is most likely to result in lost
information and less effective communication?
A) information processing
B) information overload
C) information filtering
D) effective communication
E) the maximal effort effect
77) Which of the following is not a barrier to effective communication?
A) filtering
B) silence
C) selective perception
D) language
E) emotions
78) Two of the biggest variables that influence the language a person uses and the definitions
given to words are
A) age and context.
B) incentives and gender.
C) education and age.
D) cultural background and gender.
E) nationality and context.
79) Communication ________ is the tension and anxiety about oral, or written communication,
or both.
A) obstruction
B) apprehension
C) breakdown
D) block
E) frustration
80) If Albert is apprehensive regarding oral communication, which of the following behaviors is
he least likely to display?
A) He prefers to talk on the phone.
B) He distorts the communication demands of his job.
C) He limits his oral communication and then tends to rationalize his behavior.
D) He relies on memos or letters.

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E) He avoids face-to-face communication.


81) Which of the following would be least likely to pose a barrier to cross-cultural
communications?
A) tone difference
B) word connotations
C) semantics
D) political correctness
E) differences among perceptions
82) In dealing with cross-cultural communication, a manager might practice putting herself in the
place of the employee, a method termed ________.
A) evaluation
B) empathy
C) complicity
D) commiseration
E) apathy
83) Which of the following is most likely to help reduce misperceptions when communicating
with people from a different culture?
A) Assume similarity until differences are proven.
B) Emphasize interpretation rather than evaluation and descriptions.
C) See the other's point of view.
D) Treat your interpretations as a confirmed hypothesis.
E) Make judgments quickly and decisively.
84) Which of the following statements reflects the relationship between communication and
employee satisfaction?
A) There is no documented relationship between communication and employee satisfaction.
B) The greater the uncertainty in communication, the more positive the impact on employee
satisfaction.
C) Communication distortions and ambiguities have a negative impact on employee satisfaction.
D) The less the uncertainty in communication, the more negative the impact on employee
satisfaction.
E) The less distortion in communication, the less employee satisfaction.
85) Incongruities between verbal and nonverbal communication
A) seldom impact satisfaction.
B) increase uncertainty and thereby reduce satisfaction.
C) increase employee satisfaction.
D) decrease uncertainty.
E) rarely occur in organizational settings.
86) No group can exist without communication.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 143

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87) Communication must include either the transference or the understanding of meaning.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 143
88) Reading is a form of communication.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 143
Topic: The Communication Process
89) In the communication process, decoding should precede encoding.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 143
Topic: The Communication Process
90) The means by which a communication is passed is called the conduit.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 143
Topic: The Communication Process
91) Encryption is the process through which a message is converted into symbolic form.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 144
Topic: The Communication Process
92) The encoder is the object to whom a message is directed.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 144
Topic: The Communication Process
93) When two people are talking, the message that they exchange is referred to as noise.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 144
Topic: The Communication Process
94) Feedback determines whether a message has been received.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 144
Topic: The Communication Process
95) The receiver decodes the communication.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 144
Topic: The Communication Process
96) Organizational communication can flow laterally or vertically.
Answer: TRUE
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Diff: 1
Page Ref: 144
Topic: The Communication Process
97) When information is given to a subordinate, this process occurs through lateral
communication.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 144
Topic: The Communication Process
98) When feedback is being given to higher-level individuals in an organization, upward
communication is taking place.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 145
Topic: The Communication Process
99) Lateral communications are often created to short-circuit the vertical hierarchy within an
organization.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 145
Topic: The Communication Process
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities
100) Lateral communication can create dysfunctional conflicts.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 145
Topic: The Communication Process
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities
101) Oral communication is the chief means of conveying messages among group members.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 146
Topic: Interpersonal Communication
102) The advantages of oral communication are precision and feedback.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 146
Topic: Interpersonal Communication
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities
103) Oral communications are more likely than written communications to be logical and clear.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 146
Topic: Interpersonal Communication
104) Written communication has a built-in feedback mechanism.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 146
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Topic: Interpersonal Communication


AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities
105) Examples of nonverbal communication include messages transmitted by facial expressions
and body movements.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 146
Topic: Interpersonal Communication
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities
106) Body language can convey the relative perceived status between a sender and a receiver.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 147
Topic: Interpersonal Communication
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities
107) Body language tends to make verbal communication less complicated.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 147
Topic: Interpersonal Communication
108) Facial expressions can indicate something quite different from the verbal message that a
sender is communicating.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 147
Topic: Interpersonal Communication
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities
109) During communication, the acceptable amount of physical space between individuals varies
according to cultural norms.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 147
Topic: Interpersonal Communication
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
110) Three common small-group networks are chain, wheel, and global.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 148
Topic: Organizational Communication
111) The all-channel network uses one figure to act as the conduit for all of the group's
communication.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 148
Topic: Organizational Communication
112) The grapevine is a type of chain communication.
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Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 149
Topic: Organizational Communication
113) The grapevine is perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than
formal communiqu s issued by management.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 149
Topic: Organizational Communication
114) Rumors flourish in ambiguous situations.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 149
Topic: Organizational Communication
AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills
115) Evidence indicates that about 90 percent of the information conveyed through the grapevine
is accurate.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 149-150
Topic: Organizational Communication
116) The potential for misinterpreting email messages is less than with verbal messages since
they are in writing.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 150
Topic: Organizational Communication
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities
117) Nearly 40% of companies have employees whose only job is to read other employees'
email.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 151
Topic: Organizational Communication
118) It is recommended that employees maintain a strict "work-personal firewall" in their
personal blogs.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 151
Topic: Organizational Communication
AASCB Tag: Use of Information Technology
119) IM and TM are expected to replace email.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 151-152
Topic: Organizational Communication
AASCB Tag: Use of Information Technology

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120) Postings to social networks are seldom of interest to potential employers.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 152
Topic: Organizational Communication
AASCB Tag: Use of Information Technology
121) Electronic mail is the ideal method for conveying messages that might evoke emotional
responses.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 152
Topic: Organizational Communication
AASCB Tag: Use of Information Technology
122) Many people say things in e-mails that they would never say to someone face-to-face.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 152
Topic: Organizational Communication
123) Without travel, a meeting with Sarah in Hong Kong, Raul in Columbia, and Marie in Paris
is possible with video conferencing.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 153
Topic: Organizational Communication
AASCB Tag: Use of Information Technology
124) Most business executives are firmly committed to knowledge management.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 153
Topic: Organizational Communication
125) The organization culture must support sharing of information for knowledge management
to work.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 153
Topic: Organizational Communication
126) In KM, more knowledge means better knowledge.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 154
Topic: Organizational Communication
127) The Internet surveillance and monitoring practices of organizations seldom invade
employees' privacy.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 154
Topic: Organizational Communication
AASCB Tag: Use of Information Technology
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128) It is safe for senders to assume that their words mean the same to the sender as they do to
them.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 154
Topic: Barriers to Effective Communication
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities
129) Filtering is most likely to occur in organizations in which there are many vertical levels.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 154
Topic: Barriers to Effective Communication
130) Selective perception refers to manipulating information so that it will be seen more
favorably by the receiver.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 155
Topic: Barriers to Effective Communication
131) Selective perception and information overload are barriers to effective communication.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 154-155
Topic: Barriers to Effective Communication
132) When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, the result is
selective perception.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 155
Topic: Barriers to Effective Communication
133) Individuals have an infinite capacity for processing data.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 155
Topic: Barriers to Effective Communication
134) A receiver who is experiencing depression may interpret a message differently than a
receiver who is in a positive mood.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 155
Topic: Barriers to Effective Communication
135) It is estimated that 5 to 20 percent of the population suffers from debilitating
communication apprehension.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 155
Topic: Barriers to Effective Communication

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136) People who suffer from communication apprehension experience undue tension and anxiety
only in oral communication.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 155-156
Topic: Barriers to Effective Communication
137) Cross-cultural communications may experience a barrier to effective communication caused
by tone differences.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 156
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
138) People who speak different languages actually view the world in different ways.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 157
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
139) When communicating with people from a different culture, it is best to assume similarities
until differences are proven.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 157
Topic: Global Implications
AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding
140) Incongruities between verbal and nonverbal communication is likely to reduce satisfaction.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 157
Topic: Implications for Managers
AASCB Tag: Communication Abilities

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