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Power Engineering Guide

Edition 7.1
siemens.com/energy

Answers for energy.

Imprint
Publisher
Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Energy Sector
Freyeslebenstrasse 1
91058 Erlangen, Germany
www.siemens.com/energy
Infrastructure & Cities Sector
Wittelsbacherplatz 2
80333 Munich, Germany
www.siemens.com/infrastructure-cities
Publishing House:
Publicis Pro, Erlangen, Germany
DTP:
Mario Willms
Publicis Pro, Erlangen, Germany
Edition 7.1
2014 by Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Munich and Berlin, Germany.

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Foreword

Dear reader,
This updated edition of the well-known Power Engineering Guide is a manual for everyone involved in the generation,
transmission and distribution of electrical energy from system planning, to implementation and control. Our guide is
designed to assist and support engineers, technicians, planners and advisors, as well as students, trainees and teachers
of electrical engineering and energy technology. Beyond that, we hope the Power Engineering Guide will also be useful
as a reference work for technical questions and support continuing education and training in the technical field.
Our guide covers the entire portfolio of Siemens products for the transmission and distribution of electrical power
including high, medium and low voltage, switching substations, transformers and switchgear, and is organized by product
and function. It also covers solutions in the areas of Smart Grids: energy automation, energy management and network
communication, as well as service and support. Key terms and abbreviations are explained in a handy appendix, and
Internet addresses are provided for additional in-depth information.
Siemens AG is a global leader in electronics and electrical engineering. Siemens products, systems and integrated,
complete solutions benefit customers by meeting a wide variety of local requirements. They represent the key technologies
of the future and set global standards. All our developments and innovations which also affect methods and processes
are distinguished by energy efficiency, economy, reliability, environmental compatibility and sustainability. The portfolio
includes solutions for power transmission and distribution, for Smart Grids, for low and medium voltage as well as energy
automation.
The importance of electricity is emphasized by the rapidly increasing number of electrical applications and the fact that
demand will continually grow in the coming decades. To help our customers master their respective challenges and
achieve success and further growth, we continue to work on selectively strengthening and optimizing our portfolio.
As a result, in addition to traditional products for power transmission and distribution, todays portfolio includes a wide
range of additional products. We offer grid operators, electricity customers, planners and builders of electrical systems the
additional benefits of integrated communications and automation technology. Our spectrum of services includes the
planning, maintenance and repair of entire power supply systems.
Thanks to our vast experience in managing projects around the world, we provide power utilities, industrial companies,
cities, urban planer and city hubs (airports and harbors) with cost-efficient custom-tailored solutions. Please do not hesitate
to contact your local Siemens sales office. You will find the contacts to Siemens in your region at www.siemens.com/energy
and www.siemens.com/infrastructure-cities.

Yours,
Power Engineering Guide Editorial Team

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Contents

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions

17

Switchgear and Substations

81

Products and Devices

163

Transformers

257

Protection, Substation Automation,


Power Quality and Measurements

299

Energy Management

425

Communication Network Solutions


for Smart Grids

469

Power System Analysis and Planning

495

Services & Support

509

10

Glossary

527

11

Abbreviations, Trademarks

535

12

Smart Grids and the New Age of Energy

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

6
7
8
9

1 Smart Grids and the New Age of Energy

Fig. 1-1: The process of urbanization continues to accelerate. At the same time, the density and complexity of urban power supply systems
are also increasing

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Smart Grids and the New Age of Energy

1
Electrical energy is the backbone of our economy, and supports
every aspect of social and cultural life today. The comfort of
always having electricity available is anything but guaranteed,
however. We face major challenges in providing adequate power
generation, transmission and distribution to meet the worlds
needs.
The global demand for electrical energy is steadily increasing at
the rate of approximately three percent a year, faster than the
two percent annual increase in the global demand for primary
energy. There are many factors contributing to this escalation,
including rapid population growth and longer life spans. The
process of urbanization continues to accelerate, and growing
amounts of electricity must be transported to heavily populated
areas, usually over long distances. At the same time, the density
and complexity of urban power supply systems are also
increasing (fig. 1-1).
Fossil fuels, on the other hand, are becoming more scarce, and
exploration and production of oil and gas are becoming more
expensive. To slow the threat of climate change we must reduce
our CO2 emissions worldwide; for power supply systems, this
means increased integration of renewable energy sources such
as hydro, wind and solar power. At the same time, it also means
boosting the energy efficiency of power supply systems, so that
they contribute to our environmental and climate protection
efforts, and help keep energy costs under control. The growing
international trade in energy, fueled by the liberalization of
energy markets, and the integration of power grids across regions
requires investment in more transmission power supply systems
to ensure system stability and guarantee power supplies.
To meet all these challenges, an intelligent and flexible system
infrastructure, smart generation, and smart buildings are essential. Achieving this will require a fundamental shift from the
traditional unidirectional flow of energy and communication to
a bidirectional power flow (fig. 1-2). In traditional power supply
systems, power generation follows the load but in the future,
power consumption will follow generation rather than the other
way around.
Power supply systems of today and tomorrow must integrate
every type of power generation to bridge the increasing distances between power generation offshore wind farms, for
example and the consumer.
The objectives set for Smart Grids are as diverse as they are
exciting and ambitious. Instead of overloads, bottlenecks and
blackouts, Smart Grids will ensure the reliability, sustainability
and efficiency of power supplies. Information and communication systems within the network will be systematically expanded

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Smart Grids and the New Age of Energy

Fig. 1-2: The Power Matrix: The energy system is being transformed. Distributed power generation is growing increasing the systems
complexity. The energy chain has evolved into a multi-faceted system with countless new participants the power matrix. It reflects
the reality of the energy system. Individual power matrices are appearing in each country and region depending on the specific
situation, challenges and goals. Siemens knows the markets and needs of its customers, and offers innovative and sustainable
solutions in all parts of the power matrix

Fig. 1-3: A Smart Grid ensures that renewable energy sources can be better integrated into the system thanks to a two-way flow of energy
and a bidirectional flow of communication data. Whereas the generation of power in conventional power supply systems depends on
consumption levels, a Smart Grid is also able to control consumption depending on the availability of electrical power in the grid

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Smart Grids and the New Age of Energy


and homogenized. Automation will increase considerably, and
appropriately equipped smart substations will help reduce the
cost and labor intensity of planning and operation. Ongoing,
comprehensive monitoring will improve the way that plants and
the grid are run.
Distributed power generation and storage units will be combined into virtual power plants so they can also participate in the
development of the market. Susceptibility to failure will be
considerably reduced by self-healing systems that manage and
redundantly compensate for faults at the local level. Consumers
will participate as end customers through smart meters that
offer them better control of their own consumption, and this will
make load management easier because peak loads can be
avoided through price benefits. The potential of Smart Grids is
enormous, and includes the use of buildings and electric vehicles linked into the network as controllable power consumers,
generation, and even storage units.
Information and communication technology forms the crucial
links between power generation, transmission, distribution and
consumption. The Smart Grid will create consistent structures,
optimize power generation, and balance fluctuating power
production with consumption (fig. 1-3).
Siemens plays a leading role in the creation and expansion of
Smart Grids. Not only is Siemens uniquely positioned to transmitt and distribute power, Siemens is also the world market
leader in energy automation, which plays a decisive role in the
creation of Smart Grids.
Network planning
Building Smart Grids is a highly complex task that begins with
a detailed quantitative assessment of the system requirements,
definition of actual targets and their required performance
levels, and specification of system concepts and equipment.
Further, a comprehensive strategy for building Smart Grids
is necessary not only for the power supply system, but also for
other infrastructures and their interactions.
The foundation for designing an efficient Smart Grid is a detailed
analysis of the systems required performance. This is the key
task for strategic network planning. Keeping a rigorous focus on
the system as a whole ensures that the architecture and configuration deliver the necessary performance levels, and meet other
requirements as well. A state-of-the-art solution will integrate
the most innovative technologies for power generation, transmission, distribution and consumption, while taking into
account each systems individual history and current condition.
In most cases, the transition from todays power supply system
to the future Smart Grid cannot be made in one step; instead it
requires step-by-step modification plans.
See chapter 9, page 496.
Power electronics (HVDC / FACTS)
Siemens power electronic solutions for High Voltage Direct
Current transmission (HVDC) and Flexible Alternating Current

Transmission Systems (FACTS) address the greatest challenges in


power transmission.

FACTS devices can significantly increase the power transmission


capacity of existing alternating current (AC) systems and extend
maximum AC transmission distances by balancing the variable
reactive power demand of the system. Reactive power compensation is used to control AC voltage, increase system stability,
and reduce power transmission losses.
State-of-the-art FACTS devices include Fixed Series Compensators
(FSC) and Thyristor Controlled Series Compensators (TCSC), or
Static VAR Compensators (SVC) for dynamic shunt compensation. The latest generation of Siemens SVC devices is called SVC
PLUS. These are highly standardized compact devices that can
easily be implemented in demanding network environments; for
example, to allow connection of large offshore wind farms.
AC technology has proven very effective in the generation,
transmission and distribution of electrical power. Nevertheless,
there are tasks that cannot be performed economically or with
technical precision using AC. These include power transmission
over very long distances, as well as between networks operating
asynchronously or at different frequencies. In contrast, a unique
feature of HVDC systems is their ability to feed power into grids
that cannot tolerate additional increases in short-circuit currents.
The transmission capacity of a single HVDC transmission system
has recently been extended by the Siemens Ultra High Voltage
Direct Current transmission system (UHVDC). With a capacity of
more than seven gigawatts and low rate of loss, UHVDC transmission is the best way to ensure highly efficient power transmission of 2,000 kilometers or more. Electrical Super Grids
based on UHVDC transmission can interconnect regions across
climate and time zones, allowing seasonal changes, time of day
and geographical features to be used to maximum advantage.
Siemens most recent development in HVDC transmission is
called HVDC PLUS. Its key component is an innovative Modular
Multilevel Converter (MMC) that operates virtually free of harmonics. HVDC PLUS converter stations are highly compact
because there is no need for complex filter branches. This
feature makes HVDC PLUS perfectly suited for installation on
offshore platforms; for example, to connect offshore wind
farms.
See section 2.2, page 23 (HVDC), and
section 2.3, page 32 (FACTS).
Bulk renewable integration
In order to begin fulfilling the climate protection requirements
of 2020, we need to use energy efficiently and reduce CO2
emissions. Power generation needs to change accordingly.
Large power plants will continue to ensure basic supplies, but
there will also be renewable energy sources that fluctuate
locally depending on weather and other conditions.

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Smart Grids and the New Age of Energy

GPS

Control room HMI


HMI

HMI
Printer

Master clock
Router

Server 1

Server 2

UPS

Firewall

Corporate
network

Energy automation system

HV switchgear

MV switchgear

LV compartments

HV

MV

LV

Our solutions integrate


all voltage levels and all
necessary information
from the energy supply
enviroment in one system.

M
3~

Fig. 1-4: Siemens smart substation automation systems

Energy Management System (EMS)


At power plants, the focus is on ensuring reliable supply, using
generation resources efficiently, and reducing transmission
losses. An Energy Management System (EMS) handles these by
balancing the demands of the transmission system, generating
units, and consumption. Intelligent Alarm Processors (IAPs)
reduce the critical time needed to analyze faults in the grid and
take corrective action, as well as the risk of incorrect analysis.
Innovative Voltage Stability Analysis (VSA) applications running
automatically and independently alert the operator before
critical situations that jeopardize static system voltage stability
occur, giving the operator time to take preventive action rather
than having to react under stress. Increased grid reliability is
provided by Optimal Power Flow (OPF) applications that continuously work to keep the systems voltage level high, and eliminate
invalid voltage conditions. Any control measures that must be
taken can be automatically executed in a closed-loop-control
procedure.
Using the most efficient resources is a challenge under todays
more stringent environmental restrictions, increasingly competitive markets, and growing contractual complexity. An integrated
set of closely interacting applications ranging from back
office-based, year-ahead resource optimization and maintenance
planning to week- or day-ahead unit commitment and hydro-

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

scheduling to online closed-loop control of generating units


ensures maximum efficiency grounded in powerful optimization
algorithms and models. Security Constrained Unit Commitment
(SCUC) has become the essential application for managing the
worlds most complex energy market in California at California
ISO. SCUC increases grid and market efficiency, reduces barriers
to alternative power resources like demand-response and green
generation, and gives the operators new tools for managing
transmission bottlenecks and dispatching the lowest-cost power
plants.
See chapter 7, page 426.
Smart substation automation and protection
The automation and protection of substations must be enhanced
to securely meet the extended requirements of future Smart
Grids. The substation is in the process of becoming a node on
the utility IT network for all information from the distribution
substation to the customer. For example, data from the feeder
automation units, power quality, meters, decentralized energy
resources and home automation systems will be collected and
analyzed to improve the system. Besides the new Smart Grid
challenges, the usual tasks of protection, control and automation have to remain as reliable and efficient as ever. The objectives for substations are beginning to cross departmental bound-

Smart Grids and the New Age of Energy


aries, encompassing operations, maintenance and security
requirements. Smart substation solutions and their individual
components should be designed with this overarching vision and
framework in mind. The use of intelligent feeder devices, an
open IEC 61850 communication architecture, powerful substation computers, equipment knowledge modules and local
storage all support this approach. The automated substation for
Smart Grids must integrate all aspects of intelligence, from
protection, automation and remote control to operational safety
and advanced data collection. Going beyond the traditional
concept of substation control and protection, the new automated substation must reflect the point of view of operators and
maintenance personnel to become a best-in-class system that is
simple both to operate and maintain. Smart substation automation ensures rapid and more importantly correct responses to
unpredictable system events. The ability to reliably supply
electrical power on demand can only be guaranteed by considering the power supply system in its entirety (fig. 1-4).
Smart substation automation systems from Siemens support the
following goals:
Secure and reliable power supply
Guaranteed high levels of protection for facilities and people
Reduction of manual interactions to enhance rapid self-healing
operations
Implementation of intelligent remote error monitoring,
detection, reporting
Enabling condition-based predictive maintenance
Support for engineering and testing through plug-and-play
functionality
Proactively distributing substation information to all relevant
stakeholders
Reduced costs for installation and maintenance.
Siemens smart substation automation systems are always
customized to meet each customers specific requirements. The
use of standard components allows the system to scale in every
respect. Siemens solutions offer a fully integrated and fully
automated way to operate substations under normal and emergency conditions. The system is flexible and open for future
modifications, making it easy to expand the substation while
allowing the addition of new Smart Grid functions.
See chapter 6, page 300.
Integrated Substation Condition Monitoring (ISCM)
Integrated Substation Condition Monitoring (ISCM) is a modular
system for monitoring all relevant substation components, from
the transformer and switchgear to the overhead line and cable.
Based on known, proven telecontrol units and substation automation devices, ISCM provides a comprehensive solution perfectly suited to substation environments. It integrates seamlessly
into the existing communication infrastructure so that monitoring information from the station and the control center is
displayed.

Communication solutions
The new Age of Electricity is characterized by a mix of both
central and decentralized power generation, which requires
bidirectional energy flows including power from smart buildings and residential areas where consumers are becoming
prosumers. A key prerequisite for this paradigm shift is a homogeneous, end-to-end communication network that provides
sufficient bandwidth between all grid elements.

Telecommunication systems for power grid transmission have


a long history in the utility industry. In todays transmission
grids, almost all substations are integrated into a communication network that allows online monitoring and controlling by an
Energy Management System (EMS).
In a distribution grid, the situation is quite different. Whereas
high-voltage substations are often equipped with digital communication, the communication infrastructure at lower distribution levels is weak. In most countries, fewer than ten percent of
transformer substations and ring-main units (RMUs) are monitored and controlled remotely.
Communication technologies have continued to develop rapidly
over the past few years, and the Ethernet has become the
established standard in the power supply sector. International
communication standards like IEC 61850 will further simplify the
exchange of data between different communication partners.
Serial interfaces will, however, continue to play a role in the
future for small systems.
Because of the deregulation of energy markets, unbundling of
vertically integrated structures, sharp increases in decentralized
power production, and growing need for Smart Grid solutions,
the demand for communications is rapidly increasing. And this
applies not just to higher bandwidths, but also to new Smart
Grid applications, such as the integration of RMUs and private
households into power utilities.
For these complex communication requirements, Siemens offers
customized, rugged communication network solutions for
fiber optic, power line and wireless infrastructures based on
energy industry standards.
An important element in creating and operating Smart Grids is
comprehensive, consistent communication using sufficient
bandwidth and devices with IP/Ethernet capability. Networks of
this kind must eventually extend all the way to individual consumers, who will be integrated into them using smart metering.
Consistent end-to-end communication helps meet the requirement for online monitoring of all grid components and, among
other things, creates opportunities to develop new business
models for smart metering and integrating distributed power
generation.
See chapter 8, page 470.

See section 10.1.3, page 514.

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Smart Grids and the New Age of Energy


Advanced Distribution Management System (ADMS)
Energy distribution systems become increasingly complex due
to the integration of distributed energy resources and storage,
smart metering, and demand response. In combination with
increased grid automation, this leads to inundating utilities
systems with data that needs to be intelligently managed. At the
same time, utilities are under growing regulatory and customer
pressure to maximize grid utilization and provide reliability at all
times.

Catering to the next era of distribution control systems, the


ADMS integrates three core components Distribution SCADA,
OM, and Advanced Fault and Network Analysis, operated under
a Common User Environment. It enables the user to
Monitor, control and optimize the secure operation of the
distribution network and
Efficiently manage day-to-day maintenance efforts while
guiding operators during critical periods such as storms and
outage related restoration activities.
ADMS integrates the intelligent use of smart meter information
and regulating capabilities for distributed resources at the same
time, thus providing a solid foundation for the management of
the emerging Smart Grid.

feeder because of different primary equipment or communication availability. However, with or without limited communication access, a certain level of automation and Smart Grid functionality can still be realized, as can a mix of functions in one
feeder automation system. The following levels of distribution
automation can serve as a roadmap for grid upgrades moving
toward the implementation of a Smart Grid:
Local Automation (without communication)
Sectionalizer (automated fault restoration by using switching
sequences)
Voltage regulator (automated voltage regulation for long
feeders)
Recloser controller (auto reclose circuit-breaker for overhead
lines)
Monitoring only (one-way communication to distribution
substation or control center)
Messaging box (for example, short-circuit indicators with
one-way communication to distribution substation or control
center for fast fault location)
Control, monitoring and automation (two-way communication
to distribution substation or control center)
Distribution Automation RTU (DA-RTU) with powerful
communication and automation features applicable to
Smart Grid functions, for instance:
Automated self-healing routines
Node station for power quality applications
Data concentrator for smart metering systems
Node station for decentralized power generation
Node station for demand-response applications
Protection, control, monitoring and automation (two-way
communication to distribution substation or control center)
Recloser controller for overhead lines, plus auto-reclose
breaker with enhanced protection functionality and advanced
communication and automation features

Fig. 1-5: Spectrum Power ADMS combines SCADA, outage


management, and fault and network analysis functions for
the first time on a software platform under a common user
interface

See section 7.2, page 443.


Distribution automation and protection
The prerequisite for comprehensive automation and protection
design is determining the required levels of automation and
functionality for distribution substations and RMUs. This could
differ among the RMUs in one distribution grid or in the same

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

To fulfill all these requirements in a Smart Grid feeder automation


system, a modular approach to protection, monitoring, automation and communication equipment is needed. Siemens offers a
complete portfolio for each level of Smart Grid application:
Robust primary and secondary equipment to withstand tough
outdoor conditions
Flexible IO modules adapted to the requirements of the
specific RMU type, for example, for direct output to motordriven switches or input from RMU sensors
Optimized CPUs with advanced automation and protection
functions to secure a safe and reliable power supply, with automated system recovery functions and convenient remote access
Reliable (emergency) power supplies for all components in the
RMU, for example, to operate the switchgear motor drive, to
run a heating system for outdoor application, or to power the
controller and communication units
Future-oriented, fast communication via different infrastructures, for example, GPRS-/GSM modem, fiber optic, and power
line carrier

Smart Grids and the New Age of Energy


Multiple communication protocols like IEC61850 and DNPi to
connect the RMU with the distribution substation, control
center, or end-user applications
Modular, sustainable controller functions to fulfill specific Smart
Grid requirements like fault detection and isolation, automatic
reclosing functions, voltage or load-flow regulation, and more
A user-friendly, powerful engineering tool with seamless
integration in the overall engineering process of the distribution
automation system to enable maximum re-use of data
Open interfaces for all system components, enabling the
integration of other applications; in other words, a system that
is equipped for future Smart Grid modifications
To manage these tasks with a global perspective, it is crucial to
fully understand the overall structure of distribution grids:
primary and secondary equipment, voltage levels (from high
voltage via medium voltage to low voltage), indoor and outdoor
applications, and multiple local regulations and standards. A big
advantage derives from the use of flexible components in the
same system family for the diverse feeder automation applications. Siemens provides this and more with our comprehensive
Advanced Energy Automation portfolio, which transforms a
Smart Grid vision into reality.
Distributed Energy Resources (DER)
The integration of distributed energy resources (DER) calls for a
completely new concept: the virtual power plant. A virtual
power plant connects many small plants that participate in the
energy market in a completely new way. It makes it possible to
use sales channels that otherwise would not be available to the
operators of individual plants. Linked together in the network,
the plants can be operated even more efficiently and therefore
more economically than before, benefiting the operators of
decentralized generating facilities.

In the virtual power plant, decentralized energy management


and communication with the generating facilities play a special
role, and thanks to the Siemens products Decentralized Energy
Management System (DEMS) and DER Controller, are optimally
supported. The centerpiece is DEMS, which enables the intelligent, economical and environmentally friendly linkage of decentralized energy sources. The DER Controller facilitates communications, and is specifically tailored to the requirements of
decentralized energy sources.

See section 7.2.8, page 463.


Decentralized Energy Management System (DEMS)
DEMS, the core of the virtual power plant, is equally appropriate
for utilities, industrial operations, operators of functional buildings, energy self-sufficient communities, regions and energy
service providers. DEMS uses three tools predictions, operational planning and real-time optimization to optimize power.
The prediction tool anticipates electrical and heat loads; for
example, as a function of the weather and the time of day.
Predicting generation from renewable energy sources is also
important, and is based on weather forecasts and the unique
characteristics of the plants. Short-term planning to optimize
operating costs of all installed equipment must comply with
technical and contractually specified background conditions
every 15 minutes for a maximum of one week in advance. The
calculated plan minimizes the costs of generation and operation,
while DEMS also manages cost efficiency and environmental
considerations.
See section 7.2.8, page 463.

Fig. 1-6: In vitual power plants, decentralized energy management and communication with generating facilities play a special role, and
thanks to the Siemens products DEMS and DER controller, are optimally supported

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

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Smart Grids and the New Age of Energy


Smart metering solutions
Smart metering connects consumers to the Smart Grid through
bi-directional communication, thus underpinning the new
relationship between consumer and producer. The Smart Grid is
already radically changing the gas, water and electricity landscape. More than ever, regulatory requirements, technology
advances, and heightened expectations of system operators are
driving the integration of communicating hardware and systems,
leading to an explosion of data. Siemens smart metering solutions are making the benefits of the Smart Grid tangible today.
Siemens class-leading technology and services are deployed
and proven in markets around the world. There are a number
of smart metering solutions and services on the market and
potentially, one could end up using multiple agents to support
your metering needs making a complex solution even more
confusing. Siemens removes this complexity. Its end-to-end
domain knowledge and expertise spanning the entire energy
conversion chain is our main differentiator. Siemens offers
a comprehensive line of products, accredited solutions, and
services, supplying complete solution packages for smart
metering. Siemens can supply the meter, retrieve, validate and
present the data, and open up useful energy management
opportunities, taking responsibility for the whole operation,
from start to finish.

Siemens smart metering portfolio includes:


Metering hardware and system components, including singlephase and three-phase AMI meters
Automated metering and information system (AMIS)
Grid application platform EnergyIP
Smart prepayment metering solution
Solutions to combat non-technical loss (MECE)
Grid metering solutions
Commercial and industrial metering solutions
Smart multi-dwelling unit solution, and
End-to-end smart metering design, implementation and
integration services
Siemens grid application platform EnergyIP helps leading electric, gas and water utilities worldwide modernize the speed of
processing sensor data. Siemens transforms business operations
with a software application approach that delivers accurate
billing, proactive outage management, revenue protection,
customer engagement, and more. Deployed at over 50 utilities
worldwide, our solutions empower utilities to rapidly deploy
software and communications systems in order to effectively
scale and maximize operational efficiency.
See section 10.3, page 521.
There is no doubt that the future belongs to the Smart Grid, and
that power generation will change significantly by the time it
becomes a reality. Large power plants will continue to ensure
the basic supply, but there will also be renewable energy
sources, causing fluctuations in the grid. In the not too distant
future, flexible intermediate storage of temporary excess power
in the grid will be possible using electric vehicles and stationary
storage units. Sensors and smart meters will switch these units

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

on or off, ensuring efficient load management. From generating


large offshore wind farms to delivering smart metering in
homes, Siemens is one of the worldwide leading providers of
products, systems, technology and solutions for Smart Grids.

Smart Grids and the New Age of Energy

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions

2.1 Overview of Technologies and Services


2.1.1 Solutions for Smart and Super Grids
with HVDC and FACTS
2.1.2 AC/DC Transmission and Distribution
2.1.3 Totally Integrated Power
We Bring Power to the Point
Safely and Reliably
2.1.4 Consultant Support for Totally Integrated Power
2.1.5 Managing Entire Projects
2.1.6 Partners throughout the System Life Cycle

18

2.2 
High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission
2.2.1 Siemens HVDC Technologies
2.2.2 Main Types of HVDC Schemes
2.2.3 LCC HVDC The Classical Solution
2.2.4 Ultra-HVDC Transmission (UHVDC) Bulk Power
2.2.5 HVDC PLUS One Step Ahead
2.2.6 DC Compact Switchgear DCCS
2.2.7 Siemens HVDC Control System: Win-TDC
2.2.8 Services

23
23
23
24
25
25
27
30
31

Flexible AC Transmission Systems


2.3 
2.3.1 Parallel Compensation
2.3.2 Series Compensation
2.3.3 Synchronous Condenser

32
32
34
35

2.4 
Power Transmission Lines
2.4.1 Gas-Insulated Transmission Lines
2.4.2 High-Voltage Power Cables
2.4.3 Overhead Lines

36
36
41
46

2.5 
Grid Access Solutions
for Decentralized Power Generation
2.5.1 References

60
62

18
18

20
21
22
22

2.6 
SIESTORAGE66
2.6.1 The Modular Energy Storage System
for a Reliable Power Supply
66
2.6.2 Spot-on for a Wide Range ofApplications
68
2.6.3 High Power Availability andReliability
69
2.6.4 Benefits of Comprehensive Competence
71
2.7 E-Houses for Power Distribution
2.7.1 Plug-and-Play Power Supply Solution
2.7.2 Cost-Effective Solution
2.7.3 Time-Efficient Solution
2.7.4 Flexible and Optimized Design
2.7.5 One-Stop Solution
2.8 Microgrids The Next Step towards
an Efficient Use of Distributed Resources
2.8.1 Operation, Monitoring, Administration,
Planning All Under One Roof
2.8.2 Microgrid Market Segments
2.8.3 Siemens Microgrid Management Systems

72
72
73
73
73
75
76
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17

2 Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.1 Overview of
Technologies and Services

Feeding the power generated at different locations over long


distances into power systems often calls for optimized power
transmission and distribution solutions. Despite the challenges it
poses, however, interconnecting of different regions, countries
or even continents remains a viable option for providing these
areas with economical access to power (fig. 2.1-1). As a solution
provider with extensive experience in every aspect of power
transmission and distribution, Siemens has already implemented
a large number of projects linking power systems or connecting
decentralized generating units to the grid. In each case, conditions were unique. And because Siemens strives to provide its
customers with the most cost-efficient results, the implemented
solutions using different technologies were also unique.
With Totally Integrated Power, Siemens offers a comprehensive
low-voltage and medium-voltage portfolio which makes power
distribution efficient, reliable, and safe in cities, infrastructure,
buildings, and industrial plants.

2.1.1 Solutions for Smart and Super


Grids with HVDC and FACTS
The power grid of the future must be secure, cost-effective and
environmentally compatible. The combination of these three
tasks can be tackled with the help of ideas, intelligent solutions
as well as advanced technologies.
Innovative solutions with HVDC (High-Voltage Direct-Current
Transmission) and FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems)
have the potential to cope with the new challenges. By means of
power electronics, they provide features which are necessary to
avoid technical problems in the power systems, they increase
the transmission capacity and system stability very efficiently
and help to prevent cascading disturbances.
The vision and enhancement strategy for the future electricity
networks are, for example, depicted in the program for Smart
Grids, which was developed within the European Technology
Platform.
Features of a future Smart Grid such as this can be outlined as
follows:
Flexible: fulfilling operator needs whilst responding to the
changes and challenges ahead
Accessible: granting connection access to all network users,
particularly for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and highefficiency local generation with zero or low carbon emissions

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Reliable: assuring and improving security and quality of supply


Economic: providing best value through innovation, efficient
energy management and level playing field competition and
regulation
Smart Grids will help achieve a sustainable development. It is
worthwhile mentioning that the Smart Grid vision is in the same
way applicable to the system developments in other regions of the
world. Smart Grids will help achieve a sustainable development.
An increasingly liberalized market will encourage trading opportunities to be identified and developed. Smart Grids are a necessary response to the environmental, social and political demands
placed on energy supply.

2.1.2 AC/DC Transmission and


Distribution
HVDC and FACTS
Todays power transmission systems have the task of transmitting
power from point A to point B reliably, safely and efficiently. It is
also necessary to transmit power in a manner that is not harmful
to the environment. Siemens offers comprehensive solutions,
technical expertise and worldwide experience to help system
operators meet these challenges.
For each application and technical transmission stage, Siemens
offers optimized solutions with HVDC transmission or FACTS for
the most efficient operation of power systems.
Typical applications for FACTS include fast voltage control,
increased transmission capacity over long lines, power flow
control in meshed systems, and power oscillation damping. With
FACTS, more power can be transmitted within the power system
(section 2.3). When technical or economical feasibility of conventional three-phase technology reaches its limit, HVDC will be
the solution (fig. 2.1-2). Its main application areas are economical transmission of bulk power over long distances and interconnection of asynchronous power grids. Siemens latest innovation
in high-voltage direct-current technology is HVDC PLUS. The
advantages of the new system, which employs voltage-sourced
converters, include a compact layout of the converter stations,
and advanced control features such as independent active and
reactive power control and black start capability.

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.1 Overview of Technologies and Services

North system
50 Hz
Central system
60 Hz

Power exchange
Asynchronous
networks

Avoidance of
loop flows

Tariff

Industrial
energy supply

Tariff

Fault-Current
Limiter

Submarine
cable links

FC

Bulk power and


long distance

Clean
energy

Clean and
low-cost
energy

Power
exchange

South system
60 Hz

Symbols:

TPSC/TCSC

SVC

FSC

DC transmission
and interconnection

HVDC PLUS

B2B as GPFC

SVC PLUS

Fig. 2.1-1: Power transmission and distribution solutions

Power lines
Since the very beginning of electric power supply, overhead lines
have constituted the most important component for transmission
and distribution systems. Their portion of the overall length of
electric circuits depends on the voltage level and on local conditions and practice. When environmental or structural factors make
overhead lines impossible, Siemens underground transmission
path is the ideal solution. Siemens gas-insulated transmission
lines (GIL) can be an economically viable alternative to conventional power cables (section 2.4).
Grid access
Decentralized generating units are custom-engineered, which
involves reconciling contrasting parameters, such as high reliability, low investment costs and efficient transmission, in the
best possible solution. Specific attention is paid to intelligently
designing the collection systems at the medium-voltage level,
which is followed by the high-voltage transmission system
providing the grid access. By relying on both transmission technologies, Siemens can offer AC as well as DC solutions at both
the high- and medium-voltage levels (section 2.5).

Investment
costs

Total
AC
costs

Break-even distance
2xSSC*

DC line
costs
2xSSC*

Total
DC
costs

DC terminal costs
AC line
costs

AC terminal costs
including grid transformers
Transmission distance
* SSC = Series or shunt compensation of AC lines required for each section of the line

Fig. 2.1-2: AC versus DC transmission cost over distance.


The break-even distance amounts typically to 600 km
for a power transmission of 1,000 MW

Solar power
As an alternative power supply for rural electrification, Siemens
integrates solar power in the low-voltage distribution system for
private consumers, as stand-alone systems or even with grid
connection (section 2.6).

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

19

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.1 Overview of Technologies and Services

2.1.3 Totally Integrated Power


We Bring Power to the Point
Safely and Reliably
Efficient, reliable, safe: These are the demands placed on electrification and especially power distribution (fig. 2.1-3). And our
answer for all application areas of the energy system is
Totally Integrated Power (TIP). It is based on our comprehensive
range of products, systems and solutions for low and medium
voltage, rounded out by our support throughout the entire
lifecycle (fig. 2.1-4) from planning with our own software tools
to installation, operation and services.

Fig. 2.1-3: Comprehensive answers for power distribution in complex


energy systems from Siemens

Smart interfaces allow linking to industrial or building automation (fig. 2.1-4), making it possible to fully exploit all the optimization potential of an integrated solution. This is how we provide our customers around the world with answers to their
challenges. With highly efficient, reliable and safe power distribution, we lay the foundation for sustainable infrastructure and
cities, buildings and industrial plants. We bring power to the
point wherever and whenever it is needed.

Safety: A comprehensive range of protection components for


personnel safety, and line and fire protection, safety by means
of type testing
Reliability: A reliable partner who works with system
operators to develop long-lasting solutions that meet the
highest quality standards
Efficiency: Bringing power to the point means greater plant
availability and maximum energy efficiency in power
distribution
Flexibility: End-to-end consistency and modular design of
Totally Integrated Power for any desired expansions and
adaptation to future requirements
Advanced technology: Reliable power distribution especially
for applications in which supply is critical, continuous
refinement of the technology.

Totally Integrated Power offers more:


Consistency: For simplified plant engineering and
commissioning, as well as smooth integration into automation
solutions for building or production processes
One-stop-shop: A reliable partner with a complete portfolio for
the entire process and lifecycle from the initial idea to aftersales service

Automation

Process/Industrial
automation
PROFINET

PROFIBUS

Building
automation
Industrial Ethernet

...

Modbus

Electrification
Renewables

Storage
Medium-voltage
Transformer
technologies
switchgear and
protection technology

Low-voltage switchboard
with protection and
measuring technology

Low-voltage
distribution

110 kV
Products, systems and solutions

Consulting,
planning

Engineering

Order,
delivery

Fig. 2.1-4: TIP is the perfect link to industrial and building automation

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Installation,
Operation
commissioning

Service,
modernization

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.1 Overview of Technologies and Services

2.1.4 Consultant Support


for Totally Integrated Power
Comprehensive services for the planning and concept
drafting of electric power distribution systems
Experts the Siemens TIP Consultant Support team help
electrical designers in many countries find holistic solutions for
the fields of infrastructure, building and industry even when it
comes to critical power supply, for example, in hospitals and
data centers.

All along the various planning phases, planners have recourse,


to efficient software tools, online tender specification texts, and
planning and application manuals.
The innovative SIMARIS planning tools set standards in terms of
planning efficiency. They support the planning process when
dimensioning electric power distribution systems, determining
the equipment and systems required, and preparing tender
specification texts. The product portfolio of devices and systems
required, ranging from the medium-voltage switchgear to
modular installation devices in the distribution board, is
mapped. This enables to plan entire power distribution systems
from start to finish using the free-of-charge SIMARIS planning
tools (fig. 2.1-5).

Fig. 2.1-5: The SIMARIS planning tools easy, fast and safe planning
of electric power distribution

Siemens also provides qualified support for creating technical


specification lists in the form of online tender specification texts
within the framework of Totally Integrated Power. The fully
integrated Siemens portfolio for electric power distribution can
be found there. The clear tree structure in combination with a
search function helps users find texts for the desired products.
The text modules that were selected can be compiled in customized specifications (fig. 2.1-6).
The planning and application manuals will help you familiarize
yourself with the technical background when planning power
supply systems, and implementing it in product and systems
solutions. In addition to the topical introduction provided by the
planning manuals, the application manuals include solution
criteria and approaches for planning power distribution to
industry-specific buildings that meet our customers needs.
Typical configurations and boundary conditions are presented in
the form of examples, which are then turned into feasible
concepts for the relevant building types, using specific products
and system proposals. All manuals can be downloaded from our
website as PDFs (fig. 2.1-7).

For further information:


www.siemens.com/simaris

Fig. 2.1-6: Text modules for tender specifications covering all


Siemens products for electric power distribution

Fig. 2.1-7: Planning and application manuals impart specialized


and up-to-date knowledge

www.siemens.com/specifications
www.siemens.com/tip-cs/planningmanuals

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

21

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.1 Overview of Technologies and Services

2.1.5 Managing Entire Projects


Project management
Supplying power is more than just combining a number of
individual components. It calls for large-scale projects, such as
transmission systems or industrial complexes, especially in
countries where the demand for power is growing at an accelerated pace. The best partner to handle such large projects is an
expert who can carefully analyze the demand, take an integrated
approach to project planning, and consider all the general conditions. A qualified project partner is one that can provide highquality components and services for both power transmission
tasks and power system management. Such a partner also can
ensure that the systems are installed expertly.

Turnkey solutions
Siemens many years of experience allow to offer turnkey
power transmission solutions that are tailored to individual
requirements. Siemens supplies all components, including
power plants, AC or DC transmission systems, and high-voltage
interconnected power systems with high, medium and low
voltage that finally reach the individual customers. What makes
these turnkey solutions so attractive is that one party is responsible for coordinating the entire project, thereby reducing the
number of interfaces between system operator and supplier to a
bare minimum. Turnkey projects also reduce the operators own
share in project risks, since Siemens is responsible for delivering
a system that is ready for operation.
Engineering, procurement, production and construction
In addition to comprehensive planning and management services, engineering is one of Siemens special strengths. Siemens
can produce or procure all necessary components and perform
all construction work up to testing, commissioning and putting
an entire system into operation. With Siemens as a partner,
companies can benefit from Siemens extensive manufacturing
expertise and from the work of experienced Siemens engineers
who have already participated in a wide range of projects worldwide. Working on this basis, Siemens can provide the best
technology for projects based on proprietary Siemens components and additional hardware purchased from reputable vendors. Siemens experts have the important task of determining
which of the various technical options are best suited for implementing the project. They consider transmission capacity,
transmission efficiency and the length of the transmission line,
and after the best technical solution has been determined, they
assess its long-term cost efficiency for the operator. Only then
can the actual implementation begin for installation and on-time
commissioning.
Maintenance
Systems will operate at their best when equipment lasts a long
time and provides continuous trouble-free operation. The
Siemens maintenance service ensures that all components are
always running safely and reliably. Siemens continuously maintains operator systems through regular inspections including all
switchgear and secondary technology. If a malfunction occurs
during operation, Siemens is immediately on the job; support is

22

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. And with the increased
use of state-of-the-art online monitoring and remote diagnosis
systems, Siemens offers additional possibilities for keeping
operating costs to a minimum.
Optimization and modernization
Technological evolution leads to equipments and systems which
are continuously improving. Siemens offers retrofit and upgrade
services for existing schemes. This fast and economical solution
allows customers to invest their capital wisely and take full
advantage of Siemens experience in adapting older systems
to new technical standards.

2.1.6 Partners throughout the System


Life Cycle
Siemens is with system operators every step of the way to help
them develop their projects, to create financing solutions and to
provide project management (fig. 2.1-8), and supports them
beyond engineering, production and construction. This support
continues as the system is commissioned, as customers need
maintenance services and even when it is time to modernize.
The partnership between Siemens and the system operators
does not stop when a turnkey job is finished: Siemens accompanies the system operators throughout the entire life cycle of
their systems, offering a wide range of services with products
of the highest quality that are always based on the most durable
technologies.

Capabilities for project development, implementation and operation

Development phase
3 years

Technical advice
Feasibility study
Performances values:
Losses
Reliability
Availability
Design transmission
system

Financial close
Implementation phase
3 years

Financial advice
Economical assessment
Feasibility study
Flexibility
Rentability
Estimates
Bankability

Overall project management

Engineering
Basic design
Conceptual design
Detailed design

Procurement
Manufacturing
Global sourcing
Local sourcing

Construction
Erection
Commissioning
Training

Start of
commercial use
Operation
25 years
Maintenance and after-sales services

Fig. 2.1-8: Siemens services for the entire system life cycle

For further information:


www.siemens.com/energy/power-transmission-solutions
www.siemens.com/energy/hvdc-facts-newsletter

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.2 High-Voltage DirectCurrent Transmission
Siemens HVDC transmission is used when technical and/or
economical feasibility of conventional high-voltage AC transmission technology have reached their limits. The limits are overcome by the basic operation principle of an HVDC system, which
is the conversion of AC into DC and viceversa by means of high
power converters.
Featuring its fast and precise controllability, a Siemens HVDC can
serve the following purposes:
Transmission of power via very long overhead lines or via long
cables where an AC transmission scheme is not economical or
even not possible
Transmission of power between asynchronous systems
Exact control of power flow in either direction
Enhancement of AC system stability
Reactive power control and support of the AC voltage
Frequency control
Power oscillation damping.

2.2.1 Siemens HVDC Technologies


Depending on the converter type used for conversion between
AC and DC, two technologies are available:
Line Commutated Converter technology (LCC) based on
thyristor valves
Voltage Sourced Converter technology (VSC) based on IGBT
valves, also known as HVDC PLUS.
Both technologies enable Siemens to provide attractive solutions
for most challenging transmission tasks ranging from extra-highvoltage bulk power transmission to the connection of systems in
remote locations to main grids; from long distance overhead line
or cable to interconnection of two systems at one location.

Back-to-back
station

Submarine cable
transmission

AC

AC

AC

AC

DC Cable
Long-distance
OHL transmission

AC

AC
DC Line

Fig. 2.2-1: Overview of main power transmission applications with


HVDC

2.2.2 Main Types of HVDC Schemes


The main types of HVDC converters are distinguished by their DC
circuit arrangements (fig. 2.2-1), as follows:
Back-to-back:
Rectifier and inverter are located in the same station. These
converters are mainly used:
To connect asynchronous high-voltage power systems or
systems with different frequencies
To stabilize weak AC links
To supply more active power where the AC system already is at
the limit of its short-circuit capability
For grid power flow control within synchronous AC systems.
Cable transmission:
DC cables are the most feasible solution for transmitting power
across the sea to supply islands/offshore platforms from the
mainland and vice versa.
Long-distance transmission:
Whenever bulk power is to be transmitted over long distances,
DC transmission is the more economical solution compared to
high-voltage AC.

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

23

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.2 High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission

2.2.3 LCC HVDC


The Classical Solution
After more than 50 years history with Siemens constantly
contributing to its development, LCC HVDC is still the most
widely used DC transmission technology today.

Technology
Thyristor valves
The thyristor valves are used to perform the conversion from AC
into DC, and thus make up the central component of the HVDC
converter station. The valves are described by the following
features:
Robust design
Safe with respect to fire protection due to consequent use of
fire-retardant, self-extinguishing material
Minimum number of electrical connections and components
avoiding potential sources of failure
Parallel cooling for the valve levels using de-ionized cooling
water for maximum utilization of the thyristors
Earthquake-proof design as required (fig. 2.2-2)
Direct Light-Triggered Thyristors (LTT) with wafer-integrated
overvoltage protection the standard solution for transmission
ratings up to 5,000 MW
Electrically triggered thyristors for bulk power transmission up
to 7,200 MW and above.

Fig. 2.2-2: Earthquake-proof and fire-retardant thyristor valves in


500 kV long-distance transmission in Guizho-Guangdong,
China

Filter technology
Filters are used to balance the reactive power of HVDC and
power system and to meet high harmonic performance standards.
Single-tuned, double-tuned and triple-tuned as well as highpass passive filters, or any combination thereof, can be
installed depending on the specific requirements of a station
Active AC and DC filters are available for highest harmonic
performance
Wherever possible, identical filters are selected maintaining
the high performance even when one filter is switched off.
Applications
The primary application areas for LCC HVDC are:
Economical power transmission over long distances
Interconnection of asynchronous power grids without increase
in short-circuit power
Submarine DC cable transmission
Hybrid integration of HVDC into a synchronous AC system for
stability improvement
Increase in transmission capacity by conversion of AC lines into
DC lines.
Power ratings
Typical ratings for HVDC schemes include:
Back-to-back: up to typically 600 MW
Cable transmission: up to 1,000 MW per HVDC cable
Long-distance transmission: up to typically 7,200 MW.

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 2.2-3: Two times two 400 kV converter systems connected in


series form a 800 kV UHV DC station

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.2 High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission

2.2.4 Ultra-HVDC Transmission


(UHV DC) Bulk Power
UHV DC from Siemens is the answer to the increasing demand
for bulk power transmission from remote power generation to
large load centers. After having been awarded the contract in
2007, Siemens has successfully commissioned the worlds first
800 kV UHV DC system with 5,000 MW in China Southern
Power Grid in 2010 (fig. 2.2-3).

Technology
The high DC voltage imposes extreme requirements to the
insulation of the equipment and leads to huge physical dimensions (fig. 2.2-4). The capability to withstand high electrical and
mechanical stresses is thoroughly investigated during the
design. All components are extensively tested to assure that they
withstand most severe operating conditions and meet highest
quality standards.
The thyristor valves are equipped with either 5 or 6 thyristors
depending on the transmission rating (fig. 2.2-5).

Fig. 2.2-4: A 20.8 m long wall bushing is required in order to connect


the 800 kV terminal of the indoor thyristor valves to the
outdoor HVDC equipment and overhead line

Applications
UHV DC transmission is the solution for bulk power transmission
of 5,000 MW or higher over some thousand kilometers. Compared to a 500 kV LCC HVDC system, the Siemens 800 kV UHV
DC reduces line losses by approx. 60 % an important aspect
with respect to CO2 reduction and operational cost.
Special attention has to be paid to the corresponding AC networks
that have to supply or absorb the high amounts of electric power.
Power ratings
The Siemens 800 kV HVDC systems are designed to transmit up
to 7,200 MW over long distances.

2.2.5 HVDC PLUS One Step Ahead

Fig. 2.2-5: UH voltage and power electronics the thyristor valves


are designed to operate at 800 kV voltage level. YunnanGuangdong, China

VSC technology offers unique advantages for HVDC transmission


which become more and more important for applications like
connecting remote renewable energy sources, oil and gas
platforms or mines to an existing grid.
Using the latest modular IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor)
technology in a pioneering Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC)
design, Siemens engineers have developed HVDC PLUS as a
landmark product in the evolution of HVDC transmission.
The high power ratings available today make HVDC PLUS increasingly attractive also for projects where LCC HVDC could be used
from a technical perspective.
Features
HVDC PLUS provides important technical and economical
advantages compared to LCC:
HVDC technology in the smallest possible space:
An HVDC PLUS station does typically not require any harmonic

Fig. 2.2-6: Converter Station of the TransBay Project close to the


city center of San Francisco. The worlds first VSC HVDC
transmission scheme in Modular Multi-level Converter
(MMC) topology

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

25

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.2 High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission

filters (fig. 2.2-6). The MMC design allows to realize nearly


perfect sinusoidal AC-side converter terminal voltages which
are virtually free from harmonics. Together with a compact
design of the MMC, this makes HVDC PLUS perfectly suitable
for offshore platforms or stations with limited space
(fig. 2.2-7).
Independence from short-circuit capacity:
HVDC PLUS can operate in networks with very low short-circuit
capacity or even in isolated systems with or without own
generation using its black-start capability.
Unipolar DC voltage
The DC voltage polarity is fixed independently from the
direction of power flow. This allows integration into multiterminal systems or DC grids. HVDC PLUS can operate with
extruded XLPE or mass-impregnated DC cables.
Economical design and standardization:
The modularly designed HVDC PLUS converter stations can be
perfectly adapted to the required power rating.
For symmetrical monopolar configurations, standard AC
transformers can be used, whereas LCC transformers require
special design due to additional stresses from DC voltage and
harmonics.

Fig. 2.2-7: The heart of HVDC PLUS is a modular multilevel converter


(MMC) which can be scaled according to the voltage or
power requirements. Transbay Cable, USA

Uac
Udc

Half-bridge type MMC:


The power capacitor can
be connected in one
polarity to the terminals.

Udc

Uac

"on"

Uac
Udc

Full-bridge type MMC:

Applications
HVDC PLUS can be applied in all fields of HVDC transmission
there are no technical restrictions. The advantages of HVDC PLUS
will be most apparent in circumstances that require the following capabilities:
Black start of AC networks
Operation in AC networks with low short-circuit capacity
Compact design, e. g., for offshore platforms
Operation in DC multi-terminal systems or in a DC grid.

The power capacitor can


be connected in either
polarity to the terminals.

"off"

Udc

Uac

0
-Udc

Fig. 2.2-8: MMC topologies: half and full bridge

+Ud /2
1
2

Power ratings
The design of HVDC PLUS is optimized for power applications in
the range from 30 MW up to 1,000 MW or higher, depending on
the DC voltage.
Topologies (fig. 2.2-8)
Different topologies are available in order to fit best for the
project specific requirements:
Half-bridge (HB) topology
The DC voltage is always controlled in one polarity only. Such a
configuration is preferred for DC circuits with pure cable
configurations. The risk of DC-side faults are small and
typically lead to a permanent shutdown of the link
Full-bridge (FB) topology
The DC voltage can be controlled in a wide range including
both polarities. Such a topology is predestinated for DC circuits
with overhead lines, and provides the same features as known
from HVDC Classic: DC line faults (e.g. due to lightning strikes)
are cleared safely by a short-time reversion of the voltage.
Furthermore, operation at reduced DC voltage levels is possible,
which is often specified in case of pollution problems of line
insulators.

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

UAC

UConv.
0

1
2
n

-Ud /2

Fig. 2.2-9: Half-bridge MMC: The DC voltage is always higher than


the AC voltage

+Ud /2

AC and DC Voltages

2
n

UAC

UConv.
0

1
2

-Ud /2

Fig. 2.2-10: Full-bridge MMC: The DC voltage is independent from


the AC voltage and can be controlled to zero, or even be
entirely reversed maintaining current control on the AC
and DC sides including under short-circuit conditions

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.2 High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission

2.2.6 DC Compact Switchgear DC CS


Business drivers for the development of DC compact
switchgear
The changing generation and load structure in existing power
grids requires increased transmission capacity. Longer transmission distances and increased loading tend to reduce the AC grids
static and dynamic stability. To amend this, HVDC systems can be
integrated into existing AC grids to provide the required transmission capacity, and at the same time increase grid stability.

What is more, the global trend towards decarbonization of


power generation calls for an increased use of renewable energy
sources (RES). While RES like offshore wind are typically found at
great distances from the load centers, HVDC provides an effective (and in some cases the only) technical solution for power
transmission.
The compact 320 kV DC switchgear DC CS is needed for HVDC
cable connections to remote offshore wind farms, as well as for
onshore HVDC projects. Thanks to its compact design, the DC CS
helps to reduce the HVDC systems space requirements. Hence it
is predestinated for applications where space is limited or expensive, e.g. offshore HVDC platforms for remote windfarms, as well
as close to city centers.

Using the DC CS outdoors even in rough climates adds to this


effect. In the near future, DC compact switchgear and transmission solutions facilitate the realization of multi-terminal arrangements or DC grids, backing up the existing AC networks.

Disconnector and
earthing switch

Surge arrester

Voltage and current


measurement

Interface modules

Passive modules

Fig. 2.2-11: Standardized modules of the DC CS product line

-Z1
= 31C01
= 32C01
= 41C01
= 42C01

-F1

-T1

-Q51

-Q11

-Q52

-F2
-Z2

Fig. 2.2-12: 320 kV DC switchyard in/out bay

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

27

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.2 High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission

Modular structure
The 320 kV Direct-Current Compact Switchgear (DC CS) (without
circuit-breaker) is developed based on proven 8DQ1 550 kV AC
GIS design and a new DC insulator following the well-established
resin-impregnated-paper design which is used in wall bushings
for decades.

The DC CS is a highly modularized product line, with standardized and predefined modules (fig. 2.2-11) which minimize the
required interface engineering complexity between the DC CS
modules as well as interfaces to e.g. control and protection
systems. Examples of a 320 kV converter pole feeder arrangements are given in fig. 2.2-12 and fig. 2.2-13.
The range of modules like 0/90 disconnector and earthing
switch modules, 45/90 angle modules grant flexibility to adapt
to complex arrangements such as designs with a single or
double busbar.

Fig. 2.2-13: 320 kV DC compact switchgear in the Siemens factory


in Berlin

The module catalog is completed by an RC divider for voltage


measurement, the zero flux compensated current measurement
system, surge arrester and compensation modules required for
service access, and both axial and lateral heat dilatation.
Application and special arrangements
DC compact switchgear can be applied at various locations with
an HVDC system as displayed in fig. 2.2-13. An important application option for DC CS is between the converter transformer
and the converter valves. With bipolar arrangements where 2 or
more converters are arranged in a line with neutral in between,
the section between the secondary connection of a converter
transformer and the respective converter valves is stressed with
a DC voltage offset resulting in a mixed voltage stress AC/DC
requiring dedicated DC equipment. On the DC terminal, the DC
switchyard, transition stations (enabling compact transition
from cable to overhead line) along the line and finally future
multi-terminal stations can be planned with DC CS.
The most important benefit of 320 kV DC compact switchgear is
its inherent size advantage compared to air-insulated DC switchyard equipment.
Furthermore, the option for outdoor installation, even under
extreme environmental conditions, is an advantage of DC CS. If
for technical reasons, like temperature below -30 C, a housing
is required, the DC CS fits into pre-fabricated, containerized
building modules (fig. 2.2-14). Containerized arrangements
further have the advantage to pre-assemble and test whole
switchyard/substation layouts locally at the manufacturers or
the container builders plant, cutting short remote erection and
commissioning efforts and costs, as well as simplifying the
interface to civil works. Layouts with identical design which are
repetitively used in a HVDC scheme can be planned and executed likewise, e.g. cable transition stations. Building and
foundation costs can therefore be greatly reduced.

28

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 2.2-14: 320 kV containerized arrangement

Finally, an underground installation hidden from view and public


access is possible thanks to the encapsulation and compact
design.
Regarding planned projects in densely populated areas, with
critical points which are already occupied by traffic junctions and
AC overhead lines as well as by natural barriers like rivers, huge
potential for compact DC transmission solutions is existent.

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.2 High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission

Bipolar
configuration

Converter DC
switchyard

Transition station
cable OHL

Multi-terminal
station

t
t
AC

AC + DC

t
DC

Fig. 2.2-15: Application for DC compact switchgear, between transformer and valves, DC switchyard, transition station and multi-terminal
station
Technical data for switchgear type 320 kV DC CS
Rated voltage

320 kV

Rated current

4,000 A

Rated short-circuit current

50kA/1sec

Max. continuous operating voltage

336 kV

Lightning impulse voltage to earth/


across terminals

1175 kV
1175 kV
336 kV

Switching impulse voltage to earth/


across terminals

950 kV
950 kV
336 kV

DC withstand voltage

504 kV, 60 min

Ambient temperature

-30C+50C

Application

Indoor/Outdoor

Table 2.2-1: Technical data of 320 kV DC CS

Contact person to be quoted in the Power Engineering Guide:


Dr. Denis Imamovic
denis.imamovic@siemens.com
09131 / 7-44510

Questions regarding this draft:


Maik Behne
maik.behne@siemens.com
09131 / 7-43518

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

29

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.2 High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission

2.2. Siemens HVDC Control System:


Win-TDC
The control and protection system is an important element in an
HVDC transmission. The Siemens control and protection system
for HVDC has been designed with special focus on high flexibility
and high dynamic performance, and benefits from the knowledge gained from over 30 years of operational experience in
HVDC and related fields of other industries (fig. 2.2-16).

High reliability is achieved with a redundant and robust design.


All control and protection components from the human-machine
interface (HMI), control and protection systems down to the
measuring equipment for DC current and voltage quantities have
been designed to take advantage of the latest software and
hardware developments. These control and protection systems
are based on standard products with a product lifecycle of
25 years or more.

Operator Level

SIMATIC WinCC
Local HMI

SCADA Interface

Remote HMI
RCI

C&P Level

SIMATIC TDC

PLUSCONTROL
CCS

I/O Level
I/O Unit

I/O Unit

Measuring

MMS 1

MMS n

Fig. 2.2-16: Win-TDC hierarchy More than 30 years of experience


are built into the hierarchical Siemens HVDC control
system which is based on standard components most
widely used also in other industries

The name Win-TDC reflects the combination of the PC-based HMI


system SIMATIC WinCC and the high-performance industrial
control system SIMATIC TDC for Microsoft Windows.
SIMATIC WinCC (Windows Control Centre) is used for operator
control and monitoring of HVDC systems.
SIMATIC TDC (Technology and Drive Control) is a high-performance automation system which allows the integration of both
open-loop and high-speed closed-loop controls within this single
system. It is especially suitable for HVDC (and other power
electronics applications) demanding high-performance closedloop control. For extremely fast control functions as required in
HVDC PLUS systems, SIMATIC TDC is complemented by the
dedicated PLUSCONTROL comprising the fast Current Control
System (CCS) and the Module Management System (MMS).
SIMATIC WinCC and SIMATIC TDC are used in a wide range of industrial applications including power generation and distribution.
In Siemens LCC HVDC systems, the DC currents and voltages are
measured with a hybrid electro-optical system: DC current with a
shunt located at HV potential, DC voltage with a resistive/
capacitive voltage divider. Both systems use laser-powered
measuring electronics so that only optical connections are made
to the ground level controls this provides the necessary HV
isolation and noise immunity.
For HVDC PLUS, the DC currents are measured with a zero flux
measuring system, which provides the required accuracy and
dynamic response for fast control during grid transients. The
zero flux cores are located at ground level on suitable locations,
e. g., converter hall bushings or cable sealing ends.
Siemens provides proven hardware and software systems built
around state-of-the-art technologies. Their performance and
reliability fulfils the most demanding requirements for both new
installations and control system replacement (fig. 2.2-17).

30

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 2.2-17: The control and protection cubicles are intensively tested
in the Siemens laboratories before they are shipped
to site, assuring fast and smooth commissioning of the
HVDC system

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.2 High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission

2.2. Services
The following set of services completes the Siemens HVDC
portfolio.
Turnkey service
Experienced staff designs, installs and commissions the HVDC
system on a turnkey basis.

Project financing
Siemens is ready to assist customers in finding proper project
financing.
General services
Extended support is provided to customers of Siemens from the
very beginning of HVDC system planning, including:
Feasibility studies
Drafting the specification
Project execution
System operation and long-term maintenance
Consultancy on upgrading/replacement of components/
redesign of older schemes, e. g., retrofit of mercury-arc valves
or relay-based controls.
Studies during contract execution are conducted on system
engineering, power system stability and transients:
Load-flow optimization
HVDC systems basic design
System dynamic response
Harmonic analysis and filter design for LCC HVDC
Insulation and protection coordination
Radio and PLC interference
Special studies, if any.

For further information:


www.siemens.com/energy/hvdc
www.siemens.com/energy/hvdc-plus
www.energy.siemens.com/hq/en/power-transmission/hvdc/
innovations.htm

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

31

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.3 Flexible AC Transmission
Systems
Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) have been evolving to
a mature technology with high power ratings. The technology,
proven in numerous applications worldwide, became a first-rate,
highly reliable one. FACTS, based on power electronics, have
been developed to improve the performance of weak AC systems
and to make long distance AC transmission feasible and are an
essential part of Smart Grid and Super Grid developments (refer
to chapter 1).

FACTS can also help solve technical problems in the interconnected


power systems. FACTS are available in parallel connection:
Static Var Compensator (SVC)
Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)
or in series connection:
Fixed Series Compensation (FSC)
Thyristor Controlled/Protected Series Compensation (TCSC/TPSC).

heavy load conditions. Their utilization has almost no effect on


the short-circuit power but it increases the voltage at the point
of connection
Mechanically switched reactors have exactly the opposite
effect and are therefore preferable for achieving stabilization
under low load conditions
An advanced form of mechanically switched capacitor is the
MSCDN. This device is an MSC with an additional damping
circuit for avoidance of system resonances.
Static Var Compensator (SVC)
Static var compensators are a fast and reliable means of controlling voltage on transmission lines and system nodes (fig. 2.3-1b,

2.3.1 Parallel Compensation


Parallel compensation is defined as any type of reactive power
compensation employing either switched or controlled units that
are connected in parallel to the transmission system at a power
system node.
Mechanically Switched Capacitors/Reactors (MSC/MSR)
Mechanically switched devices are the most economical reactive
power compensation devices (fig. 2.3-1a).
Mechanically switched capacitors are a simple but low-speed
solution for voltage control and network stabilization under

Fig. 2.3-2: Static Var Compensator (SVC) installation

Parallel compensation
a) MSC (DN)/MSR

(DN = Damping network)


800 kV
300 MVAr

b)

c)

SVC

800 kV
250 MVAr
(and more)

800 kV
1000 MVAr

MSC MSR

2
3

MSC DN

d)

Hybrid SVC
800 kV
Individual MVAr

5
1

SVC PLUS

3
9

2
4

3
2
4

1 Switchgear 2 Capacitor 3 Reactor 4 Thyristor valve(s) 5 Transformer 6 IGBT converter 7 DC capacitors 8 Arrester 9 Resistor

Fig. 2.3-1a: Mechanically switched capacitors (MSC), mechanically switched reactors (MSR) and mechanically switched capacitors
with damping network (MSC DN)
Fig. 2.3-1b: Static var compensator (SVC) with three branches (TCR, TSC, filter) and coupling transformer
Fig. 2.3-1c: SVC PLUS connected to the transmission system
Fig. 2.3-1d: Hybrid SVC connected to the transmission system

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.3 Flexible AC Transmission Systems

fig. 2.3-2). The reactive power is changed by switching or controlling reactive power elements connected to the secondary
side of the transformer. Each capacitor bank is switched ON and
OFF by thyristor valves (TSC). Reactors can be either switched
(TSR) or controlled (TCR) by thyristor valves.

When system voltage is low, the SVC supplies capacitive reactive


power and rises the network voltage. When system voltage is
high, the SVC generates inductive reactive power and reduces
the system voltage.
Static var compensators perform the following tasks:
Improvement in voltage quality
Dynamic reactive power control
Increase in system stability
Damping of power oscillations
Increase in power transfer capability
Unbalance control (option).

Fig. 2.3-3: Two SVC PLUS units in New Zealand

The design and configuration of an SVC, including the size of the


installation, operating conditions and losses, depend on the
system conditions (weak or strong), the system configuration
(meshed or radial) and the tasks to be performed.
SVC PLUS new generation of STATCOM
SVC PLUS is an advanced STATCOM which uses Voltage-Sourced
Converter (VSC) technology based on Modular Multilevel
Converter (MMC) design.
MMC provides a nearly ideal sinus-shaped waveform on the AC
side. Therefore, there is only little if any need for harmonic
filtering
MMC allows for low switching frequencies, which reduces
system losses.
SVC PLUS uses robust, proven standard components, such as
typical AC power transformers, reactors and switchgear.
Using containerized SVC PLUS solutions with small operating
ranges will result in significant space savings in comparison to
a conventional SVC installation.
Applications
SVC PLUS with its superior undervoltage performance fulfills the
same task as conventional SVCs. Due to the advanced technology, SVC PLUS is the preferred solution for grid access solutions (e. g., wind parks).
Modular system design
The modular SVC PLUS is equipped with industrial class IGBT
(Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors) power modules and DC
capacitors.
A very high level of system availability, thanks to the
redundancy of power modules
Standard WinCC and SIMATIC TDC control and protection
hardware and software are fully proven in practice in a wide
range of applications worldwide.

Fig. 2.3-4: SVC PLUS containerized solution

Portfolio
Standardized configurations are available: 25, 35, and
50 MVAr as containerized solutions. Up to four of these units
can be configured as a fully parallel operating system
Easily expendable and relocatable
Open rack modular system configuration (in a building) allows
for operating ranges of 250 MVAr and more.
Hybrid SVCs comprise a combination of both, multilevel
STATCOM and conventional thyristor based SVC technology.
This solution combines the benefits of the SVC PLUS, especially
the undervoltage performance, with the flexibility of
unsymmetrical operating ranges by TSR and TSC.

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

33

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.3 Flexible AC Transmission Systems

2.3.2 Series Compensation

Thyristor-Protected Series Capacitor (TPSC)


An enhanced configuration of the FSC is the TPSC. In this case,
high-power thyristors in combination with a current-limiting
reactor are installed in parallel to the limiting series capacitors,
and substitute the spark gap as well as the MOVs as protection
devices. The protection of the power capacitor is performed by
firing a bypass of the thyristors valves. Due to the very short
cooling-down times of the special thyristor valves, TPSCs can be
quickly returned to service after a line fault, allowing the transmission lines to be utilized to their maximum capacity. TPSCs are
the first choice whenever transmission lines must be returned to
maximum carrying capacity as quickly as possible after a failure
(fig. 2.3-6c).

Series compensation is defined as insertion of reactive power


elements into transmission lines. The most common application
is the fixed series capacitor (FSC). Thyristor-valve controlled
systems (TCSC) and thyristor-valve protected systems (TPSC) may
also be installed.

Fixed Series Capacitor (FSC)


The simplest and most cost-effective type of series compensation is provided by FSCs. FSCs comprise the actual capacitor
banks, and for protection purposes, parallel arresters (metaloxide varistors, MOVs), spark gaps and a bypass switch for
isolation purposes (fig. 2.3-6a).
Fixed series capacitor provides the following benefits:
Increase in transmission capacity
Reduction in transmission angle.
Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)
Reactive power compensation by means of TCSCs can be
adapted to a wide range of operating conditions. In this configuration, a TCR is connected in parallel to the capacitor bank. This
allows to tune the overall system impedance of the TCSC
according to the varying stystem operation conditions during
dynamic disturbances. Spark gaps and major part of the arresters
can be omitted in this configuration.
Additional benefits of thyristor-controlled series capacitor:
Increase in system stability
Damping of power oscillations (POD)
Load flow control
Mitigation of sub-synchronous torsional interaction (SSTI).

Fig. 2.3-5: View of a TCSC system

For further information:


www.siemens.com/energy/facts

Series compensation
a)

FSC

b)

800 kV
1000 MVAr

TCSC
800 kV
250 MVAr

TPSC
800 kV
500 MVAr

2
5

c)

2
3

1
6

L im

1 Spark gap 2 Capacitor 3 Reactor 4 Thyristor valve(s) 5 Arrester 6 Circuit-breaker


Fig. 2.3-6a: Fixed series capacitor (FSC) connected to the network
Fig. 2.3-6b: Thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) connected to the network
Fig. 2.3-6c: Thyristor-protected series capacitor (TPSC) connected to the network

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.3 Flexible AC Transmission Systems

2.3.3 Synchronous Condenser


Synchronous condenser solutions are being reintroduced
worldwide to support todays transmission system requirements.
The addition of renewables-based power generation to the
energy mix, phase-out of conventional power plants, new HVDC
systems, and the extension of power supply systems to remote
areas influence the stability of transmission systems. Hence, the
installation of synchronous condenser solutions has become
necessary to provide sufficient support to the transmission
systems.
The benefits of synchronous condensers
Provision of short-circuit power and inertia
Steady-stage and dynamic voltage control
Reactive power control of dynamic loads.

Fig. 2.3-7: Synchronous generator

A synchronous condenser solution generally consists of a synchronous generator connected to the high-voltage transmission
system via a step-up transformer. The synchronous generator is
started up and braked with a frequency-controlled electric motor
(pony motor) or a starting frequency converter. When the generator has reached operating synchronous speed depending on
the system frequency, it is automatically synchronized with the
transmission system, and the machine is operated as a motor
providing reactive and short-circuit power to the transmission
system.
The generator is equipped with either a brushless exciter or with
a conventional static exciter with brushes. The two solutions
have different characteristics with respect to dynamic behaviors,
and are selected according to the project requirements. Contrary
to power-electronics-based static var compensators (SVCs), a
synchronous condenser features the major advantages of
injecting large amounts of short-circuit power and providing
inertia due to its rotating mass.

Fig. 2.3-8: Synchronous condenser in Bjaeverskov, Denmark

Synchronous condensers offered as tailor-made turnkey solutions are based on proven, reliable in-house equipment, extensive know-how on transmission system requirements, and
project execution experience. Siemens supplies a broad range of
generators up to 1,300 MVA at nominal frequency. The generators are based on air, hydrogen or water-cooled technologies.
Applications
1. Stabilization of grids with high amounts of wind energy
infeed
The synchronous condenser provides the transmission system
with short-circuit power and reactive power control to operate
the transmission system including an infeed of large amounts
of wind power.
2. Support of HVDC Classic under weak system conditions
The synchronous condenser can increase the short-circuit power
of weak systems. Furthermore it can improve the phase angle
stability of the AC system by providing an additional rotating
mass (increase in inertia time constant).

Fig. 2.3-9: Synchronous condenser building of the HVDC Black Sea


Transmission Network, Georgia

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35

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines
2.4.1 Gas-Insulated Transmission Lines
For high-power transmission systems where overhead lines are not
suitable, alternatives are gas-insulated transmission lines (GIL). GIL
exhibit the following differences to cables:
High-power ratings (transmission capacity up to 3,700 MVA
per system)
High overload capability
Auto-reclosing functionality without overheating risk
Suitable for long distances (70 km and more without
compensation of reactive power)
High short-circuit withstand capability (even in the theoretical
case of internal arc faults)
Possibility of direct connection to gas-insulated switchgear
(GIS) and gas-insulated arresters without cable entrance fitting
Non-flammable; no fire risk in case of failures
Lowest electromagnetic field.

History / Siemens experience


When SF6 was introduced in the 1960s as an insulating and
switching gas, it became the basis for the development of gasinsulated switchgear. On basis of the experience collected with
GIS, Siemens started to develop SF6 gas-insulated lines to transmit
electrical energy. The aim was to create alternatives to air insulated overhead lines with decisively smaller clearances. In the early
1970s initial projects were implemented. More installations in
tunnels and above ground followed. In the course of product
optimization, the initially used insulating medium SF6 was
replaced by a gas mixture where the majority of the insulating gas
is nitrogen, a non toxic natural gas. Only a comparatively small
portion of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is still needed. Thus, the way
was free for environmentally friendly long transmission projects
with GIL. The latest innovation of Siemens GIL is the directly
buried laying technique, which was a further milestone for long
distance transmission with GIL.
Challenges now and in the future
Continuously growing world population and urbanization lead to
a strongly increased demand for bulk power transmission at
extra high voltage, right into the heart of cities. At the same
time, the available space for transmission systems has been
restricted more and more, and environmental requirements such
as EMC and fire protection have gained increased importance.
GIL fulfil these requirements perfectly. Meanwhile power generation is undergoing a conceptual change as well. As natural
resources are limited, regenerative power generation is
becoming more important. Offshore wind parks and solar power
plants are being installed, providing a huge amount of energy at
remote places. Consequently, transmission systems are needed
which allow to transport this bulk power with utmost reliability
and with the least possible losses.
The transmission systems of the future will be measured by their
overall CO2 balance, asking for the minimum possible environmental impact from production of the equipment through

36

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 2.4-1: GIL arrangement in the tunnel of the pumped-storage


power plant in Wehr, Southern Germany (4,000 m length;
in service since 1975)

Magnetic flux density B [T]


High EM compatibitity
Magnetic fields in
microtesla [T] for GIL,
overhead transmission
line and cable (XLPE,
cross-bonding) for a
400 kV double system
at 2 1,000 MVA load,
GIL and cable laid at a
depth of 1 m.

30

Cable

25

Overhead
line

20
15
10
5

GIL

0
Fig. 2.4-2: A comparison of the magnetic fields for different highvoltage transmission systems

t CO2 equivalent 1 GVA (40 a, 1 km)


75,258

80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000

Manufacture
SF6 leaks
Electrical losses

28,466

20,000
10,000
0

GIL

OHL

Fig. 2.4-3: Overall CO2 impact of different transmission systems (one


system)

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

operational while in service until its end of service life. Due to its
properties and low losses, the overall CO2 impact of GIL is clearly
lower than that of traditional overhead-lines, proving the GILs
environment friendliness.
Reliable technology
The gas-insulated transmission line technique is highly reliable
in terms of mechanical and electrical design. Experience over
the course of 35 years shows that after a GIL system is commissioned and in service, it runs safely without dielectrical or
mechanical failures. Consequently, Siemens GIL in service for
decades did not have to undergo their initially planned revision
after 20 years of operation. Instead, a mere inspection was
sufficient as there was no sign of any weak point. From the
operational experience gained with Siemens GIL and GIB, the
Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) was estimated > 213 years
for a 1-km-long GIL system.

Fig. 2.4-4: Long-term test setup at IPH, Berlin

Basic design
In order to meet electrical and mechanical design criteria, gasinsulated lines have considerable cross-sections of enclosure and
conductor, which ensures high-power transmission ratings and
low losses. Because of the geometry and the gaseous insulating
medium, the systems create only low capacitive loads, so that
compensation of reactive power is not needed, not even for
longer distances. The typical technical data of the GIL are shown
in table 2.4-1.
Testing
GIL systems are tested according to the international standard
IEC 62271-204 Rigid high-voltage, gas-insulated transmission
lines for voltages of 72.4 kV and above (fig. 2.4-4, fig. 2.4-5).
The long-term performance of GIL has been proven by tests at
the independent test laboratory IPH, Berlin, Germany, and the
former Berlin power utility BEWAG (now ELIA). The test pattern
was set by adopting long-term test procedures for power cables.
The test procedure consisted of load cycles with doubled voltage
and increased current as well as frequently repeated highvoltage tests. The results confirmed the meanwhile more than
35 years of field experience with GIL installations worldwide.
The Siemens GIL was the first in the world to have passed these
long-term tests without any problems. Fig. 2.4-6 shows the test
setup arranged in a tunnel of 3 m diameter.
Fault containment
Tests have proven that the arcing behavior of GIL is excellent. It
is even further improved by using mixed-gas insulations. Consequently there would be no external damage or fire caused by an
internal fault.
Electromagnetic compatibility allows flexible route planning
The construction of the GIL results in much smaller electromagnetic fields than with conventional power transmission systems.
A reduction by a factor of 15 to 20 can be achieved. This makes
GIL suitable to follow new routings through populated areas
(e.g., next to hospitals or residential areas, in the vicinity of
flight monitoring systems, etc.). GIL can be laid in combined

Fig. 2.4-5: Siemens lab sample for dielectric tests

Technical data short-circuit capacity 63 kA


Rated voltage

Up to 550 kV

Rated current

up to 5,000 A

Transmission capacity

up to 3,700 MVA

Capacitance

60 nF / km

Length

up to 70 km

Gas mixture SF6/N2

20 % / 80 % (400 kV),
60 % / 40 % (500 kV)

Laying

Directly buried
In tunnels, sloping galleries, vertical shafts
Open-air installation, above ground

Table 2.4-1: Technical data of GIL

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37

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

infrastructure tunnels together with foreign elements (e.g.,


close to telecommunication equipment and similar). Thus, GIL
provides maximum flexibility for the planning of transmission
systems, in EMC-sensitive environments, where magnetic fields
have to be avoided. Siemens GIL systems can satisfy the most
stringent magnetic flux density requirements, for example, the
Swiss limit of 1 T (fig. 2.4-4, fig. 2.4-5).

Jointing technique
In order to perfectionize gas tightness and to facilitate laying of
long straight lines, flanges may be avoided as a jointing technique. Instead, welding the various GIL construction units
ensures highest quality (fig. 2.4-6). Siemens welding process is
highly automated by using orbital welding machines. This as
well contributes to high productivity in the welding process and
a short overall installation time. To ensure quality, the welds are
controlled by a new sophisticated ultrasonic testing system
which exceeds even X-ray test standards.
Laying
During the installation process, climatic influences such as rain,
dust, seasons of the year, etc. need to be taken into account. To
meet Siemens requirements for cleanness and quality, the laying
techniques of GIL differ from pipeline technology. To protect the
assembly area against dust, particles, humidity and other environmental factors, a temporary installation tent is set up for the
installation period. In this way, working conditions are created
which meet the standards of modern GIS factories. After the GIL
is installed, these supporting installations are removed completely, and the entire area is re-naturalized. Thus, GIL are well
suitable for use in environmentally protected areas. Due to the
small width of GIL routes, the system is specifically compatible
with the landscape.
Above ground installation
GIL installation above ground are a trouble-free option for use in
properties with restricted public access. The open air technology
is proven under all climatic conditions in numerous installations
all over the world. GIL are unaffected by high ambient temperatures, intensive solar radiation or severe atmospheric pollution
(such as dust, sand or moisture). Due to the use of corrosion
resistant alloys, corrosion protection can be omitted in most
application cases (fig. 2.4-7).

Fig. 2.4-6: Orbital welding of GIL pipes

Fig. 2.4-7: Above ground installation

Fig. 2.4-8: GIL laying technique for tunnel installation

Tunnel installation
Tunnels made up of prefabricated structural elements provide a
quick and easy method of GIL installation especially in densely
populated areas. The tunnel elements are assembled in a digand-cover trench, which is backfilled immediately. The GIL is
installed once the tunnel has been completed. Thus, the open
trench time is minimized. With this method of installation, the
land above the tunnel can be fully restored to other purpose of
use (fig. 2.4-8).
Vertical installation
Gas-insulated tubular lines can be installed without problems at
any gradient, even vertically. This makes them a top solution
especially for cavern power plants, where large amounts of

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 2.4-9: Directly buried GIL

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

energy have to be transmitted from the bottom of the cavern


(e.g., the machine transformer / switchgear) to the surface (overhead line). As GIL systems pose no fire risk, they can be integrated
without restriction into tunnels or shafts that are accessible to
man, and can also be used for ventilation at the same time. Thus,
cost for tunnelling works can be reduced clearly.

The use of GIL in hydro power plant projects with the highest
demand on reliability transporting electricity of 3900 MVA of
power safely and efficiently from the dam to the population
centers is becoming of more importance.
Direct burying
Especially when used in lesser populated areas, directly buried
GIL are a perfect solution. For that purpose, the tubes are safeguarded by a passive and active corrosion protection. The passive system comprises a HDPE coating which ensures at least
40 years of protection. The active system additionally provides
cathodic DC protection potential for the aluminum tubes.
Magentic fields measured at the surface above the line are
minimal. The high transmission power of GIL minimizes the
width of trench. The land consumption is lower by approx.
1/3 related to comparable cable installations (fig. 2.4-9).

Total length, single phase:


Above ground installation:
Tunnel installation:
Directly buried installation:

> 90,000 m
> 55,000 m
> 25,000 m
> 5,000 m

Fig. 2.4-10: References: Gas-insulated transmission lines,


status 2014

References
Siemens has gained experience with gas-insulated transmission
lines at rated voltages of up to 550 kV, and with phase lengths
totalling more than 90 km (2014). Implemented projects include
GIL in tunnels, sloping galleries, vertical shafts, open-air installations, as well as directly buried. Flanging as well as welding has
been applied as jointing technique.
The first GIL stretch built by Siemens was the connection of the
turbine generator pumping motor of the pumped storage power
plant of Wehr in the Black Forest in Southern Germany with the
switchyard. The 420 kV GIL is laid in a tunnel through a mountain and has a single-phase length of ~4,000 m (fig. 2.4-1). This
connection was commissioned in 1975. One of the later installations is the Limberg II pumped-storage power plant in Kaprun,
Austria, which was commissioned in 2010. Here a GIL system
was laid in a shaft with a gradient of 42 . It connects the cavern
power plant with the 380 kV overhead line at an altitude of
about 1,600 meters. The GIL tunnel is used for ventilation
purposes, and serves for emergency exit as well. That resulted in
substantial cost reduction by eliminating the need for a second
shaft in this project (fig. 2.4-11).
A typical example for a city link is the PALEXPO project in
Geneva, Switzerland. A GIL system in a tunnel substitutes
500 meters of a former 300 kV double circuit overhead line,
which had to move for the raised exhibition centre building. The
line owner based his decision to opt for a GIL over a cable solution on the GILs much better values with respect to EMC. Thus,
governmental requirements are met, and high sensitive electronic equipment can be exhibited and operated in the new hall
without any danger of interference from the 300 kV connection
located below it (fig. 2.4-12).

Fig. 2.4-11: GIL laid in shaft with 42 gradient


(Limberg, Kaprun, Austria)

Fig. 2.4-12: GIL replacing overhead line


(Palexpo, Geneva, Switzerland)

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39

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

A typical example for a directly buried GIL is the reference project


at Frankfurt Airport in Kelsterbach, which was commissioned in
April 2011. The GIL solution allows to continue one phase of the
OHL in one phase of GIL, thus reducing the size of both trench
and transition area at the connection points (fig. 2.4-9).

Typical examples for vertically installed GIL are the hydro power
plant projects Xiluodu and Jinping in China energized in 2013.
Xiluodu (fig. 2.4-13) is the longest vertically installed GIL having
an average vertical distance of more than 460 meters from
turbines in the power cavern to the overhead transmission lines
on top of the dam. In total 12 kilometers of welded GIL were
installed divided on 7 GIL systems.
At Jinping (fig. 2.4-14), the worlds tallest HPP dam, three GIL
Systems from Siemens span 230 meters vertical shafts. For this
project, Siemens had to demonstrate its capability of mastering
extremely difficult site conditions, and at the same time accelerate the installation to meet the energization target for the HPP.

Fig. 2.4-13: Vertically installed GIL in Xiluodu, China

For further information, please contact:


Tel.: ++ 49 91 31-7- 2 72 62
E-mail: stefan.schedl@siemens.com

40

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 2.4-14: Jinping, China, the worlds tallest HPP dam

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

2.4.2 High-Voltage Power Cables


Cables intended for the transmission and distribution of
electrical energy are mainly used in power plants, in distribution
systems and substations of power supply utilities, and in
industry. Standard cables are suitable for most applications.
They are preferably used where overhead lines are not suitable.
Cables exhibit the following differences to gas-insulated
transmission lines (GIL):
For operating voltages up to 220 kV, as well as where the rated
design current is below ~2500A, the investment costs for the
primary cable equipment are lower than for other underground
transmission systems
The installation time at site is comparatively short, as long
cable lengths (e.g., up to 800m or even higher depending
on cable design) can be delivered on one drum, which
significantly reduces jointing and installation times
During cable laying, the open-trench-times for earth-buried
systems are comparatively short
Cables do not contain any unbound climate-damaging SF6 gas
The costs of de-installation of a cable plant are significantly
lower; a high level of recycling is possible.

64/110 kV
76/132 kV
67/150 kV

High-voltage
cables
of different
manufacturers

Sealing ends form the termination points of a cable, and serve


as a connection to switchgear, transformers and overhead lines.
Fig. 2.4-16 shows the different types of cable accessories,
fig. 2.4-18 an example of an outdoor sealing end.
Siemens offers vendor-neutral consulting and evaluation of
cable manufacturers, and procurement of high-voltage cables
and accessories, adapted in case of application. The factories of
the cable manufacturers are audited by Siemens chief engineers
taking under consideration all relevant DIN VDE and IEC standards.
In addition, the following engineering tasks can be performed by
specialists from Siemens.

XLPE
insulation

AI wires &
laminated
sheath

Cu corrugated
sheath

127/220 kV
160/275 kV
190/330 kV

230/380 kV
290/500 kV

AI corrugated
sheath
Paper
insulation

Lead sheath

Lead sheath &


copper wires

Fig. 2.4-15: Overview of main cable types

64/110 kV
76/132 kV
67/150 kV

Basic design
There is a variety of high-voltage cables with different design
and voltage levels (fig. 2.4-15).
Cable joints connect lengths of cables in long transmission
routes or at points of repair (example see fig. 2.4-17).

Cu wires &
laminated
sheath

High-voltage
cables
accessories
of different
manufacturers

Outdoor
sealing ends
Cable
sealing
ends

Transformer
sealing ends
GIS
sealing ends

127/220 kV
160/275 kV
190/330 kV

Straith
joints

230/380 kV
290/500 kV

Cable
joints
Transition
joints

Fig. 2.4-16: Overview of cable accessories

Engineering
For operation, cable and accessories must comply with electrical
requirements, and have to satisfy ambient conditions which can
differ significantly depending on location, ground, indoor or
outdoor.
For save project planning of cable installations, the cross-section
of conductor shall be determined such that the requirement
current-carrying capacity lz loading lb is fulfilled for all
operating conditions which can occur. A distinction is made
between the current-carrying capacity
for normal operation
and for short circuit (operation under fault conditions).

Fig. 2.4-17: Slip-on joint

Fig. 2.4-18: Outdoor sealing end

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Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

For high-voltage cables, the current-carrying capacity is to be


examined by means of special calculation tools for each special
case of application. First of all, the laying and installation conditions have to be taken in consideration. Fig. 2.4-19 shows
different laying arrangements.

Laying in ground
The depth of laying a high-voltage cable in ground is generally
taken as 1,20 m, which is the distance below the ground
surface to the axis of the cable or the center of a bunch of
cables. To lay cables in the ground, calculations show that
the load capacity of the cable decreases as depth increases,
assuming the same temperature and thermal resistivity of the
soil. On the other hand, the deeper regions of the ground are
normally moister and remain more consistent than the surface
layers.
Crossing of cable runs can cause difficulties especially when
these are densely packed (hot spot). At such points, the cables
must be laid with a sufficiently wide vertical and horizontal
spacing. In addition to this, the heat dissipation must be assisted
by using the most favorable bedding material (fig. 2.4-20). A
calculation of conductor heat output and temperature rise is
absolutely necessary because the maximum conductor temperature of XLPE cable must not exceed 90 C (fig. 2.4-21).

Example: Current rating for cable 2XS(FL)2Y 1 x 630RM/50 64/110 kV


at different laying conditions
Free in air

In air-filled channel

1082 A
Direct in ground

In pipes in ground

970 A

543 A
In pipes in ground in
thermally stabilized backfill

In ground in thermally
stabilized backfill

600 A

681 A

598 A

Conditions: Cables in trefoil formation, cable screens bonded at both ends,


air temperature 30C, ground temperature 20C, spec. thermally resistivity
of natural 1.0/2.5 km/W, spec. thermal resistivity of thermal stabilized
backfill 1.2 km/W, PVC pipes 150 x 5 mm, laying depth 1200 mm,
dimensions of cable channel width x height x cover: 1000 x 600 x 150 mm,
thermally stabilized backfill in ground 600 x 600 mm, thermally stabilized
backfill for pipes 700 x 700 mm

Fig. 2.4-19: Laying arrangements

Free in air

T4 =

1
1
TC

In covered channels (air filled)

T4 =

TR

Heat dissipation from cable


by convection and radiation

1
1
TC

+ TChannel

TR

Heat dissipation from cable


by convection and radiation,
from the channel to the
environment by
heat conduction

Fig. 2.4-20: Heat dissipation from cables


Temperature distribution for 2 parallel 110 kV cable circuits with
different load currents
Circuit 1

Circuit 2

0A

0A

515 A

515 A

611 A

611 A

Maximum
conductor
temperature:
136 C

Fig. 2.4-21: Temperature distribution for 2 parallel 110 kV cable circuits

42

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

In case of using different laying arrangements in ground for a


cable system, the chain principle The weakest link determines
the strength of the whole chain applies. This means that the
thermally most critical section determines the current-carrying
capacity of the whole cable circuit (fig. 2.4-22).
Laying free in air
The highest load capacity is given when laying the cables free in
air on cable trenches with an unhindered heat dissipation by
radiation and convection.

Buried cable circuit with thermal critical sections (principle)

Standard
trench

Cables
in pipes

Nearby
external heat
sources

Section with
increased
laying depth

2
Chain principle: The weakest link determines the strength of the
whole chain.
The thermally most critical section determines the
current carrying capacity of the whole cable circuit.

When cables are installed directly on a wall or on the floor, the


load capacity has to be reduced by using a factor of 0.95.
However, other heat inputs, e.g. solar radiation must be considered or prevented by use of covers. The air circulation must be
secured, and a calculation of the load capacity is recommended.

Fig. 2.4-22: Different laying arrangements in ground

The same applies to laying cables in air-filled channels.

According to DIN VDE standards, cables have to be installed in


such a way that damage, e.g., by pressure points caused by
thermal expansion, are avoided. This can be achieved by
installing the cables in an approximate sine-wave form (snaking)
and fixing as shown in fig. 2.4-23.

When cables are laid in air, the effects of thermal expansion in


normal operating mode and in cases of being subjected to shortcircuit currents have to be considered.

Cable deflection caused by thermal expansion


Project:
Plant:
Cable type: N2XS(FL)2Y 1x630 RM/50 64/110 kV
Input data
Minimum ambient temperature 0min

0 C

Maximum ambient temperature 0max

40 C

Maximum conductor
temperature

Lmax

90 C

Minimum deflection
(at minimum ambient
temperature)

amin

100 mm

Fixing distance in longitudinal


direction

lS

3.00 m

Additional reduction of fixing


distance (i.e. expansion gap)

lS

0.00 mm

Conductor material

Kupfer

Linear expansion coefficient of


conductor material

Cable expansion and deflection


Maximum thermal expansion
of conductor

l (Lmax)

4.39 mm

Deflection at maximum
conductor temperature

amax (Lmax)

124 mm

Deflection at max. cond.


amax (Lmax; lS) 124 mm
temperature and reduced fixing
distance

Initial deflection [mm]

0.0000162 K1

115
110
105
100
95

10

15

20
25
30
35
40
45
Temperature during installation [C]

Fig. 2.4-23: Snaking of cables

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43

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

Variants of bonding metal sheaths / screens of single cor HV-cables


Bonding at both sides

+ no induced sheath voltage


+ simple cost saving design
circulating sheath currents
additional sheath losses
reduced current carrying capacity

Bonding at single sides


+ no circulating currents
+ increased current carrying capacity
induced voltages at sealing ends
sheath voltage limiters and parallel
earth continuity conductor required

Cross bonding
+ no circulating currents
+ increased current carrying capacity
induced voltages at joints
sheath voltage limiters and sheath
interruption joints required

Fig. 2.4-24: Different types of earthing

Concerning short-circuit currents, DIN VDE stipulates that Singlecore cables must be safely fixed to withstand the effects of peak
short-circuit currents, which means they must withstand the
stresses caused under short circuit, and remain in position such
that neither the cable or the fixing element get damaged.
Earthing
Due to electromagnetic induction, a voltage is induced in the
outer conductor and metallic screen, which depends on the
operating or short-circuit current level. In order to handle all
induced voltages and to guarantee a good earth connection
during a short circuit, the outer conductor and the metallic
sheath must be sufficiently connected to the external earthing
system. Depending on the calculations of the induced voltage,
several different types of earthing can be applied (fig. 2.4-24).
The above-mentioned engineering works and calculations which
are necessary for safe operation of cable systems can completely
carried out by Siemens engineering specialists.
Both-end bonding
For both-end bonding, both ends of the cable screen are connected to the ground. The advantage of the method is that no
standing voltages occur at the cable ends.
The disadvantage is that circulating currents may flow inside the
screen as the loop between the two earthing points is closed
through the ground. As these circulating currents can be as high
as the conductor current itself, they can reduce the cable
ampacity significantly.

44

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

The losses incurred by both-end bonding means that this is the


most disadvantageous earthing system method as far as economic issues are concerned. It is therefore mainly applied in
selected cases and for short distances.
Single-end bonding
For single-end bonding, only one end of the cable screen is
connected to earth while the other end is left floating. The
voltage is induced linearly along the whole cable length, and at
the open end a standing voltage occurs. The open end should
be protected with a sheath voltage limiter. This diminishes the
chance of overvoltages occurring inside the cable screen, protects the cable system, and ensures that relevant safety requirements are upheld.
The advantage of single-end bonding is that losses caused by
circulating currents cannot occur, and the current carrying
capacity is higher.
The disadvantage is the voltage which occurs at one end of the
termination.
Cross bonding
Cross bonding is necessary for long cable segments with joints.
The cross-bonding system consists of three sections, each
followed by a cyclic sheath crossing. At the terminations,
earthing must be solidly bonded to the ground. In an ideal
cross-bonding system, the three sections are of equal length.

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

Fig. 2.4-25: High-voltage cable references worldwide

The advantage of cross bonding is the absence of residual


voltages at the end of the three sections. With no driving voltages, the sheath currents and therefore the losses in the system
are zero. In reality, some minor differences between each section and a low current-flow in the sheath do actually cause some
losses. However, with a good cross-bonding system, the sheath
losses can be kept very low. Another advantage of regular cross
bonding is that at the earthed termination ends the voltage is
zero.
The disadvantages of cross bonding are the increased amount of
additional equipment needed, and the fact that in reality three
sections of equal length cannot always be realized.
Project management
In addition to sales and engineering tasks, Siemens is able to
provide certified project managers for execution of all kind of
high-voltage cable projects. The main competences are:
Elaboration of turnkey proposals, interface clarifications
Support of high-voltage cable projects
Planning of installation (schedule, material, manpower)
Procurement of high-voltage cable components
Order processing in turnkey projects
Commissioning of high-voltage cable systems according to
national and international standards
Fault locations, inspections, modernization of plants
Service, maintenance for high-voltage cable systems.

Installation
The installation of high-voltage cable systems can be carried out
by Siemens installation specialists. All site managers, supervisors
and fitters are certified regarding SCC and EHS. It can be taken
for granted that the fitters are trained on various accessories
directly by main manufacturers. The competences are:
Surveillance of civil and underground works
Turnkey installation of high-voltage cable systems, cable laying
and assembly of accessories up to rated voltages level 500 kV
Commissioning of high-voltage cable systems
Supervision of high-voltage tests at site
After-sales service
Fault repair and retrofitting of plants.
References
Siemens looks back on more than 100 years of experience with
design and installation of high-voltage cable systems. Our
worldwide references of oil cable projects reach back to the
1950, and the references concerning XLPE-cable projects to
the 1980.

For further information, please contact:


Tel.: ++ 49 91 31-7- 2 72 62
E-mail: stefan.schedl@siemens.com

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

45

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

2.4.3 Overhead Lines


Since the very beginning of electric power generation, overhead
transmission lines (OHL) have constituted the most important
component for transmission and distribution of electric power.
The portion of overhead transmission lines within a transmission
and distribution system, depends on the voltage level as well as
on local conditions and practice. In densely populated areas like
Central Europe, underground cables prevail in the distribution
sector, and overhead power lines in the high-voltage transmission sector. In other parts of the world, for example, in North
America, overhead lines are often also used for distribution
purposes within cities. Siemens has planned, designed and
erected overhead power lines for all important voltage levels in
many parts of the world.

Selection of line voltage


For the distribution and transmission of electric power,
standardized voltages according to IEC 60038 are used worldwide. For 3-phase AC applications, three voltage levels prevail:
Low voltage (up to 1 kV AC)
Medium voltage (between 1 kV and 36 kV AC)
High voltage (between 52 kV and 765 kV AC) and higher.
Low-voltage lines serve households and small business consumers. Lines on the medium-voltage level supply small settlements, individual industrial plants and large consumers; the
transmission capacity is typically less than 10 MVA per circuit.
The high-voltage circuits up to 145 kV serve for subtransmission
of the electric power regionally, and feed the medium-voltage
grid. This level is often chosen to support the medium-voltage
level even if the electric power is below 10 MVA. Moreover,
some of these high-voltage lines also transmit the electric power
from medium-sized generating stations, such as hydro plants on
small and medium rivers, and supply large-scale consumers,
such as sizable industrial plants or steel mills. They constitute
the connection between the interconnected high-voltage grid
and the local distribution systems. The bandwidth of electrical
power transported corresponds to the broad range of utilization,
but rarely exceeds 100 MVA per circuit, while the surge impedance load is 35 MVA (approximately).
In Central Europe, 245 kV lines were used for interconnection of
power supply systems before the 420 kV level was introduced for
this purpose. Long-distance transmission, for example, between
the hydro power plants in the Alps and consumers, was done by
245 kV lines. Nowadays, the importance of 245 kV lines is
decreasing due to the existence of the 420 kV transmission
system. The 420 kV level represents the highest operation
voltage used for AC transmission in Central Europe. It typically
interconnects the power supply systems and transmits the
energy over long distances. Some 420 kV lines connect the
national grids of the individual European countries enabling
interconnected network operation (UCTE = Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity) throughout Europe.
Large power plants such as nuclear stations feed directly into the

46

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

420 kV grid. The thermal capacity of the 420 kV circuits may


reach 2,000 MVA, with a surge impedance load of approximately
600 MVA and a transmission capacity up to 1,200 MVA.
Overhead power lines with voltages higher than 420 kV AC will
be required in the future to economically transmit bulk electric
power over long distances, a task typically arising when utilizing hydro, wind and solar energy potentials far away from
consumer centers. Fig. 2.4-26 depicts schematically the range
of application for the individual AC voltage levels based on the
distance of transmission and the power rating. The voltage
level has to be selected based on the task of the line within the
network or on the results of network planning. Siemens has
carried out such studies for power supply companies all over
the world.
High-voltage direct current
However, when considering bulk power transmission over long
distances, a more economical solution is the high-voltage
direct-current (HVDC) technology. Siemens is in the position to
offer complete solutions for such interconnections, starting with
network studies and followed by the design, assistance in project
development and complete turnkey supply and construction of
such plants. For DC transmission no standard is currently available. The DC voltages vary from the voltage levels recommended
in the above-mentioned standardized voltages used for AC.
HVDC transmission is used for bulk power transmission and for
system interconnection. The line voltages applied for projects
worldwide vary between 300 kV, 400 kV, 500 kV, 600 kV
and recently (2007), 800 kV. The selection of the HVDC line
voltage is ruled by the following parameters:
Amount of power to be transferred
Length of the overhead power line
Permissible power losses
Economical conductor size.
The advantages of DC transmission over AC transmission are:
A DC link allows power transfer between AC networks with
different frequencies or networks that cannot be synchronized.
Inductive and capacitive parameters do not limit the
transmission capacity or the maximum length of a DC
overhead transmission line.
The conductor cross-section can be more or less fully utilized
because there is no skin effect caused by the line frequency.
DC overhead power lines are much more economical to built
and require less right-of-way.
Economical considerations/evaluation of DC voltages
Fig. 2.4-27 shows the economical application of DC voltages in
relation to overhead transmission line length and transmitted
power. This graph must be seen as a general guideline. Any
project should be separately evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
The budgets established for this evaluation are based on 2007
figures.

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

Power per circuit

2,000
P

MW
1,000

700 kV

500

200
380 kV
100

220 kV

50

20
110 kV
10

Transmission distance
10

20

50

100

200

km
l

500

Limit of operation
Natural limit of load

Fig. 2.4-26: Selection of rated voltage for power transmission

100

Cost per MW and km (%)

Conclusions:
300 kV voltage level:
The range of 750 and 1,000 km with a power transfer of
600 MW has been evaluated. The line and converter costs have
been added, and transferred into a cost factor per MW power
and km of transmission line. The result shows that for longdistance HVDC transmission, the 300 kV voltage level is not
the optimal solution (refer to 400 kV below). However, this
voltage level is useful in short HVDC interconnectors such as
the Thailand-Malaysia Interconnector, which has a line length
of 113 km.
400 kV voltage level:
The range 750, 1,000 and 1,500 km with a power transfer of
600, 1,000 and 2,000 MW has been evaluated. The line and
converter costs have been added, and transferred into a cost
factor per megawatt power and kilometer of transmission line
length. The result shows that the 400 kV voltage level is a
suitable solution for line lengths of 750 to 1,000 km with
transmitted power of 600 to 1,000 MW.
500 kV voltage level:
The range 1,000 and 1,500 km with a power transfer of 1,000,
2,000 and 3,000 MW has been evaluated. The line and
converter costs have been added, and transferred into a cost
factor per megawatt power and kilometer of transmission line
length. The result shows that the 500 kV voltage level is a
suitable solution for the line lengths of 1,000 km to 1,500 km
with transmitted power of 1,000 to 2,000 MW. However, the
400 kV voltage level can also be competitive in this range of
power and line length.
600 kV voltage level:
The range 1,500, 2,000 and 3,000 km with a power transfer
of 2,000 and 3,000 MW has been evaluated. The line and
converter costs have been added, and transferred into a cost
factor per megawatt power and kilometer of transmission line
length. The result shows that the 600 kV voltage level is a
suitable solution for the line lengths of 1500 km to 3,000 km
with transmitted power of 2,000 MW, and 3,000 MW for lines
up to 2,000 km. However, the 500 kV voltage level can still be
competitive in parts of this range.
800 kV voltage level:
The range 2,000, 3,000 and 4,000 km with a power transfer of
2,000 and 3,000 MW has been evaluated. The line and
converter costs have been added, and transferred into a cost
factor per megawatt power and kilometer of transmission line.
The result shows that the 800 kV voltage level is a suitable
solution for the line lengths of 2,000 km and above with
transmitted power of 2,000 and 3,000 MW. However, shorter
line lengths of 1,500 to 3,000 km with power rating of 3,000
to 7,000 MW can be economically covered with an 800 kV
solution.

50

4,000
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000

Line

300 kV

leng

500
1,000
1,500
2,000
1,500

th (
k

400 kV

m)

1,000

500 kV

2,500
500 3,000

600 kV

itte

sm

n
Tra

MW

er (
pow

800 kV

Fig. 2.4-27: Economical application of DC voltages in relation to overhead transmission line length and transmitted power

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47

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

Selection of conductors and earth wires


Conductors represent the most important component of an overhead power line because they have to ensure economical and
reliable transmission and contribute considerably to the total
line costs. For many years, aluminum and its alloys have been
the prevailing conducting materials for power lines due to the
favorable price, the low weight and the necessity of certain
minimum cross-sections. However, aluminum is a very corrosive
metal. But a dense oxide layer is formed that stops further
corrosive attacks. Therefore, up to a certain level, aluminum
conductors are well-suited for areas in which corrosion is a
problem, for example, a maritime climate.

feature affecting the voltage drop and the energy losses along the
line and, therefore, the transmission costs. The cross-section has
to be selected so that the permissible temperatures will not be
exceeded during normal operation as well as under short-circuit
condition. With increasing cross-section, the line costs increase,
while the costs for losses decrease. Depending on the length of
the line and the power to be transmitted, a cross-section can be
determined that results in the lowest transmission costs. The heat
balance of ohmic losses and solar radiation against convection
and radiation determines the conductor temperature. A current
density of 0.5 to 1.0 A/mm2 based on the aluminum cross-section
has proven to be an economical solution in most cases.

For aluminum conductors, there are a number of different


designs in use. All-aluminum conductors (AAC) have the highest
conductivity for a given cross-section; however, they possess
only a low mechanical strength, which limits their application to
short spans and low tensile forces. To increase the mechanical
strength, wires made of aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys are
adopted. Their strength is approximately twice that of pure
aluminum. But single-material conductors like all-aluminum and
aluminum alloy conductors have shown susceptibility to eolian
vibrations. Compound conductors with a steel core, so-called
aluminum conductor, steel-reinforced (ACSR), avoid this disadvantage. The ratio between aluminum and steel ranges from
4.3:1 to 11:1. An aluminum-to-steel ratio of 6.0 or 7.7 provides
an economical solution. Conductors with a ratio of 4.3 should be
used for lines installed in regions with heavy wind and ice loads.
Conductors with a ratio higher than 7.7 provide higher conductivity. But because of lower conductor strength, the sags are
bigger, which requires higher towers.

High-voltage results in correspondingly high-voltage gradients at


the conductors surface, and in corona-related effects such as
visible discharges, radio interference, audible noise and energy
losses. When selecting the conductors, the AC voltage gradient
has to be limited to values between 15 and 17 kV/cm. Since the
sound of the audible noise of DC lines is mainly caused at the
positive pole and this sound differs from those of AC lines, the
subjective feeling differs as well. Therefore, the maximum surface
voltage gradient of DC lines is higher than the gradient for AC
lines. A maximum value of 25 kV/cm is recommended. The line
voltage and the conductor diameter are one of the main factors
that influence the surface voltage gradient. In order to keep this
gradient below the limit value, the conductor can be divided into
subconductors. This results in an equivalent conductor diameter
that is bigger than the diameter of a single conductor with the
same cross-section. This aspect is important for lines with voltages of 245 kV and above. Therefore, so-called bundle conductors are mainly adopted for extra-high-voltage lines. Table 2.4-2
shows typical conductor configurations for AC lines.

Experience has shown that ACSR conductors, just like aluminum


and aluminum alloy conductors, provide the most economical
solution and offer a life span greater than 40 years. Conductors
are selected according to electrical, thermal, mechanical and
economic aspects. The electric resistance as a result of the conducting material and its cross-section is the most important
Rated voltage
Highest system voltage

[ kV]

20

From a mechanical point of view, the conductors have to be


designed for everyday conditions and for maximum loads
exerted on the conductor by wind and ice. As a rough figure, an
everyday stress of approximately 20 % of the conductor rated
tensile stress can be adopted, resulting in a limited risk of con-

110

220

[ kV]

24
50

120

150

300

435

bundle 2x240

bundle 4x240

bundle 2x560

bundle 4x560

[mm]

9.6

15.5

17.1

24.5

28.8

2x21.9

4x21.9

2x32.2

4x32.2

Ampacity (at 80 C conductor temperature) [A]

210

410

470

740

900

1,290

2,580

2,080

4,160

Conductor diameter

245

420

765

Thermal capacity

[MVA]

14

90

140

340

490

1,700

1,370

5,400

Resistance at 20 C

[/km]

0.59

0.24

0.19

0.10

0.067

0.059

0.030

0.026

0.013

Reactance at 50 Hz

[/km]

0.39

0.34

0.41

0.38

0.4

0.32

0.26

0.27

0.28

Effective capacitance

[nF/km]

9.7

11.2

9.3

10

9.5

11.5

14.4

13.8

13.1

Capacitance to earth

[nF/km]

3.4

3.6

4.0

4.2

4.8

6.3

6.5

6.4

6.1

Charging power
Earth-fault current
Surge impedance
Surge impedance load

[kVA/km]

1.2

1.4

35

38

145

175

650

625

2,320

[A/km]

0.04

0.04

0.25

0.25

0.58

0.76

1.35

1.32

2.38

[]

360

310

375

350

365

300

240

250

260

[MVA]

32

35

135

160

600

577

2,170

Table 2.4-2: Electric characteristics of AC overhead power lines (data refer to one circuit of a double-circuit line)

48

700

[mm2]

Nominal cross-section

123

380

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Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

ductor damage. The maximum working tensile stress should be


limited to approximately 40 % of the rated tensile stress.
Earth wires, also called shieldwire or earthwire, can protect a
line against direct lightning strikes and improve system behavior
in the event of short circuits; therefore, lines with single-phase
voltages of 110 kV and above are usually equipped with earth
wires. Earth wires made of ACSR conductors with a sufficiently
high aluminum cross-section satisfy both requirements.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, more and more earth wires
for extra-high-voltage overhead power lines have been executed
as optical earth wires (OPGW). This type of earth wire combines
the functions just described for the typical earth wire with the
additional facility for large data transfer capacity via optical
fibers that are integrated into the OPGW. Such data transfer is
essential for the communication between two converter stations
within an HVDC interconnection or for remote controlling of
power plants. The OPGW in such a case becomes the major
communication link within the interconnection. OPGW are
mainly designed in one or more layers of aluminum alloy and/or
aluminum-clad steel wires. One-layer designs are used in areas
with low keraunic levels (small amount of possible lightning
strikes per year) and small short-circuit levels.

2
Fig. 2.4-28: Cap-and-pin insulator
(above)
Fig. 2.4-29: Long-rod insulator
with clevis caps

Selection of insulators
Overhead line insulators are subject to electrical and mechanical
stresses, because they have to isolate the conductors form
potential to earth and must provide physical supports. Insulators
must be capable of withstanding these stresses under all conditions encountered in a specific line.

4,520

66

marking

43

66

151

66

HTV silicone rubber


Epoxy-resin reinforced with
ECR glass fibers,
(electrical grade corrosion
resistant)

155

Insulator types
Various insulator designs are in use, depending on the requirements and the experience with certain insulator types:
Cap-and-pin insulators (fig. 2.4-28) are made of porcelain or
pre-stressed glass. The individual units are connected by
fittings of malleable cast iron or forged iron. The insulating
bodies are not puncture-proof, which is the reason for a
relatively high number of insulator failures.
In Central Europe, long-rod insulators made from aluminous
porcelain (fig. 2.4-29) are most frequently adopted. These
insulators are puncture-proof. Failures under operation are
extremely rare. Long-rod insulators show superior behavior,
especially in polluted areas. Because porcelain is a brittle
material, porcelain long-rod insulators should be protected
from bending loads by suitable fittings.
Composite insulators are the third major type of insulator for
overhead power line applications (fig. 2.4-30). This insulator
type provides superior performance and reliability, particularly
because of improvements over the last 20 years, and has been
in service for more than 30 years.

145

The electrical stresses result from:


The steady-state operating power-frequency voltage
(highest operation voltage of the system)
Temporary overvoltages at power frequency
Switching and lightning overvoltages.

Fig. 2.4-30: Glass fiber reinforced composite insulator with ball and
socket fittings (lapp insulator)

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49

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

The composite insulator is made of a glass fiber reinforced


epoxy rod. The glass fibers applied are ECR glass fibers that are
resistant to brittle fracture (ECR = electrical grade corrosion
resistant glass fibers). In order to avoid brittle fracture, the glass
fiber rod must additionally be sealed very carefully and durably
against moisture. This is done by application of silicone rubber.
Nowadays, high temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone is used.

Design of creepage distance and air gaps


The general electrical layout of insulation is ruled by the voltages to be withstood and the pollution to which the insulation is
subjected. The standards IEC 60071-1 and IEC 60071-2 as well
as the technical report IEC 60815, which provides four pollution
classes (the new version will have five classes), give guidance for
the design of the insulation.

The silicone rubber has two functions within this insulator type:
Sealing the glass fiber rod
Molding into insulator sheds to establish the required insulation.

Because IEC 60815 is applicable to AC lines, it should be noted


that the creepage distances recommended are based on the
phase-to-phase AC voltage (UL-L). When transferring these
creepage distances recommended by IEC 60815 to a DC line, it
should be noted that the DC voltage is a pole-to-earth value
(UL-E). Therefore, these creepage distances have to be multiplied
by the factor 3. Furthermore, it should be noted that the AC
voltage value refers to a mean value, while the DC voltage is
comparable to a peak value, which requires a further multiplication with factor 2.

Metal fittings are compressed onto the glass fiber rod at both
ends of the insulator, either with a ball socket or clevis connection fitting. Since the 1980s, compression fittings have been the
prevailing type. The sealing of the area between fitting and silicone housing protecting the rod is most important, and is nowadays done with special silicone elastomer, which offers after
vulcanization the characteristic of a sticky solid, similar to a fluid
of high viscosity.
Advantages of the composite long-rod insulator are:
Light weight, less volume and less damages
Shorter string length compared to cap-and-pin and porcelain
long-rod insulator strings
Up to 765 kV AC and 600 kV DC, only one unit of insulator
(practical length is only limited by the ability of the production
line) is required
High mechanical strength
Vandalism resistance
High performance in polluted areas, based on the
hydrophobicity (water repellency) of the silicone rubber.
Advantages of hydrophobicity are:
Silicone rubber offers outstanding hydrophobicity
over the long term; most other polymeric housing material will
loose this property over time
Silicone rubber is able to recover its hydrophobicity
after a temporary loss of it
The silicone rubber insulator is able to make pollution layers on
its surface water-repellent, too (hydrophobicity transfer)
Low surface conductivity, even with a polluted surface and
very low leakage currents, even under wetted conditions.
Insulator string sets
Suspension insulator sets carry the conductor weight, including
additional loads such as ice and wind, and are arranged more or
less vertically. There are I-shaped (fig. 2.4-31a) and V-shaped
sets in use. Tension insulator sets (fig. 2.4-31b, fig. 2.4-31c)
terminate the conductors and are arranged in the direction of
the conductors. They are loaded by the conductor tensile force
and have to be rated accordingly. Multiple single, double, triple
or more sets handle the mechanical loadings and the design
requirements.

50

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Insulators under DC voltage operation are subjected to a more


unfavorable conditions than they are under AC, due to a higher
collection of surface contamination caused by the constant
unidirectional electric field. Therefore, a DC pollution factor has
to be applied. Table 2.4-3 shows specific creepage distances for
different insulator materials under AC and DC application, and is
based on industry experience published by power supply companies in South Africa and China. The results shown were
confirmed by an experienced insulator manufacturer in Germany. The correction factors shown are valid for porcelain
insulators only. When taking composite insulators into consideration, an additional reduction factor of 0.75 can be applied. The
values for a DC system must be seen as a guideline only, that
must be verified on a case-by-case basis for new HVDC projects.
To handle switching and lightning overvoltages, the insulator
sets have to be designed with respect to insulation coordination
according to IEC 60071-1 and IEC 60071-2. These design aspects
determine the gap between the earthed fittings and the live
part. However, for HVDC application, switching impulse levels
are of minor important because circuit-breaker operations from
AC lines do not occur on DC Back-to-back lines. Such lines are
controlled via their valve control systems. In order to coordinate
the insulation in a proper way, it is recommended to apply and
use the same SIL and BIL as is used for the equivalent AC insulation (determined by the arcing distance).
Selection and design of supports
Together with the line voltage, the number of circuits (AC) or
poles (DC) and type of conductors, the configuration of the
circuits poles determines the design of overhead power lines.
Additionally, lightning protection by earth wires, the terrain and
the available space at the tower sites have to be considered. In
densely populated areas like Central Europe, the width of rightof-way and the space for the tower sites are limited. In the case
of extra-high-voltages, the conductor configuration affects the
electrical characteristics, the electrical and magnetic field and
the transmission capacity of the line. Very often there are contradicting requirements, such as a tower height as low as pos-

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

Cross arm

Cross arm

IEC 60815 level

Porcelain and glass


insulators
AC
system

Conductor

Fig. 2.4-31a: I-shaped suspension insulator set for 245 kV


Conductor
Cross arm

DC
system

Composite
insulators
AC
system

DC
system

I Light

[mm/ kV]

16

39

12

29

II Medium

[mm/ kV]

20

47

15

35

III Heavy

[mm/ kV]

25

59

19

44

IV Very Heavy [mm/ kV]

31

72

24

54

Table 2.4-3: Guideline for specific creepage distances for different


insulator materials

Cross arm

Cross arm

Cross arm

Conductor

Conductor

Fig. 2.4-31b: Double tension insulator set for 245 kV (elevation, top)
Fig. 2.4-31c: Double tension insulator set for 245 kV (plan, bottom)

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

51

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

sible and a narrow right-of-way, which can only be met by


compromises. The minimum clearance of the conductors
depends on the voltage and the conductor sag. In ice-prone
areas, conductors should not be arranged vertically, in order to
avoid conductor clashing after ice shedding.

For low-voltage and medium-voltage lines, horizontal conductor


configurations prevail; these configurations feature line post
insulators as well as suspension insulators. Poles made of wood,
concrete or steel are preferred. Fig. 2.4-32 shows some typical
line configurations. Earth wires are omitted at this voltage level.
For high-voltage and extra-high-voltage power lines, a large
variety of configurations are available that depend on the
number of circuits (AC) or poles (DC) and on local conditions.
Due to the very limited right-of-way, more or less all highvoltage AC lines in Central Europe comprise at least two circuits.
Fig. 2.4-33 shows a series of typical tower configurations.
Arrangement e is called the Danube configuration and is
often adopted. It represents a fair compromise with respect to
width of right-of-way, tower height and line costs.
For AC lines comprising more than two circuits, there are many
possibilities for configuring the supports. In the case of circuits
with differing voltages, those circuits with the lower voltage
should be arranged in the lowermost position (fig. 2.4-33g).
DC lines are mechanically designed according to the normal
practice for typical AC lines. The differences from AC Line layout
are the:

Fig. 2.4-32: Configurations of medium-voltage supports

52

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Conductor configuration
Electric field requirements
Insulation design.
For DC lines, two basic outlines (monopole and bipole), with
variations should be considered. Fig. 2.4-33il show examples
for HVDC line configurations that are valid for all voltage levels.
The arrangements of insulators depend on the application
of a support within the line. Suspension towers support the
conductors in straight-line sections and at small angles. This
tower type offers the lowest costs; special attention should
therefore be paid to using this tower type as often as possible.
Angle towers have to carry the conductor tensile forces at angle
points of the line. The tension insulator sets permanently
transfer high forces from the conductors to the supports. Finally,
dead-end towers are used at the terminations of a transmission
line. They carry the total conductor tensile forces on the line side
(even under unbalanced load condition, e. g., when conductors
of one tower side are broken) and a reduced tension into the
substations (slack span).
Various loading conditions specified in the respective national
and international standards have to be met when designing
towers. The climatic conditions, the earthquake requirements
and other local environmental factors are the next determining
factors for the tower design.
When designing the support, a number of conditions have to be
considered. High wind and ice loads cause the maximum forces
to act on suspension towers. In ice-prone areas, unbalanced

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

Fig. 2.4-33: (ah): tower configurations for high-voltage lines (AC); (il): tower configurations for high-voltage lines (DC)

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53

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

conductor tensile forces can result in torsional loading. Additionally, special loading conditions are adopted for the purpose of
failure containment, that is, to limit the extent of damage.
Finally, provisions have to be made for construction and maintenance.

Depending on voltage level and the acting forces of the overhead line, differing designs and materials are adopted. Poles
made of wood, concrete or steel are very often used for lowvoltage and medium-voltage lines. Towers with lattice steel
design, however, prevail at voltage levels of 110 kV and above
(fig. 2.4-34). Guyed lattice steel structures are used in some
parts of the world for high-voltage AC and DC lines. Such design
requires a relatively flat topography and a secure environment
where there is no threat from vandalism and theft. Guyed lattice
steel structures offer a substantial amount of cost savings with
respect to tower weight and foundation quantities. However, a
wider right-of-way has to be considered.
Foundations for the supports
Overhead power line supports are mounted on concrete foundations. The foundations have to be designed according to the
national or international standard applicable for the particular
project.
The selection of foundation types and the design is determined
by the:
Loads resulting from the tower design
Soil conditions on the site
Accessibility to the line route
Availability of machinery
Constraints of the particular country and the site.
Concrete blocks or concrete piers are in use for poles that exert
bending moments on the foundation. For towers with four legs,
a foundation is provided for each individual leg (fig. 2.4-35). Pad
and chimney and concrete block foundations require good
bearing soil conditions without groundwater.
Driven or augured piles and piers are adopted for low-bearing
soil, for sites with bearing soil at a greater depth and for high
groundwater level. In case of groundwater, the soil conditions
must permit pile driving. Concrete slabs can be used for good
bearing soil, when subsoil and groundwater level prohibit pad
and chimney foundations as well as piles.
Route selection and tower spotting
Route selection and planning represent increasingly difficult
tasks, because the right-of-way for transmission lines is limited
and many aspects and interests have to be considered.
Route selection and approval depend on the statutory conditions
and procedures prevailing in the country of the project. Route
selection nowadays involves preliminary desktop studies with a
variety of route alternatives, environmental impact studies,
community communication hearings and acceptance approval
from the local authorities.

54

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 2.4-34: Typical Central European AC line design with different


voltage levels

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

After the route design stage and approval procedure, the final
line route is confirmed. Following this confirmation and
approval, the longitudinal profile has to be surveyed, and all
crossings over roads, rivers, railways, buildings and other overhead power lines have to be identified. The results are evaluated
with a specialized computer program developed by Siemens that
calculates and plots the line profile. The towers are spotted by
means of the same program, which takes into account the
conductor sags under different conditions, the ground clearances, objects crossed by the line, technical data of the available
tower family, specific cost for towers and foundations and cost
for compensation of landowners.

Pad-and-chimney
foundation

Auger-bored
foundation

2
Rock anchor
foundation

Pile foundation

The result is an economical design of a line that accounts for all


the technical, financial and environmental conditions. Line
planning forms the basis for material acquisition and line erection. Fig. 2.4-36 shows a line profile established by computer.
Siemens activities and experience
Siemens has been active in the overhead power line field for
more than 100 years. The activities comprise design and construction of rural electrification schemes, low-voltage and
medium-voltage distribution lines, high-voltage lines and extrahigh-voltage installations.

Fig. 2.4-35: Foundations for four-legged towers

To give an indication of what has been carried out by Siemens,


approximately 20,000 km of high-voltage lines up to 245 kV and
10,000 km of extra-high-voltage lines above 245 kV have been
set up so far. Overhead power lines have been erected by
Siemens in Germany and Central Europe as well as in the Middle
East, Africa, the Far East and South America.
Outstanding AC projects have been:
The 420 kV transmission lines across the Elbe River in Germany
comprising four circuits and requiring 235 m tall towers
The 420 kV line across the Bosphorus (Crossing II)
in Turkey (1983) with a crossing span of approximately
1,800 m (fig. 2.4-37).
The 500 kV Suez Crossing (1998);
height of suspension tower 220 m
The 420/800 kV Bosporus Crossing III in Turkey (1999).
Furthermore, Siemens has constructed two HVDC interconnectors as turnkey projects that include HVDC overhead transmission lines. The two projects are the 300 kV HVDC interconnector
from Thailand to Malaysia (bipole transmission line, fig. 2.4-38)
and the 400 kV HVDC Basslink project in Australia (monopole
transmission line, fig. 2.4-39ac).

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55

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

f40 = 6.15

302.50

300.70

fE = 6.60

5.74

0.47

6.07

292.00

292.00

16.00
10.00

13.00

f40 = 2.11
282.00

16.20

279.00
2
T+0
DH

1
WA+0
DA

255.00
232.50
175.00

o. D.

286.50

276.50

273.50

281.50

273.00
0.1

0.0
0.0

66.0

132.0

36.0
190.00

280.00

283.00
275.50 270.50
270.00
265.00
284.50
275.00 270.50 272.50
267.50
264.00

0.2

0.3
0.4
264.0
302.0
331.0
360.0
405.0
251.0
291.0
316.0
346.0
386.0
426.0

280.50

106.0

194.0
166.0

M20

Left conductor 251.47 m

1710
6.0
6.0

60.0m 50

190.00

251.0
20 kV line

60.0m

Fig. 2.4-36: Line profile established by computer

56

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

M21

4.0
4.0

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

3
T+8
DH

f40 = 17.46
fE = 16.52

284.20
17.30

16.75

16.38

15.86

Stream

Meadow

Road

Fallow land

Forest

Earth wire:
Conductor:
Equivalent sag:
Equivalent span:

7.55

11.38

Arable land

ACSR 265/35 * 80.00 N/mm2


ACSR 265/35 * 80.00 N/mm2
11.21 m at 40 C
340.44 m

8.44

12.29

Bushes, height up to 5 m

263.00

24.20
f40 = 5.56
fE = 5.87

4
WA+0
DA
223.00

1.45
16.00

270.00
292.50
263.00
266.50

265.50
264.00

0.5
462.0
506.0

534.0
544.0

261.50
258.50

260.00 260.00
260.00

626.0

0.7
666.0
688.0
676.0

0.6
586.0

236.00
247.50

229.00

13.9

209.00
207.00

826.0

0.9
904.0
910.0

0.8
776.0
744.0

804.0

Road to XXX
425.0

223.00
215.50

848.0

Left conductor 235.45 m 169.00


1526
4.0
4.0

234.0

5.8
5.8

Road crossing
at km 10.543

169.00

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57

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2.4 Power Transmission Lines

Tension tower

Suspension tower

Suspension tower

Tension tower

Conductor: 4x3x1 AACSR/AW 1802/226 mm2 on 420 kV


Upgradeable to 2x3x2 AACSR/A W 1802/226 mm2
on 800 kV
Shieldwire: 2x (ASLH-DBBB 1x22E8/125 - A W 33)

64

160

160
64

158
153

127

88

73

728

1,884

502

Dimensions in m

Fig. 2.4-37: 420/800 kV line across the Bosphorus, longitudinal profile

Fig. 2.4-38: 300 kV HVDC interconnector from Thailand to Malaysia


(bipole transmission line)

58

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 2.4-39a: 400 kV HVDC Basslink project in Australia


(monopole transmission line)

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.4 Power Transmission Lines

Fig. 2.4-39b, c: 400 kV HVDC Basslink project in Australia (monopole transmission line)
For further information, please contact:
Fax: ++49 (0)91 31 7-3 20 94
E-mail: dirk.ettrich@siemens.com

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

59

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.5 Grid Access Solutions
for Decentralized Power
Generation

Grid access solutions are custom-engineered solutions for


decentralized generating units and remote loads. They are an
essential part of Smart Grid and Super Grid developments (refer
to chapter 1). Grid access solutions involve reconciling contrasting parameters, such as high reliability, low investment
costs and efficient transmission, in the best possible solution.
For example, in the design of high-voltage offshore platforms for
offshore wind farm connections to the grid (fig. 2.5-1), special
attention is paid to intelligent collection systems at the mediumvoltage level, followed by the design of the high-voltage transmission system and the onshore receiving substation and its
reactive compensation to meet local grid code requirements.
Turnkey proposition and project execution
By offering a turnkey solution (fig. 2.5-2), Siemens provides a
holistic setup of a complex project involving project administration, design and engineering services, subcontracting, procurement and expediting of equipment, inspection of equipment
prior to delivery, shipment, transportation, control of schedule
and quality, pre-commissioning and completion, performanceguarantee testing, and training of owners operating and/or
maintenance personnel.
For both AC and DC transmission technologies, Siemens offers a
broad range of solutions. The technical constraints of a decentralized generating unit or remote loads in connection with AC or DC
transmission systems are well known and addressed accordingly.
The engineering expertise of Siemens is all inclusive from the
conceptual and basic design to digital and real-time simulations,
therefore assuming responsibility for presenting the solution to
the grid owner which is essential in executing such projects.

System and design studies, engineering


The final design and specification of all equipment to be
installed are verified by system and design studies. Important
steps to achieve final design criteria include determining an
optimized economical network within a system of generating
units, integrating this system within the grid, defining and
configuring grid components, carrying out load flow studies and
short-circuit calculations for the entire system.
Moreover, an earthing concept and coordination of the insulation for the entire grid connection must also be defined. The
static and dynamic characteristics must be checked and the
reactive power compensation defined (static and dynamic). The
resonance phenomenon for all elements should be investigated,
from the transmission system itself to cables, transformers,
reactors, wind turbines and capacitor banks. Compatibility and
conformity with grid code requirements must be established, as
well as a control and protection system.
High-voltage offshore platform
Siemens Wind Power Offshore Substation ( WIPOS) is the
optimal solution that ensures long-term offshore operation. With
WIPOS, Siemens marks an innovative role in the design, engineering and installation of offshore platforms (see section 2.5.1
References).
In the offshore wind industry, the word platform reflects two
construction entities, namely the topside where all the highvoltage, medium-voltage and operational equipment are
installed, and the foundation entity which serves as the base
for the topside. Siemens offers optimized designs for both
entities by joining workforces with offshore, maritime and
shipyard experts.
WIPOS (fig. 2.5-3) serves as an interface between the wind
turbines and the mainland, whereby power harvested from wind
is bundled and then passes through the export cables to reach
the point of connection onshore.

Fig. 2.5-1: A comprehensive overview for both AC and DC offshore wind grid connections

60

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.5 Grid Access Solutions for Decentralized Power Generation

Fig. 2.5-2: Siemens executes projects as an EPC contractor

A typical topside comprises a multi-deck construction with the


main deck, where all electro-technical equipment is installed, as
well as a helideck for helicopter landing designed to meet
aviation regulations.
From a complete platform approach, Siemens also offers the
self-lifting platform concept due to its versatility in function, and
the possibility for transportations and installation without
exorbitant efforts by avoiding heavy crane vessels.
Siemens offers a family of WIPOS designs with the flexibility to
meet various offshore weather, tide and seabed conditions with
three main configurations:
WIPOS self-lifting solution
WIPOS topside solution (topside/jacket)
WIPOS floating solution.
Further potential for the size reduction of offshore grid access
platforms is provided by the application of DC compact switchgear (DC CS) in the DC switchyard, see chapter 2.2.

Fig. 2.5-3: A model of Siemens Windpower Offshore Substation


(WIPOS): Siemens supplies comprehensive offshore
grid connection solutions with flexible substation
configurations for both AC and DC applications

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2.5 Grid Access Solutions for Decentralized Power Generation

2.5.1 References
Fig. 2.5-4: The offshore wind farm Lillgrund, consisting of 48
wind turbines, each 2.3 MW, from Siemens Wind Power, is
installed in Oresund. Its location is on Swedish national waters,
roughly 7 km away from the Swedish coast line near to the City
of Malm. The owner is Vattenfall AB, Sweden. The 33/138 kV
transformer substation with its 120 MVA transformer is mounted
on an offshore platform located within the wind farm area.
Power transmission is realized via one three-phase 138 kV XLPE
submarine cable towards the existing substation in Bunkeflo
(Sweden).

Besides the transformer substation on the platform, Siemens


Energy Transmission performed the grid studies as well as the
design and performance studies for the entire wind farm and its
grid connection.

Fig. 2.5-4: 2007 110 MW Offshore Wind Farm Lillgrund, Sweden

In service since late 2007, the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm


provides enough energy for approximately 80,000 homes and
reduces the CO2 emissions by 300,000 tons a year.
Fig. 2.5-5: The offshore wind farms Lynn and Inner Dowsing,
consisting of 54 wind turbines, each 3.6 MW, from Siemens
Wind Power, are located in the Greater Wash area, on Great
Britain national waters. This is roughly 5 km away from the coast
line of Skegness, Lincolnshire. The owner is Centrica Renewable
Energy Ltd., U.K.
The 33/132 kV onshore transformer substation with its two
100 MVA transformers is located at Middle Marsh, approximately
5 km away from the sea wall. Power transmission from the
offshore wind farms is realized via six submarine three-phase
33 kV XLPE cables. Further on to the grid, two 132 kV cables are
used. Besides the transformer substation and the cable system,
Siemens Energy Transmission also performed the grid studies as
well as the design and performance studies for the entire wind
farm and its grid connection.

Fig. 2.5-5: 2008 180 MW Offshore Wind Farm Lynn /


Inner Dowsing, UK

The grid connection was energized in January 2008. Both wind


farms were in full service in autumn 2008. They provide enough
energy for approximately 130,000 homes, and reduce the CO2
emissions by 500,000 tons.
Fig. 2.5-6: The Thanet Offshore Wind Farm, consisting of 100
wind turbines, each 3 MW, from Vestas (Denmark), is located in
the North Sea. It is roughly 11 km away from the coast line of
Kent, Foreness Point. The owner is Thanet Offshore Wind Ltd., U.K.
The 33/132 kV transformer substation with its two 180 MVA
transformers is mounted on an offshore platform located within
the wind farm area. Power transmission is realized via two
three-phase 132 kV XLPE submarine cables. The point of coupling to the grid is a specific switchgear in Richborough, Kent.

Fig. 2.5-6: 2009 300 MW Offshore Wind Farm Thanet, UK

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Apart from the offshore transformer substation, the onshore


substation with its compensation systems (two SVC PLUS) and
harmonic filters, as well as the cable system, Siemens Energy
Transmission also performed the grid studies as well as the
design and performance studies for the entire wind farm and its
grid connection.

The grid connection was energized in autumn 2009, with all 100
wind turbines running by autumn 2010. Now the offshore wind
farm provides enough energy for approximately 215,000 homes,
and reduces the CO2 emissions by 830,000 tons a year.
Fig. 2.5-7: The Greater Gabbard offshore wind farm, planned
with 140 wind turbines, each 3.6 MW, from Siemens Wind
Power (Denmark), is located in the North Sea close to the
Thames Estuary. It is roughly 26 km (respective 46 km) away
from the coast line of Suffolk.

Fig. 2.5-7: 2010 500 MW Offshore Greater Gabbard, UK

The owner is Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds Ltd., U.K. The


33/132 kV transformer substation with its three 180 MVA transformers is mounted on two offshore platforms (Inner Gabbard
and Galloper) located within the wind farm area. Power transmission is realized via three three-phase 132 kV XLPE submarine
cables.
The point of coupling to the grid is realized in Sizewell Village,
Suffolk, where Siemens built a reactive power compensation
substation to allow the wind farm to meet the requirements of
the GB grid code. SVC PLUS multilevel technology is used for all
of the three export circuits.
Here again, Siemens Energy Transmission performed the grid
studies as well as the design and performance studies for the
entire wind farm.
Now the offshore wind farm provides enough energy for approximately 350,000 homes and reduces the CO2 emissions by
1,350,000 tons a year.
Fig. 2.5-8: In September 2009, Siemens was awarded a contract
for the first phase of the offshore grid access solution to the
prestigious London Array wind farm.
The grid access project was completed in two phases. In phase
one, two offshore substations (each with two 150 MVA transformers) will be delivered to collect the 630 MW of power
generated from 175 wind turbines also supplied by Siemens
before transferring it to shore via the main 150 kV export
cables.
Siemens is responsible for the turnkey construction of the
onshore substation. As for the two offshore substations,
Siemens is responsible for the overall layout design to ensure
that the facility functions as a substation, including all primary
and secondary equipment as well as testing and commissioning.

Fig. 2.5-8: 2012 630 MW London Array , UK

Situated 24 km from Clacton-on-Sea, Essex, the system will


generate 1,000 MW of green power, enough to supply the
electricity needs for nearly 600,000 homes across the South East
of England, and will be the largest offshore wind farm in the
world in 2012.
For further information:
www.siemens.com/energy/grid-access-solutions
www.siemens.com/energy/wipos

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BorWin2
800 MW offshore HVDC PLUS link BorWin2, Germany
For the BorWin2 project, Siemens will supply the voltagesourced converter (VSC) system using Siemens HVDC PLUS
technology with a rating of 800 MW. The wind farms Veja
Mate and Global Tech 1 are designed to generate 800 MW and is
connected through Siemens HVDC PLUS link to shore. The
converter is installed on an offshore platform, where the voltage
level is stepped up and then converted to 300 kV DC. The
platform will accommodate all electrical equipment required for
the HVDC converter station, two transformers, four AC cable
compensation reactors and high-voltage gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). The Siemens wind power offshore substation
(WIPOS) is designed as a floating, self-lifting platform. Power is
transmitted via subsea and land cable to Diele close to Papenburg, where an onshore converter station will reconvert the DC
back to AC and feed it into the 380 kV AC network.

Fig. 2.5-9: BorWin 2, 800MW HVDC PLUS, North Sea

HelWin1
576 MW offshore HVDC PLUS link HelWin1, Germany
For the project HelWin1, Siemens is supplying a voltage-sourced
converter (VSC) system with a rating of 576 MW using Siemens
HVDC PLUS technology. The wind farms Nordsee Ost and Meerwind are designed to generate 576 MW and is connected
through a Siemens HVDC PLUS link to shore. The converter is
installed on an offshore platform, where the voltage level is
stepped up and then converted to 250 kV DC. The platform will
accommodate all the electrical high-voltage AC and DC equipment required for the converter station. Similar to the BorWin2
project, the Siemens wind power offshore substation (WIPOS)
will also be designed as a floating, self-lifting platform. Energy is
transmitted via subsea and land cable to Bttel, northwest of
Hamburg, Germany, where an onshore converter station will
reconvert the DC back to AC and transmit it into the high-voltage
grid.

Fig. 2.5-10: HelWin 1, 576 MW HVDC PLUS, North Sea

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2.5 Grid Access Solutions for Decentralized Power Generation

SylWin1
864 MW offshore HVDC PLUS link SylWin1, Germany
Siemens will supply the worlds largest voltage-sourced converter (VSC) offshore system with a rating of 864 MW for the
SylWin1 project. Siemens HVDC PLUS link will connect the Dan
Tysk wind farm to the German shore. The converter is installed
on an offshore platform, where the voltage level is stepped up
and converted to 320 kV DC. The platform will accommodate
all electrical equipment required for the HVDC converter station:
two transformers, four AC cable compensation reactors, and
high-voltage gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). Similar to the
BorWin2 and HelWin1 projects, the Siemens wind power offshore substation (WIPOS) is designed as a floating, self-lifting
platform. The energy is transmitted via subsea and land cable to
Bttel, where an onshore converter station will reconvert the DC
to AC and feed it into the 380 kV AC grid.

Fig. 2.5-11: SylWin 1, 864 MW HVDC PLUS, North Sea

HelWin2
690 MW offshore HVDC PLUS link HelWin2, Germany
Siemens Energy in consortium with the Italian cable manufacturer Prysmian is erecting HelWin 2, the link between the North
Sea offshore windfarm Amrumbank West and the onshore grid.
The customer is TenneT TSO GmbH of Bayreuth, Germany. The
grid connection, designed as a high-voltage direct-current
transmission link, has a rating of 690 megawatts (MW). Amrumbank West is built in the North Sea, about 55 kilometers from
the mainland, 35 kilometers north of Helgoland, and 37 kilometers west of the North Frisian island of Amrum. The wind
farm will have a power capacity between 300 and 400 MW.
Together with the Meerwind and North Sea East offshore windfarms, Amrumbank West is part of the North Sea cluster HelWin.

Fig. 2.5-12: HelWin 2, 690 MW HVDC PLUS, North Sea

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2.6 SIESTORAGE
2.6.1 The Modular Energy Storage
System for a Reliable Power Supply

As part of Totally Integrated Power, SIESTORAGE Siemens


Energy Storage exemplifies the motto We bring power to the
point. Renewable energy sources have already become key
power sources in the current energy mix. Their heavy penetration and the growth of distributed generation have changed the
structure of power grids (fig. 2.6-1 and 2.6-2). However, the
unpredictable nature of renewable energy generation capacity
can lead to fluctuations and imbalances between generation and
load, affecting grid stability and power quality.
To ensure an stable and reliable power supply, Siemens has
developed SIESTORAGE, a sustainable and modular stationary
energy storage and power flow management system that combines fast-acting power regulation function and lithium-ion
batteries. The batteries are supplied by world leading manufacturers. In case of an imbalance between production and consumption, the system can either release power into the grid, or
store it in milliseconds, thus controlling the frequency of the grid.

Fig. 2.6-1: SIESTORAGE offers solutions for distribution systems with


a high share of distributed renewable energy sources

The challenge: Reliable power supply


The use of renewables on a large scale leads to new challenges
for grid stability: Short-circuit power is a measure for grid stability which producers using wind and solar energy can usually
not provide. The infeed of energy from distributed sources can
cause a reversed load flow. In distribution grids not designed for
this event, damages and power outages can be the result. Even
the shortest interruption of energy supply can lead to a complete failure of production plants and result in an enormous loss
of quality and time, along with noticeable financial damage. A
sufficient amount of balancing energy needs to be provided to
secure a constant high quality of power supply.
The answer: SIESTORAGE
SIESTORAGE is able to deliver available power with next to no
delay by providing balancing power for primary reserve power.
Indeed it improves the voltage and supply quality by providing
active and reactive power on demand, thus compensating for
low voltage fluctuations in generation within milliseconds. In
this way, SIESTORAGE can be readily adapted to specific power
demands and storage capacities, and therefore used for a wide
range of applications (fig. 2.6-3).
Saving potentials
This is dependent on the specific application. Everything begins
with the analysis of the grid to determine the adequate business
model. Siemens offers a complete consultation package that
includes power flow calculation and reactive power analysis,
contingency analysis, short-circuit current calculation, probabilistic reliability analysis, dynamic stability calculation, and
protection coordination. The optimized efficiency of an application also depends on the local regulation and on potential
financial incentives. SIESTORAGE can therefore play a key role
in the achievement of ambitious climate goals.

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Fig. 2.6-2: SIESTORAGE offers solutions for distribution systems with


a high share of distributed renewable energy sources

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.6 SIESTORAGE

Bulky storage
Resource adequacy
Frequency regulation
Time shifting
Renewable firming

Ancillary services
Spinning reserve
Ramping control
Black start
Reactive power

Upgrade deferral
Renewable smoothing
Congestion relief
Voltage support

Peak load management


Power quality
Backup power
Offset diesel

Fig. 2.6-3: Spot-on for a wide range of applications

Siestorage offers more


Consistency
Comprehensive range from LV, MV and energy storage
components to power supply solution expertise
One-stop-shop
From planning via installation to commissioning and services
Safety
Overall safety equipment, proven components and battery
systems
Reliability
Power supply in milliseconds and high redundancy of the
system for more availability
Efficiency
Optimization and saving potential for a wide range of
applications
Flexibility
Modular concept for all needs of storage power and capacity
up to 20 MW/20MWh
Advanced technology
State-of-the-art components combining cutting-edge power
electronics and Li-ion batteries.

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2.6 SIESTORAGE

2.6.2 Spot-on for a Wide Range


of Applications
Thanks to SIESTORAGE, energy can be taken from the grid during
low load periods, and stored for peak load periods. This way,
SIESTORAGE provides a cost-efficient and sustainable solution
for industrial processes, infrastructure businesses, and energyefficient building. SIESTORAGE ensures furthermore the reliability of electrical grids for isolated sites and areas where access
to power is limited, and the system is able to guarantee energy
reliability even in the case of an outage. The black-start capability of SIESTORAGE makes the start-up of a grid possible when
the main supply is not available. The energy stored is sufficient,
e.g., to start a gas turbine and bridge the grids power requirements.

Integration of renewables
SIESTORAGE makes it possible to integrate an increasing amount
of solar and wind power into distribution grids without having to
extend them immediately. Thus, the system not only contributes
to grid relief, but also can buffer additional capacity for e.g.,
electromobility (fig. 2.6-4) and public transport. In case a PV or
wind system is connected as a power source, weather and
seasonal dependencies as well as the forecastability of these
dependencies must be looked into.

Fig. 2.6-4: SIESTORAGE can be used for performance buffering at


electric vehicle charging stations

Offset diesel
Microgrids with renewable generation or industrial businesses
with large amounts of power require a self-sufficient reliable
supply of energy. SIESTORAGE stores energy in case of high
generation, and releases it on demand. This makes the system
an eco-friendly alternative to diesel generators. With SIESTORAGE,
the size of generators can be optimized, since it functions as
range extender to smaller gensets. SIESTORAGE is able to
reduce the runtime of diesel generators (switching off at lower
loads), thus providing lower fuel consumption and gas emissions for a better environmental footprint.
T & D deferral
The growing demand for energy and the rising share of renewables can make power supply systems reach the limits of their
transmission capacity. This makes the costly extension of power
supply systems necessary. In case of imminent overloads,
SIESTORAGE stores energy that cannot be transmitted over the
power supply system. It is fed back into the system during low
load levels to avoid a system overload. A costly extension of the
power supply system can be avoided, and consequently grid
operators are better able to meet the high energy demands of
industrial and infrastructure businesses.
Spinning reserve
The variation between power generation and actual load is
compensated with the help of spinning reserve. SIESTORAGE
reliably provides balancing power within milliseconds, guaranteeing a constant energy supply and cost savings for power
generation, and the provision of additional reserve power. In
addition to that, the stored renewable energy can be traded at
electricity exchanges in a more targeted manner.

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Fig. 2.6-5: SIESTORAGE ensures high reliabiity and quality of the


energy supply for industrial production processes

Peak load management


Industrial businesses and grid operators agree on fixed prices for
power and maximum load. However, production factors can
cause peak loads. Even a single case of exceeding the agreed
maximum load causes high costs. SIESTORAGE stores energy in
times of low energy consumption , providing reliable energy for
peak loads with next to no delay. (fig. 2.6-5). This means that
industrial businesses need not use their own generators for
short-time peak loads, and thus support eco-friendly operation
with SIESTORAGE.

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.6 SIESTORAGE

2.6.3 High Power Availability


and Reliability
The modularity of SIESTORAGE enables the highest design
flexibility. The system can be combined and adapted to suit any
system operators needs. It comprises an inverter cabinet, a
control cabinet, a grid connection cabinet, and up to five battery
cabinets per inverter (depending on the supplier).

The system can reach a performance of up to 20 MW and can be


integrated into a standard container.
Thanks to the parallel connection of the inverters on the AC side,
the very high redundancy of SIESTORAGE is an advantage in
case of a single point of failure, which has no influence on the
availability of the storage system. This leads to the highest
availability of power, and a high reliability. Through individual
balancing of the battery cabinets, the installed battery capacity
is optimized at the maximum, providing more reliability by
minimum maintenance (fig. 2.6-10).

Fig. 2.6-6: Inverter cabinet

Fig. 2.6-7: Grid connection


cabinet

Fig. 2.6-8: Control cabinet

Fig. 2.6-9: Battery cabinet

Inverter cabinet (fig. 2.6-6) fig. 2.6-10 B


Width: 600 mm, depth: 600 mm, height: 2,200 mm
2 inverter modules and related control equipment
Each module:
V nominal: 400 V
I nominal: 170 A
S nominal: 118 kVA
P nominal: depending on the battery type
Grid connection cabinet* (fig. 2.6-7) fig. 2.6-10 A
Width: 400 mm, depth: 600 mm, height: 2,200 mm
Cable tap for grid connection
Busbar systems.
Control cabinet (fig. 2.6-8) fig. 2.6-10 C
Width: 800 mm, depth: 600 mm, height: 2,200 mm
Human Machine Interface (HMI)
System Control Unit (SCU)
Ethernet switch
24 V DC power distribution
Auxiliary power transformer*
Battery cabinet (fig. 2.6-9) fig. 2.6-10 D
Width: 600 mm, depth: 650 mm, height: 2,200 mm
Content example (depending on supplier):
14 modules
1 BMS (Battery Management System)
Power: 90 kW
Capacity: 45 kWh

Fig. 2.6-10: The 4 components in the SIESTORAGE system

* optional

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2.6 SIESTORAGE

A modular concept to address all needs of storing power


and capacity
The SIESTORAGE system is scalable according to your power
needs (from 500 kW up to 20 megawatts at a capacity of
500 kWh/20 MWh) and can be installed in standard containers.

4 Power Stacks Content (fig. 2.6-12)


2 inverter cabinets (with max. 2 inverter modules)
1 control cabinet
1 grid connection cabinet (optional)
X battery cabinets*
Power: max. 472 kVA
Rated capacity: up 180 to 900 kWh
12 Power Stacks Content (fig. 2.6-13)
6 inverter cabinets with max. 2 inverter modules
1 control cabinet
1 grid connection cabinet (optional)
X battery cabinets*
Rated power: 1,080 kW (scalable)
Rated capacity: up 540 to 2,700 kWh (scalable)

Fig. 2.6-12: 4 Power Stacks

Example of a containerized integrated solution (2x12 Power


Stacks fig. 2.6-14)
incl. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) control,
fire detection and extinguishing system
Rated power: 2,160 kW (scalable)
Rated capacity: 1,080 kWh (scalable)
* max. 5 connected to one inverter module

Fig. 2.6-13: 12 Power Stacks

Fig. 2.6-11: SIESTORAGE has been installed with a performance of


1 MVA and a capacity of 500 kWh in the MV distribution
grid of ENEL in Italy

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Fig. 2.6-14: Example of an integrated containerized solution

Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.6 SIESTORAGE

2.6.4 Benefits of Comprehensive


Competence
Comprehensive and consistent portfolio
With its comprehensive competence, Siemens contributes to
maximizing returns and optimizing energy consumption.
Decades of experience and continuous innovation are the basis
for this know-how. The results are integrated solutions with
state-of-the-art components ranging from storage components,
including power electronics, to LV and MV switchgear, transformers and energy automation, all of which ensure grid integration. In addition, Siemens provides the HVAC system (heating/
ventilation/air conditioning) for smooth operation at high
ambient temperatures, as well as a fire detection and extinguishing system (fig. 2.6-11). As an E-house manufacturer,
Siemens has expertise in power packaging, and can deliver a
ready-to-install solution that has been thoroughly developed,
manufactured, assembled and pre-tested. This reduces both
construction risks and installation time.
Single source through all phases of the project (fig. 2.6-16)
Siemens is with its customers every step of the way through all
phases of the project, from engineering to installation and
commissioning. Reliable and competent local support is provided
right from planning to after-sales service. Components and
auxiliary equipment are globally sourced, and integrated in an
E-House or the customers building. Siemens experts bring their
experience in project management, financial services, and life
cycle management to every project around the globe.

Technology expertise

Implementation expertise

Power electronics and storage

Experience with grid operators

system
Low- and medium-voltage
switchgear
Transformers
Energy automation and grid

E-house manufacturing
Power packaging solution
expertise
One of the leaders in smart
systems

integration
Fig. 2.6-15: With SIESTORAGE, customers benefit from the
consistency of Siemens portfolio and advanced
technology

After-sales service
Our after-sales service concept is based on a Customer Support
Center (hotline) available 24/7. It offers professional maintenance services, scheduled or on call. Life time of the batteries
can be extended by tracking crucial parameters and optimizing
operation.

For further information:


www.siemens.com/siestorage
Hotline:
Phone: +49 180 524 84 37
Fax: +49 180 524 24 71
E-mail: support.ic@siemens.com

Consulting,
planning

Engineering

Order,
delivery

Installation,
commissioning

Operation

Service,
modernization

Fig. 2.6-16: Project life cycle management

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2.7 E-Houses for Power
Distribution
2.7.1 Plug-and-Play Power Supply
Solution

E-Houses are pre-fabricated electrical buildings (power equipment


centers) that are fully equipped and pre-tested for a fast and
reliable power supply. They accommodate our comprehensive
portfolio of medium-voltage switchgear, low-voltage switchboards, busbar trunking systems, and auxiliary equipment
(fig 2.7-1).
The E-Houses are completely developed, manufactured, assembled and pre-tested at the factory, connected, and put into
operation on site. They are therefore fast and easy to install and
can be used as an interim solution. They are easy to upgrade,
using available space optimally. This makes them a time-efficient
and cost-effective alternative to conventional site-built substations for a broad range of applications.
Benefits of an E-House at a glance
Cost-effective
Fast to install
Flexible
One-stop solution.
A true alternative to conventional site-built power substations
A conventional solid building is often too expensive or timeconsuming for many projects. In other cases, the project schedule
or the attributed restricted space do not allow for site-built
construction, and sometimes building permits for conventional
buildings are not available. E-houses are the ideal solution in all
these cases. They can be installed in very little time, and they can
be adapted to virtually any situation and application, E-Houses
have been a standard solution for power supply in the oil and gas
(fig. 2.7-3), as well as in the mining industry (fig. 2.7-4) for many
years. They are used ever more frequently for the installation of
equipment in other industries (e.g., metals and chemicals) and in
infrastructure facilities (e.g., data centers, ports), or by grid
operators for the extension of distribution grids, critical and
temporary power supply, grid connection, and balance of plant
for fossil and renewable power generaration.

Fig. 2.7-1: E-House Project Nacala (South Africa)

Fig. 2.7-3: E-House in O&G: 3 container modules on cast-in-situ foundation for Pearl GTL in Qatar (developed by QP and Shell)

Fig. 2.7-2: E-House: Completely developed, manufactured, assembled and pre-tested at the factory; shipped as one single unit or in splitting
sections; installed, connected, and commissioned on site

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2.7 E-Houses for Power Distribution

2.7.2 Cost-Effective Solution


The standardization and the modular design of E-Houses lead to
more flexibility and cost-efficiency. The expected saving
potential for typical projects with E-Houses is up to 20 %
(fig. 2.7-5a) of the total costs of ownership, regarding:
Reduced cost in planning
Reduced manpower on-site (pre-fabricated)
Reduced civil works on-site
Reduced construction risks
Flexible and space saving design
Possible interim solution and relocation.

2
Fig. 2.7-4: E-house provides energy to all the processes of mineral
foundry in the mining industry (Cerro Matoso in Columbia)

2.7.3 Time-Efficient Solution


E-Houses are fast and easy to install. Compared to a conventional site-built construction, the overall lead time using an E-House
is reduced up to 50 % (fig. 2.7-5b), thanks to:
Reduced civil works due to pre-fabrication and pre-test
Reduced installation time through Plug, commission and play
Reduced construction delays (e.g., due to weather)
Minimum interference with other on-site activities
Reduced time in planning thanks to modular design
Reduced time in planning (in case a construction permit is not
required).

2.7.4 Flexible and Optimized Design


Thanks to their modular design, various E-House types allow for
tailor-made space saving solutions that can easily be expanded
or moved to another location. The project and application
requirements determine the type of an E-House:
One module , e.g. on pre-cast concrete foundation

Multi-modular E-Houses with several modules that are placed on


top of or next to each other on a foundation, for the transport of
large E-Houses and the optimal use of available space
Mobile modules on wheels or for relocation with own
foundation.
The design requirements of an E-House are also dependent on
the environmental conditions:
Weather (temperature, humidity, rain fall, snow and hail, ice
and frost)
Environment (altitude, radiation, wind loads, atmospheric
pollution)
Hazardous environment/substances (chemicals dangerous
gases and vapors, dusts)
Seismic conditions
Corrosion classification.
E-Houses can be installed on raised platforms to protect them
from flooding and enabling the installation of cable tray and bus
duct systems under the E-House without excavation.

Cost saving potential up to 20%


Expected cost reduction for typical projects with E-Houses

Reduced lead time up to 50%


Scenario simulation with a conventional solution and an E-House

-50% on planning due to standardization


Up to -80% on-site work due to pre-fabrication

Planning/
Controlling cost

20%

Equipment
cost

45%

-10%
-25%

Current cost
to customer

Fig. 2.7-5a: Cost saving potential up to 20 %

10%

5%

80% -20%

Todays lead
time with a
conventional
solution

Year 3
Installation
Commissioning

35%

Year 2

Civil work

Civil
cost

Year 1

Planning

100%

Additional costs of E-House enclosure


compared to conventional building
Extra shipping costs

35%
Main drivers

45%

Expected cost
to customer

Tomorrows
lead time
time with
an E-House

Standardization

Factory-built
Less interfaces

Factorytested

-50%

Fig. 2.7-5b: Reduced lead time up to 50 %

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Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.7 E-Houses for Power Distribution

Optimized design fitted to our MV and LV portfolio (fig. 2.7-8)


The design of an E-House starts with the overall electrical layout.
The equipment list has to be defined as a first step. Every variable is taken into account, from the dimensions and heat dissipation to the weight of the electrical equipment for load calculation (fig. 2.7.7) and all the way to the project requirements such
as cable layout, external interfaces, etc. The structural and
mechanical design is then performed on the basis of structural
and seismic calculations and simulations in 3D (fig. 2.7.6). The
most widely used designs use self-framing, interlocking wall and
roof panels that are installed on a structural steel base. The manufacturing or procurement of wall, roof and floor panels also
depends on the project requirements (environment), on standards, and on the weight of the equipment to be installed.
Further steps during the design process include planning of
HVAC (heat ventilation air conditioning) access doors and exproofed battery rooms with separate ventilation, for example, all
essential parts of the design process focusing on maximum
personnel and equipment safety.

Fig. 2.7-6: Structural and mechanical analysis are performed on


calculations as well as on simulations in 3D

Auxiliary equipment for equipment utilization and ambient


conditions
Last but not least, there is a wide range of auxiliary equipment
that can be selected according to the local, individual environment, health and safety requirements, standards, and regulations. It includes lighting and earthing systems, sockets, distribution boards, cable trays, electrical metallic tubing, and plug
accessories.
To ensure safe operation, E-Houses are equipped with fire and
smoke detection systems, fire fighting systems, emergency exits,
and access control. A heating, ventilation and air conditioning
system (HVAC) for smooth operation at high ambient temperatures, can be installed on the roof, inside or outside of any
E-House. Air filtration systems, gas-detection and pressurization
systems can be added (e.g. for hazardous areas).
With our E-Houses, you benefit from a single interface competence for the overall electrical design, the structural mechanical
design, HVAC design, and the procurement of the auxiliary
equipment.

Fig. 2.7-7: Load calculation in order to ensure the structural integrity


of the E-House

Benefits
High flexibility due to modular design
Space saving design
Optimized design, fitted to our comprehensive and consistent
MV and LV portfolio.

Fig. 2.7-8: Optimized design fitted to our MV and LV portfolio

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2.7 E-Houses for Power Distribution

2.7.5 One-Stop Solution


Comprehensive and consistent portfolio
With its comprehensive and consistent portfolio, Siemens
contributes to maximizing returns, and optimizing energy
consumption. Decades of experience and continuous innovation
are the basis for this know-how. The results are integrated
solutions with state-of-the-art components ranging from:
Low-voltage and medium-voltage switchgear (GIS and AIS) up
to 52 kV
Low-voltage and medium-voltage motor control centers (MCC)
and main distribution centers (MDB)
Variable frequency drives (VFD)
Dry-type transformers
Control and protection panel boards
SCADA and energy automation systems
Relay panels
Busbar trunking systems.
In addition, E-Houses are equipped with batteries, instrumentation, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and a wide range of
auxiliary equipment. With our E-Houses, system operators
benefit from the consistency of Siemens advanced technology
and expertise in power supply solutions. Everything from a
single source!

Engineering
Network design

Project
management

One interface through all phases of the project (fig. 2.7-9)


Siemens is with its customers every step of the way through all
phases of the project, from engineering to installation and
commissioning. Reliable and competent local support is provided
right from planning to after-sales service. Components and
auxiliary equipment are globally sourced, and integrated in the
E-House. Siemens production facilities and centers of competence are found around the globe. Siemens supports the local
creation of value, and guarantees a competent contact person in
close reach of every project. Siemens experts bring their experience in project management, financial services, and life cycle
management to every project. This enables them to consider any
aspect of safety, logistics, and environmental protection.

Benefits
All equipment from a single source
Reliability and safety thanks to proven Siemens products and
systems
Application expertise
Global experience
One contact for the entire project
Financing support.

Global sourcing
and Integration

Installation and
commissioning

After-sales
services

Worldwide centers of competence and global footprint


C onsulting
P lanning
E xpertise
I ntegration design

S tandard PM process
(based on CMMI,
PMI, PMBOOK)
C ertified project staff
R egular MPM
assessments
Q uality expediting

F ull integration of all


distribution equipment
W orldwide sourcing
G lobal Siemens
product range
I EC and ANSI

E HS and quality
management
C onstruction and
site management
C ommission planning
and execution

Training
Warranty
Organization of
after-sales service

Fig. 2.7-9: From engineering to after-sales service: complete integration from a single source

For further information:


www.siemens.com/e-house

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Power Transmission and Distribution Solutions


2.8 Microgrids The Next
Step towards an Efficient
Use of Distributed Resources

A microgrid is electricity generation and loads, and in some


cases storage, managed collectively in a network. Besides electricity, microgrids may include other vectors such as heat, gas,
water. Microgrids manage energy resources according to a given
set of criteria. They may be operated in off-grid, on-grid as well
as in dual mode to optimize technical (e.g., power quality,
frequency) and economic aspects (e.g., optimal use of renewable energy). In an optional emergency mode, the microgrid
provides blackstart capabilities.
Siemens microgrid management systems (fig. 2.8-1)
Optimize use of intermittent generation, and increased
efficiency by combining heat and electricity generation
Increase stability of supply and grid resilience through on- and
off-grid functionality
Optimize energy management for reduced or better controlled
energy costs and CO2 footprint
Optimize economic performance of energy system through
peak load management and limitation of grid extensions.

2.8.1 Operation, Monitoring,


Administration, Planning All Under
One Roof
The Siemens microgrid management system monitors and controls
grids with large and small distributed energy generators, renewable
assets, storage and loads. The scalable system helps to automate,
display, alarm and control all elements in the grid, thus assuring the
needed quality of supply at all times. It generates schedules,

automatically monitors their observance, and readjusts them in real


time. This is enabled by automatic switching sequences based on
rules or forecasts that draw on a large number of constantly updated
parameters such as weather forecasts, type of plant or power price.
Siemens solutions also help to efficiently incorporate such as
cogeneration plants. Intelligent networking of energy infrastructure
using Siemens microgrid management systems not only increases
the added value of the power supply, but also protects its operation
from outages, regardless of whether the microgrid is connected
to the supply network or not. Siemens solutions are flexible and
expandable today and in the future (fig. 2.8-2).
Intelligently managing microgrids
Siemens microgrid management systems are the ideal solution
to ensure the most optimized control of fluctuating electricity
generators within a microgrid. The tailored solutions meet the
individual challenges of each power scenario with a modular
structure and flexible scalability. This means that our customers
receive a software solution exactly tailored to their needs.
Microgrid administration comprises a range of intelligent,
versatile and user-friendly tools for a wide range of applications.
End-to-end SCADA and numerous functions for forecasting, planning and real-time optimization support in:
Monitoring and controlling the microgrid components
Monitoring and controlling generation
Monitoring and controlling consumption
Providing ancillary services
Buying and selling power.
It is flexible, direct and progressive.
Benefits
All equipment from a single source
Reliability and safety thanks to proven Siemens products
Application expertise
Global experience
One contact for the entire project
Financing support.

Fig. 2.8-1: Microgrid with one common point of coupling to the utility grid

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2.8 Microgrids The Next Step towards an Efficient Use of Distributed Resources

Fig. 2.8-2: Operation, monitoring, administration, planning all under one roof

Trouble-free engineering
The intuitive design tools are a core element in the microgrid
management system. Even the most complicated power infrastructures can be represented digitally with just a few clicks of
the mouse. This saves time and minimizes the potential for error,
thanks to many automatic support functions.
Benefits of a fully integrated microgrid solution
Modular construction, flexible and scalable
Reliable microgrid operation
Intuitive modeling and parameterization
Intelligent forecasting and planning
Simple, real-time optimization
Incorporation of distributed generators, storage units and loads
No 24/7 operator required.

2.8.2 Microgrid Market Segments


According to todays experience and publications, there are four
major microgrid market segments:
Institutional microgrids the challenges of renewable
energy
Rising energy prices, as well as reliable and resilient energy are
increasingly becoming concerns to large energy consumers.
Fundamental business changes such as market deregulation
offer new opportunities for corporations, governmental organizations, municipalities and universities to manage their energy
supply optimized for their own use. Siemens delivers tailored
solutions to meet energy goals, like energy reliability, sustainability, resiliency, or economic aspects. By adding renewable
generation sources and storage to the microgrid, the reliability
of energy supply increases, and costs are reduced. As multiple

Fig. 2.8-3: Institutional microgrids the challenges of renewable


energy

generation sources and energy assets are added to a microgrid,


advanced control functionality is required to ensure the system
is operating as efficiently as possible (fig. 2.8-3).
Critical infrastructures microgrids renewable energies in
critical environments
For operation of critical power grid infrastructures, the increasingly deregulated energy market, and the advances in renewable
energy sources offer both opportunities and challenges. The use
of renewables to supply critical infrastructure increases the

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2.8 Microgrids The Next Step towards an Efficient Use of Distributed Resources

independence from grid supply and lowers operating costs,


especially since surplus electricity can be sold. If storage systems
are used, operations can to take the form of an electrical island,
providing security in case of emergencies such like storms.
Fluctuations in electricity generation in a microgrid demand
intelligent control mechanisms, reliable forecasts, and especially in island mode a balance between available power and
power consumed (fig. 2.8-4).

Remote locations microgrids stable power supply for


weak grids
For the operation of power grids in remote locations, the
advances in renewable energy sources offer both opportunities
and challenges: By incorporating renewable and storage facilities in the supply systems, operators can cut their power costs
dramatically while increasing grid availability even in poorly
supplied areas. Wherever the transportation of fossil fuels over
long distances is costly and unreliable, the use of wind or solar
plants can take a lasting improvement in terms of both independence and economic efficiency. Fluctuations of electricity generation in a microgrid demand intelligent control mechanisms as
well as reliable load and generation forecasts. It is essential to
maintain a balance between energy generated and energy
consumed (fig. 2.8-5).
Industrial microgrids modern energy challenges
and chances
Operators of industrial power grids face two major challenges:
They need to optimize their average production costs which
includes ensuring a secure and reliable power supply to assure
production and at the same time reducing CO2 emissions. The
use of renewables to supply industrial facilities reduces both CO2
emissions and the requirement for imported electricity. This
lowers operating costs, especially since surplus electricity can be
sold. If storage systems are used, it allows operations to take the
form of an electrical island, ensuring smooth production, regardless of a public power supply that in many locations may be
insufficient. Fluctuations in electricity generation in a microgrid
demand intelligent control mechanisms, reliable forecasts and
especially in island mode a balance between available power
and power consumed (fig. 2.8-6).

Fig. 2.8-4: Critical infrastructures microgrids renewable energies


in critical environments

Fig. 2.8-5: Critical infrastructures microgrids renewable energies


in critical environments

Fig. 2.8-6: Industrial microgrids modern energy challenges and


chances

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2.8 Microgrids The Next Step towards an Efficient Use of Distributed Resources

2.8.3 Siemens Microgrid Management


Systems
To meet decentralized infrastructure development needs and
provide advanced functionality to maximize its value, Siemens
supplies scalable microgrid management systems and solutions
based on automation equipment in the SICAM series and
software solutions based on the leading Spectrum Power
platform. These are providing solutions for microgrids covering
energy and optionally heat . Depending on the case of use, the
solution can range from field devices for equipment control
over decentralized automation to a fully functional microgrid
manager. Depending on scale and required functionality, two
main solution lines are available:
SICAM Microgrid Manager
Spectrum Power Microgrid Management System.

Fig. 2.8-7: Schematic diagram of the layout of a SICAM Microgrid


Manager

SICAM Microgrid Manager


The SICAM Microgrid Manager is the ideal solution for small to
medium-sized microgrids covering energy and optionally heat. It
is focused on 24/7 autonomous control with minimum operator
intervention (fig. 2.8-7).
Functionality
Grid monitoring and control
Small and large distributed generator control
(electrical power, heat)
Storage control
Load control
Generation forecast
Load forecast
Schedule optimization.
Spectrum Power Microgrid Management System
The Spectrum Power Microgrid Management System is the ideal
solution for medium- to large-sized microgrids covering electricity
and optionally heat. It offers advanced application functionality,
market interface, enhanced consideration of grid constraints,
and can be enriched with applications up to a full distribution
management system (fig. 2.8-8).

Fig. 2.8-8: Schematic diagram of the layout of a Spectrum Power


Microgrid Management System

Functionality
Grid monitoring and control
Small and large distributed generator control
(electrical power, heat)
Storage control
Load control
Generation forecast
Load forecast
Schedule optimization
Online control.

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Switchgear and Substations

3.1

High-Voltage Substations

82

3.1.1 Turnkey Substations

82

3.1.2 High-Voltage Switchgear Overview

83

3.1.3 Circuit Configuration

84

3.1.4 Air-Insulated Substations

87

3.1.5 Mixed Technology (Compact/Hybrid Solutions) 95


3.1.6 Gas-Insulated Switchgear for Substations
3.2

Medium-Voltage Switchgear

99
109

3.2.1 Introduction

109

3.2.2 Basics of Switching Devices

110

3.2.3 Requirements of Medium-Voltage Switchgear 114


3.2.4 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

116

3.2.5 High-Current and Generator Switchgear

132

3.2.6 Industrial Load Center Substation

134

3.3

Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

138

3.3.1 Requirements for Electrical Power Systems


in Buildings

138

3.3.2 Dimensioning of Power Distribution Systems

141

3.3.3 Low-Voltage Switchboards

144

3.3.4 Planning Notes for Low-Voltage Switchboards 147


3.3.5 Low-Voltage Switchboard
Panel Types and Example

150

3.3.6 Subdistribution Systems

151

3.3.7 Busbar Trunking Systems

152

3.3.8 Benefits and Data of the BTS Families

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3 Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations
3.1.1 Turnkey Substations

Project management
The process of handling such a turnkey installation starts with
preparation of a quotation, and proceeds through clarification of
the order, design, manufacture, supply and cost-accounting until
the project is finally billed. Processing such an order hinges on
methodical data processing that in turn contributes to systematic project handling.
Engineering
All these high-voltage installations have in common their high
standard of engineering which covers all system aspects such as
power systems, steel structures, civil engineering, fire precautions, environmental protection and control systems (fig. 3.1-1).
Every aspect of technology and each work stage is handled by
experienced engineers. With the aid of high-performance computer programs, e.g., the finite element method (FEM), installations can be reliably designed even for extreme stresses, such as
those encountered in earthquake zones.

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e.g., HV/MV
switchgear,
HV devices,
transformer

Gantries and
substructures

Substation
Control
Control and
monitoring,
measurement,
protection, etc.

Civil
Engineering
Buildings,
roads,
foundations

Design

AC/DC s
e
auxiliari

Ancillary
equipment
ab
rc

Contro
la
signal c nd
ables

les

ge
Sur rters
e
div

g
in
rth
Ea stem
sy

Fire
protection

Env

iron
pro menta
tec
tion l

Lig

ion
lat
nti
Ve
u.
r-freq
Carrie
ent
equipm

Scope
High-voltage substations comprise not only the high-voltage
equipment which is relevant for the functionality in the power
supply system. Siemens plans and constructs high-voltage
substations comprising high-voltage switchgear, mediumvoltage switchgear, major components such as high-voltage
equipment and transformers, as well as all ancillary equipment
such as auxiliaries, control systems, protective equipment and so
on, on a turnkey basis or even as general contractor. The installations supplied worldwide range from basic substations with
a single busbar to interconnection substations with multiple
busbars, or a breaker-and-a-half arrangement for rated voltages
up to 800 kV, rated currents up to 8,000 A and short-circuit
currents up to 100 kA. The services offered range from system
planning to commissioning and after-sales service, including
training of customer personnel.

Structural
Steelwork

we

Major
Components

Po

Introduction
High-voltage substations are interconnection points within the
power transmission and distribution grids between regions and
countries. Different applications of substations lead to highvoltage substations with and without power transformers:
Step up from a generator-voltage level to a high-voltage
system (MV/HV)
Power plants (in load centers)
Renewable power plants (e.g., windfarms)
Transform voltage levels within the high-voltage grid (HV/HV)
Step down to a medium-voltage level of a distribution system
(HV/MV)
Interconnection in the same voltage level.

ht

ni

ng

Fig. 3.1-1: Engineering of high-voltage switchgear

All planning documentation is produced on modern CAD/CAE


systems; data exchange with other CAD systems is possible via
interfaces. By virtue of their active involvement in national and
international associations and standardization bodies, our
engineers are always fully informed of the state of the art, even
before a new standard or specification is published.
Certification of the integrated quality management system
At the beginning of the 1980s, a documented QM system was
already introduced. The basis of the management system is the
documentation of all processes relevant for quality, occupational
safety and environmental protection.
The environment protection was implemented on the basis of
the existing QM system and was certified in accordance with DIN
ISO 14001 in 1996. Occupational safety and health have always
played an important role for Siemens AG and for the respective
Business Units. When the BS OHSAS 18001 standard was introduced, the conditions for a certification analogous to the
existing management systems were created.
Know-how, experience and worldwide presence
A worldwide network of liaisons and sales offices, along with the
specialist departments in Germany, support and advise system
operators in all matters of high-voltage substations technology.

Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

3.1.2 High-Voltage Switchgear


Overview
High-voltage substations comprising high-voltage switchgear
and devices with different insulating systems: air or gas (SF6).
When planning high-voltage substations, some basic questions
have to be answered to define the type of high-voltage switchgear:

What is the function and location within the power supply system?
What are the climatic and environmental conditions?
Are there specific requirements regarding locations?
Are there space/cost restrictions?
Depending on the answers, either AIS or GIS can be the right
choice, or even a compact or hybrid solution.

Fig. 3.1-2: Air-insulated outdoor switchgear

Air-insulated switchgear (AIS)


AIS are favorably priced high-voltage substations for rated
voltages up to 800 kV, which are popular wherever space restrictions and environmental circumstances are not severe. The
individual electrical and mechanical components of an AIS installation are assembled on site. Air-insulated outdoor substations
of open design are not completely safe to touch, and are directly
exposed to the effects of the climate and the environment
(fig. 3.1-2).
Gas-insulated switchgear (GIS)
The compact design and small dimensions of GIS make it possible to install substations of up to 550 kV right in the middle of
load centers of urban or industrial areas. Each switchgear bay is
factory-assembled and includes the full complement of disconnecting switches, earthing switches (regular or make-proof),
instrument transformers, control and protection equipment, and
interlocking and monitoring facilities commonly used for this
type of installation. The earthed metal enclosures of GIS assure
not only insensitivity to contamination but also safety from
electric shock (fig. 3.1-3).
Mixed technology (compact/hybrid solutions)
Beside the two basic (conventional) designs, there are also
compact solutions available that can be realized with air-insulated and/or gas-insulated components.

Fig. 3.1-3: GIS substations in metropolitan areas

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83

Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

3.1.3 Circuit Configuration


High-voltage substations are points in the power system where
power can be pooled from generating sources, distributed and
transformed, and delivered to the load points. Substations are
interconnected with each other, so that the power system
becomes a meshed network. This increases reliability of the
power supply system by providing alternate paths for flow of
power to take care of any contingency, so that power delivery to
the loads is maintained and the generators do not face any
outage. The high-voltage substation is a critical component in
the power system, and the reliability of the power system
depends upon the substation. Therefore, the circuit configuration of the high-voltage substation has to be selected carefully.

Busbars are the part of the substation where all the power is
concentrated from the incoming feeders, and distributed to the
outgoing feeders. That means that the reliability of any highvoltage substation depends on the reliability of the busbars
present in the power system. An outage of any busbar can have
dramatic effects on the power system. An outage of a busbar
leads to the outage of the transmission lines connected to it. As
a result, the power flow shifts to the surviving healthy lines that
are now carrying more power than they are capable of. This
leads to tripping of these lines, and the cascading effect goes on
until there is a blackout or similar situation. The importance of
busbar reliability should be kept in mind when taking a look at
the different busbar systems that are prevalent.

Fig. 3.1-4: Special single busbar, H-scheme (1 BB)

Single-busbar scheme (1 BB)


The applications of this simple scheme are distribution and
transformer substations, and feeding industrial areas (fig. 3.1-4).
Because it has only one busbar and the minimum amount of
equipment, this scheme is a low-cost solution that provides only
limited availability. In the event of a busbar failure and during
maintenance periods, there will be an outage of the complete
substation. To increase the reliability, a second busbar has to be
added.
Double-busbar scheme (2 BB)
The more complex scheme of a double-busbar system gives
much more flexibility and reliability during operation of the
substation (fig. 3.1-5). For this reason, this scheme is used for
distribution and transformer substations at the nodes of the
power supply system. It is possible to control the power flow by
using the busbars independently, and by switching a feeder from
one busbar to the other. Because the busbar disconnectors are
not able to break the rated current of the feeder, there will be
a short disruption in power flow.

Fig. 3.1-5: Double-busbar scheme (2 BB)

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

Double circuit-breaker scheme (2 CB)


To have a load change without disruption, a second circuitbreaker per feeder has to be used. This is the most expensive
way to solve this problem. In very important feeders, the 2 CB
solution will be used (fig. 3.1-6).
One-breaker-and-a-half scheme (1.5 CB)
The one-breaker-and-a-half is a compromise between the 2 BB
and the 2 CB scheme. This scheme improves the reliability and
flexibility because, even in case of loss of a complete busbar,
there is no disruption in the power supply of the feeders
(fig. 3.1-7).

3
Fig. 3.1-6: Double circuit-breaker scheme (2 CB)

Fig. 3.1-7: One-breaker-and-a-half scheme (1.5 CB)

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

Fig. 3.1-8: Triple-busbar scheme (3 BB)

Triple-busbar scheme (3 BB)


For important substations at the nodes of transmission systems
for higher voltage levels, the triple-busbar scheme is used. It is
a common scheme in Germany, utilized at the 380 kV level
(fig. 3.1-8).

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

3.1.4 Air-Insulated Substations


In outdoor installations of open design, all live parts are insulated by air and not covered. Therefore, air-insulated substations (AIS) are always set up in a fenced area. Only authorized
personnel have access to this operational area. Relevant
national and international specifications that apply to outdoor
substations and equipment have to be considered. The
IEC 61936 standard is valid for European countries. Insulation
coordination, including minimum phase-to-phase and phase-toearth clearances, is effected in accordance with IEC 60071.
Outdoor switchgear is directly exposed to the effects of the
environmental conditions. Therefore, they have to be designed
both for electrical and environmental specifications. There is
currently no common international standard covering the setup
of air-insulated outdoor substations of open design. Siemens
designs AIS in accordance with IEC standards, in addition to
national standards or customer specifications. The standard
IEC 61936-1, Erection of power installations with rated voltages
above 1 kV, demonstrates the typical protective measures and
stresses that have to be taken into consideration for air-insulated
switchyards.
Protective measures
The protective measures can be categorized as personal
protection and functional protection of substations (S/S).
Personal protection
Protective measures against direct contact, i. e., through
appropriate covering, obstruction, through sufficient
clearance, appropriately positioned protective devices, and
minimum height
Protective measures against indirect touching by means of
relevant earthing measures in accordance with IEC 61936/
DIN VDE 0101 or other required standards
Protective measures during work on equipment, i.e.,
installation must be planned so that the specifications of
DIN EN 50110 (VDE 0105) (e.g., five safety rules) are
observed
Functional protection
Protective measures during operation, e.g., use of
switchgear interlocking equipment
Protective measures against voltage surges and lightning
strikes
Protective measures against fire, water and, if applicable,
noise
Stresses
Electrical stresses, e.g., rated current, short-circuit current,
adequate creepage distances and clearances
Mechanical stresses (normal stressing), e.g., weight, static
and dynamic loads, ice, wind
Mechanical stresses (exceptional stresses), e.g., weight and
constant loads in simultaneous combination with maximum
switching forces or short-circuit forces, etc.
Special stresses, e.g., caused by installation altitudes of
more than 1,000 m above sea level, or by earthquakes.

Variables affecting switchgear installation


The switchyard design is significantly influenced by:
Minimum clearances (depending on rated voltages) between
various active parts and between active parts and earth
Rated and short-circuit currents
Clarity for operating staff
Availability during maintenance work; redundancy
Availability of land and topography
Type and arrangement of the busbar disconnectors.
The design of a substation determines its accessibility, availability
and clarity. It must therefore be coordinated in close cooperation
with the system operator. The following basic principles apply:
Accessibility and availability increase with the number of busbars.
At the same time, however, clarity decreases. Installations
involving single busbars require minimum investment, but they
offer only limited flexibility for operation management and
maintenance. Designs involving one-breaker-and-a-half and
double-circuit-breaker arrangements ensure a high redundancy,
but they also entail the highest costs.

Systems with auxiliary or bypass busbars have proved to be


economical. The circuit-breaker of the coupling feeder for the
auxiliary bus allows uninterrupted replacement of each feeder
circuit-breaker. For busbars and feeder lines, mostly standard
aluminum conductors are used. Bundle conductors are required
where currents are high. Because of the additional short-circuit
forces between the subconductors (the pinch effect), however,
bundle conductors cause higher mechanical stresses at the
terminal points. When conductors (particularly standard bundle
conductors) are used, higher short-circuit currents cause a rise
not only in the aforementioned pinch effect, also in further
force maxima in the event of swinging and dropping of the
conductor bundle (cable pull). This in turn results in higher
mechanical stresses on the switchyard components. These
effects can be calculated in an FEM (finite element method)
simulation (fig. 3.1-9).

Vertical displacement in m
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Horizontal
displacement in m

2.0
2.2
1.4

1.0

0.6

0.2 0

0.2

0.6

1.0

1.4

Fig. 3.1-9: FEM calculation of deflection of wire conductors in the


event of short circuit

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

Computer-aided engineering/design (CAE/CAD)


A variety of items influence the design of air-insulated substations.
In the daily engineering work, database-supported CAE tools are
used for the primary and secondary engineering of the substations. The database speeds up all the engineering processes by
using predefined solutions and improves the quality (fig. 3.1-10).
Design of air-insulated substations
When rated and short-circuit currents are high, aluminum tubes
are increasingly used to replace wire conductors for busbars and
feeder lines. They can handle rated currents up to 8,000 A and
short-circuit currents up to 80 kA without difficulty. Other
influences on the switchyard design are the availability of land,
the lie of the land, the accessibility and location of incoming and
outgoing overhead-lines, and the number of transformers and
voltage levels. A one-line or two-line arrangement, and possibly
a U-arrangement, may be the proper solution. Each outdoor
switchgear installation, especially for step-up substations in
connection with power plants and large transformer substations
in the extra-high-voltage transmission system, is therefore
unique, depending on the local conditions. HV/MV transformer
substations of the distribution system, with repeatedly used
equipment and a scheme of one incoming and one outgoing line
as well as two transformers together with medium-voltage
switchgear and auxiliary equipment, are usually subject to
a standardized design.

Customer
Documentation

Deriving of 2D-primary
drawings and
completion of secondary
drawings

Specification
clarification

Database
Projects
Solutions
Symbols

Selection of
predefined typical
solutions/modules

Generating of:
Material lists
Equipment lists
Terminal diagrams
Wiring lists
Cable lists

Completion of:

Delta engineering

3D-models
schematic
diagrams

Adapting to the
customer
requirements

Fig. 3.1-10: Database-supported engineering

Preferred designs
Conceivable designs include certain preferred versions that are
often dependent on the type and arrangement of the busbar
disconnectors.
H-arrangement
The H-arrangement is preferred for use in applications for
feeding industrial consumers. Two overhead-lines are connected
with two transformers and interlinked by a double-bus sectionalizer. Thus, each feeder of the switchyard can be maintained
without disturbance of the other feeders (fig. 3.1-11, fig. 3.1-12).
Fig. 3.1-11: H-arrangement 123 kV, GIS (3D view HIS)

Fig. 3.1-12: 110 kV H-arrangement, conventional AIS (3D view)

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

Fig. 3.1-13: H-arrangement 110 kV

H-arrangement
The H-arrangement is preferred for use in applications for feeding
industrial consumers. Two overhead-lines are connected with two
transformers and interlinked by a double-bus sectionalizer. Thus,
each feeder of the switchyard can be maintained without disturbance of the other feeders (fig. 3.1-13, fig. 3.1-14).

Fig. 3.1-14: H-arrangement, 110 kV, Germany

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2,800

3.1 High-Voltage Substations

SECTION A-A
BUSBAR 2

6,300

9,000

BUSBAR 1

18,500

12,000
54,300

2,000 2,000

10,000

2,000 2,000

23,800

5,500

4,500

20,000

Fig. 3.1-15: In-line arrangement, 110 kV

In-line longitudinal arrangement (Kiellinie), with center-break


disconnectors, preferably 110 to 220 kV
The busbar disconnectors are lined up one behind the other and
parallel to the longitudinal axis of the busbar. It is preferable to
have either wire-type or tubular busbars. Where tubular busbars
are used, gantries are required for the outgoing overhead lines
only. The system design requires only two conductor levels and
is therefore clear. The bay width is quite large (in-line arrangement of disconnectors), but the bay length is small (fig. 3.1-15,
fig. 3.1-16).

Fig. 3.1-16: Busbar disconnectors in line, 110 kV, Germany

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

3,000

SECTION A-A

BUSBAR 2

9,000

13,000

BUSBAR 1

7,600

18,000

3
17,000

5,500

4,000

13,500

4,000

16,500

3,500

16,000

17,000

17,000

16,000

Fig. 3.1-17: Central/center tower arrangement, 220 kV

Central/center arrangement (classical arrangement) layout with


center-break disconnectors, normally only for 245 kV
The busbar disconnectors are arranged side-by-side and parallel
to the longitudinal axis of the feeder. Wire-type busbars located
at the top are commonly used; tubular busbars are also possible.
This arrangement enables the conductors to be easily jumpered
over the circuit-breakers, and the bay width to be made smaller
than that of in-line designs. With three conductor levels, the
system is relatively clear, but the cost of the gantries is high
(fig. 3.1-17, fig. 3.1-18).

Fig. 3.1-18: Central/center tower arrangement, 220 kV, Egypt

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3.1 High-Voltage Substations

4,000

SECTION A-A

18,000

BUSBAR SYSTEM

9,000

15,000

32,000

6,000

4,500 4,500 6,000

21,000

27,000

5,000

4,500 4,500

18,000

4,500 4,500 4,500 4,500

4,500 4,500

15,000

Fig. 3.1-19: Diagonal arrangement, 380 kV

Diagonal layout with pantograph disconnectors, preferably


110 to 420 kV
The pantograph disconnectors are placed diagonally to the axis
of the busbars and feeder. This results in a very clear and most
space-saving arrangement. Wire and tubular conductors are
customary. The busbars can be located above or below the
feeder conductors (fig. 3.1-19, fig. 3.1-20).

Fig. 3.1-20: Busbar disconnectors in diagonal arrangement,


380 kV, Germany

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

SECTION A-A
7,000

BUSBAR 1

BUSBAR 2

27,000

3
31,000

20,250

19,000

33,000

27,000

32,500

27,000

33,000

29,300

16,700

32,000

268,750

Fig. 3.1-21: One-breaker-and-a-half arrangement, 500 kV

One-breaker-and-a-half layout, preferably up to 220 to 800 kV


The one-breaker-and-a-half arrangement ensures high supply
reliability; however, the expenditure for equipment is high as
well. The busbar disconnectors are of the pantograph, rotary or
vertical-break type. Vertical-break disconnectors are preferred
for the feeders. The busbars located at the top can be either
the wire or tubular type. Two arrangements are customary:
Internal busbar, feeders in H-arrangement with two conductor
levels
External busbar, feeders in-line with three conductor levels
(fig. 3.1-21, fig. 3.1-22)

Fig. 3.1-22: One-breaker-and-a-half arrangement, 500 kV, Pakistan

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

SECTION A-A

BUSBAR 2

38,550

6,750

BUSBAR 1

24,000

21,500

15,000

58,500

53,000

58,500

15,000

21,500

22,000

289,000

15,000

15,000

15,000

15,000
15,000
12,000

54,000

12,000

15,000

Fig. 3.1-23: One-breaker-and-a-half arrangement, 800 kV

One-breaker-and-a-half layout, preferably 220 to 800 kV


The one-breaker-and-a-half arrangement ensures high supply
reliability; however, the expenditure for equipment is high as
well. The busbar disconnectors are of the pantograph, rotary or
vertical-break type. Vertical-break disconnectors are preferred
for the feeders. The busbars located at the top can be either the
wire or tubular type. Two arrangements are customary:
Internal busbar, feeders in H-arrangement with two conductor
levels
External busbar, feeders in-line with three conductor
(fig. 3.1-23, fig. 3.1-24)

Fig. 3.1-24: One-breaker-and-a-half arrangement, 800 kV, India

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

3.1.5 Mixed Technology


(Compact/Hybrid Solutions)
Wherever there is a lack of space, system operators have to rely on
space-saving outdoor switchgear, especially in regions where
smaller-scale transformer substations prevail and in industrial
plants. For rated voltages from 72.5 to 170 kV, Siemens Energy
offers two different conventional switchgear versions for a reliable and cost-effective power supply:
SIMOBREAKER, outdoor switchyard featuring a side-break
disconnector
SIMOVER, outdoor switchyard featuring a pivoting circuitbreaker
HIS, highly integrated switchgear
DTC, dead-tank compact

7.5 m

8m

11 m

3m

SIMOBREAKER can also be used as indoor switchgear. Installation


inside a building ensures protection against the elements. This
can be an enormous advantage, particularly in regions with
extreme climates, but it is also relevant in industrial installations
exposed to excessive pollution, e.g., in many industrial plants
(fig. 3.1-25, fig. 3.1-26).

Fig. 3.1-25: SIMOBREAKER module

8m

SIMOBREAKER Substation with rotary disconnector


The design principle of SIMOBREAKER provides for the side-break
disconnector blade to be located on the rotating post insulator,
which establishes the connection between the circuit-breaker
and the transformer. Because the circuit-breaker, the disconnector, the earthing switch and the instrument transformer are
integrated into SIMOBREAKER, there is no need for a complex
connection with cables and pipes, or for separate foundations,
steel, or earthing terminals for each individual device. This
means that the system operator gets a cost-effective and standardized overall setup from one source and has no need to
provide any items. Coordination work is substantially reduced,
and interface problems do not even arise.

Fig. 3.1-26: SIMOBREAKER (schematic)

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

2m

1.7
m

2m

2m

1.7
m

2m

The concept behind SIMOVER is based on customary type-tested


standard components. This ensures high reliability. Thanks to
economizing on the disconnectors, and to the integration of the
instrument transformers and the local control cubicle, implementation costs are considerably reduced. All components
needed for the full scope of functioning of the movable circuitbreaker can be obtained from a single source, so there is no
need for customer-provided items, coordination work is greatly
reduced and interface problems do not even arise (fig. 3.1-27,
fig. 3.1-28).

31 m

25 m

8.3 m

SIMOVER Switchgear with withdrawable circuit-breaker


The compact SIMOVER switchgear, specially conceived for
substations with single busbars, features a pivoting circuitbreaker. It is excellent for use in small transformer substations
such as windfarms or any plants where space is restricted. It
integrates all components of a high-voltage bay. There are no
busbar and outgoing disconnectors for the feeders. The cabling
is simple, and the switching status is clear. Drive technology is
improved and the drive unit is weatherproofed. Pre-assembled
components reduce installation times. In SIMOVER, all components of a high-voltage outdoor switchgear bay, including the
isolating distances, are integrated in one unit. The instrument
transformers and the local control cubicle are part of this substation design.

Fig. 3.1-27: SIMOVER H-arrangement (schematic)

Fig. 3.1-28: H-arrangement with SIMOVER, 145 kV, Czech Republic

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

Dead-tank compact (DTC)


The dead-tank compact is another compact solution for the
145 kV voltage level: a dead-tank circuit-breaker together with
GIS modules for disconnectors (fig 3.1-29, fig. 3.1-30). For more
information, please refer to section 4.1.4.

3
Fig 3.1-29: Dead Tank Compact (DTC)

Fig. 3.1-30: DTC solution (schematic)

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

Highly integrated switchgear (HIS)


Highly integrated switchgear (HIS), fig. 3.1-31 and fig. 3.1-32
combines the advantages of air-insulated installations with
those of gas-insulated switchgear technology. HIS switchgear is
available up to 550 kV. The compact HIS switchgear is especially
suited
for new substations in a limited space
where real estate prices are high
where environmental conditions are extreme
where the costs of maintenance are high.

HIS arrangements are compact solutions used mainly for


renewal or expansion of air-insulated outdoor and indoor substations, particularly if the operator wants to carry out modifications while the switchgear is in service. In new construction
projects, high site prices and increasingly complex approval
procedures mean that the space requirement is the prime factor
in costing. With the HIS solution, the circuit-breakers, disconnectors, earthing switches and transformers are accommodated in
compressed gastight enclosures, thus rendering the switchgear
extremely compact.

23 m
33 m

Fig. 3.1-31: H-arrangement outdoor GIS

16 m
40 m
Space saving > 70 %; AIS 1,300 m HIS 360 m

Fig. 3.1-32: HIS for renewal of AIS space relations

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Planning principles
For air-insulated outdoor substations of open design, the
following planning principles must be taken into account:
High reliability
Reliable mastering of normal and exceptional stresses
Protection against surges and lightning strikes
Protection against surges directly on the equipment
concerned (e.g., transformer, HV cable)
Good clarity and accessibility
Clear conductor routing with few conductor levels
Free accessibility to all areas (no equipment located at
inaccessible depth)
Adequate protective clearances for installation, maintenance
and transportation work
Adequately dimensioned transport routes
Positive incorporation into surroundings
As few overhead conductors as possible
Tubular instead of wire-type busbars
Unobtrusive steel structures
Minimal noise and disturbance level
EMC earthing system for modern control and protection
Fire precautions and environmental protection
Adherence to fire protection specifications and use of flameretardant and non-flammable materials
Use of environmentally compatible technology and
products.

Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

3.1.6 Gas-Insulated Switchgear for


Substations
Characteristic features of switchgear installations
Since 1968, the concept of Siemens gas-insulated metalenclosed high-voltage switchgear has proved itself in more than
29,000 bay installations in all regions of the world (table 3.1-1).
Gas-insulated metal-enclosed high-voltage switchgear (GIS)
(fig. 3.1-33) is constantly gaining on other types of switchgear
because it offers the following outstanding advantages:
Minimum space requirements:
Where the availability of land is low and/or prices are high,
e.g., in urban centers, industrial conurbations, mountainous
regions with narrow valleys, or in underground power plants,
gas-insulated switchgear is replacing conventional switchgear
because of its very small space requirements.
Full protection against contact with live parts:
The surrounding metal enclosure affords maximum safety
for personnel under all operating and fault conditions.
Protection against pollution:
Its metal enclosure fully protects the switchgear interior
against environmental effects such as salt deposits in coastal
regions, industrial vapors and precipitates, and sandstorms.
The compact switchgear can be installed as an indoor as well
as an outdoor solution.
Free choice of installation site:
The small site area required for gas-insulated switchgear saves
expensive grading and foundation work, e.g., in permafrost
zones. Another advantage is the rapid on-side installation and
commissioning because off the short erection time and the
use of prefabricated and factory tested bay units.
Protection of the environment:
The necessity to protect the environment often makes it
difficult to install outdoor switchgear of conventional design.
Gas-insulated switchgear, however, can almost always be
designed to blend well with the surroundings. Gas-insulated
metal-enclosed switchgear is, because of the modular design,
very flexible, and meets all requirements for configuration
that exist in the network design and operating conditions.
Each circuit-breaker bay includes the full complement of disconnecting and earthing switches (regular or make-proof), instrument transformers, control and protection equipment, and
interlocking and monitoring facilities commonly used for this
type of installation.

More than 50 years of experience with gas-insulated switchgear


1960

Start of fundamental studies in research and development


of SF6 technology

1964

Delivery of first SF6 circuit-breaker

1968

Delivery of first GIS

1974

Delivery of first GIL (420 kV)

1997

Introduction of intelligent, bay integrated control, monitoring


and diagnostic

1999

Introduction of newest GIS generation: self-compression


interrupter unit and spring-operated mechanism

2000

Introduction of the trendsetting switchgear concept HIS


(Highly Integrated Switchgear) for extension, retrofit and new
compact AIS substations

2005

First GIS with electrical endurance capability (class E2)

2007

Introduction of 72.5 kV GIS a new dimension in compactness

2009

New generation of of 145 kV 40 kA GIS

2010

New generation of 420 kV 63 kA GIS

2011

New 170 kV 63 kA GIS

2012

New 420 kV 80 kA GIS

2013

New 245 kV 80 / 90 kA GIS

2014

New 320kV DC CS

Table 3.1-1: Siemens experience with gas-insulated switchgear

Fig. 3.1-33: 8DN8 GIS for a rated voltage of 110 kV

Besides the traditional circuit-breaker bay, other circuits, such


as single busbar, single-busbar arrangement with bypass busbar,
coupler and bay for double and triple busbar, can be supplied.
(Main) product range of GIS for substations
The Siemens product range covers GIS from 72.5 up to 800 kV
rated voltage the main range covers GIS up to 550 kV
(table 3.1-2). Furthermore, in 2014 the portfolio was extended
by gas-insulated solutions for DC voltage with the 320kV DC CS
(see chapter 2.2.5).

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

Switchgear type

up to

8DN8

8DN9

170

245

Rated voltage

kV

Rated frequency

Hz

Rated power-frequency
withstand voltage (1 min)

kV

up to

325

460

Rated lightning impulse


withstand voltage (1.2 / 50 s)

kV

up to

750

Rated switching impulse


withstand voltage
(250 / 2,500 s)

up to

Rated normal current for busbar

Rated normal current for feeder


Rated short-circuit breaking
current

8DQ1
420

420

550

650

650

740

1,050

1,425

1,425

1,550

1,050

1,050

1,175

up to

4,000

4,000

5,000

6,300

5,000

kA

up to

4,000

4,000

5,000

5,000

5,000

kA

up to

63

50

63 / 80* / 90*

80

63

Rated peak withstand current

kA

up to

170

135

170 / 216* / 243*

216

170

Rated short-time withstand


current (3 s)

kA

up to

63

50

63 / 80*

80

63

Rated short-time withstand


current (1 s)

kA

up to

90*

Leakage rate per year and gas


compartment (type-tested)

50/60

< 0.1
stored-energy
spring (common
or single pole
drive)

Operating mechanism of circuitbreaker

stored-energy spring
(single pole drive)
O-0.3 s-CO-3 min-CO
CO-15 s-CO

Rated operating sequence


Installation

indoor/outdoor

Standards

IEC/IEEE/GOST

Bay width

mm

First major inspection

years

800 / 1,000

1,500

2,200
> 25

3,600

Expected lifetime

years

> 50

Other values on request * these values apply to 245 kV rated voltage

Table 3.1-2: Main product range of GIS

The development of this switchgear has been based on two


overall production concepts: meeting the high technical
standards required of high-voltage switchgear, and providing
maximum customer benefit.
This objective is attained only by incorporating all processes in
the quality management system, which has been introduced and
certified according to EN 29001/DIN EN ISO 9001.
Siemens GIS switchgear meets all performance, quality and
reliability demands, including:
Compact and low-weight design:
Small building dimensions and low floor loads, a wide range
of options in the utilization of space, and less space taken up
by the switchgear.

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Safe encapsulation:
An outstanding level of safety based on new manufacturing
methods and optimized shape of enclosures.
Environmental compatibility:
No restrictions on choice of location due to minimum space
requirement; extremely low noise and EMC emission, as well
as effective gas sealing system (leakage < 0.1 % per year per
gas compartment). Modern spring mechanisms that are
currently available for the whole GIS 8D product spectrum
eliminate the need for hydraulic oil.
Economical transport:
Simplified fast transport and reduced costs, because of
a minimum of shipping units.

Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

Feasibility studies
Financing support
and consulting

Overall project
management

After-sales
services and
recycling

Engineering
and design

Site facilities
and civil works

Training

On-site installation
and commissioning

Production

Procurement

Transport

Factory testing

Fig. 3.1-34: GIS for your full value chain offers

Low operating costs:


The switchgear is practically maintenance-free, e.g., contacts
of circuit-breakers and disconnectors are designed for
extremely long endurance, motor operating mechanisms are
lubricated for life, the enclosure is corrosion-free. This ensures
that the first inspection is required only after 25 years of
operation.
High reliability:
The longstanding experience of Siemens in design, production
and commissioning more than 330,000 bay operating years
in over 29,000 bay installations worldwide is testament to
the fact that the Siemens products are highly reliable. The
mean time between failures (MTBF) is more than 950 bay
years for major faults. A quality management system certified
according to ISO 9001, which is supported by highly qualified
employees, ensures high quality throughout the whole
process chain. Our services provide value added through
constant project-related support and consulting right from the
start and throughout the entire life cycle of our switchgear
all the way to disposal and recycling of old switchgear
(fig. 3.1-34).
Smooth and efficient installation and commissioning:
Transport units are fully assembled, tested at the factory and
filled with SF6 gas at reduced pressure. Coded plug connectors
are used to cut installation time and minimize the risk of
cabling failures.
Routine tests:
All measurements are automatically documented and stored in
the electronic information system, which provides quick
access to measured data for years.

Fig. 3.1-35: 8DN8 GIS for a rated voltage of 145 kV

3-phase enclosures are used for SF6-insulated switchgear type


8DN8 up to 170 kV in order to achieve small and compact component dimensions. The low bay weight ensures low floor
loading, and helps to reduce the cost of civil works and minimize
the footprint. The compact low-weight design allows installation
almost anywhere. Capital cost is reduced by using smaller
buildings or existing ones, e.g., when replacing medium-voltage
switchyards with the 145 kV GIS (fig. 3.1-35).

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3.1 High-Voltage Substations

7
3

5
10

1
2
3
4
5

Integrated local control cubicle


Current transformer
Busbar II with disconnector and earthing switch
Interrupter unit of the circuit-breaker
Busbar I with disconnector and earthing switch

6
7
8
9
10

10

Stored-energy spring mechanism with circuit-breaker control unit


Voltage transformer
High-speed earthing switch
Outgoing module with disconnector and earthing switch
Cable sealing end

Fig. 3.1-36: 8DN8 switchgear bay up to 145 kV

The bay is based on a circuit-breaker mounted on a supporting


frame (fig. 3.1-36). A special multifunctional cross-coupling
module combines the functions of the disconnector and
earthing switch in a 3-position switching device. It can be used
as:
An active busbar with an integrated disconnector and work-inprogress earthing switch (fig. 3.1-36, pos. 3 and 5)
An outgoing feeder module with an integrated disconnector
and work-in-progress earthing switch (fig. 3.1-36, pos. 9)
A busbar sectionalizer with busbar earthing.
Cable termination modules can be equipped with either conventional sealing ends or the latest plug-in connectors (fig. 3.1-36,
pos. 10). Flexible 1-pole modules are used to connect overhead
lines and transformers with a splitting module that links the
3-phase enclosed switchgear to the 1-pole connections.
Thanks to their compact design, the completely assembled and
factory-tested bays can be shipped as a single transport unit.
Fast erection and commissioning on site ensure the highest
possible quality.
The feeder control and protection can be installed in a bay-integrated local control cubicle mounted to the front of each bay
(fig. 3.1-36, pos. 1). Moreover, state-of-the-art monitoring
devices are available at the system operators request, e.g., for
partial discharge online monitoring.

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Fig. 3.1-37: 8DN9 switchgear for a rated voltage of 245 kV,


with a 3-phase enclosed passive busbar

The clear bay configuration of the lightweight and compact


8DN9 switchgear is evident at first glance. Control and monitoring facilities are easily accessible despite the switchgears
compact design.

Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

2 14 4

5 8

10

12

6
4
3 M

5 M

M 8
1

M 9
11
M

12
gas-tight bushings
gas-permeable bushings
1. Circuit-breaker interrupter unit
2. Stored-energy spring mechanism
with circuit-breaker control unit
3. Busbar disconnector I
4. Busbar I

10
13

11
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

13

Busbar disconnector II
Busbar II
Outgoing disconnector
Earthing switch
Earthing switch

10. High-speed earthing switch


11. Current transformer
12. Voltage transformer
13. Cable sealing end
14. Integrated local control cubicle

Fig. 3.1-38: 8DN9 switchgear bay up to 245 kV

The horizontally arranged circuit-breaker forms the basis of


every bay configuration. The operating mechanism is easily
accessible from the operator area. The other bay modules of
1-phase enclosed switchgear design, like the circuit-breaker
module are located on top of the circuit-breaker. The 3-phase
enclosed passive busbar is partitioned off from the active
equipment (fig. 3.1-37, fig. 3.1-38).
Thanks to single-function assemblies (assignment of just one
task to each module) and the versatile modular structure, even
unconventional arrangements can be set up from a pool of only
20 different modules. The modules are connected to each other
with a standard interface that allows implementing an extensive range of bay structures. Switchgear design with standardized modules, and the scope of services ensure that all types of
bay structures can be set up in a small area. The compact design
allows supplying of complete bays that are fully assembled and
tested at the factory, providing smooth and efficient installation
and commissioning.

Fig. 3.1-39: 8DQ1 switchgear for a rated voltage of 550 kV

SF6-insulated switchgear for up to 550 kV, type 8DQ1 is


a 1-phase enclosed switchgear system for high-power switching
stations with individual enclosure of all modules.

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

10 11

7
3
13
M

12

4 M

10

14

11

13

12
14

gas-tight bushings
gas-permeable bushings
1 Integrated local control cubicle

5 Busbar disconnector II

10 Earthing switch

2 Stored-energy spring mechanism


with circuit-breaker control unit

6 Earthing switch

11 Outgoing disconnector

7 Busbar II

12 High-speed earthing switch

3 Busbar I

8 Circuit-breaker interrupter unit

13 Voltage transformer

4 Busbar disconnector I

9 Current transformer

14 Cable sealing end

Fig. 3.1-40: 8DQ1 switchgear bay up to 420 kV

The base unit for the switchgear is a horizontally arranged


circuit-breaker on top of which the housing containing the
disconnectors, earthing switches, current transformers and so
on are mounted. The busbar modules are partitioned off from
the active equipment (fig. 3.1-39, fig. 3.1-40, fig. 3.1-41).
Some other characteristic features of switchgear installation are:
Circuit-breakers with single interrupter unit up to operating
voltages of 420 kV (fig. 3.1-40, fig. 3.1-41), with two
interrupter units up to operating voltages of 550 kV
(fig. 3.1-39)
Short-circuit breaking currents up to 63 kA within 2 cycles
for 50 Hz / 60 Hz and 80 kA up to 420 kV
Horizontal arrangement of the circuit-breakers in the lower
section provides low center of gravity for the switchgear
Utilization of the circuit-breaker transport frame as
a supporting device for the entire bay
Reduced length of sealing surfaces, and thus, decreased risk
of leakage through use of only a few modules and equipment
combinations in one enclosure.

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Fig. 3.1-41: 8DQ1 switchgear for a rated voltage of 420 kV

Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

Specification guide for metal-enclosed SF6-insulated


switchgear
Note: The points below are not considered exhaustive, but are
a selection of the important. These specifications cover the
technical data applicable to metal-enclosed SF6-insulated switchgear for switching and distributing power in cable and/or overhead-line systems and transformers. Key technical data are
contained in the data sheet and the single-line diagram (SLD)
attached to the inquiry.
A general SLD and a sketch showing the general arrangement of
the substation will be part of a proposal. Any switchgear quoted
will be complete and will form a functional, safe and reliable system after installation, even if certain parts required to
achieve this have not been specifically been included in the
inquiry.

Applicable standards
All equipment is designed, built, tested and installed
according to the latest issues of the applicable
IEC standards, which are:
IEC 62271-1 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear:
Common specifications
IEC 62271-203 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear:
Gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear for rated voltages
above 52 kV
IEC 62271-100 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear:
Alternating-current circuit-breakers
IEC 62271-102 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear:
Alternating current disconnectors and earthing switches
IEC 60044 Instrument transformers: Current transformers
National standards on request.
Local conditions
The equipment is tested for indoor and outdoor applications.
All the buyer has to provide is a flat concrete floor with the
cutouts for cable installation if this is required. The switchgear
comes equipped with adjustable supports (feet). If steel support
structures are required for the switchgear, Siemens will provide
these as well. For design purposes, the indoor temperatures
should be between 5 C and + 40 C, and outdoor temperatures
should be between 30 C and + 40 C (+ 50 C). For parts to be
installed outdoors (overhead-line connections), the conditions
described in IEC 62271-203 will be observed. For the enclosures,
aluminum or aluminum alloys are preferred.
A minimum of one-site installation will ensure maximum reliability. Up to six single or three double switchgear bays, completely assembled and tested, come as a single transport unit.
Subassembly size is restricted only by transport requirements.
Siemens will provide the enclosure in a material and thickness
suited to withstand an internal arc and prevent burn-throughs or
punctures within the first stage of protection, referred to the
rated short-circuit current of the given GIS type.

purpose. Density monitors with electrical contacts for at least


two pressure levels are installed to allow monitoring the gas in
the enclosures. The circuit-breakers can be monitored with
density gauges that are fitted in the circuit-breaker control units.
Siemens can assure that the pressure loss for each individual gas
compartment i.e., not just for the complete switchgear installation will not exceed 0.1 % per year and gas compartment.
Each gas-filled compartment comes equipped with static filters
that are capable of absorbing any water vapor that penetrates
into the switchgear installation for a period of at least 25 years.
Intervals between required inspections are long, which keeps
maintenance costs to a minimum. The first minor inspection is
due after ten years. The first major inspection is usually required
after more than 25 years of operation unless the permissible
number of operations is reached before that date.

Arrangement and modules


Arrangement
The system is of the enclosed 1-phase or 3-phase type. The
assembly consists of completely separate pressurized sections,
and is thus designed to minimize any danger to the operating
staff and risk of damage to adjacent sections, even if there
should be trouble with the equipment. Rupture diaphragms are
provided to prevent the enclosures from bursting in an uncontrolled manner. Suitable deflectors provide protection for the
operating personnel. For maximum operating reliability, internal
relief devices are not installed, because these would affect
adjacent compartments. The modular design, complete segregation, arc-proof bushing and plug-in connections allow speedy
removal and replacement of any section with only minimal
effects on the remaining pressurized switchgear.
Busbar module
The busbar modules of adjacent bays are connected with expansion joints which absorb constructional tolerances and temperature-related movements in longitudinal as well as transverse
direction to the busbar. Axially guided sliding contacts between
the conductors compensate temperature-related expansions in
conductor length (fig. 3.1-42).

Fig. 3.1-42: All busbars of the enclosed 3-phase or the 1-phase (fig.)
type are connected with plugs from one bay to the next

All assemblies are designed to allow absorption of thermal


expansion and contraction caused by varying temperatures.
Adjustable metal bellow compensators are installed for this

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations
Circuit-breakers
(see chapter 4.1.1 Circuit-Breakers for 72.5 kV up to 800 kV)
The circuit-breakers operate according to the dynamic self-compression principle. The number of interrupting units per phase
depends on the circuit-breakers performance. The arcing chambers and circuit-breaker contacts are freely accessible. The
circuit-breaker is suitable for out-of-phase switching and
designed to minimize overvoltages. The specified arc interruption performance has to be consistent across the entire operating range, from line-charging currents to full short-circuit
currents.

The circuit-breaker is designed to withstand at least 10 operations (depending on the voltage level) at full short-circuit rating.
Opening the circuit-breaker for service or maintenance is not
necessary. The maximum tolerance for phase displacement is
3 ms, that is, the time between the first and the last poles
opening or closing. A standard station battery that is required
for control and tripping may also be used for recharging the
operating mechanism. The drive and the energy storage system
are provided by a stored-energy spring mechanism that holds
sufficient energy for all standard IEC close-open duty cycles. The
control system provides alarm signals and internal interlocks but
inhibits tripping or closing of the circuit-breaker when the energy
capacity in the energy storage system is insufficient or the SF6
density within the circuit-breaker drops below the minimum
permissible level.

Fig. 3.1-43: Disconnectors: In the open position, disconnectors


assure a dielectrically safe gap between system parts at
different potentials; for example, busbar disconnector
isolates the feeders from the busbar. Cast-resin
bushings keep the contact system in place, and the
pressurized gas serves as the high-voltage insulating
medium between live parts and the metal housing. The
conductor terminals vary for different types of adjacent
modules. Up to two earthing switches can be installed
simultaneously

Disconnectors
All disconnectors (isolators) are of the single-break type. DC
motor operation (110, 125, 220 or 250 V), which is fully suited
to remote operation, and a manual emergency operating mechanism are provided. Each motor operating mechanism is self-contained and equipped with auxiliary switches in addition to the
mechanical indicators. The bearings are lubricated for life
(fig. 3.1-43).
Earthing switches
Work-in-progress earthing switches are generally provided on
either side of the circuit-breaker. Additional earthing switches
may be used to earth busbar sections or other groups of the
assembly. DC motor operation (110, 125, 220 or 250 V) that is
fully suited for remote operation and a manual emergency
operating mechanism are provided. Each motor operating
mechanism is self-contained and equipped with auxiliary position switches in addition to the mechanical indicators. The
bearings are lubricated for life. Make-proof high-speed earthing
switches are generally installed at the cable and overhead-line
terminals. They are equipped with a rapid closing mechanism to
provide short-circuit making capacity (fig. 3.1-44).
Instrument transformers
Current transformers (CTs) are of the dry-type design. Epoxy
resin is not used for insulation purposes. The cores have the accuracies and burdens that are shown on the SLD. Voltage transformers are of the inductive type, with ratings of up to 200 VA.

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Fig. 3.1-44: Earthing switches: Earthing switches (work-in-progress


earthing switches or busbar earthing switches, for
example) are used for properly connecting de-energized
live parts of the high-voltage system to the earthing
system. On the outgoing side of the feeders, a makeproof version (high-speed) is frequently used to dissipate
inductive and capacitive currents from parallel cables or
overhead lines or to reduce the risk to the GIS system in
case of faulty connections. In the insulated design they
are also used for measuring purposes and for testing
protection relays

Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

Cable terminations
1-phase or 3-phase, SF6 gas-insulated, metal-enclosed cable end
housings are provided. The cable manufacturer has to supply the
stress cone and suitable sealings to prevent oil or gas from
leaking into the SF6 switchgear. Siemens will supply a mating
connection piece to be fitted to the cable end. The cable end
housing is suitable for oil-type, gas-pressure-type cables with
plastic insulation (PE, PVC, etc.) as specified on the SLD or the
data sheets. Additionally, devices for safely isolating a feeder
cable and connecting a high-voltage test cable to the switchgear
or cable will be provided (fig. 3.1-45).

Overhead-line terminations

The terminations for connecting overhead-lines come complete with SF6-to-air bushings but without line clamps
(fig. 3.1-46).
Transformer/reactor termination module
These terminations form the direct connection between the GIS
and oil-insulated transformers or reactance coils. Standardized
modules provide an economical way of matching them to various transformer dimensions (fig. 3.1-47).
Control and monitoring
As a standard, an electromechanical or solid-state interlocking
control board is supplied for each switchgear bay. This fault-tolerant interlocking system prevents all operating malfunctions.
Mimic diagrams and position indicators provide the operating
personnel with clear operating instructions. Provisions for
remote control are included. Gas compartments are constantly
monitored by density monitors that provide alarm and blocking
signals via contacts.

Fig. 3.1-45: Example for 1-phase cable termination:


Cable termination modules conforming to IEC are
available for connecting the switchgear to highvoltage cables. The standardized construction of these
modules allows connection of various cross-sections and
insulation types. Parallel cable connections for higher
rated currents are also possible with the same module

Required tests
Partial discharge tests
All solid insulators fitted in the switchgear are subjected to a routine partial discharge test prior to installation. At 1.2 times the
line-to-line voltage, no measurable discharge is allowed. This
test ensures maximum safety with regard to insulator failure,
good long-term performance and thus a very high degree of
reliability.
Pressure tests
Each cast-aluminum enclosure of the switchgear is pressuretested for at least twice the service pressure.
Leakage tests
Leakage tests performed on the subassemblies ensure that the
flanges and cover faces are clean, and that the guaranteed
leakage rate is not be exceeded.

Fig. 3.1-46: Overhead-line terminations: High-voltage bushings


are used for the SF6-to-air transition. The bushings
can be matched to specific requirements with regard
to clearance and creepage distances. They are
connected to the switchgear by means of angulartype modules of variable design

Power frequency tests


Each assembly is subjected to power-frequency withstand tests,
including sensitive partial discharge detection, to verify correct
installation of the conductors, and to make sure that the insulator
surfaces are clean and the switchgear as a whole is not subject
to internal faults.

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Switchgear and Substations


3.1 High-Voltage Substations

Additional technical data


Siemens will point out any dimensions, weights or other switchgear data that may affect local conditions and handling of the
equipment. Any quotation includes drawings showing the
switchgear assembly.
Instructions
Detailed instruction manuals on the installation, operation and
maintenance of the equipment are supplied with all equipment
delivered by Siemens.

Scope of supply
Siemens supplies the following items for all GIS types and
interfaces as specified:
The switchgear bay, including circuit-breakers, disconnectors
and earthing switches, instrument transformers and busbar
housings, as specified. For the different feeder types, the
following limits apply:
Cable feeder:
According to IEC 60859, the termination housing, conductor
coupling and connecting plate are part of the GIS delivery,
while the cable stress cone with the matching flange is part
of the cable supply (fig. 3.1-45).
Overhead-line feeder:
The connecting stud at the SF6-to-air bushing is supplied
without the line clamp (fig. 3.1-46).
Transformer feeder:
Siemens supplies the connecting flange at the switchgear bay
and the connecting bus ducts to the transformer, including any
expansion joints. The SF6-to-oil bushings plus terminal
enclosures are part of the transformer delivery unless
otherwise agreed (fig. 3.1-47).
Note: This point always requires close coordination between
the switchgear manufacturer and the transformer supplier.

Each feeder bay is equipped with earthing pads. The local


earthing network and the connections to the switchgear are
included in the installation contractors scope.
Initial SF6 gas filling for the entire switchgear supplied by
Siemens is included. Siemens will also supply all gas
interconnections from the switchgear bay to the integral
gas service and monitoring panel.
Terminals and circuit protection for auxiliary drives and
control power are provided with the equipment. Feeder
circuits and cables as well as the pertaining installation
material will be supplied by the installation contractor.
The local control, monitoring and interlocking panels are
supplied for each circuit-breaker bay to form completely
operational systems. Terminals for remote monitoring and
control are also provided.
Siemens will supply the above-ground mechanical support
structures; embedded steel and foundation work are part
of the installation contractors scope.

For further information:


Fax +49 (9131) 7-34662
www.energy.siemens.com/hq/en/power-transmission

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Fig. 3.1-47: Transformer termination

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage
Switchgear

rents) are preferred for power transmission in order to minimize


losses. The voltage is not transformed to the usual values of the
low-voltage system until it reaches the load centers close to the
consumer.

3.2.1 Introduction
According to international rules, there are only two voltage levels:
Low voltage: up to and including 1 kV AC (or 1,500 V DC)
High voltage: above 1 kV AC (or 1,500 V DC)

Most electrical appliances used in household, commercial and


industrial applications work with low-voltage. High-voltage is
used not only to transmit electrical energy over very large distances, but also for regional distribution to the load centers via
fine branches. However, because different high-voltage levels are
used for transmission and regional distribution, and because the
tasks and requirements of the switchgear and substations are
also very different, the term medium-voltage has come to be
used for the voltages required for regional power distribution
that are part of the high-voltage range from 1 kV AC up to and
including 52 kV AC (fig. 3.2-1). Most operating voltages in
medium-voltage systems are in the 3 kV AC to 40.5 kV AC range.
The electrical transmission and distribution systems not only
connect power plants and electricity consumers, but also, with
their meshed systems, form a supraregional backbone with
reserves for reliable supply and for the compensation of load
differences. High operating voltages (and therefore low cur-

1 Medium voltage

In public power supplies, the majority of medium-voltage systems


are operated in the 10 kV to 30 kV range (operating voltage). The
values vary greatly from country to country, depending on the
historical development of technology and the local conditions.
Medium-voltage equipment
Apart from the public supply, there are still other voltages
fulfilling the needs of consumers in industrial plants with
medium-voltage systems; in most cases, the operating voltages
of the motors installed are decisive. Operating voltages between
3 kV and 15 kV are frequently found in industrial supply systems.
In power supply and distribution systems, medium-voltage
equipment is available in:
Power plants, for generators and station supply systems
Transformer substations of the primary distribution level
(public supply systems or systems of large industrial
companies), in which power supplied from the high-voltage
system is transformed to medium-voltage
Local supply, transformer or customer transfer substations for
large consumers (secondary distribution level), in which the
power is transformed from medium to low-voltage and
distributed to the consumer.

2 High voltage

3 Low voltage

Fig. 3.2-1: Voltage levels from the power plant to the consumer

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Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

Low
voltage

Medium voltage
1 kV < U 52 kV

1 kV

High voltage

Alternating voltage

52 kV

Fig. 3.2-2: Voltage definitions

G
Medium voltage

G
Power generation

Power transmission system

High voltage

Transformer substation
Primary
distribution level
Medium voltage

M
Secondary
distribution level

Low voltage

Fig. 3.2-3: Medium voltage in the power supply and


distribution system

3.2.2 Basics of Switching Devices


What are switching devices?
Switching devices are devices used to close (make) or open
(break) electrical circuits. The following stress can occur during
making and breaking:
No-load switching
Breaking of operating currents
Breaking of short-circuit currents
What can the different switching devices do?
Circuit-breakers: Make and break all currents within the scope
of their ratings, from small inductive and capacitive load
currents up to the full short-circuit current, and this under all
fault conditions in the power supply system, such as earth
faults, phase opposition, and so on.
Switches: Switch currents up to their rated normal current and
make on existing short-circuits (up to their rated short-circuit
making current).
Disconnectors (isolators): Used for no-load closing and
opening operations. Their function is to isolate downstream
devices so they can be worked on.

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Three-position disconnectors: Combine the functions of


disconnecting and earthing in one device. Three-position
disconnectors are typical for gas-insulated switchgear.
Switch-disconnectors (load-break switches): The combination
of a switch and a disconnector, or a switch with isolating
distance.
Contactors: Load breaking devices with a limited short-circuit
making or breaking capacity. They are used for high switching
rates.
Earthing switches: To earth isolated circuits.
Make-proof earthing switches (earthing switches with making
capacity): Are used for the safe earthing of circuits, even if
voltage is present, that is, also in the event that the circuit to
be earthed was accidentally not isolated.
Fuses: Consist of a fuse-base and a fuse-link. With the fusebase, an isolating distance can be established when the fuselink is pulled out in de-energized condition (like in
a disconnector). The fuse-link is used for one single breaking
of a short-circuit current.
Surge arresters: To discharge loads caused by lightning strikes
(external overvoltages) or switching operations and earth
faults (internal overvoltages). They protect the connected
equipment against impermissibly high-voltages.
Selection of switching devices
Switching devices are selected both according to their ratings
and according to the switching duties to be performed, which
also includes the switching rates. The following tables illustrate
these selection criteria: table 3.2-1, next page, shows the selection according to ratings. Table 3.2-2 through table 3.2-5 show
the endurance classes for the devices.
Selection according to ratings
The system conditions, that is, the properties of the primary
circuit, determine the required parameters. The most important
of these are:
Rated voltage: The upper limit of the system voltage the
device is designed for. Because all high-voltage switching
devices are zero-current interrupters except for some fuses
the system voltage is the most important dimensioning
criterion. It determines the dielectric stress of the switching
device by means of the transient recovery voltage and the
recovery voltage, especially while switching off.
Rated insulation level: The dielectric strength from phase to
earth, between phases and across the open contact gap, or
across the isolating distance. The dielectric strength is the
capability of an electrical component to withstand all voltages
with a specific time sequence up to the magnitude of the
corresponding withstand voltages. These can be operating
voltages or higher-frequency voltages caused by switching
operations, earth faults (internal overvoltages) or lightning
strikes (external overvoltages). The dielectric strength is
verified by a lightning impulse withstand voltage test with the
standard impulse wave of 1.2/50 s and a power-frequency
withstand voltage test (50 Hz/1 min).

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear
Device

Withstand capability, rated


insulation
level

voltage

normal
current

Switch(-disconnector)

Disconnector

Circuit-breaker

Earthing switch

Make-proof earthing switch

Contactor

Fuse-link
Fuse-base

x 2)

peak
withstand
current

x
x

1)

x 1)

x
x 3)

x 4)
x

Bushing

x 6)

Post insulator (insulator)

3)

2)

short-circuit
making
current

1)

short-circuit
breaking
current

Current limiting reactor

breaking
current

Surge arrester*

Switching capacity, rated

Selection parameter
Limited short-circuit making and breaking capacity
Applicable as selection parameter in special cases only, e.g.,
for exceptional pollution layer
For surge arresters with spark gap: rated voltage

x 5)

x 6)
4)
5)
6)
*

Rated discharge current for surge arresters


For surge arresters: short-circuit strength in case of overload
For bushings and insulators:
Minimum failing loads for tension, bending and torsion
See also section 3.3

(Parameters of the secondary equipment for operating mechanisms, control and monitoring are not taken into consideration in this table.)

Table 3.2-1: Device selection according to data of the primary circuit

Class
M

Class

Description

M1

1,000

Mechanical endurance

M2

5,000

Increased mechanical endurance

E1

E2

Operating
cycles

10 Iload
10 Iload
2 Ima
30 Iload
20 Iload
3 Ima

E3

100 Iload
20 Iload
5 Ima

C1

10 Icc
10 Ilc
10 Isc
10 Ibb
additionally
each
10 0,1
0,4 Icc,
Isb, Ibb

C2

20 0.05 Iload
10 Icc
10 0.2
to 0.4 Icc
10 Ilc
10 Ief1
10 Ief2

Restrikes
permitted
(number not
defined)

No restrikes

Table 3.2-2: Classes for switches

Test currents:
(old)
Iload active loadbreaking current
I1
Iloo closed-loop
breaking current
I2a
Icc
cable-charging
breaking current
I4a
Ilc
line-charging
breaking current
I4b
Isb capacitor bank
breaking current
I4c
Ibb back-to-back capacitor
bank breaking current I4d
Ief1 earth fault
breaking current
I6a
Ief2 cable- and line-charging
breaking current under
earth fault conditions I6b
Ima short-circuit
making current
Ima

Description

M1

2,000 operating cycles

M
M2 10,000 operating cycles
E1

E
E2

Extended mechanical
endurance, low maintenance
Normal electrical endurance
(not covered by E2)

2 C and 3 O with 10 %,
30 %, 60 % and 100 % Isc

Without
autoreclosing
duty

26 C 130 O 10 % Isc
26 C 130 O 30 % Isc
4 C 8 O 60 % Isc
4 C 6 O 100 % Isc

With autoreclosing
duty

Extended
electrical
endurance
without maintenance of
interrupting
parts of the
main circuit

C1

Low
24 O per 1040% Ilc, Icc, Ibc
probability
24 CO per 1040% Ilc, Icc, Ibc
of restrikes*

C2

24 O per 1040% Ilc, Icc,


Ibc
128 CO per 1040% Ilc, Icc,
Ibc

S1

Circuit-breaker used in a cable system

S2

Circuit-breaker used in a line system or in a cable system with


direct connection (without cable) to overhead lines

2 C and 3 O with 10 %,
30 %, 60 % and 100 % Isc

Normal mechanical
endurance

Restrike-free
breaking
operations at
Very low
2 of 3 test
probability of duties
restrikes**

* Class C1 is recommendable for infrequent switching of transmission lines and cables


** Class C2 is recommended for capacitor banks and frequent switching of
transmission lines and cables

Table 3.2-3: Classes for circuit-breakers

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111

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear
Class

Operating cycles

M0

1,000

M1

2,000

M2

10,000

Description
For general requirements
Extended mechanical endurance

Table 3.2-4: Endurance classes for disconnectors

Class

Operating cycles Description

E0

0 Ima

E1

2 Ima

E2

5 Ima

No shortcircuit making
capacity

For general requirements

Short-circuit
making
capacity

Reduced maintenance
required

Table 3.2-5: Endurance classes for earthing switches

Class

Description
Not
explicitely
defined

C0

C1

C2

24 O per 1040% Ilc, Icc, Ibc


24 CO per 1040% Ilc, Icc, Ibc Low
probability
of restrikes*
24 O per 1040% Ilc, Icc,
Ibc
128 CO per 1040% Ilc, Icc,
Ibc

1 restrike
per
interruption
5 cummulated restrikes
on test duties
BC1 and BC2

Very low
probability of No restrikes*
restrikes**

* Class C2 is recommended for capacitor banks

Table 3.2-6: Classes for contactors

Rated normal current:


The current that the main circuit of a device can continuously
carry under defined conditions. The temperature increase of
components especially contacts must not exceed defined
values. Permissible temperature increases always refer to the
ambient air temperature. If a device is mounted in an
enclosure, it may be advisable to load it below its full rated
current, depending on the quality of heat dissipation.
Rated peak withstand current:
The peak value of the major loop of the short-circuit current
during a compensation process after the beginning of the
current flow, which the device can carry in closed state. It is
a measure for the electrodynamic (mechanical) load of an
electrical component. For devices with full making capacity,
this value is not relevant (see the next item in this list).

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Rated short-circuit making current:


The peak value of the making current in case of short circuit at
the terminals of the switching device. This stress is greater
than that of the rated peak withstand current, because
dynamic forces may work against the contact movement.
Rated breaking current:
The load breaking current in normal operation. For devices
with full breaking capacity and without a critical current range,
this value is not relevant (see the previous item in this list).
Rated short-circuit breaking current:
The root-mean-square value of the breaking current in case of
short circuit at the terminals of the switching device.
Selection according to endurance and switching rates
If several devices satisfy the electrical requirements and no
additional criteria have to be taken into account, the required
switching rate can be used as an additional selection criterion.
Table 3.2-1 through table 3.2-5 show the endurance of the
switching devices, providing a recommendation for their
appropriate use. The respective device standards distinguish
between classes of mechanical (M) and electrical (E) endurance,
whereby they can also be used together on the same switching
device; for example, a switching device can have both mechanical class M1 and electrical class E3.
Switches:
Standard IEC 62271-103 / VDE 0671-103 only specifies classes
for the so-called general-purpose switches. There are also
special switches and switches for limited applications.*
General-purpose switches:
General-purpose switches must be able to break different
types of operating currents (load currents, ring currents,
currents of unloaded transformers, charging currents of
unloaded cables and overhead-lines), as well as to make on
short-circuit currents.
General-purpose switches that are intended for use in
systems with isolated neutral or with earth earth-fault
compensation, must also be able to switch under earth-fault
conditions. The versatility is mirrored in the very exact
specifications for the E classes.
SF6 switches:
SF6 switches are appropriate when the switching rate is not
more than once a month. These switches are usually
classified as E3 with regard to their electrical endurance.
Air-break or hard-gas switches:
Air-break or hard-gas switches are appropriate when the
switching rate is not more than once a year. These switches
are simpler and usually belong to the E1 class. There are
also E2 versions available.
Vacuum switches:
The switching capacity of vacuum switches is significantly
higher than that of the M2/E3 classes. They are used for
special tasks mostly in industrial power supply systems
or when the switching rate is at least once a week.

* Disconnectors up to 52 kV may only switch negligible currents up to 500 mA


(e.g., voltage transformer), or larger currents only when there is an insignificant
voltage difference (e.g., during busbar transfer when the bus coupler is closed).

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

Circuit-breakers:
Whereas the number of mechanical operating cycles is
specifically stated in the M classes, the circuit-breaker standard
IEC 62271-100/VDE 0671-100 does not define the electrical
endurance of the E classes by specific numbers of operating
cycles; the standard remains very vague on this.
The test duties of the short-circuit type tests provide an
orientation as to what is meant by normal electrical
endurance and extended electrical endurance. The number
of make and break operations (Close, Open) is specified in
table 3.2-3.
Modern vacuum circuit-breakers can generally make and break
the rated normal current up to the number of mechanical
operating cycles.
The switching rate is not a determining selection criterion,
because circuit-breakers are always used where short-circuit
breaking capacity is required to protect equipment.
Disconnectors:
Disconnectors do not have any switching capacity (switches for
limited applications must only control some of the switching
duties of a general-purpose switch). Switches for special
applications are provided for switching duties such as
switching of single capacitor banks, paralleling of capacitor
banks, switching of ring circuits formed by transformers
connected in parallel, or switching of motors in normal and
locked condition. Therefore, classes are only specified for the
number of mechanical operating cycles.
Earthing switches:
With earthing switches, the E classes designate the shortcircuit making capacity (earthing on applied voltage). E0
corresponds to a normal earthing switch; switches of the E1
and E2 classes are also-called make-proof or high-speed
earthing switches.
The standard does not specify how often an earthing switch
can be actuated purely mechanically; there are no M classes
for these switches.
Contactors:
The standard has not specified any endurance classes for
contactors yet. Commonly used contactors today have
a mechanical and electrical endurance in the range of 250,000
to 1,000,000 operating cycles. They are used wherever
switching operations are performed very frequently, e.g., more
than once per hour.

Regarding capacitor applications IEC 62271-106 introduced


classes for capacitice current breaking. If contactors are used for
capacitor banks it is recommended to only install class C2 contactors.

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

113

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

3.2.3 Requirements of Medium-Voltage


Switchgear
The major influences and stress values that a switchgear assembly
is subjected to result from the task and its rank in the distribution
system. These influencing factors and stresses determine the
selection parameters and ratings of the switchgear (fig. 3.2-4).

System parameters

System protection and measuring

Protection functions
Selectivity
Measuring

Supplies

Public power systems Emergency power


In-plant power generation Redundancy

Service location

Place of installation
Utilities room
Transport

Accessibility
Buildings
Installation

Ambient conditions

Room climate
Temperature

Altitude
Air humidity

Sector-specific application

Switching duties
Busbar transfer

Switching rate
Availability

Sector-specific operating procedures

Operation
Working
Inspection

Personal protection
Work instructions
Maintenance

Regulations

Standards
Laws
Association guidelines Company regulations

Influences and stress values


System voltage

The system voltage determines the rated voltage of the


switchgear, switching devices and other installed components. The maximum system voltage at the upper tolerance
limit is the deciding factor.
Assigned configuration criteria for switchgear
Rated voltage Ur
Rated insulation level Ud; Up
Rated primary voltage of voltage transformers Upr
Short-circuit current
The short-circuit current is characterized by the electrical values
of peak withstand current Ip (peak value of the initial symmetrical short-circuit current) and sustained short-circuit current Ik.
The required short-circuit current level in the system is predetermined by the dynamic response of the loads and the power
quality to be maintained, and determines the making and
breaking capacity and the withstand capability of the switching
devices and the switchgear (table 3.2-7).
Important note: The ratio of peak current to sustained short-circuit current in the system can be significantly larger than the
standardized factor Ip/Ik = 2.5 (50 Hz) used for the construction
of the switching devices and the switchgear. A possible cause,
for example, are motors that feed power back to the system
when a short circuit occurs, thus increasing the peak current
significantly.
Normal current and load flow
The normal current refers to current paths of the incoming
feeders, busbar(s) and outgoing consumer feeders. Because of
the spatial arrangement of the panels, the current is also distributed, and therefore there may be different rated current values
next to one another along a conducting path; different values
for busbars and feeders are typical.
Reserves must be planned when dimensioning the switchgear:
In accordance with the ambient air temperature
For planned overload
For temporary overload during faults.

114

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Rated voltage
Short-circuit current
Normal current
Load flow

Neutral earthing
Cable/overhead line
Overvoltage protection
Power quality
Redundancy
Tripping times
Metering

Fig. 3.2-4: Influencing factors and stresses on the switchgear

Assigned configuration criteria for switchgear


Main and earthing circuits

Rated peak withstand current Ip


Rated short-time withstand current Ik

Switching devices

Rated short-circuit making current Ima


Rated short-circuit breaking current Isc

Current transformers

Rated peak withstand current Ik-dyn


Rated short-time thermal current Ith

Table 3.2-7: Configuration criteria for short-circuit current

Large cable cross-sections or several parallel cables must be


connected for high normal currents; the panel connection must
be designed accordingly.
Assigned configuration criteria for switchgear
Rated current of busbar(s) and feeders
Number of cables per phase in the panel (parallel cables)
Current transformer ratings.

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear
Category

When an accessible compartment in a panel is


opened,

LSC 1

other panels must be shut down, i.e. at least one


more

LSC 2

LSC 2

only the connection compartment is accessible,


while busbar and other panels remain energized

LSC 2A

any accessible compartment except the busbar


can be open while busbar and other panels remain
energized

LSC 2B

the connection (cable) compartment can remain


energized while any other accessible compartment
can be open except busbar and connections
and busbar and other panels remain energized

Table 3.2-8: Loss of service continuity categories

Type of accessibility
to a compartment

Access features

Type of construction

Interlock-controlled

Opening for normal


operation and
maintenance, e.g.,
fuse replacement

Access is controlled by
the construction of the
switchgear, i.e.,
integrated interlocks
prevent impermissible
opening.

Procedure-based

Opening for normal


operation or
maintenance, e.g.,
fuse replacement

Access control via


a suitable procedure
(work instruction of the
operator) combined with
a locking device (lock).

Tool-based

Opening not for


normal operation
and maintenance,
e.g., cable testing

Access only with tool for


opening; special access
procedure (instruction of
the operator).

Not accessible

Opening not possible or not intended for


operator; opening can destroy the compartment. This applies generally to the gas-filled
compartments of gas-insulated switchgear.
As the switchgear is maintenance-free and
climate-independent, access is neither required
nor possible.

Table 3.2-9: Accessibility of compartments

The notation IAC A FLR, and contains the abbreviations


for the following values:
IAC

Internal Arc Classification

Distance between the indicators 300 mm, i.e., installation in


rooms with access for authorized personnel; closed electrical
service location.

FLR

Access from the front (F), from the sides (L = Lateral) and from
the rear (R).

Test current = Rated short-circuit breaking current (in kA)

Arc duration (in s)

Table 3.2-10: Internal arc classification according to IEC 62271-200

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

115

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

3.2.4 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

Distribution
level

Insulation

Type
of construction

Loss
of service continuity

Primary

Gas-insulated

Extendable

LSC 2

PM

IAC A FLR 31.5 kA, 1 s

LSC 2

PM

IAC A FLR 25 kA, 1 s

LSC 2

PM

IAC A FL 25 kA, 1 s **
IAC A FLR 25 kA, 1 s ***

LSC 2

PM

IAC A FLR 31.5 kA, 1 s

LSC 2

PM

IAC A FLR 31.5 kA, 1 s

LSC 2

PM

IAC A FLR 40 kA, 1 s

LSC 2

PM

IAC A FLR 40 kA, 1 s

LSC 2B

PM

IAC A FLR 50 kA, 1 s

Air-insulated

Extendable

Partition
class

Internal
arc classification*

IAC A FLR 25 kA, 1 s

Secondary

Gas-insulated

Air-insulated

* Maximum possible IAC classification

LSC 2B

PM

IAC A FLR 31.5 kA, 1 s

LSC 2A

PM

IAC A FLR 25 kA, 1 s

LSC 2B

PM

IAC A FLR 31.5 kA, 1 s

Non-extendable

LSC 2

PM

IAC A FL 21 kA, 1 s **
IAC A FLR 21 kA, 1 s ***

Extendable

LSC 2

PM

IAC A FL 21 kA, 1 s **
IAC A FLR 21 kA, 1 s ***

Extendable

LSC 2

PM

IAC A FL 20 kA, 1 s **
IAC A FLR 20 kA, 1 s ***

Extendable

LSC 2

PM

IAC A FLR 21 kA, 1 s

** Wall-standig arrangement

*** Free-standig arrangement

Table 3.2-11: Overview of Siemens medium-voltage switchgear

116

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

**** Depending on HV HRC fuse-link

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

Switchgear
type

Busbar
system

Rated
voltage (kV)

Rated short-time
withstand current (kA)
1s
3s

Rated current,
busbar (A)

Rated current,
feeder (A)

NXPLUS C

Single

15

31.5

31.5

2,500

2,500

24.0

25

25

2,500

2,000

NXPLUS C

Double

24

25

25

2,500

1,250

NXPLUS C Wind

Single

36

25

20

1,000

630/1,000

NXPLUS

Single

40.5

31.5

31.5

2,500

2,500

NXPLUS

Double

36

31.5

31.5

2,500

2,500

8DA10

Single

40.5

40

40

5,000

2,500

8DB10

Double

40.5

40

40

5,000

2,500

NXAIR

Single

17.5

50

50

4,000

4,000

Double

17.5

50

50

4,000

4,000

Single

24

25

25

2,500

2,500

Double

24

25

25

2,500

2,500

NXAIR S

Single

40.5

31.5

31.5

3,150

2,500

8BT1

Single

24

25

25

2,000

2,000

8BT2

Single

36

31.5

31.5

3,150

3,150

8DJH Compact
(panel blocks)

Single

17.5

25

20

630

200 **** /
250 / 400 / 630

24

20

20

630

200 **** /
250 / 400 / 630

17.5

25

20

630

200 **** /
250 / 400 / 630

24

20

20
630

200 **** /
250 / 400 / 630

8DJH
(single panel/
block type)

Single

8DJH 36

Single

36

20

20

630

200 **** / 630

SIMOSEC

Single

17.5

25

21

1,250

1,250

24

20

20

1,250

1,250

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

117

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

NXAIR 17.5 kV

Rated
Voltage

kV 7.2

12

17.5

Frequency

Hz 50/60

50/60

50/60

Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage


(phase/phase, phase/earth)

kV 20*

28*

38

Lightning impulse withstand voltage


(phase/phase, phase/earth)

kV 60

75

95

max. kA 50

50

50

Short-circuit breaking current

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA 50

50

50

Short-circuit making current

max. kA 125 / 130**

125 / 130**

125 / 130**

Peak withstand current

max. kA 125 / 130**

125 / 130**

125 / 130**

Normal current for busbar

max. A 4,000

4,000

4,000

Normal current for feeders:


Circuit-breaker panel
Contactor panel
Disconnecting panel
Bus sectionalizer
Busbar connection panel

max. A
max. A
max. A
max. A
max. A

4,000
400***
4,000
4,000
4,000

4,000

4,000
4,000
4,000

4,000
400***
4,000
4,000
4,000

*
32 kV at 7.2 kV and 42 kV at 12 kV optional for GOST standard.
** Values for 50 Hz: 125 kA; for 60 Hz: 130 kA.
*** Current values dependent on HV HRC fuses. Lightning impulse withstand voltage across open contact gap of contactor:
40 kV at 7.2 kV, 60 kV at 12 kV.

Fig. 3.2-5: NXAIR panel

Table 3.2-12: Technical data of NXAIR

Dimensions
Width

in mm

W Circuit-breaker panel
1,000 A 600*
1,250 / 2,500 / 3,150 A 800
2,500 A / 3,150 A / 4,000 A 1,000
Contactor panel

400 A 435 / 600

Disconnecting panel
1,250 A 800
2,500 A / 3,150 A / 4,000 A 1,000
Bus sectionalizer
1,250 A 2 800
2,500 A / 3,150 A / 4,000 A 2 1,000
Metering panel
Busbar connection panel
Height

H1 With standard low-voltage


compartment, natural ventilation

2,300

Height

H2 With high low-voltage compartment or


additional compartment for busbar
components

2,350

Height

H3 With forced ventilation for 4,000 A

2,450

Height

H4 With optional internal arc absorber

2,500

Depth
W

800
4,000 A 800/1,000

D Single busbar, all panel types 31.5 kA 1,350


(except contactor panel)
40 kA 1,500
Contactor panel

40 kA 1,400*/1,500

* 31.5 kA

Fig. 3.2-6: Dimensions of NXAIR

Performance features
The air-insulated, metal-clad switchgear type NXAIR is an
innovation in the switchgear field for the distribution and
process level up to 17.5 kV, 50 kA, 4,000 A.
Type-tested, IEC 62271-200, metal-clad, loss of service
continuity category: LSC 2B; partition class: PM;
internal arc classification: IAC A FLR 50 kA 1 s
Evidence of the making and breaking capacity for the circuitbreakers and the make-proof earthing switches inside the
panel

118

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Insulating medium air is always available


Single busbar, double busbar (back-to-back, face-to-face)
Withdrawable vacuum circuit-breaker
Withdrawable vacuum contactor
Platform concept worldwide, local manufacturing presence
Use of standardized devices
Maximum security of operation by self-explaining
operating logic
Maintenance interval 10 years

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

NXAIR 24 kV

Rated
Voltage

kV

24

Frequency

Hz

50/60

Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage


(phase/phase, phase/earth)

kV

50 *

Lightning impulse withstand voltage


(phase/phase, phase/earth)

kV

125

Short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

25

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

25

Short-circuit making current

max. kA

63/65 **

Peak withstand current

max. kA

63/65 **

Normal current for busbar

max. A

2,500

Normal current for feeders:


Circuit-breaker panel
Disconnecting panel
Bus sectionalizer

max. A
max. A
max. A

2,500
2,500
2,500

* 65 kV optional for GOST standard

** Values for 50 Hz: 63 kA; for 60 Hz: 65 kA.

Table 3.2-13: Technical data of NXAIR, 24 kV


Fig. 3.2-7: NXAIR, 24 kV panel

Dimensions
Width

in mm
Circuit-breaker panel

1,250 A
2,500 A

800
1,000

Disconnecting panel

1,250 A
2,500 A

800
1,000

Bus sectionalizer
1,250 A
1,600 A / 2,000 A / 2,500 A

2 800
2 1,000

Metering panel

800

Height

H1

With standard low-voltage


compartment

2,510

Height

H2

With high low-voltage compartment

2,550

Height

H3

With natural ventilation

2,680

Height

H4

With optional internal arc absorber

2,750

Height

H5

With additional compartment for busbar


components

2,770

Single busbar
Double busbar (back-to-back)

1,600
3,350

Depth

Fig. 3.2-8: Dimensions of NXAIR, 24 kV

Performance features
The air-insulated, metal-clad switchgear type NXAIR, 24 kV is the
resulting further development of the NXAIR family for use in the
distribution and process level up to 24 kV, 25 kA, 2,500 A.
Type-tested, IEC 62271-200, metal-clad, loss of service
continuity category: LSC 2B; partition class: PM;
internal arc classification: IAC A FLR 25 kA 1s
Evidence of the making and breaking capacity for the circuitbreakers and the make-proof earthing switches inside the
panel

Single busbar, double busbar (back-to-back, face-to-face)


Insulating medium air is always available
Withdrawable vacuum circuit-breaker
Platform concept worldwide, local manufacturing presence
Use of standardized devices
Maximum security of operation by self-explaining
operating logic
Maintenance interval 10 years

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

119

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

NXAIR S

Rated
Voltage

kV

40.5

Frequency

Hz

50 / 60

Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage


(phase/phase, phase/earth)

kV

185

Lightning impulse withstand voltage


(phase/phase, phase/earth)

kV

95

Short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

31.5

Short-time withstand current, 4 s

max. kA

31.5

Short-circuit making current

max. kA

80 / 82

Peak withstand current

max. kA

80 / 82

Normal current for busbar

max. A

3,150

Normal current for feeders:


Circuit-breaker panel
Disconnecting panel
Bus sectionalizer

max. A
max. A
max. A

2,500
2,500
2,500

Table 3.2-14: Technical data of NXAIR S

120

H2
H1

Performance features
The air-insulated, metal-clad
switchgear type NXAIR S is
based on the construction
principles of the NXAIR family
and designed for use in the
distribution and process level
up to 40.5 kV, 31.5 kA,
3,150 A.
Type-tested, IEC 62271-200,
metal-clad, loss of service
continuity category: LSC 2B;
partition class: PM; internal
arc classification: IAC A FLR
31.5 kA 1 s
Insulating medium air is
always available
Evidence of the making and
breaking capacity for the
circuit-breakers and the
make-proof earthing
switches inside the panel
Withdrawable vacuum
circuit-breaker
Maximum availability due to
modular design
Maximum security of
operation by self-explaining
operating logic
Maintenance interval
10 years

H3

Fig. 3.2-9: NXAIR S panel

Dimensions
Width

in mm
W

Circuit-breaker panel

1,200

Disconnecting panel

1,200

Switch-fuse panel including auxiliary transformer

1,400

Bus sectionalizer

2 1,200

Metering panel

1,200

Height

H1

With standard low-voltage compartment

2,650

Height

H2

Standard panel

2,800

Height

H3

Optionally with internal arc absorber

3,010

Single busbar

2,650

Depth

Fig. 3.2-10: Dimensions of NXAIR S

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

8BT1

Rated
Voltage

kV 12

24

Frequency

Hz 50

50

Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage


(phase/phase, phase/earth)

kV 28

50

Lightning impulse withstand voltage


(phase/phase, phase/earth)

kV 75

125

Short-circuit breaking current

max. kA 25

25

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA 25

25

Short-circuit making current

max. kA 63

63

Peak withstand current

max. kA 63

63

Normal current for busbar

max. A 2,000

2,000

Normal current for feeders


with circuit-breaker
with switch-disconnector
with switch-disconnector and fuses

max. A 2,000
max. A 630
max. A 200 A*

2,000
630
200 A*

* Depending on rated current of the HV HRC fuses used.

Table 3.2-15: Technical data of 8BT1

H1

Performance features
The air-insulated, cubicle-type
switchgear type 8BT1 is
a factory-assembled, typetested indoor switchgear for
lower ratings in the distribution and process level up to
24 kV, 25 kA, 2,000 A.
Type-tested, IEC 62271-200,
cubicle-type, loss of service
continuity category: LSC 2A;
partition class: PM; internal
arc classification: IAC A FLR
25 kA 1 s
Insulating medium air is
always available
Evidence of the making and
breaking capacity for the
circuit-breakers and the
make-proof earthing
switches inside the panel
Single busbar
Withdrawable vacuum
circuit-breaker
All switching operations with
door closed

H2

Fig. 3.2-11: 8BT1 panel

D1
D2

All panel types

Dimensions in mm

7.2/12 kV
Width

For circuit-breaker max. 1,250 A


For circuit-breaker 2,000 A
For switch-disconnector

600
800
600

Height

H1
H2
H2

With standard low-voltage compartment


With pressure relief system
With lead-off duct

2,050
2,300*
2,350*

Depth

D1
D2

Without low-voltage compartment


With low-voltage compartment

1,200
1,410

Width

For circuit-breaker max. 1,250 A


For circuit-breaker 2,000 A
For switch-disconnector

800
1,000
800

Height

H1
H2
H2

With standard low-voltage compartment


With pressure relief system
With lead-off duct

2,050
2,300*
2,350*

Depth

D1
D2

Without low-voltage compartment


With low-voltage compartment

1,200
1,410

24 kV

* For 1 s arc duration.

Fig. 3.2-12: Dimensions of 8BT1

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

121

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

8BT2

Rated

Voltage

kV

36

Frequency

Hz

50/60

Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage


(phase/phase, phase/earth)

kV

70

Lightning impulse withstand voltage


(phase/phase, phase/earth)

kV

170

Short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

31.5

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

31.5

Short-circuit making current

max. kA

80/82*

Peak withstand current

max. kA

80/82*

Normal current for busbar

max. A

3,150

Normal current for feeders


with circuit-breaker

max. A

3,150

* Values for 50 Hz: 80 kA; for 60 Hz: 82 kA.

Table 3.2-16: Technical data of 8BT2

Fig. 3.2-13: 8BT2 switchgear

Dimensions

in mm

Width

Height

H1

Intermediate panel

2,400

Height

H2

End panel with side baffles

2,750 / 2,800*

Height

H3

Panel with closed duct

2,900**

Wall-standing, IAC A FL

2,450

Free-standing, IAC A FLR

2,700

Depth

3,150 A feeder current

1,200

H1

H2

H3

* H2 indicates side baffles for internal arc protection


** Closed duct for IAC-classification A FLR

Fig. 3.2-14: Dimensions of 8BT2

Performance features
The air-insulated, metal-clad switchgear type 8BT2 is a factoryassembled, type-tested indoor switchgear for use in the distribution and process level up to 36 kV, 31.5 kA, 3,150 A.
Type-tested, IEC 62271-200, metal-clad, loss of service
continuity category: LSC 2B; partition class: PM; internal arc
classification: IAC A FLR 31.5 kA 1 s
Insulating medium air is always available

122

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Evidence of the making and breaking capacity for the circuitbreakers and the make-proof earthing switches inside the
panel
Single busbar
Withdrawable vacuum circuit-breaker
All switching operations with door closed

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

8DA/8DB

Rated
Voltage

kV

12

24

36

40.5

Frequency

Hz

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

28

50

70

85

Lightning impulse withstand voltage


Short-circuit breaking current

kV

75

125

170

185

max. kA

40

40

40

40

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

40

40

40

40

Short-circuit making current

max. kA

100

100

100

100

Peak withstand current

max. kA

100

100

100

100

Normal current for busbar

max. A

5,000

5,000

5,000

5,000

Normal current for feeders

max. A

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,500

Table 3.2-17: Technical data of 8DA/8DB


Fig. 3.2-15: 8DA switchgear
for single-busbar
applications (on the
left), 8DB switchgear
for double-busbar
applications (on the
right)

8DA switchgear

8DA/8DB are gas-insulated


medium-voltage circuitbreaker switchgear assemblies
up to 40.5 kV with the advantages of the vacuum switching
technology for a high degree
of independence in all applications. 8DA/8DB are suitable for
primary distribution systems
up to 40.5 kV, 40 kA, up to
5,000 A.

D1
8DB switchgear

Performance features
Type-tested according to
IEC 62271-200
Enclosure with modular
standardized housings made
from corrosion-resistant
aluminum alloy
Safe-to-touch enclosure and
standardized connections for
plug-in cable terminations
Operating mechanisms and
transformers are easily
accessible outside the
enclosure
Metal-enclosed, partition
class PM
Loss of service continuity
category for switchgear:
LSC 2
Internal arc classification:
IAC A FLR 40 kA 1 s

D2

Dimensions

Dimensions in mm

Width (spacing)

600

Height

Standard design
Design with higher low-voltage compartment

2,350
2,700

Depth

D1
D2

Single-busbar switchgear
Double-busbar switchgear

1,625
2,665

Fig. 3.2-16: Dimensions of 8DA/8DB

Advantages
Independent of environment
and climate

Compact
Maintenance-free
Personal safety

Operational reliability
Environmentally compatible
Cost-efficient

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

123

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

8DJH Compact

Rated
Voltage

kV

124

24

50 / 60

50 / 60

50 / 60

50 / 60

50 / 60

kV

20

28

36

38

50

Lightning impulse withstand voltage

kV

60

75

95

95

125

Normal current for ring-main feeders

A
max. A
A

400 or 630
630
200*

max. kA

25

25

25

25

20

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

20

20

20

20

20

max. kA

63

63

63

63

50

max. kA
max. kA

63
63

63
63

63
63

63
63

50
50

50 Hz

Short-time withstand current, 1 s


Peak withstand current

max. kA

21

21

21

21

20

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

21

21

21

21

20

max. kA

55

55

55

55

52

max. kA
max. kA

55
55

55
55

55
55

55
55

52
52

60 Hz

Short-time withstand current, 1 s


Peak withstand current
Short-circuit making current
for ring-main feeders
for transformer feeders
* Depending on HV HRC fuse-link

Table 3.2-18: Technical data of 8DJH Compact

Performance features
Type-tested according to
IEC 62271-200
Sealed pressure system with
SF6 filling for the entire
service life
Safe-to-touch enclosure and
standardized connections for
plug-in cable terminations
3-pole, gas-insulated
switchgear vessel for
switching devices and
busbar
Panel blocks
Switching devices: threeposition switch-disconnector
(OPEN CLOSED EARTHED),
switch-fuse combination for
distribution transformer
protection
Earthing function of
switching devices generally
make-proof

17.5

Hz

Short-circuit making current


for ring-main feeders
for transformer feeders

The gas-insulated mediumvoltage switchgear type 8DJH


Compact is used for power
distribution in secondary
distribution systems up to
24 kV. Ring-main feeders and
transformer feeders are all
part of a comprehensive
product range to satisfy all
requirements with the highest
level of operational reliability
also for extreme ambient
conditions.

15

Frequency

Normal current for transformer feeders

Fig. 3.2-17: 8DJH Compact

12

Short-duration power-frequency
withstand voltage

Normal current for busbar

7.2

Dimensions
Width

Dimensions in mm
W

Height

Depth

Number of feeders (in extracts)


3 feeders (RRT)
4 feeders (RRT-R)
6 feeders (RRT-RRT)

620** / 700***
930** / 1,010***
1,240** / 1,400***
1,400 / 1,700

Standard switchgear

** Internal arc classification IAC A F, *** Internal arc classification IAC A FLR

Fig. 3.2-18: Dimensions of 8DJH Compact

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

775

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

8DJH

Rated
Voltage

kV

17.5

24

Hz

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

kV

20

28*

36

38

50

Lightning impulse withstand voltage

kV

60

75

95

95

125

Normal current for ring-main feeders

A
max.A

Normal current for transformer feeders

400 or 630
630

250 or 630

200**

max.kA

25

25

25

25

20

Short-time withstand current, 3s

max.kA

20

20

20

20

20

Peak withstand current

max.kA

63

63

63

63

50

max.kA
max.kA
max.kA

63
63
63

63
63
63

63
63
63

63
63
63

50
50
50

max.kA

25

25

25

25

21

50 Hz

Short-time withstand current, 1s

Short-circuit making current


for ring-main feeders
for circuit-breaker feeders
for transformer feeders
Short-time withstand current, 1s

max.kA

21

21

21

21

20

max.kA

65

65

65

65

55

max.kA
max.kA
max.kA

65
65
65

65
65
65

65
65
65

65
65
65

55
55
55

60 Hz

Short-time withstand current, 3s


Peak current
Short-circuit making current
for ring-main feeders
for circuit-breaker feeders
for transformer feeders

*42kV according to some national requirements **Depending on HV HRC fuse-link

Table3.2-19: Technical data of 8DJH

Performance features
Type-tested according to
IEC62271-200
Sealed pressure system with
SF6 filling for the entire
service life
Safe-to-touch enclosure and
standardized connections for
plug-in cable terminations
3-pole, gas-insulated
switchgear vessel for
switching devices and
busbar
Panel blocks and single
panels available
Switching devices: threeposition switch-disconnector
(ONOFFEARTH), switchfuse combination for
distribution transformer
protection, vacuum circuitbreaker with three-position
disconnector, earthing switch
Earthing function of
switching devices generally
make-proof

15

Frequency

Normal current for busbar

The gas-insulated mediumvoltage switchgear type 8DJH is


used for power distribution in
secondary distribution systems
up to 24kV. Ring-main feeders,
circuit-breaker feeders and
transformer feeders are all part
of acomprehensive product
range to satisfy all requirements with the highest level of
operational reliability
also for extreme ambient
conditions.

12

Short-duration power-frequency
withstand voltage

Normal current for circuit-breaker feeders

Fig.3.2-19: 8DJH block type

7.2

Dimensions
Width

Dimensions in mm
W

Number of feeders (in extracts)


2 feeders (e.g., RR)
3 feeders (e.g., RRT)
4 feeders (e.g., 3R + 1T)

620
1,050
1,360

Height

Panels without low-voltage compartment


Panels with low-voltage compartment (option)
Switchgear with pressure absorber (option)

1,200/1,400/1,700
1,4002,600
1,8002,600

Depth

Standard switchgear
Switchgear with pressure absorber (option)

775
890

Fig.3.2-20: Dimensions of 8DJH block types

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

125

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

H2

H2
H1

H1

H2
H1

H1

H2

8DJH

3
W

Fig. 3.2-21: 8DJH single panel

Advantages
No gas work during
installation
Compact
Independent of environment
and climate
Maintenance-free
High operating and personal
safety
Switchgear interlocking
system with logical
mechanical interlocks
Operational reliability and
security of investment
Environmentally compatible
Cost-efficient

126

Dimensions
Width

Metal-enclosed, partition
class PM
Loss of service continuity
category for switchgear:
LSC 2
Internal arc classification
(option):
IAC A FL 21 kA, 1 s
IAC A FLR 21 kA, 1 s

Dimensions in mm
W

Ring-main feeders
Transformer feeders
Circuit-breaker feeders
Bus sectionalizer panels

310 / 500
430
430 / 500
430 / 500 / 620

Busbar metering panels

430 / 500

Billing metering panels

840

Height

H1
H2

Panels without low-voltage compartment


Panels with low-voltage compartment
Switchgear with pressure absorber (option)

1,200 / 1,400 / 1,700


1,4002,600
1,8002,600

Depth

Standard switchgear
Switchgear with pressure absorber (option)

775
890

Fig. 3.2-22: Dimensions of 8DJH single panels

Typical uses
8DJH switchgear is used for
power distribution in secondary distribution systems,
such as
Public energy distribution
Transformer substations
Customer transfer
substations
High-rise buildings
Infrastructure facilities
Airports & ports
Railway & underground
railway stations
Water & wastewater
treatment
Industrial plants
Automotive industry
Chemical industry
Open-cast mines
Renewable power generation
Wind power plants
Solar power plants
Biomass power plants

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

H1

H2

8DJH 36

3
W
Fig. 3.2-23: 8DJH 36 block type

The gas-insulated medium


voltage switchgear type
8DJH 36 is used for power
distribution in secondary
distribution systems up to
36 kV. Ring-main feeders,
circuit-breaker feeders and
transformer feeders are all
part of a comprehensive
product range to satisfy all
requirements with the highest
level of operational reliability
also for extreme conditions.

Dimensions
Width

Dimensions in mm
W

Ring-main feeders
Transformer feeders
Circuit-breaker feeders

430
500
590

RRT block
RRL block

1,360
1,450

Billing metering panels

1,100

Height

H1
H2

Panels without low-voltage compartment


Panels with low-voltage compartment

1,600
1,8002,200

Depth

Standard switchgear
Switchgear with pressure absorber (option)

920
1,035

Fig. 3.2-24: Dimensions of 8DJH 36

Rated

Metal-enclosed, partion class


PM
Loss of service continuity
category for switchgear:
LSC 2
Internal arc classifcation
(option):
IAC A FL 20 kA, 1 s
IAC A FLR 20 kA, 1 s

Voltage

kV

36

Frequency

Hz

50/60

Short-duration power-frequency
withstand voltage

kV

70

Lightning impulse withstand voltage

kV

170

Advantages
No gas work during
installation
Compact
Independent of enviroment
and climate
Maintenance-free
High operating and
personal safety
Switchgear interlocking
system with logical
mechanical interlocks
Operational reliability and
security of investment
Enviromentally compatible
Cost-efficent

Short-time withstand current, 1 s

max. kA

20

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

20

Peak withstand current

max. kA

50

max. kA
max. kA
max. kA

50
50
50

Normal current for ring-main feeders

630

max. A

630

Normal current for circuit-breaker feeders

630

Normal current for transformer feeders

Short-circuit making current


for ring-main feeders
for circuit-breaker feeders
for transformer feeders

50 Hz

Normal current for busbar

200*

Short-time withstand current, 1 s

max. kA

20

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

20

Peak withstand current

max. kA

52

max. kA
max. kA
max. kA

52
52
52

Short-circuit making current


for ring-main feeders
for circuit-breaker feeders
for transformer feeders

60 Hz

Performance features
Type-tested according to
IEC 62271-200
Sealed pressure system with
SF6 filling for the entire
service life
Safe-to-touch enclosure and
standardized connections for
plug-in terminations
3-pole, gas-insulated
switchgear vessel for
switching devices and
busbar
Panel blocks and single
panels available
Switching devices: threeposition switch-disconnector
(OPEN CLOSED EARTHED),
switch-fuse combination for
distribution transformer
protection, vacuum circuitbreaker with three-position
disconnector
Earthing function of
switching devices generally
make-proof

* Depending on HV HRC fuse-link

Table 3.2-20: Technical data of 8DJH

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

127

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

NXPLUS

Rated

Single
double

Busbar system

Single
double

Single
double

Single

Voltage

kV

12

24

36

40.5

Frequency

Hz

50 / 60

50 / 60

50 / 60

50 / 60

Short-duration power-frequency withstand


voltage

kV

28

50

70

85

Lightning impulse withstand voltage

kV

75

125

170

185

Short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

31.5

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

31.5

Short-circuit making current

max. kA

80

80

80

80

Peak withstand current

max. kA

80

80

80

80

Normal current for busbar

max. A

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,000

Normal current for feeders

max. A

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,000

Table 3.2-21: Technical data of NXPLUS

Performance features
Type-tested according to
IEC 62271-200
Sealed pressure system with
SF6 filling for the entire
service life
Safe-to-touch enclosure and
standardized connections for
plug-in cable terminations
Separate 3-pole gasinsulated modules for busbar
with three-position
disconnector, and for circuitbreaker
Interconnection of modules
with 1-pole insulated and
screened module couplings
Operating mechanisms and

128

NXPLUS switchgear with double-busbar

H2

NXPLUS is a gas-insulated
medium-voltage circuit-breaker
switchgear up to 40.5 kV with
the advantages of the vacuum
switching technology for
a high degree of independence in all applications.
NXPLUS can be used for
primary distribution systems
up to 40.5 kV, up to 31.5 kA,
up to 2,000 A (for doublebusbar switchgear up to
2,500 A).

NXPLUS switchgear with single busbar

H1

Fig. 3.2-25: NXPLUS switchgear


for single-busbar
applications (on
the left), NXPLUS
switchgear for doublebusbar applications
(on the right)

W1

D1
W2

Dimensions
Width (spacing)

D2
Dimensions in mm

W1

Feeders up to 2,000 A

600

W2

Feeders up to 2,300 A

900

W2

Feeders up to 2,500 A

1,200

Height

H1
H2

Single-busbar switchgear
Double-busbar switchgear

2,450
2,600

Depth

D1
D2

Single-busbar switchgear
Double-busbar switchgear

1,600
1,840

Fig. 3.2-26: Dimensions of NXPLUS

transformers are arranged


outside the switchgear
vessels and are easily
accessible
Metal-enclosed, partition
class PM
Loss of service continuity
category for switchgear:
LSC 2

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Internal arc classification:


IAC A FLR 31.5 kA, 1 s
No gas work during
installation or extension
Advantages
Independent of environment
and climate
Compact

Maintenance-free
Personal safety
Operational reliability
Environmentally compatible
Cost-efficient

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

NXPLUS C

Rated
Voltage

kV

7.2

12

15

17.5

24

Frequency

Hz

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

Short-duration power-frequency
withstand voltage

kV

20

28*

36

38

50

Lightning impulse withstand voltage

kV

60

75

95

95

125

Short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

25

25

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

25

25

Short-circuit making current

max. kA

80

80

80

63

63

Peak withstand current

max. kA

80

80

80

63

63

Normal current for busbar

max. A

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,500

Normal current for feeders

max. A

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,000

2,000

* 42 kV according to some national requirements

Fig. 3.2-27: NXPLUS C panel

Table 3.2-22: Technical data of NXPLUS C

Performance features
Type-tested according to
IEC 62271-200
Sealed pressure system with
SF6 filling for the entire
service life
Safe-to-touch enclosure and
standardized connections for
plug-in cable terminations
Loss of service continuity
category for switchgear:
Without HV HRC fuses:
LSC 2
1-pole insulated and
screened busbar
3-pole gas-insulated
switchgear vessels with
three-position switch and
circuit-breaker
Operating mechanisms and
transformers are located
outside the switchgear vessel
and are easily accessible
Metal-enclosed, partition
class PM

H1
H2
H3

The compact NXPLUS C is the


medium-voltage circuitbreaker switchgear that made
gas insulation with the proven
vacuum switching technology
economical in its class. The
NXPLUS C is used for secondary and primary distribution systems up to 24 kV, up to
31.5 kA and up to 2,500 A. It
can also be supplied as
double-busbar switchgear in
a back-to-back arrangement
(see catalog HA35.41).

Dimensions

Dimensions in mm

Width

Height

H1
H2

With horizontal pressure relief duct

H3
D

Depth

630 A/1,000 A/1,250 A

600

2,000 A/2,500 A

900

Standard design

With higher low-voltage compartment

2,250 (W = 600);
2,550 (W = 900)
2,640 (W = 600);
2,640 (W = 900)
2,650

Wall-standing arrangement
Free-standing arrangement

1,250
1,250

Fig. 3.2-28: Dimensions of NXPLUS C

With horizontal pressure


relief duct
Extended number of
operating cycles (up to 15 kV,
up to 31.5 kV, up to 1,250 A)
DISCONNECTING function:
5,000 , 10,000
READY-TO-EARTH function:
5,000 , 10,000
CIRCUIT-BREAKER function:
30,000

Type-approved by LR, DNV,


GL, ABS, RMR
Internal arc classification for:
Wall-standing
arrangement:
IAC A FL 31.5 kA, 1 s
Free-standing
arrangement:
IAC A FLR 31.5 kA, 1 s

Advantages
No gas work during
installation or extension
Compact
Independent ofenvironment
and climate
Maintenance-free
Personal safety
Operational reliability
Environmentally compatible
Cost-efficient

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

129

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

NXPLUS C Wind

Rated
Voltage

kV

36

Frequency

Hz

50/60

Short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

70

Lightning impulse withstand voltage

kV

170

Short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

25

Short-time withstand current, 1 s

max. kA

25

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

20

Short-circuit making current

max. kA

63

Peak withstand current

max. kA

63

Normal current for busbar

max. A

1,000

Normal current for circuit-breaker panel

max. A

630

Normal current for disconnector panel

max. A

1,000

Table 3.2-23: Technical data of NXPLUS C Wind

Performance features
Type-tested according to
IEC 62271-200
Sealed pressure system with
SF6 filling for the entire
service life
Safe-to-touch enclosure and
standardized connections for
plug-in cable terminations
1-pole insulated and
screened busbar
3-pole gas-insulated
switchgear vessels with
three-position switch and

130

The compact medium voltage


circuit-breaker switchgear
NXPLUS C Wind is especially
designed for wind turbines.
Due to the small dimensions it
fits into wind turbines where
limited space is available. The
NXPLUS C Wind is available for
36 kV, up to 25 kA and busbar
currents up to 1,000 A.
NXPLUS C Wind offers
a circuit-breaker,
a disconnector and a switchdisconnector (ring-main)
panel.

Fig. 3.2-29: NXPLUS C Wind

Width

Circuit-breaker panel
Disconnector, switch-disconnector panel

Height

1,900

Depth

1,000

Dimensions

Dimensions in mm
600
450

Fig. 3.2-30: Dimensions of NXPLUS C Wind

circuit-breaker
Operating mechanism and
transformers are located
outside the vessel and are
easily accessible
Metal-enclosed, partition
class PM
Loss of service continuity
category LSC 2B

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Internal arc classification for:


Wall-standing
arrangement:
IAC FL A 25 kA, 1 s
Free-standing
arrangement:
IAC FLR A 25 kA, 1 s

Advantages
No gas work during
installation or extension
Compact
Independent of enviroment
and climate
Maintenance-free
Personal safety
Operational reliabilty
Enviromentally compatible
Cost efficent

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

SIMOSEC

Rated
7.2 kV

12 kV

15 kV o.r.

17.5 kV

24 kV

Frequency

Hz

50 / 60

50 / 60

50 / 60

50 / 60

50 / 60

Short-duration power-frequency withstand


voltage

kV

20

28*

36

38

50

Voltage

Lightning impulse withstand voltage


Short-circuit breaking current

Fig. 3.2-31: SIMOSEC switchgear

The air-insulated mediumvoltage switchgear type


SIMOSEC is used for power
distribution in secondary and
primary distribution systems
up to 24 kV and up to 1,250 A.
The modular product range
includes individual panels such
as ring-main, transformer and
circuit-breaker panels, or
metering panels to fully satisfy
all requirements for power
supply companies and industrial applications.
Performance features
Type-tested according to
IEC 62271-200
Phases for busbar and cable
connection are arranged one
behind the other
3-pole gas-insulated
switchgear vessel with
three-position disconnector,
circuit-breaker and earthing
switch as a sealed pressure
system with SF6 filling for
the entire service life
Air-insulated busbar system
Air-insulated cable
connection system, for
conventional cable sealing
ends
Metal-enclosed, partition
class PM
Loss of service continuity
category for switchgear:
LSC 2

kV

60

75

95

95

125

max. kA

25

25

25

25

20

Short-time withstand current, 1 s

max. kA

25

25

25

25

20

Short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

21

21

21

20

Short-circuit making current

max. kA

25

25

25

25

20

Peak withstand current

max. kA

63

63

63

63

50

1,250

1,250

Normal current for busbar

Normal current for feeders

max. A

630 or 1,250
1,250

1,250

1,250

* 42 kV/75 kV, according to some national requirements

Table 3.2-24: Technical data of SIMOSEC

Dimensions
Width (spacing)

Dimensions in mm
W

Ring-main feeders, transformer feeders

375 or 500

Circuit-breaker feeders, bus sectionalizer

750 or 875

Metering panels

500 / 750 / 875

Height

H1
H2

Panels without low-voltage compartment


Panels with low-voltage compartment

1,760
2,100 or 2,300

Depth

Standard

1,170 and 1,230

Fig. 3.2-32: Dimensions of SIMOSEC

Internal arc classification for:


Wall-standing
arrangement:
IAC A FL 21 kA, 1 s

Free-standing
arrangement:
IAC A FLR 21 kA, 1 s
Can be mounted
side-by-side and extended as
desired

Advantages
Compact modular design
High operating and personal
safety
Environmentally compatible
Cost-efficient

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131

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3.2.5 High-Current and Generator


Switchgear

off extremely high short-circuit currents. Siemens generator


circuit-breakers, designed using environmentally friendly
vacuum switching technology, are designed to withstand
maximum normal currents and meet the demanding
requirements of the generator circuit-breaker standard
IEEE C37.013-1997.

As central components, high-current and generator switchgear


provides the link between the generator and the transformer
(feeding into the transmission and distribution grids). Siemens
offers various generator switchgear types with rated voltages up
to 17.5 kV, rated currents up to 10,000 A and rated short-circuit
breaking currents up to 72 kA for indoor and outdoor installations.

Performance features
High mechanical stability
Low fire load
High operational safety.

The heart of the generator switchgear is the circuit-breaker. Its


primary function is to withstand very high currents and to switch

HIGS (highly integrated generator switchgear)


HIGS is an air-insulated, metal-enclosed generator switchgear for
voltages and currents up to 13.8 kV, 63 kA, 3,150 A for indoor
and outdoor installation. For the first time, the neutral treatment of the generator as well as the auxiliary feeder are integrated in a single generator switchgear (fig. 3.2-33).
Performance features
Generator circuit-breaker according to IEEE C37.013 in the
main transformer feeder
Earthing switch on generator and transformer side
Current and voltage transformers
Surge arresters
Surge capacitors
Integrated auxiliary feeder with disconnector and generator
circuit-breaker or with switch-disconnector and fuses.
The technical data of HIGS and generator switchgear is shown
in the table 3.2-25.

Fig. 3.2-33: HIGS

Type

HIGS

Installation

HB1

HB1 Outdoor

HB3

IR, FL

IR

IR

FL

IR, FL

Dimensions L W H

mm

3,430 1,200
2,500

2,300 1,100
2,500

4,000 1,900
2,500*

6,300 1,900
2,600*

2,900 4,040
2,400*

Rated voltage

kV

13.8

max. 17.5

17.5

17.5

17.5

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage

kV

110

95

110

110

110

Rated short-duration power-frequency


withstand voltage

kV

50

38

50

50

50

Rated short-circuit breaking current

kA

31.5 63

50 / 63

50 / 63 / 72

50 / 63 / 72

50 / 63 / 72

Rated normal current:

2,000 3,150

max. 6,100

max. 5,400

max 10,000

for busbar

5,000

for feeder

5,000

* Measurements may vary according to type

Table 3.2-25: Technical data of HIGS and generator switchgear

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3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

8BK40
8BK40 is an air-insulated, metal-enclosed generator switchgear
with truck-type circuit-breaker for indoor installation up to
17.5 kV; 63 kA; 5,000 A (fig. 3.2-34).
Performance features
Generator circuit-breaker according to IEEE C37.013, or circuitbreaker according to IEC 62271-100
Disconnecting function by means of truck-type circuit-breaker
Earthing switch on generator and transformer side
Current and voltage transformers
Surge arresters
Surge capacitors.
HB1, HB1 Outdoor and HB3
This is an air-insulated, metal-enclosed horizontal busbar switchgear, non-phase-segregated (HB1, HB1 Outdoor, fig. 3.2-35,
fig. 3.2-36) or phase-segregated (HB3, fig. 3.2-37).

3
Fig. 3.2-35: HB1

Performance features
Generator circuit-breaker according to IEEE C37.013
Disconnector
Earthing switch on generator and transformer side
Current and voltage transformers
Surge arresters
Surge capacitors
Further options
Integrated SFC starter
Integrated auxiliary feeder, with generator circuit-breaker or
with switch-disconnector and fuses
Integrated excitation feeder
Brake switch.

Fig. 3.2-36: HB1 Outdoor

Fig. 3.2-34: 8BK40

Fig. 3.2-37: HB3

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3.2.6 Industrial Load Center Substation


Introduction
Industrial power supply systems call for a maximum level of
personal safety, operational reliability, economic efficiency,
and flexibility. And they likewise necessitate an integral
approach that includes before and after sales service,
that can cope with the specific load requirements and, above
all, that is tailored to each individually occurring situation.
With SITRABLOC (fig. 3.2-38), such an approach can be easily
turned into reality.

General
SITRABLOC is an acronym for Siemens TRAnsformer BLOC-type.
SITRABLOC is supplied with power from a medium-voltage
substation via a fuse/switch-disconnector combination and
a radial cable. In the load center, where SITRABLOC is installed,
several SITRABLOCs are connected together by means of cables
or bars (fig. 3.2-39).
Features
Due to the fuse/switch-disconnector combination, the shortcircuit current is limited, which means that the radial cable can
be dimensioned according to the size of the transformer.
In the event of cable faults, only one SITRABLOC fails.
The short-circuit strength is increased due to the connection of
several stations in the load center. The effect of this is that, in
the event of a fault, large loads are selectively disconnected in
a very short time.
The transmission losses are optimized because only short
connections to the loads are necessary.
SITRABLOC has, in principle, two transformer outputs:
1,250 kVA during AN operation
(ambient air temperature up to 40 C)
1,750 kVA during AF operation
(140 % with forced cooling).

Whether in the automobile or food industry, in paint shops or


bottling lines, putting SITRABLOC to work in the right place
considerably reduces transmission losses. The energy is transformed in the production area itself, as close as possible to the
loads. For installation of the system itself, no special building or
fire-protection measures are necessary.
Available with any level of output
SITRABLOC can be supplied with any level of power output, the
latter being controlled and protected by a fuse/switch-disconnector combination.
A high-current busbar system into which up to four transformers
can feed power ensures that even large loads can be brought
onto load without any loss of energy. Due to the interconnection
of units, it is also ensured that large loads are switched off
selectively in the event of a fault.

Fig. 3.2-38: SITRABLOC system

These features ensure that, if one station fails, for whatever


reason, supply of the loads is maintained without interruption.
The SITRABLOC components are:
Transformer housing with roof-mounted ventilation for AN/AF
operating mode
GEAFOL transformer
(Cast-resin insulated) with make-proof earthing switch
AN operating mode: 100 % load up to an ambient air
temperature of 40 C
AF operating mode: 140 % load
LV circuit-breaker as per transformer AF load
Automatic power factor correction equipment (tuned/detuned)
Control and metering panel as well as central monitoring
interface
Universal connection to the LV distribution busway system
(fig. 3.2-40).

Substation

8DC11/8DH10

Load-center
substation
Utilities
substation

LV busways

Fig. 3.2-39: Example of a schematic diagram

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3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

Integrated automatic power factor correction


With SITRABLOC, power factor correction is integrated from the
very beginning. Unavoidable energy losses e.g., due to magnetization in the case of motors and transformers are balanced
out with power capacitors directly in the low-voltage network.
The advantages are that the level of active power transmitted
increases and energy costs are reduced (fig. 3.2-41).
Reliability of supply
With the correctly designed transformer output, the n-1 criterion
is no longer a problem. Even if one module fails (e.g., a mediumvoltage switching device or a cable or transformer), power
continues to be supplied without the slightest interruption. None
of the drives comes to a standstill, and the whole manufacturing
plant continues to run reliably. With SITRABLOC, the power is
where it is needed and it is safe, reliable and economical.
n-1 operating mode
n-1 criteria
With the respective design of a factory grid on the MV side as
well as on the LV side, the so-called n-1 criteria is fulfilled.
In case one component fails on the line side of the transformer
(e.g., circuit-breaker or transformer or cable to transformer) no
interruption of the supply on the LV side will occur (fig. 3.2-42).
Load required 5,000 kVA = 4 1,250 kVA. In case one load
center (SITRABLOC) is disconnected from the MV network, the
missing load will be supplied via the remaining three (n-1) load
centers. SITRABLOC is a combination of everything that presentday technology has to offer. The GEAFOL cast-resin transformers are just one example of this.

LV busway
Tap-off unit with
HRC fuses

Consumer
distribution
incl. control
SITRABLOC

Fig. 3.2-40: Location sketch

Rated voltage

12 kV and 24 kV

Transformer rating AN/AF

1,250 kV A/1,750 kVA

Transformer operating mode

100 % AN up to 40 C
140 % AF

Power factor correction

up to 500 kVAr without reactors


up to 300 kVAr with reactors

Busway system

1,250 A; 1,600 A; 2,500 A

Degree of protection

IP23 for transformer housing


IP43 for LV cubicles

Dimensions (min) (LxHxD)

3,600 mm 2,560 mm 1,400 mm

Weight approx.

6,000 kg

Table 3.2-26: Technical data of SITRABLOC

Their output is 100 % load without fans plus reserves of up to


140 % with fans. The safety of operational staff is ensured
even in the direct vicinity of the installation.
Another example is the SENTRON high-current busbar system.
It can be laid out in any arrangement, is easy to install and
conducts the current wherever you like With almost no losses.
The most important thing, however, is the uniformity of SITRABLOC throughout, regardless of the layout of the modules.
The technology at a glance
(table 3.2-26, fig. 3.2-44, next page)
SITRABLOC can cope with any requirements. Its features include:
A transformer cubicle with or without fans (AN/AF operation)
GEAFOL cast-resin transformers with make-proof earthing
switch AN operation 1,250 kVA, AF operation 1,750 kVA
(fig. 3.2-43, next page)
External medium-voltage switchgear with fuse/switchdisconnectors
Low-voltage circuit-breakers
Automatic reactive-power compensation: up to 500 kVAr
unrestricted, up to 300 kVAr restricted
The SENTRON high-current busbar system: connection to
high-current busbar systems from all directions
SIMATIC ET 200/PROFIBUS interface for central monitoring
system (if required).

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How to understand this mode:


Normal operating mode: 4 x 1,250 kVA
AN operating mode (100 %)
n-1 operating mode:

3 x 1,750 kVA
AF operating mode (140 %)

Power distribution
Utilities substation

3
Circuit-breakers and
switch-disconnectors
with HV HRC fuses

Substation

t < 10 ms

SITRABLOC
M

SITRABLOC SITRABLOC SITRABLOC


M Production M

Personal safety
Reduced costs
Low system losses

Fig. 3.2-42: n-1 operating mode

Fig. 3.2-41: Capacitor banks

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Fig. 3.2-43: Transformer and earthing switch, LV bloc

Switchgear and Substations


3.2 Medium-Voltage Switchgear

Information distribution

S7-400

S7-300

S5-155U

PROFIBUS DP

PG/PC

COROS OP

PROFIBUS
ET 200B

ET 200C

Field devices

Communications interface

SITRABLOC
ET 200M

12/24 kV
P

GEAFOL transformer
with built-in
make-proof earthing switch

LV installation with circuitbreakers and automatic


reactive-power compensation

0.4 kV
LV busbar system
with sliding link
(e.g., SENTRON busways)

Option

Fig. 3.2-44: SIMATIC ET 200/PROFIBUS interface for control monitoring system

For further information please contact:


Fax: ++ 49 91 31 7-3 15 73

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3.3 Low-Voltage Power
Distribution Systems
3.3.1 Requirements for Electrical Power
Systems in Buildings
The efficiency of electrical power supply rises and falls with
qualified planning. Especially in the first stage of planning, the
finding of conceptual solutions, the planner can use his creativity for an input of new, innovative solutions and technologies. They serve as a basis for the overall solution which has
been economically and technically optimized in terms of the
supply task and related requirements.

The following stages of calculating and dimensioning circuits and


equipment are routine tasks which involve a great effort. They can
be worked out efficiently using modern dimensioning tools like
SIMARIS design, so that there is more freedom left for the creative
planning stage of finding conceptual solutions (fig. 3.3-1).
When the focus is limited to power supply for infrastructure
projects, useful possibilities can be narrowed down. The following aspects should be taken into consideration when
designing electric power distribution systems:
Simplification of operational management by transparent,
simple power system structures
Low costs for power losses, e.g. by medium-voltage power
transmission to the load centers
High reliability of supply and operational safety of the
installations even in the event of individual equipment failures
(redundant supply, selectivity of the power system protection,
and high availability)
Easy adaptation to changing load and operational conditions
Low operating costs thanks to maintenance-friendly
equipment
Sufficient transmission capacity of equipment during normal
operation and also in the event of a fault, taking future
expansions into account
Good quality of the power supply, i.e. few voltage changes due
to load fluctuations with sufficient voltage symmetry and few
harmonic voltage distortions
Compliance with applicable standards and project-related
stipulations for special installations.
Standards
To minimize technical risks and / or to protect persons involved in
handling electrotechnical components, essential planning rules
have been compiled in standards. Standards represent the state
of the art; they are the basis for evaluations and court decisions.
Technical standards are desired conditions stipulated by professional associations which are, however, made binding by legal
standards such as safety at work regulations. Furthermore, the
compliance with technical standards is crucial for any approval of
operator granted by authorities or insurance coverage. While
decades ago, standards were mainly drafted at a national level

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Compilation of
boundary conditions
Influencing factors

Concept finding:
Analysis of the supply task
Selection of the network
configuration
Selection of the type
of power supply system
Definition of the technical
features

Building type / perimeter


Building use
Building management
Power outage reserve
etc.

Calculation:
Energy balance
Load flow (normal / fault)
Short-circuit currents
(uncontrolled / controlled)

Lists of power consumers


Forecasts of expansions
Temperatures
Equipment data
etc.

Dimensioning:
Selection of equipment,
transformers, cables,
protective and switching
devices, etc.
Requirements according to
selectivity and back-up
protection

Equipment data
Electrical data
Dimensions etc.

Selectivity tables
Selectivity limit tables
Characteristic curves,
setting data, etc.

etc.

Fig. 3.3-1: Power system planning tasks

Regional

America
PAS

National USA: ANSI

Europe
CENELEC

Australia

Asia

D: DIN VDE

AUS: SA

CN: SAC

CA:

SCC

I:

NZ: SNZ

IND: BIS

BR:

COBEI

F: UTE

CEI

J:

Africa
SA: SABS

JISC

GB: BS
ANSI
BIS
BS
CENELEC

American National Standards Institute


Bureau of Indian Standards
British Standards
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
(Comit Europen de Normalisation Electrotechnique)
CEI
Comitato Ellettrotecnico Italiano Electrotechnical Committee Italy
COBEI
Comit Brasileiro de Eletricidade, Eletrnica, Iluminao e
Telecomunicaes
DIN VDE Deutsche Industrie Norm, Verband deutscher Elektrotechniker
(German Industry Standard, Association of German Electrical
Engineers)
JISC
Japanese Industrial Standards Committee
PAS
Pacific Area Standards
SA
Standards Australia
SABS
South African Bureau of Standards
SAC
Standardisation Administration of China
SCC
Standards Council of Canada
SNZ
Standards New Zealand
UTE
Union Technique de lElectricit et de la Communication
Technical Association for Electrical Engineering & Communication

Table 3.3-1: Representation of national and regional standards in


electrical engineering

and debated in regional committees, it has currently been


agreed that initiatives shall be submitted centrally (on the
IEC level) and then be adopted as regional or national standards.
Only if the IEC is not interested in dealing with the matter, or if
there are time constraints, a draft standard shall be prepared at
the regional level.
The interrelation of the different standardization levels is illustrated
in table 3.3-1. A complete list of the IEC members and further
links can be obtained at www.iec.ch > Members & Experts >
List of Members (NC); www.iec.ch/dyn/www/f?p=103:5:0

Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

System configurations
Table 3.3-2 and table 3.3-3 illustrate the technical aspects and
influencing factors that should be taken into account when
electrical power distribution systems are planned and network
components are dimensioned.

Radial system in an interconnected network


Individual radial systems, in which the connected consumers
are centrally supplied by one power source, are additionally
coupled electrically with other radial systems by means of
coupling connections. All couplings are normally closed.

Simple radial system (spur line topology)


All consumers are centrally supplied from one power source. Each
connecting line has an unambiguous direction of energy flow.
Radial system with changeover connection
as power reserve partial load:
All consumers are centrally supplied from two to n power
sources. They are rated as such that each of them is capable
of supplying all consumers directly connected to the main
power distribution system (stand-alone operation with open
couplings). If one power source fails, the remaining sources
of supply can also supply some consumers connected to the
other power source. In this case, any other consumer must
be disconnected (load shedding).
Radial system with changeover connection
as power reserve full load:
All consumers are centrally supplied from two to n power
sources (stand-alone operation with open couplings). They are
rated as such that, if one power source fails, the remaining
power sources are capable of additionally supplying all those
consumers normally supplied by this power source. No
consumer must be disconnected. This means rating the power
sources according to the (n1) principle. With three parallel
power sources or more, other supply principles, e.g. the (n2)
principle would also be possible. In this case, these power
sources will be rated so that two out of three transformers can
fail without the continuous supply of all consumers connected
being affected.

Depending on the rating of the power sources in relation to the


total load connected, the application of the (n1) principle,
(n2) principle, etc. can ensure continuous and faultless power
supply of all consumers by means of additional connecting lines.

The direction of energy flow through the coupling connections


may vary depending on the line of supply, which must be taken
into account for subsequent rating of switching/protective
devices, and above all for making protection settings.
Radial system with power distribution via busbars
In this special case of radial systems that can be operated in an
interconnected network, busbar trunking systems are used
instead of cables.
In the coupling circuits, these busbar trunking systems are
either used for power transmission (from radial system A to
radial system B, etc.) or power distribution to the respective
consumers.

LV-side system configurations

Partial load
5

Low cost of investment

Full load
5

High reliability of supply

Great voltage stability

Easy and clear system protection

Radial system
with power
distribution via
busbars

Easy operation

Low power losses

Low fire load

High adaptability

Radial system
in an interconnected
network

Radial system with changeover


connection as power reserve

Simple radial
system

Quality criterion

Rating: very good (1) to poor (5) fulfillment of a quality criterion

Table 3.3-2: Exemplary quality rating dependent on the power system configuration

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3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

Power supply systems according to the type of connection


to earth

Depending on the power system and nominal system voltage


there may be different requirements regarding the
disconnection times to be met (protection of persons against
indirect contact with live parts by means of automatic
disconnection).
Power systems in which electromagnetic interference plays an
important part should preferably be configured as TN-S
systems immediately downstream of the point of supply. Later,
it will mean a comparatively high expense to turn existing
TN-C or TN-C/S systems into an EMC-compatible system.

TN-C, TN-C/S, TN-S, IT and TT systems


The implementation of IT systems may be required by national
or international standards.
For parts of installations which have to meet particularly high
requirements regarding operational and human safety (e.g. in
medical rooms, such as the OT, intensive care or postanaesthesia care unit)
For installations erected and operated outdoors (e.g. in
mining, at cranes, garbage transfer stations, and in the
chemical industry).

The state of the art for TN systems is an EMC-compatible design


as TN-S system.

TN-C

Characteristics
1

TN-C/S
3

Low cost of investment

Little expense for system extensions

Any switchgear/protective technology


can be used

TN-S
3

Fault currents and impedance conditions


in the system can be calculated

Stability of the earthing system

High degree of operational safety

High degree of protection

High degree of shock hazard protection

High degree of fire safety

Automatic disconnection for protection


purposes can be implemented

EMC-friendly

Equipment functions maintained in case


of 1st earth or enclosure fault

Fault localization during system


operation

Reduction of system downtimes by


controlled disconnection
1 = true

2 = conditionally true

3 = not true

Table 3.3-3: Exemplary quality rating dependent on the power supply system according to its type of connection to earth

140

TT system

Earth-fault detection can be


implemented

IT system

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Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

When the basic supply concept for the electricity supply system
has been established, it is necessary to dimension the electrical
power system. Dimensioning means the sizing and/or rating of
all equipment and components to be used in the power system.
The dimensioning target is to obtain a technically permissible
combination of switching/protective devices and connecting
lines for each circuit in the power system.
Basic rules
In principle, circuit dimensioning should be performed in compliance with the technical rules standards listed in fig. 3.3-2.
Cross-circuit dimensioning
When selected network components and systems are matched,
an economically efficient overall system can be designed. This
cross-circuit matching of network components may bear any
degree of complexity, because subsequent modifications to
certain components, e.g., a switching/protective device, may
have effects on the neighboring higher-level or all lower-level
network sections (high testing expense, high planning risk).

Dimensioning principles
For each circuit, the dimensioning process comprises the selection of one or more switching/protective devices to be used at
the beginning or end of a connecting line, and the selection of
the connecting line itself (cable/line or busbar connection) after
considering the technical features of the corresponding
switching/protective devices. For supply circuits in particular,
dimensioning also includes rating the power sources.
The objectives of dimensioning may vary depending on the
circuit type. The dimensioning target of overload and short-circuit protection can be attained in correlation to the mounting
location of the protective equipment. Devices applied at the end
of a connecting line can ensure overload protection for this line
at best, but not short-circuit protection.

Circuit types
The basic dimensioning rules and standards listed in fig. 3.3-2
principally apply to all circuit types. In addition, there are specific
requirements for these circuit types (fig. 3.3-3) that are
explained in detail below.
Supply circuits
Particularly stringent requirements apply to the dimensioning of
supply circuits. This starts with the rating of the power sources.

Overload protection

IEC 60364-4-43

VDE 0100-430

Short-circuit protection

IEC 60364-4-43/
IEC 60364-5-54

VDE 0100-430/
VDE 0100-540

Protection against electric shock

IEC 60364-4-41

VDE 0100-410

Voltage drop

IEC 60364-5-52
IEC 60038

VDE 0100-520
VDE 0175-1

Selectivity

IEC 60364-7-710
IEC 60364-7-718
IEC 60947-2
IEC 60898-1

VDE 0100-710
VDE 0100-718
VDE 0660-101
VDE 0641-11

TIP04_13_034_EN

3.3.2 Dimensioning of Power


Distribution Systems

Fig. 3.3-2: Relevant standards for circuit dimensioning

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Power sources are rated according to the maximum load current


to be expected for the power system, the desired amount of
reserve power, and the degree of supply reliability required in
case of a fault (overload / short circuit).
Load conditions in the entire power system are established by
taking the energy balance (in an energy report). Reserve power
and operational safety in the vicinity of the supply system are
usually established by building up appropriate redundancies, for
example, by doing the following:
Providing additional power sources (transformer, generator,
UPS).
Rating the power sources according to the failure principle;
n- or (n1) principle: Applying the (n1) principle means that
two out of three supply units are principally capable of
continually supplying the total load for the power system
without any trouble if the smallest power source fails.
Rating those power sources that can temporarily be operated
under overload (e.g., using vented transformers).

Independently of the load currents established, dimensioning


of any further component in a supply circuit is oriented to the
ratings of the power sources, the system operating modes
configured and all the related switching states in the vicinity of
the supply system.
As a rule, switching/protective devices must be selected in such a
way that the planned power maximum can be transferred. In
addition, the different minimum/maximum short-circuit current
conditions in the vicinity of the supply system, which are dependent on the switching status, must be determined.
When connecting lines are rated (cable or busbar), appropriate
reduction factors must be taken into account; these factors
depend on the number of systems laid in parallel and the installation type.
When devices are rated, special attention should be paid to their
rated short-circuit breaking capacity. In addition, a high-quality
tripping unit with variable settings is preferred, because this
component is an important foundation for attaining the best
possible selectivity toward all upstream and downstream
devices.
Distribution circuit
Dimensioning of cable routes and devices follows the maximum
load currents to be expected at this distribution level.
As a rule

IB max = installed capacity simultaneity factor


Switching/protective device and connecting line are to be
matched with regard to overload and short-circuit protection.
In order to ensure overload protection, the standardized conventional (non-)tripping currents referring to the devices in application have to be observed. A verification based merely on the
rated device current or the setting value Ir would be insufficient.

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Supply

Connecting line between


distribution boards

Load feeders in final


circuits

Start node
Transmission
medium
Load

Target node

Fig. 3.3-3: Schematic representation of the different circuit types

Basic rules for ensuring overload protection:


Rated current rule
Non-adjustable protective equipment

IB In Iz

The rated current In of the selected device must be between


the calculated maximum load current IB and the maximum
permissible load current Iz of the selected transmission
medium (cable or busbar).
Adjustable protective equipment

IB Ir Iz

The rated current Ir of the overload release must be between


the calculated maximum load current Ib and the maximum
permissible load current Iz of the selected transmission
medium (cable or busbar).
Tripping current rule

I2 1.45 Iz
The maximum permissible load current Iz of the selected transmission medium (cable or busbar) must be above the conventional tripping current I2 / 1.45 of the selected device.
The test value I2 is standardized and varies according to the type
and characteristics of the protective equipment applied.
Basic rules for ensuring short-circuit protection:
Short-circuit energy
K2S 2 I 2t
(K = Material coefficient; S = Cross-section)
The amount of energy that is set free when a short circuit
occurs and up to the moment it is cleared automatically
must be less than the energy that the transmission medium
can carry as a maximum, or there will be irreparable damage.
As a standard, this basic rule applies in the time range up to
max. 5 s.
Below 100 ms of short-circuit breaking time, the let-through
energy of the switching/protective device (according to the
equipment manufacturers specification) must be taken into
account.

Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

When devices with a tripping unit are used, observance of this


rule across the entire characteristic device curve must be verified.
A mere verification in the range of the maximum short-circuit
current applied (Ik max) is not always sufficient, in particular
when time-delayed releases are used.
Short-circuit time

ta (Ik min) 5 s
The resulting current-breaking time of the selected protective
equipment must ensure that the calculated minimum short-circuit current Ik min at the end of the transmission line or protected
line is automatically cleared within 5 s at the most.
Overload and short-circuit protection need not necessarily be
provided by one and the same device. If required, these two
protection targets may be realized by a device combination.
The use of separate switching/protective devices could also be
considered, i.e., at the start and end of a cable route. As a rule,
devices applied at the end of a cable route can ensure overload
protection for that line only.
Final circuits
The method for coordinating overload and short-circuit protection is practically identical for distribution and final circuits.
Besides overload and short-circuit protection, the protection of
human life is also important for all circuits.
Protection against electric shock

ta (Ik1 min) ta perm


If a 1-phase fault to earth (Ik1 min) occurs, the resulting current
breaking time ta for the selected protective equipment must be
shorter than the maximum permissible breaking time ta perm
that is required for this circuit according to IEC 60364-4-41
(VDE 0100-410) to ensure the protection of persons.
Because the required maximum current breaking time varies
according to the rated system voltage and the type of load
connected (stationary and non-stationary loads), protection
requirements regarding minimum breaking times ta perm may be
transferred from one load circuit to other circuits. Alternatively,
this protection target may also be achieved by observing a maximum touch voltage.

Depending on the system operating mode (coupling open,


coupling closed) and the medium of supply (transformer or
generator), the protective equipment and its settings must be
configured for the worst-case scenario for short-circuit currents.
In contrast to supply or distribution circuits, where the choice
of a high-quality tripping unit is considered very important,
there are no special requirements on the protective equipment
of final circuits regarding the degree of selectivity to be
achieved. The use of a tripping unit with LI characteristics is
normally sufficient.

Summary
Basically, the dimensioning process itself is easy to understand
and can be performed using simple means.
Its complexity lies in the procurement of the technical data
on the products and systems required. This data can be found
in various technical standards and regulations as well as in
numerous product catalogs.
An important aspect in this context is the cross-circuit manipulation of dimensioned components owing to their technical data.
One such aspect is the above mentioned inheritance of minimum current breaking times of the non-stationary load circuit
to other stationary load or distribution circuits.
Another aspect is the mutual impact of dimensioning and network calculation (short circuit), e.g., for the use of short-circuit
current-limiting devices.
In addition, the complexity of the matter increases, when different national standards or installation practices are to be taken
into account for dimensioning.
For reasons of risk minimization and time efficiency, a number
of engineering companies generally use advanced calculation
software, such as SIMARIS design, to perform dimensioning and
verification processes in electrical power systems.

Because final circuits are often characterized by long supply


lines, their dimensioning is often affected by the maximum
permissible voltage drop.
As far as the choice of switching/protective devices is concerned,
it is important to bear in mind that long connecting lines are
characterized by high impedances, and thus strong attenuation
of the calculated short-circuit currents.

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3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

3.3.3 Low-Voltage Switchboards


When developing a power distribution concept including
dimensioning of the systems and devices, its requirements and
feasibility have to be matched by the end user and the
manufacturer. When selecting a low-voltage main distribution
board (LVMD), the prerequisite for its efficient sizing is
knowledge of its use, availability, and future options for
extension. The demands on power distribution are extremely
diverse. They start with buildings that do not place such high
demands on the power supply, such as office buildings, and
continue through to the high demands, for example, made by
data centers, in which smooth operation is of prime importance.

Because no major switching functions in the LVMD have to


be considered in the planning of power distribution systems
in commercial buildings and no further extensions are to be
expected, a performance-optimized technology with high
component density can be used. In these cases, mainly fuse-

Fig. 3.3-4: SIVACON S8 switchboard

144

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

protected equipment in fixed-mounted design is used. When


planning a power distribution system for a production plant,
however, system availability, extendibility, control and visualization are important functions to keep plant downtimes as short as
possible. The use of circuit-breaker-protected and fuse-protected
withdrawable design is an important principle. Selectivity is also
of great importance for reliable power supply. Between these
two extremes there is a great design variety that is to be optimally matched to customer requirements. The prevention of
personal injury and damage to equipment must, however, be
the first priority in all cases. When selecting an appropriate
switchboard, it must be ensured that it is a design verified
assembly (in compliance with IEC 61439-2, resp. EN 61439-2,
VDE 0660-600-2) with extended testing of behavior in the
event of an accidental arc (IEC/TR 61641, VDE 0660-500
Addendum 2), and that the selection is always made in light
of the regulations governing the entire supply system (full
selectivity, partial selectivity).

Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

Overview
The SIVACON S8 low-voltage switchboard (fig. 3.3-4) is a variable, multi-purpose and design verified low-voltage switchgear
assembly that can be used for the infrastructure supply not only
in administrative and institutional buildings, but also in industry
and commerce. SIVACON S8 consists of standardized, modular
components that can be flexibly combined to form an economical, overall solution, depending on the specific requirements.
Siemens will perform the following:
The customer-specific configuration
The mechanical and electrical installation
The testing, for which design verified function modules
are used.

The authorized contracting party will use the specified documentation. SIVACON S8 can be used as a design verified power
distribution board system up to 7,000 A.
Standards and regulations
SIVACON S8 is a design verified low-voltage switchgear assembly in
compliance with IEC 61439-2 (VDE 0660-600-2). SIVACON S8 is
resistant to accidental arcs, in compliance with IEC/TR 61641
(VDE 0660-500 Addendum 2). SIVACON S8 is available in several
mounting designs (fig. 3.3-5).
Circuit-breaker design
The panels for installation of 3WL and 3V circuit-breakers are
used for the supply of the switchboard and for outgoing feeders
and bus ties (bus sectionalizer and bus coupler). The rule that
only one circuit-breaker is used for each panel applies to the
entire circuit-breaker design (fig. 3.3-6).

1
2

3
4
5
6

The device mounting space is intended for the following functions:


Incoming/outgoing feeders with 3WL air circuit-breakers in
fixed-mounted and withdrawable unit designs up to 6,300 A
Bus sectionalizer and bus coupler with 3WL air circuit-breakers
in fixed-mounted and withdrawable designs up to 6,300 A
Incoming/outgoing feeders with 3V... molded-case circuitbreakers in fixed-mounted design up to 1,600 A or 3VA
molded-case circuit-breakers up to 630 VA

Circuit breaker section with 3WL air circuit breakers up to 6,300 A


or 3VL molded case circuit breakers up to 1,600 A
Universal installation section for motor and cable feeders
up to 630 A, withdrawable version with combination options
with fixed-mounted version (compartment door) and
3NJ6 in-line design (plug-in)
3NJ6 in-line design (plug-in) for cable feeders up to 630 A
in plug-in design
Fixed installation field (front panel) for cable feeders up to 630 A
and modular installation devices
3NJ4 fuse switch disconnectors, in-line type (fixed
installation) for cable feeders up to 630 A
Reactive-power compensation up to 600 kvar

Fig. 3.3-5: The following mounting designs are available

Universal installation design


The panels for cable feeders in fixed-mounted and plug-in
designs up to 630 A are intended for the installation of the
following switching devices (fig. 3.3-7):
SIRIUS 3RV or 3VA / 3VL circuit-breaker
3K switch-disconnector
3NP fuse switch-disconnector
3NJ6 fuse switch-disconnector in plug-in design.

Plug-in 3NJ6 in-line fuse switch-disconnector design


The panels for cable feeders in the plug-in design up to 630 A
are intended for the installation of in-line switch-disconnectors.
The plug-in contact on the supply side is a cost-effective alternative to the withdrawable design. The modular design of the
plug-ins enables an easy and quick retrofit or replacement under
operating conditions. The device mounting space is intended for
plug-in, in-line switch-disconnectors with a distance between
pole centers of 185 mm. The vertical plug-on bus system is
arranged at the back of the panel and is covered by an optional
touch protection with pick-off openings in the IP20 degree of
protection. This enables the in-line switch-disconnectors to be
replaced without shutting down the switchboard (fig. 3.3-8).

The switching devices are mounted on mounting plates and


connected to the vertical current distribution bars on the supply
side. Plug-in 3NJ6 in-line switch-disconnectors can be installed
using an adapter. The front is covered by panel doors or compartment doors. The withdrawable unit design offers safe and
simple handling. So modifications can be carried out quickly,
ensuring a high level of system availability. No connection work
is required inside the withdrawable unit compartments.

Fixed-mounted design with front covers


The panels for cable feeders in fixed-mounted design up
to 630 A are intended for the installation of the following
switching devices (fig. 3.3-9):
SIRIUS 3RV or 3VL / 3VA circuit-breaker
3K switch-disconnector
3NP fuse switch-disconnector
Modular installation devices (assembly kit available).

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3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

The switching devices are mounted on infinitely adjustable device


holders and connected to the vertical current distribution bars on
the supply side. The front of the panel has either covers or
additional doors (with or without a window).
Fixed-mounted 3NJ4 in-line fuse switch-disconnector design
The panels for cable feeders in fixed-mounted design up to
630 A are intended for the installation of 3NJ4 in-line fuse
switch-disconnectors. With their compact design and modular
structure, in-line fuse switch-disconnectors offer optimal installation conditions with regard to the achievable packing density.
The busbar system is arranged horizontally at the back of the
panel. This busbar system is connected to the main busbar
system via cross-members. The in-line fuse switch-disconnectors
are screwed directly onto the busbar system (fig. 3.3-10).

Fig. 3.3-6: Circuit-breaker design

Fig. 3.3-7: Universal installation


design

Fig. 3.3-8: Plug-in 3NJ6 in-line


switch-disconnector
design

Fig. 3.3-9: Fixed-mounted design


with front covers

Low-voltage main distribution


When selecting a low-voltage main distribution system, the
prerequisite for its efficient sizing is knowing about its use,
availability, and future options for extension. The requirements
for power distribution are extremely diverse.
Normally, frequent switching operations need not be considered
in the planning of power distribution for commercial, institutional and industrial building projects, and extensions are generally not to be expected. For these reasons, a performanceoptimized technology with high component density can be used.
In these cases, Siemens mainly uses circuit-breaker-protected
equipment in fixed-mounted design. When planning a power
distribution system for a production plant, however, system
availability, extendibility, control, and the visualization of status
information and control functions are important issues related to
keeping plant downtimes as short as possible. The use of circuitbreaker-protected technology in withdrawable design is important. Selectivity is also of great importance for reliable power
supply. Between these two extremes there is a great design
variety that should be optimally matched to customer requirements. The prevention of personal injury and damage to equipment must, however, be the first priority in any case. When
selecting an appropriate switchboard, it must be ensured that it
is a design verified switchgear assembly (in compliance with
IEC 61439-2, VDE 0660-600-2), with extended testing of
behavior in the event of an internal arc fault (IEC/TR 61641,
VDE 0660-500 Addendum 2).
Low-voltage main distribution systems should be chosen among
those featuring a total supply power up to 3 MVA. Up to this rating,
the equipment and distribution systems are relatively inexpensive
due to the maximum short-circuit currents to be encountered.
For rated currents up to 3,200 A, power distribution via busbars
is usually sufficient if the arrangement of the incoming/outgoing
feeder panels and coupler panels has been selected in a performance-related way. Ambient air temperatures, load on individual
feeders, and the maximum power loss per panel have a decisive
impact on the devices to be integrated and the number of panels
required, as well as their component density (number of devices
per panel).

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Fig. 3.3-10: Fixed-mounted


3NJ4 in-line switchdisconnector design

Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

3.3.4 Planning Notes for Low-Voltage


Switchboards
Installation clearances and corridor widths
The minimum clearances between switchboard and obstacles
specified by the manufacturer must be taken into account when
installing low-voltage switchboards (fig. 3.3-11). The minimum
dimensions for operating and servicing corridors according to
IEC 60364-7-729 (VDE 0100-729) must be taken into account
when planning the space requirements (table 3.3-4, fig. 3.3-12,
fig. 3.3-13).

Front
B

Caution! If a lift truck is used to insert circuit-breakers or withdrawable units, the minimum corridor widths must be adapted
to the lift truck!
Transportation units
Depending on the access routes available in the building, one
or more panels can be combined into transport units (TU). The
max. length of a TU should not exceed 2,400 mm.

Front

Front
A: 100 mm (150 mm at IP43) from the rear side of the installation
B: 100 mm from the side side panels
C: 200 mm (300 mm at IP43 roof protrusion) from the rear panels
with back-to-back installation

Fig. 3.3-11: Clearances to obstacles

Width:

For data required for the addition of panels please refer


to the panel descriptions
Rated
current of
the main
busbar

Busbar
position

Depth:

Cable /
busbar entry

2,000 mm and 2,200 mm


(optionally with 100 mm or 200 mm base)

Type of
installation

Height:

2,000 1)

400 2)

Space requirements

600 mm

Rear

4,000 A

Single front

Top & bottom

800 mm

Rear

7,010 A

Single front

Top & bottom

1,000 mm

Rear

4,000 A

Double front

Top & bottom

1,200 mm

Rear

7,010 A

Double front

Top & bottom

500 mm

Top

3,270 A

Single front

Bottom

800 mm

Top

3,270 A

Single front

Top & bottom

800 mm

Top

6,300 A

Single front

Bottom

1,200 mm

Top

6,300 A

Single front

Top & bottom

600
700
1) Minimum
2)

700

600
700

700

height of passage under covers or enclosures

Attention: For SIVACON S8 a clearance of at least 400 mm from


obstacles must bekept free above the cubicles to enable opening
of the pressure relief flap if there is internal arcing

Fig. 3.3-12: Reduced corridor widths within the area of open doors

Table 3.3-4: SIVACON S8 switchboard dimensions

Min. corridor width


700 or 600 mm

Escape
direction

Min. free passage


500 mm 1)

2)

1)

2)

With switchgear fronts facing each other, the space


requirements only account for obstruction by open doors
from one side (i.e. doors that dont close in escape direction)
Take door widths into account,
i.e. door can be opened at 90 minimum

Fig. 3.3-13: Minimum corridor width according to IEC 60364-7-729


(VDE 0100-729)

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3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

Double-front installations
In the double-front installation, the panels are positioned in
a row next to and behind one another. The main advantage of
a double-front installation is the extremely economic design
through the supply of the branch circuits on both operating
panels from one main busbar system.

Double-front installations top view


Double-front installations only with main busbar system at the rear

(1)

(2)

The "double-front unit" system structure is required for the


assignment of certain modules.
A double-front unit (fig. 3.3-14) consists of at least 2 and a maximum of 4 panels. The width of the double-front unit is determined by the widest panel (1) within the double-front unit. This
panel can be placed on the front or rear side of the double-front
unit. Up to three panels (2), (3), (4) can be placed on the opposite side. The sum of the panel widths (2) to (4) must be equal to
the width of the widest panel (1). The panel combination within
the double-front unit is possible for all technical installations
with the following exceptions.

(3)

(4)

Double-front units

Fig. 3.3-14: Panel arrangement of double-front installations

Exceptions
The following panels determine the width of the double-front
unit and may only be combined with an empty panel:
Bus sectionalizer unit
5,000 A incoming / outgoing feeder
6,300 A incoming / outgoing feeder.
Weights
The panel weights as listed in table 3.3-5 should be used for the
transportation and dimensioning of building structures such as
cable basements and false floors.
Environmental conditions for switchboards
The climate and other external conditions (natural foreign
substances, chemically active pollutants, small animals) may
affect the switchboards to a varying extent. The effect depends
on the heating / air-conditioning systems of the switchboard
room. If higher concentrations are present, pollutant-reducing
measures are required, for example:

Air intake for operating room from a less contaminated point


Slightly pressurizing the operating room (e.g. by blowing
uncontaminated air into the switchboard)
Switchboard room air conditioning (temperature reduction,
relative humidity < 60 %, if necessary, use air filters)
Reduction of temperature rise (oversizing of switchboard or
components such as busbars and distribution bars).
Power losses
The power losses listed in table 3.3-6 are approximate values for
a panel with the main circuit of functional units to determine the
power loss to be discharged from the switchboard room.

Rated current [A]


Size

Approx. weight
[kg]

6302,000

Size I

400

340

2,0003,200

Size II

600

510

4,000

Size III

800

770

4,0006,300

Size III

1,000

915

1,000

400

3NJ4 in-line-type switch-disconnector panel (fixed-mounted)

600

360

3NJ6 in-line-type switch-disconnector design panel (plugged)

1,000

415

800

860

Circuit-breaker design with 3WL


(withdrawable unit)

Universal mounting design panel


(incl. withdrawable units, fixed-mounted with front doors)

Reactive power compensation panel


Table 3.3-5: Average weights of the panels including busbar (without cable)

148

Minimum panel width


[mm]

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Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

Circuit-breaker type
Circuit-breaker design
with 3WL (withdrawable unit)

Approx. Pv [W] for % of the rated current of the switch


100 %

80 %

3WL1106 630 A

Size I

215

140

3WL1108 800 A

Size I

345

215

3WL1110 1,000 A

Size I

540

345

3WL1112 1,250 A

Size I

730

460

3WL1116 1,600 A

Size I

1,000

640

3WL1220 2,000 A

Size II

1,140

740

3WL1225 2,500 A

Size II

1,890

1,210

3WL1232 3,200 A

Size II

3,680

2,500

3WL1340 4,000 A

Size III

4,260

2,720

3WL1350 5,000 A

Size III

5,670

3,630

3WL1363 6,300 A

Size III

8,150

5,220

Universal mounting design panel (incl. withdrawable units, fixed-mounted with front doors)

600 W

3NJ4 in-line-type switch-disconnector panel (fixed-mounted)

600 W

3NJ6 in-line-type switch-disconnector design panel (plugged)

1,500 W

Fixed-mounted type panel with front covers

600 W

Reactive power compensation panel

non-choked
choked

1.4 W / kvar
6.0 W / kvar

Table 3.3-6: Power loss generated per panel (average values)

Arc resistance
Arcing faults can be caused by incorrect dimensioning and
reductions in insulation due to contamination etc., but they can
also be a result of handling errors. The effects, resulting from
high pressure and extremely high temperatures, can have fatal
consequences for the operator, the system, and even the
building. SIVACON S8 offers evidence of personal safety through
testing under arcing fault conditions with a special test in accordance with IEC/TR 61641 (VDE 0660-500 Addendum 2).

Active protection measures, such as the high-quality insulation


of live parts (e.g. busbars), standardized and simple operation,
prevent arcing faults and the associated personal injuries. Passive
protections increase personal and system safety many times over.
These include: hinge and locking systems with arc resistance, the
safe operation of withdrawable units or circuit-breakers behind
a closed door and patented swing check valves behind ventilation
openings on the front, arcing fault barriers or arcing fault detection
system combined with the rapid disconnection of arcing faults.

Level 1
High level of
personal safety
without major
restriction of the
effects of arcing
within the power
distribution board.

Level 2
High level of
personal safety
with restriction of
the effects of
arcing on a single
section or doublefronted section.

Level 3
High level of
personal safety
with restriction to
main busbar
compartment in
single or doublefronted section
as well as device
or cable connection
compartments.

Level 4
High personal
safety with
restriction of the
effects of arcing to
the site of origin.

Fig. 3.3-15: The arcing fault levels describe the classification in accordance with the characteristics under arcing fault conditions and the
restriction of the effects of the arcing fault to the system or system section

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3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

3.3.5 Low-Voltage Switchboard Panel Types and Example


Circuitbreaker
design

Universal
mounting
design

Plug-in 3NJ6 in-line


switch-disconnector
design

Fixed-mounting
with front cover

400

1,000

1,000

1,000

Fixed 3NJ4 in-line Reactive power


switch-disconcompensation
nector design

2,200
2,000
1,800
1,600
1,400
1,200

1,000
800
600
400
200

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V

A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B

0
600

600

800

400
200
0
4,800

Installation front

Fig. 3.3-16: SIVACON S8, busbar position at rear 2,200 4,800 600 (H W D in mm)

Panel type

3NJ4 in-line switchdisconnector design

Reactive power
compensation

Fixed-mounted
with front
covers

Fixed-mounted

Fixed-mounted

Cable feeders

Cable feeders

Cable feeders

Central
compensation of
the reactive power

Up to 630 A /
Up to 250 kW

Up to 630 A

Up to 630 A

Up to 630 A

Up to 600 kvar

Front or rear side

Front or rear side

Front side

Front side

Front side

Front side

Panel width [mm]

400 / 600 / 800 /


1,000 / 1,400

600 / 1,000 / 1,200

1,000 / 1,200

1,000 / 1,200

600 / 800 / 1,000

800

Internal compartmentalization

1, 2b, 3a, 4b
4 Type 7 (BS)

3b, 4a, 4b, 4


Type 7 (BS)

3b, 4b

1, 2b, 3b, 4a,


4b

1, 2b

1, 2b

Up to IP 54

Up to IP 54
(up to IP 41 with
3NJ6 plug-in
design)

Up to IP 41

Up to IP 54

Up to IP 54

Up to IP 43

Mounting design

Function

Current In
Connection

Protection degree of
panel type against
interior

Circuit-breaker
design

Universal
mounting design

3NJ6 in-line switchdisconnector design

Withdrawable unit
Fixed-mounted

Withdrawable unit
Fixed-mounted
Plug-in

Plug-in

Incoming feeder
Outgoing feeder
Coupling

Cable feeders
Motor feeders

Up to 6,300 A

Protection degree of
assembly against
interior
Busbars

Fixedmounted
design

If section ventilated: IP 30 / IP 31 / IP 40 / IP 41 / IP 43
if section non-ventilated: IP 54
Rear / top

Rear / top

Rear / top

Rear / top

Rear

Rear / top / without

Table 3.3-7: Various mounting designs according to panel types


For further information:
www.siemens.com/sivacon
Brochure: The low-voltage power distribution board that sets new standards
SIVACON S8, Order no. E10003-E38-2B-D0020-7600

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Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

3.3.6 Subdistribution Systems


General
Subdistribution systems, as an essential component for the
reliable power supply to all consumers of a building, are used
for the distributed supply of circuits. From the subdistribution
boards, cables either lead directly or via earth contact outlets
to the consumer. Protective devices are located within the
subdistribution systems.
These are:
Fuses
Miniature circuit-breakers
RCD (residual current devices)
Circuit-breakers
Overvoltage protection.
They provide protection against personal injury and protect:
Against excessive heating caused by non-permissible currents
Against the effects of short-circuit currents and the resulting
mechanical damage.
In addition to the protective devices, a subdistribution system
also contains devices for switching, measuring and monitoring.
These are:
Disconnectors
KNX/EIB components
Outlets
Measuring instruments
Switching devices
Transformers for extra-low voltages
Components of the building control systems.
Configuration
The local environmental conditions and all operating data have
utmost importance for the configuration of the subdistribution
systems. The dimensioning is made using the following criteria:
Ambient conditions
Dimensions
Mechanical stress
Exposure to corrosion
Notes concerning construction measures
Wiring spaces
Environmental conditions.
Electrical data
Rated currents of the busbars
Rated currents of the supply circuits
Rated currents of the branches
Short-circuit strength of the busbars
Rating factor for switchboard assemblies
Heat loss.

Protection and installation type


Degree of protection
Observance of the upper temperature limit
Protective measures
Installation type (free-standing, floor-mounted distribution
board, wall-mounted distribution board)
Accessibility, e.g., for installation, maintenance and operating.
Type of construction
Number of operating faces
Space requirements for modular installation devices, busbars
and terminals
Supply conditions.

The number of subdistribution boards in a building is determined using the following criteria:
Floors
A high-rise building normally has at least one floor distribution
board for each floor. A residential building normally has one
distribution system for each apartment.
Building sections
If a building consists of several sections, at least one subdistribution system is normally provided for each building section.
Departments
In a hospital, separate subdistribution systems are provided for
the various departments, such as surgery, OP theater, etc.
Safety power supplies
Separate distribution boards for the safety power supply are
required for supplying the required safety equipment.
Depending on the type and use of the building or rooms, the
relevant regulations and guidelines must be observed, such as
IEC 60364-7-710 and -718 (VDE 0100-710 and -718) and the
MLAR (Sample Directive on Fireproofing Requirements for Line
Systems) in Germany.
Standards to be observed for dimensioning
IEC 60364-1 (VDE 0100-100) Low-voltage electrical
installations, part 1: Fundamental principles, assessment of
general characteristics, definitions
IEC 60364-4-41 (VDE 0100-410) Protection against electric
shock
IEC 60364-4-43 (VDE 0100-430) Protection against overcurrent
IEC 60364-5-51 (VDE 0100-510) Selection and erection
of electrical equipment; common rules
IEC 60364-5-52 (VDE 0100-520) Wiring systems
VDE 0298-4 Recommended values for the current carrying
capacity of sheathed and non-sheathed cables
VDE 0606-1 Connecting materials up to 690 V, part 1
Installation boxes for accommodation of equipment and/or
connecting terminals
DIN 18015-1 Electrical systems in residential buildings, part 1
planning principles.

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3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

3.3.7 Busbar Trunking Systems


General
When a planning concept for power supply is developed, it is not
only imperative to observe standards and regulations, it is also
important to discuss and clarify economic and technical interrelations. The rating and selection of electric equipment, such as
distribution boards and transformers, must be performed in such
a way that an optimum result for the power system as a whole is
kept in mind rather than focusing on individual components.

All components must be sufficiently rated to withstand normal


operating conditions as well as fault conditions. Further
important aspects to be considered for the creation of an energy
concept are:
Type, use and shape of the building (e.g. high-rise building,
low-rise building, multi-storey building)
Load centers and possible power transmission routes and
locations for transformers and main distribution boards
Building-related connection values according to specific area
loads that correspond to the buildings type of use
Statutory provisions and conditions imposed by building
authorities
Requirements of the power distribution network operator.
The result will never be a single solution. Several options must
be assessed in terms of their technical and economic impacts.
The following requirements are the main points of interest:
Easy and transparent planning
Long service life
High availability
Low fire load
Integration in energy management systems
Future-proof investment
Flexible adaptation to changes in the building.
Most applications suggest the use of suitable busbar trunking
systems (BTS) to meet these requirements. For this reason,
engineering companies increasingly prefer busbar trunking to
cable installation for power transmission and distribution.
Siemens offers BTS (fig. 3.3-17) ranging from 40 A to 6,300 A:
The BD01 system from 40 to 160 A for the supply of light
fixtures as well as workshops with tap-offs up to 63 A
The BD2 system from 160 to 1,250 A for supplying mediumsize consumers in buildings and industry
The ventilated LD system from 1,100 to 5,000 A for power
transmission and power distribution at production sites with
a high energy demand as well as on ships or in wind turbines
The LI system in sandwich design from 800 to 6,300 A is
a design verified solution according to IEC 61439-1/-6
(VDE 0660-600-1/-6), mainly used for power transmission
irrespective to the mounting position in buildings, data centers
or industrial applications with the requirements of degree of
protection IP55, low fire load and special conductor
configurations such as double N or insulated PE
The encapsulated LR system from 400 to 6,150 A for power
transmission under extreme environmental conditions (IP68).

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Planning notes
Considering the complexity of modern building projects, transparency and flexibility of power distribution are indispensable
requirements. In industry, the focus is on continuous supply of
energy as an essential prerequisite for multi-shift production.
Busbar trunking systems meet all these requirements on efficient
power distribution by being easily planned, quickly installed, and
providing a high degree of flexibility and safety. The advantages
of busbar trunking systems are:
Straightforward network configuration
Low space requirements
Easy retrofitting in case of changes of locations and consumer
loads
High short-circuit rating and low fire load
Increased planning security.
Power transmission
Electrical energy from the transformer to the low-voltage
switchboard is transmitted by suitable components in the
busbar trunking system. These components are installed
between transformer and main distribution board, then
branching to subdistribution systems.
Trunking units without tap-off points are used for power transmission. These are available in standard lengths. Besides the
standard lengths, the customer can also choose a specific length
from various length ranges to suit individual constructive
requirements.
Power distribution
Power distribution is the main area of application for busbar
trunking systems. This means that electricity cannot just be
tapped from a permanently fixed point as with a cable installation. Tap-off points can be varied and changed as desired within
the entire power distribution system.
In order to tap electricity, you just have plug a tap-off unit on the
busbar at the tap-off point. This way a variable distribution
system is created for linear and / or area-wide, distributed power
supply. Tap-off points are provided on either or just one side on
the straight trunking units.
For each busbar trunking system, a wide range of tap-off units is
available for the connection of equipment and electricity supply.

Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

Fig. 3.3-17: Busbar trunking systems

Configuration
For the configuration of a busbar system, the following points
are to be noted:
Calculation/dimensioning:
Electrical parameters, such as rated current, voltage, given
voltage drop and short-circuit rating at place of installation.
Technical parameters of the busbar systems:
The conductor configuration depends on the mains system
according to type of earth connection
Reduction factors, e.g., for ambient air temperature, type of
installation, busbar position (vertical, horizontal edgewise or
flat), and degree of protection
Copper is required as conductor material; otherwise, aluminum
has advantages such as weight, price, etc.
How is the system supply to be carried out: as a design verified
solution (according to IEC 61439-6 / VDE 0660-600-6) directly
from the distribution board or by means of cables at the end or
center of the busbar
Max. cable connection options to infeed and tap-off units
Power and size of the tap-off units including installation
conditions
Number of tap-off points

Use of bus systems possible


Influence of a magnetic field (hospitals, broadcasting studios)
Environmental conditions, especially ambient air temperature
(e.g., where there are fire compartments in each floor of
a vertical shaft).
Structural parameters and boundary conditions:
Phase response (changes of direction in the busbar routing
possible, differences in height, etc.)
Functional sections (e.g., various environmental conditions or
various uses)
Check use in sprinkler-protected building sections
Fire areas (provision of fire barriers > what structural
(e.g., type of walls) and fire fighting (local provisions)
boundary conditions are there?
Fire protection classes (EI90 and EI120 according EN 1366-3)
of the fire barriers
Functional endurance classes (E60, E90, E120) and
certifications of the busbar systems (observe relevant
deratings)
Fire loads / halogens (prescribed fire loads in certain functional
sections, e.g., fire escape routes, must not be exceeded).

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3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

Dimensions of the distribution board, system supplies and


tap-off units:
Installation clearance from ceiling, wall and parallel systems
for the purpose of heat dissipation and installation options
Crossing with other installations (water, gas pipes, etc.)
Swing angle for installing and operating the tap-off units
Minimum dimensions for changes of direction in the busbar
routing, fire protection compartmentalization, wall cutouts
Space requirement for distribution connection
Cutout planning (sizes and locations of the cutouts)
Linear expansion (expansion units, if applicable).

140
I e [%]

Fixing of the busbar systems to the structure:


Maximum clearance from fixings taking into consideration
location, weight of system and additional loads such as tap-off
units, lighting, etc.
Agreement on possible means of fixing with structural analyst
Use of tested fixing accessories for busbar systems with
functional endurance
Observe derating for type of installation.

120

Ie =100
Busbar

80
60
40

Cable

15 10 25 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
Ambient temperature [C]

Fig. 3.3-18: Comparison of temperature response and derating

A comparison between busbar and cable solution is summarized


in table 3.3-8 and fig. 3.3-18.

Characteristic

Cable

Busbar

Planning, calculation

High determination and calculation expense; the


consumer locations must be fixed

Flexible consumer locations; only the total load is


required for the planning

Expansions, changes

High expense, interruptions to operation, calculation,


risk of damage to the insulation

Low expense as the tap-off units are hot pluggable

Space requirements

More space required because of bending radii and the


spacing required between parallel cables

Compact directional changes and fittings

Temperature responses
and derating

Limits depend on the laying method and cable


accumulation. The derating factor must be
determined / calculated

Design verified switchgear assembly; limits from


catalog

Halogen-free

PVC cables are not halogen-free; halogen-free cable is


very expensive

Principally halogen-free

Fire load

Fire load with PVC cable is up to 10 times greater, with


PE cable up to 30 times greater than with busbars

Very low, see catalog

Design verified switchgear assembly

The operational safety depends on the design

Tested system, non-interchangeable assembly

Table 3.3-8: Cable / busbar comparison

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Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

3.3.8 Benefits and Data of the BTS Families


BD01 system 40 A 160 A
The BD01 system is the BTS for
power distribution in trade
and commerce:
High degree of protection up
to IP55
Flexible power supply
Easy and fast planning
Time-saving installation
Reliable mechanical and
electrical cables and
connections
High stability, low weight
Small number of basic
modules
Modular system reduces
stock-keeping
Variable changes of direction
Multi-purpose tap-off units
Forced opening and closing
of the tap-off point

It is designed for applications


from 40 to 160 A. Five current
ratings are available for only
one size, i.e., all other components can be used for all five
rated currents irrespective of
the power supply. The system
is used primarily to supply
smaller consumers, e.g., in
workshops.
1. Trunking unit
4-conductor (L1, L2, L3, N,
PE = casing)
Degree of protection: IP50,
IP54, IP55
Standard lengths: 2 m and
3m
Rated current: 40 A, 63 A,
100 A, 125 A, 160 A
Spacing of the tap-off
points: 0.5 m and 1 m
Rated operating voltage:
400 V AC

2. Junction unit
Changes of direction in the
busbar routing possible:
flexible, length 0.5 m, 1 m
3. Feeding unit
Universal system supply
4. Tap-off unit
Up to 63 A, with fuses or
miniature circuit-breaker
(MCB) and with fused outlets
With fittings or for
customized assembly
For 3, 4 or 8 modular widths
With or without assembly kit

5. Ancillary equipment unit


For 4 or 8 modular widths
With or without assembly
unit
With or without outlet
installed
6. Possible supplementary
equipment
Installation sets for degree of
protection IP55
Fixing and suspension
Coding set
Fire barrier kit (fire safety
for 90 minutes according to
European standards)

4
6

Trunking unit
Junction unit
Feeding unit
Tap-off unit
Ancillary equipment unit
6 Supplementary equipment
1
2
3
4
5

Fig. 3.3-19: System components for BD01 system

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Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

BD2 system 160 A 1,250 A


The BD2 system is used for
power distribution in the
aggressive industrial environment:
High degree of protection up
to IP55
Easy and fast planning
Time-saving and economic
installation
Safe and reliable operation
Flexible, modular system
providing simple solutions
for every application
Advance power distribution
planning without precise
knowledge of device
locations
Ready to use in no time
thanks to fast and easy
installation

Innovative design: expansion


units to compensate for
expansion are eliminated
Tap-off units and tap-off
points can be coded at the
factory
Uniformly sealable.
The choice of aluminum or
copper as busbar material
allows for universal use. It has
not only been designed to
provide flexible power supply
and distribution for consumers
in trade and ndustry, but it can
also be used for power transmission from one supply point
to another. In addition, the
BD2 system is used as rising
power supply system in multistorey buildings, and since

a large number of changes of


direction in the busbar routing
are possible, it can be adapted
to the building geometries
perfectly.
1. Trunking unit
5-conductor (L1, L2, L3, N,
PE or with half PE
Degree of protection: IP52,
IP54, IP55
Busbar material: copper or
aluminum
Rated current: 160 A, 250 A,
400 A (68 mm 167 mm)
630 A, 800 A, 1,000 A,
1,250 A
(126 mm 167 mm)
Standard lengths: 3.25 m,
2.25 m and 1.25 m

3
4
1

5
3

1
2
3
4
5

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

3. Feeding unit
Feeding from one end
Center feeding
Bolt-type terminal
Cable entry
from 1, 2 or 3 sides
Distribution board feeding

5. Ancillary equipment unit


For 8 modular widths
With or without assembly
unit

156

2. Junction unit
Edgewise or flat position
With or without fire
protection
Elbow unit with or without
user-configurable bracket
Z-unit
T-unit
Cross unit
Flexible changes of direction
in the busbar routing
possible up to 800 A

4. Tap-off unit
25 A to 530 A
With fuse, miniature circuitbreaker (MCB) or fused
outlet installed

Fig. 3.3-20: System components for BD2 system

Lengths available: from


0.5 m to 3.24 m
Tap-off points:
without
on both sides (0.25 or
0.5 m apart)
Fire protection: fire safety
classes (90 and 120 minutes)
according to European
standards

Trunking unit
Junction unit
Feeding unit
Tap-off unit
Supplementary equipment

6. Possible supplementary
equipment
End flange
For fixing:
Universal fixing clamp for
edgewise or flat position
Fixing elements for vertical
phases, for fixing to walls or
ceilings
Terminal block

Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

LD system
1,100 A 5,000 A
The LD system fits for power
distribution in industrial
environments:
High degree of protection up
to IP54
Easy and fast installation
Safe and reliable operation
Space-saving, compact
design, up to 5,000 A in one
housing
Tap-off units up to 1,250 A
Design verified connection
to distribution board and
transformers
The LDA/LDC system is used
both for power transmission
and power distribution. A
special feature of the system is
a high short-circuit rating, and
it is particularly suitable for
connecting the transformer to
the low-voltage main distribution and then to the subdistribution system. When there is
a high power demand, conventional current conduction
by cable means that parallel
cables are frequently necessary. Here, the LD system
allows optimal power distribution with horizontal and
vertical phase responses. The
system can be used in industry
as well as for relevant infrastructure projects, such as
hospitals, railroad stations,
airports, trade fairs, office
blocks, etc.
1. Trunking unit
4- and 5-conductor system
Busbar material:
copper or aluminum
Rated current:
1,100 to 5,000 A
LD1 to LD3
(180 mm 180 mm)
LD4 to LD8
(240 mm 180 mm)

Degree of protection:
IP34 and IP54
Standard lengths:
1.6 m, 2.4 m and 3.2 m
Lengths available:
from 0.5 m to 3.19 m
Tap-off points:
Without
With user-configurable
tap-off points
Fire barriers (fire resistance
for 120 minutes according to
European standards)
2. Junction unit
With or without fire barrier
Elbow unit with or without
user-configurable bracket
Z-unit
U-unit
T-unit

3. Tap-off unit
Degree of protection
IP30 and IP54
With fuse switchdisconnector
from 125 A to 630 A
With circuit-breaker
from 100 A to 1,250 A
Leading PEN or PE connector
Switching to load-free state
following defined, forcedoperation sequences
Suspension and fixing
bracket

5. Terminal units for


connection to distribution
board
TTA distribution connection
to the SIVACON system from
the top/bottom
Terminals for external
distribution boards
6. Possible supplementary
equipment
End flange
Terminal block

4. Feeding unit
Cable feeding unit
Universal terminal for
transformers

6
4

1
6

Trunking unit

Junction unit

Feeding unit

Tap-off unit

Distribution board connection

Supplementary equipment

Fig. 3.3-21: System components for LDA/LDC system

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157

Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

LI system from
800 A 6,300 A
The LI system is used for power
transmission and distribution
in buildings, data centers, and
industrial applications:
High degree of protection of
IP55 as a standard
Hook and bolt connection
with shear-off nut for
optimized connection of the
busbar trunkings
Side-by-side double body
system for compact
construction
Low fire load
Safe and reliable operation
with high short-circuit
ratings
Flexibility of tap-off units (up
to 1,250 A); for example
with communication capable
measuring devices
Design verified BTS system
with design verified
connections to SIVACON S8

switchboards
Standard interfaces to
cast-resin LR system of
Siemens for outdoor use
Integration of measuring
devices in a rotatable box
added to tap-off units
possible
Special features of the LIA/LIC
system include high flexibility
and position insensitivity, and
it is particularly suitable for
power distribution in high-rise
buildings and data centers.
The high degree of protection
IP55, which is standard for this
system, and tap-off units up to
1,250 A 2) also guarantee
a safe supply if there is a high
energy demand. It can be used
in industry as well as for other
relevant infrastructure projects
such as hospitals, railroad
stations, airports, sports
venues, etc.

1. Trunking unit
Single and double bodies
with 3 to 6 bars in one
housing, resp. 6 to 12 bars in
two housings
Conductor configurations for
all grid types, with 100 % or
double N, 50 % or 100 % PE
as well as a Clean Earth
solution (insulated PE
conductor for a clean PE,
CPE)
Busbar material:
copper or aluminum
Insulation material:
Mylar
Rated current:
800 up to 6,300 A
For sizes, see table 3.3-9
Degree of protection:
IP55
Selectable lengths: available
from 0.5 m to 3 m on a 1 cm
scale
Layout: horizontal and
vertical without derating

3 tap-off points at 3 m
length:
On one side
On both sides
Fire protection: Fire barriers
according to class EI90 and
EI120 1) (categories of
EN 13501-2) according to
EN 1366-3 are available
2. Junction unit
With or without fire barrier
Various elbow, knee and
offset units are available,
with either standard or
customized dimensions and
angles
3. Modular tap-off units
Degree of protection IP55
With fuse switch-disconnector
from 125 A to 630 A
With circuit-breaker from
50 A to 1,250 A 2)
With measuring device in an
additional rotatable box

6
4
5

3
1

Fig. 3.3-22: System components for LIA/LIC system

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Transformer feeding unit

Fire barrier

Feeding unit to SIVACON S8

Straight trunking unit

Junction unit

Tap-off unit

Accessories for mounting

Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

Pluggable while energized


up to 1,250 A
Leading PEN or PE conductor
Switching to load-free state
following defined, forcedoperation sequences
Suspension and fixing
bracket

Single body (width 155 mm)


Al
Ie [A]

System

Cu
Height
[mm]

Ie [A]

System

Height
[mm]

800

LIA0800

111

1,000

LIC1000

111

1,000

LIA1000

132

1,250

LIC1250

117

1,250

LIA1250

146

1,600

LIC1600

146

1,600

LIA1600

182

2,000

LIC2000

174

4. Feeding unit
Cable feeding unit
Universal terminal for
transformers

2,000

LIA2000

230

2,500

LIC2500

213

2,500

LIA2500

297

3,200

LIC3200

280

5. Terminal units for


connection to distribution
board
Design verified connection
to the SIVACON S8 system
from the top/bottom
Flanged end

Ie [A]

System

Height
[mm]

Ie [A]

System

Height
[mm]

3,200

LIA3200

182

4,000

LIC4000

174

4,000

LIA4000

230

5,000

LIC5000

213

5,000

LIA5000

297

6,300

LIC6300

280

Double body (width 410 mm)


Al

Cu

Table 3.3-9: Sizes for LIA/LIC system

1) EI120 in preparation
2) Tap-off units from 800 A up to
1,250 A in preparation

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Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

LR system from
400 A 6,150 A
The LRA/LRC system is used for
power transmission under
extreme ambient conditions
(IP68):
Reliable and safe operation
Fast and easy installation
Cast-resin system up to
6,150 A
Safe connection to
distribution boards and
transformers
High degree of protection
IP68 for outdoor applications

2. Junction unit
With or without fire barrier
Elbow unit with or without
offset
Z-unit
T-unit

3. Feeding unit and distributor


units
Universal terminals for
transformers, external
distribution boards and
cable connection

1
2

A special feature of the system


is high resistance to external
influences of chemical and
corrosive substances, and it is
particularly suitable for use
outdoors and in environments
with high air humidity. The
high degree of protection IP68
is guaranteed with the encapsulated epoxy cast-resin
housing and serves to provide
reliable power transmission
when there is a high energy
demand. The system can be
used in industry as well as for
relevant infrastructure projects
such as railroad stations,
airports, office blocks, etc.

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

4. Possible supplementary
equipment
End flange
Terminal block
Tap-off point every 1 m,
on one side; tap-off unit
on request
Adapters to the LI and LD
systems

LR LI adapter
Cast connection element
Straight busbar trunking unit
Junction unit
Expansion compensation
Feeding unit
Fire barrier
Feeding unit for distribution board connection
Fixing component
Tap-off point with tap-off unit
Cable feeding unit
11

2
3
4
5

1. Trunking unit
4- and 5-conductor system
Busbar material:
copper or aluminum
Degree of protection: IP68
User-configurable lengths:
from 0.30 m to 3.00 m
For sizes see table 3.3-10
Layout: horizontal and
vertical without derating
Fire barriers (fire resistance
for 120 minutes according to
European standards)

10

Fig. 3.3-23: System components for LRA/LRC system

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Switchgear and Substations


3.3 Low-Voltage Power Distribution Systems

Al system
Ie [A]

System

Width [mm]
4-conductor
system

5-conductor
system

Height
[mm]

400

LRA01

90

90

90

630

LRA02

90

90

90

800

LRA03

90

90

90

1,000

LRA04

100

120

110

1,200

LRA05

100

120

130

1,400

LRA06

100

120

150

1,600

LRA07

100

120

190

2,000

LRA08

100

120

230

2,500

LRA09

100

120

270

3,200

LRA27

100

120

380

4,000

LRA28

100

120

460

4,600

LRA29

100

120

540

Communication-capable BTS
Communication-capable functional extensions to be combined
with known tap-off units:
For use with the systems BD01, BD2, LD and LI
Applications:
Large-scale lighting control
Remote switching and signaling in industrial environments
Consumption metering of distributed load feeders
Interfacing to KNX / EIB, AS-Interface, PROFINET, PROFIBUS and
Modbus systems
Easy contacting of the bus line with insulation displacement
method
Easy and fast planning
Flexible for extension and modification
Modular system
Retrofitting to existing installations possible.

For further information:

Cu system
Ie [A]

www.siemens.com/busbar

System

Width [mm]
4-conductor
system

5-conductor
system

Height
[mm]

Planning manual
Busbar trunking system SIVACON 8PS Planning with SIVACON 8PS

German: Order no. A5E 01541017-02

630

LRC01

90

90

90

English: Order no. A5E01541101-02

800

LRC02

90

90

90

Brochures

1,000

LRC03

90

90

90

For safe power flows - SIVACON 8PS busbar trunking systems

1,350

LRC04

100

120

110

1,600

LRC05

100

120

130

1,700

LRC06

100

120

150

An integrated solution for safe and efficient power supply - LI busbar


trunking system

2,000

LRC07

100

120

190

German: Order no. IC1000-G320-A194-V1

English: Order no. IC1000-G320-A194-V1-7600

German: Order no. IC1000-G320-A158-V1

English: Order no. IC1000-G320-A158-V1-7600

2,500

LRC08

100

120

230

3,200

LRC09

100

120

270

4,000

LRC27

100

120

380

The following configurators are available via the Industry Mall


(www.siemens.com/industrymall):

5,000

LRC28

100

120

460

SIVACON 8PS system BD01, 40 160 A

540

SIVACON 8PS system BD2, 160 1,250 A

6,150

LRC29

100

120

Configurators

Table 3.3-10: Sizes for LRA/LRC system

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Products and Devices

4.1
High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers
4.1.1 Circuit-Breakers for 72.5 kV up to 800 kV
4.1.2 Live-Tank Circuit-Breakers
for 72.5 kV up to 800 kV
4.1.3 Dead-Tank Circuit-Breakers
for 72.5 kV up to 550 kV
4.1.4 The 3AP1 DTC Dead-Tank Compact
a Compact Switchgear up to 245 kV
4.1.5 The DCB Disconnecting Circuit-Breaker

164
164

4.2
High-Voltage Disconnectors
4.2.1 High-Voltage Disconnectors
and Earthing Switches

179

4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.3.8
4.3.9
4.3.10

Vacuum Switching Technology and


Components for Medium Voltage
Overview of Vacuum Switching Components
Selection of Components by Ratings
Vacuum Circuit-Breakers
Vacuum Circuit-Breaker
for Generator Switching Application
Outdoor Vacuum Circuit-Breakers
Reclosers
Fusesaver
Vacuum Contactors
Contactor-Fuse Combination
Switch-Disconnectors

4.4
Low-Voltage Devices
4.4.1 Requirements on Low-Voltage Devices
in the Three Circuit Types
4.4.2 Low-Voltage Protection and Switching Devices
4.4.3 Power Management System
for the Low-Voltage Power Distribution
4.4.4 Software for Power System Dimensioning
4.4.5 The Safe Power Supply of Tomorrow

168
172
175
177

179
188
188
189
190
195
196
197
198
200
201
204
206
206
208
210
211
213

4.5
Surge Arresters
4.5.1 High-Voltage Surge Arresters
4.5.2 Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage
Surge Arresters and Limiters

217
217

4.6
Instrument Transformers
4.6.1 High-Voltage Instrument Transformers
4.6.2 Power Voltage Transformers

223
223
230

4.7

238

Coil Products

219

4.8
Bushings
4.8.1 High-Voltage Bushings

241
241

4.9

245

Medium-Voltage Fuses

Silicone Long Rod Insulators


for Overhead Power Lines
4.10.1 3FL Silicone Long Rod Insulators
Performance Meets Durability
4.10.2 Maximized Service Life

4.10

246
246
247

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163

4 Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage
Circuit-Breakers
4.1.1 Circuit-Breakers
for 72.5 kV up to 800 kV

Circuit-breakers are the central part of AIS and GIS switchgear.


They have to meet high requirements in terms of:
Reliable opening and closing
Consistent quenching performance with rated and shortcircuit currents even after many switching operations
High-performance, reliable, maintenance-free operating
mechanisms.

Siemens patented this method for arc quenching in 1973. Since


that time, Siemens has continued to develop the technology
of the self-compression interrupter unit. One of its technical
innovations is that the arc energy is increasingly used to extinguish the arc. In short-circuit breaking operations, the actuating
energy required is reduced to the energy needed for mechanical
contact movement.

Technology reflecting the latest state of the art and years of


operating experience are put to use in constant further development and optimization of Siemens circuit-breakers. This makes
Siemens circuit-breakers able to meet all the demands placed on
high-voltage switchgear.

That means that the operating energy is truly minimized. The


self-compression interrupter unit allows the use of a compact
stored-energy spring mechanism that provides unrestricted high
dependability.

The comprehensive quality system is certified according to


DIN EN ISO 9001. It covers development, manufacturing, sales,
commissioning and after-sales service. Test laboratories are
accredited to EN 45001 and PEHLA/STL.
The modular design
Circuit-breakers for air-insulated switchgear are individual
components, and are assembled together with all individual
electrical and mechanical components of an AIS installation on
site.
Due to the consistent application of a modular design, all
Siemens circuit-breaker types, whether air-insulated or gas-insulated, are made up of the same range of components based on
our well-proven platform design (fig. 4.1-1):
Interrupter unit
Operating mechanism
Sealing system
Operating rod
Control elements.
Interrupter unit self-compression
arc-quenching principle
The Siemens product range from 72.5 kV up to 800 kV includes
high-voltage circuit-breakers with self-compression interrupter
units for optimum switching performance under every operating condition for every voltage level.
Self-compression circuit-breakers
3AP high-voltage circuit-breakers for the complete voltage range
ensure optimum use of the thermal energy of the arc in the
contact cylinder. This is achieved by the self-compression interrupter unit.

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Stored-energy spring mechanism


for the complete product range
The operating mechanism is a central part of the high-voltage
circuit-breakers. The drive concept of the 3AP high-voltage
circuit-breakers is based on the stored-energy spring principle.
The use of such an operating mechanism for voltage ranges of
up to 800 kV became appropriate as a result of the development
of a self-compression interrupter unit that requires minimal
actuating energy.
Advantages of the stored-energy spring mechanism are:
Highest degree of operational safety: It is a simple and sturdy
design and uses the same principle for rated voltages from
72.5 kV up to 800 kV with just a few moving parts. Due to the
self-compression design of the interrupter unit, only low
actuating forces are required.
Availability and long service life: Minimal stressing of the latch
mechanisms and rolling-contact bearings in the operating
mechanism ensure reliable and wear-free transmission of
forces.
Maintenance-free design: The spring charging gear is fitted
with wear-free spur gears, enabling load-free decoupling.
Siemens circuit-breakers for rated voltage levels from 72.5 kV up
to 800 kV are equipped with self-compression interrupter units
and stored-energy spring mechanisms.
For special technical requirements such as rated short-circuit
breaking currents of 80 kA, Siemens can offer twin-nozzle
circuit-breaker series 3AQ or 3AT with an electrohydraulic
mechanism.

Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

Circuit-breaker for
air-insulated switchgear

Control
elements

Operating
mechanism

Interrupter
unit

Circuit-breaker in
SF6-insulated switchgear

Fig. 4.1-1: Circuit-breaker parts: circuit-breaker for air-insulated switchgear (top), circuit-breaker in SF6-insulated switchgear (bottom)

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

165

Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

The interrupter unit: self-compression system


The conducting path
The current conducting path of the interrupter unit consists of
the contact support (2), the base (7) and the movable contact
cylinder (6). In the closed position, the current flows via the
main contact (4) and the contact cylinder (6); (fig. 4.1-2).
Breaking operating currents
During the opening operation, the main contact (4) opens first,
and the current commutates to the still closed arcing contact.
During the further course of opening, the arcing contact (5)
opens and an arc is drawn between the contacts. At the same
time, the contact cylinder (6) moves into the base (7) and
compresses the SF6 gas located there. This gas compression
creates a gas flow through the contact cylinder (6) and the
nozzle (3) to the arcing contact, extinguishing the arc.

1
2
3
4

Terminal plate
Contact support
Nozzle
Main contact

5
6
7
8

Closed position

Opening
Main contact open

1
2

3
4
5

Breaking fault currents


In the event of interrupting high short-circuit breaking currents,
the SF6 gas is heated up considerably at the arcing contact due
to the energy of the arc. This leads to a pressure increase in the
contact cylinder. During the further course of opening, this
increased pressure initiates a gas flow through the nozzle (3),
extinguishing the arc. In this case, the arc energy is used to
interrupt the fault current. This energy needs not be provided by
the operating mechanism.

Major features:
Self-compression interrupter unit
Use of the thermal energy of the arc
Minimized energy consumption
High reliability for a long time.

Opening
Arcing contact open

The operating mechanism


Stored-energy spring mechanism
Siemens circuit-breakers for voltages up to 800 kV are equipped
with stored-energy spring mechanisms. These operating mechanisms are based on the same principle that has been proving its
worth in Siemens low-voltage and medium-voltage circuitbreakers for decades. The design is simple and robust, with few
moving parts and a vibration-isolated latch system of the highest
reliability. All components of the operating mechanism, the
control and monitoring equipment and all terminal blocks are
arranged in a compact and convenient way in one cabinet.
Depending on the design of the operating mechanism, the
energy required for switching is provided by individual compression springs (i.e., one per pole) or by springs that function
jointly on a 3-pole basis.

Fig. 4.1-2: The interrupter unit

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Arcing contact
Contact cylinder
Base
Terminal plate

Open position

Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

1 Trip coil CLOSE


1

2 Cam plate
8

3 Corner gear
4 Connecting rod

2
9

5 Connecting rod for closing spring


6 Connecting rod for opening spring

4
5

10

7 Closing spring

11

8 Emergency hand crank

12
13

9 Charging gear
10 Charging shaft

11 Roller lever
14

12 Damper (for closing)


13 Operating shaft
14 Damper (for opening)

15

15 Trip coil OPEN


16 Operating mechanism housing

16

17 Opening spring

7
17

Fig. 4.1-3: Operating mechanism

The principle of the operating mechanism with charging gear


and latching is identical on all types (fig. 4.1-3, fig. 4.1-4).
Differences between mechanism types are in the number, size
and arrangement of the opening and closing springs.
Main features at a glance:
Uncomplicated, robust construction with few moving parts
Maintenance-free
Vibration-isolated latches
Load-free uncoupling of charging mechanism
Easy access
10,000 operating cycles.
The control unit includes all necessary devices for circuit-breaker
control and monitoring, such as:
Pressure / SF6 density monitors
Relays for alarms and lockout
Operation counters (upon request)
Local circuit-breaker control (upon request)
Anti-condensation heaters.

Fig. 4.1-4: Control cubicle

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167

Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

4.1.2 Live-Tank Circuit-Breakers


for 72.5 kV up to 800 kV
Live-tank circuit-breakers for air-insulated switchgear
The interrupter unit in live-tank circuit-breakers is not earthed
during operation; it is exposed to high-voltage potential and
therefore these circuit-breakers are called live tanks.
The live-tank circuit-breaker family is available for rated voltages
from 72.5 kV up to 800 kV (fig. 4.1-5).
They consist of the following main components based on our
well established platform concept (fig. 4.1-6, 4.1-7, 4.1-8):
Self-compression interrupter unit
Stored-energy spring mechanism
Insulator column (AIS)
Operating rod
Circuit-breaker base
Control unit

3AP1 circuit-breakers up to 300 kV are equipped with one interrupter unit per pole, and 3AP2 circuit-breakers up to 550 kV
include two interrupter units. For applications from 362 kV to
550 kV, the circuit-breakers can be equipped with optional
closing resistors (3AP3). The 3AP4 includes 4 interrupter units
per pole and can also be delivered with closing resistors on
request (3AP5).
Moreover, our high-voltage live-tank circuit-breakers are available for three-pole operation with a common base (FG) (fig.
4.1-9), for single-pole operation also with a common base (FE)
or for single-pole operation with separate bases (FI).
Siemens high-voltage circuit-breakers operate safely, and are
capable of withstanding high mechanical loads. Particularly
strong porcelain insulators and a circuit-breaker design optimized by using the latest mathematical techniques give them
very high seismic stability whilst in operation, enabling them to
perform to their full potential during the entire service life of up
to 50 years (table 4.1-1).
The uncomplicated design of the circuit-breakers and the use of
many similar components ensure high reliability. The experience
Siemens has gained from the use of the many circuit-breakers in
service has been applied in improvement of the design. The
self-compression interrupter unit, for example, has proven its
reliability in more than 100,000 installations all over the world.

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 4.1-5: 3AP4 FI 800 kV pole

Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

21

22.38

22

16

15.11

22 22.1

21

22.22

22.39
15.16.3

Base
Control cubicle
Operating mechanism
housing
16
Post insulator
21
Bell-crank mechanism
22
Interrupter unit
22.38 Corona ring of the
double-break assembly
22.39 Corona ring of the
pole column

16

11
12
15.1

16

11
15.1
12

Fig. 4.1-6: 3AP2 FI 550 kV pole

16.9
16
15.9
15
15.8.3

15
15.11
15.16.3
15.8.3
15.9
16
16.9
21
22
22.1
22.22

Corner gear
Filter cowl
Filter bag
Shaft
Lever
Post insulator
Operating rod
Bell-crank mechanism
Interrupter unit
Jacket
High-voltage terminal

Fig. 4.1-7: Sectional view of pole column

4,5

1 Interrupter unit
2 Post insulator
3 Circuit-breaker base

4 Control cubicle
5 Operating mechanism housing
6 Pillar

Fig. 4.1-8: 3AP1 FG 145 kV with 3-pole stored-energy spring


mechanism

Fig. 4.1-9: 3AP1 FG 145 kV

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169

Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

Type
Rated voltage

3AP1
[kV]

72.5

123

145

170

Number of interrupter units per pole


[kV]

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage/min


Rated switching impulse withstand voltage

Rated short-time withstand current


(1 s 3 s), up to

460

610

800

830

[kV]

325

550

650

750

1,050

1,050

1,425

1,550

2,100

[kV]

850

1,050

1,175

1,425

[A]

2,500

4,000

4,000

4,000

4,000

4,000

5,000

5,000

5,000

31.5

40

40

40

50

40

63

63

63

31.5

40

40

40

50

40

63

63

63

[kA(ms)]

55 up to + 55
0-0.3 s-CO-3 min-CO or CO-15 s-CO

Rated break time

3 cycles
[Hz]

Maintenance after

2 cycles
50/60
25 years

Type

3AV1
[kV]

Number of interrupter units per pole

72.5
1

[A]

2,500

Rated short-time withstand current, up to

[kA]

31.5

Rated short-circuit breaking current, up to

[kA]

31.5

Rated frequency

[Hz]

50

Rated power-frequency withstand voltage

[kV]

140

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage

[kV]

325

Rated peak withstand current (2.7 p.u.)

[s]

[kA]

85

First-pole-to-clear-factor

[p.u.]

1.5/1.3

Capacitive voltage factor

[p.u.]

1.4

Temperature range

460

Rated operating sequence

[C]

30 up to + 55

Maintenance after

25 years

Insulating medium

N2

All values in accordance with IEC; other values on request

Table 4.1-1: Technical data of live-tank circuit-breaker portfolio

170

800

325

[C]

Rated duration of short circuit

550

275

Temperature range

Rated normal current, up to

420

230

[kA]

Rated voltage

300

3AP4/5

140

Rated short-circuit breaking current, up to

Rated frequency

245

Rated short-duration power-frequency


withstand voltage

Rated normal current, up to

3AP2/3

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

Efficiency
Maintenance-free for
25 years
Service-free even with
frequent breaking
operations
Performance
2 cycle current interruption
High number of shortcircuit interruptions
Sustainability
Vacuum interruption
Nitrogen insulation
Beneficial CO2 footprint

Reliability
40 years of experience in
vacuum switching
technology
Perfect for low temperature
applications

Fig. 4.1-10: 3AV1 FG vacuum circuit-breaker 72.5 kV

Live-tank circuit-breakers with vacuum technology


Based on 40 years of experience producing medium-voltage
vacuum interrupters and more than 3 million delivered units,
Siemens has now introduced this proven technology to highvoltage power networks.
The new member of our circuit-breaker family meets the same
high quality standards as our SF6 portfolio regarding high performance and reliability throughout its long service life, and is also
designed according to our well proven modular platform concept.
The new 3AV1 vacuum circuit-breaker has concrete technical
advantages: It features reliable switching capacity, requires no
maintenance even when subjected to frequent breaking operations, and is also environmentally friendly thanks to switching
operations performed in a vacuum, with nitrogen as the insulating medium.

These circuit-breakers will be the right choice for future projects


and a wide range of applications.
A complete set of type tests in accordance with the latest
edition of IEC 62271-100 has proven the suitability of the
72.5 kV live-tank vacuum circuit-breaker.
Field experience
Prototypes of the new Siemens high-voltage vacuum circuitbreakers have already been installed in European power networks. A number of Energy customers are operating the 3AV1
prototypes in their systems and are sharing operating and field
experience with us. In fact, several thousand switching operations have already been performed successfully in the field, and
documented (fig. 4.1-10).

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171

Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

4.1.3 Dead-Tank Circuit-Breakers


for 72.5 kV up to 550 kV
Circuit-breakers in dead-tank design
In contrast to live-tank circuit-breakers, dead tanks have a
metal-enclosed interrupter unit, and the housing is always
earthed. Therefore they are called dead-tank circuit-breakers.
For certain substation designs, dead-tank circuit-breakers might
be required instead of the standard live-tank circuit-breakers.
The dead-tank circuit-breaker offers particular advantages if the
protection design requires the use of several current transformers per pole assembly. For this purpose, Siemens can offer
dead-tank circuit-breaker types suitable for different voltage
levels (fig. 4.1-11, 4.1-12, 4.1-13).

Most important characteristics of a dead-tank circuit-breaker:


Toroidal-core current transformers on bushings which give it a
compact construction
High short-circuit breaking currents possible (up to 63 kA with
one interrupter unit)
No creepage path across interrupter unit
Low impulse load of the bases
Low center of gravity of the bases which give it a higher
seismic withstand capability
Gas mixture or heating system for lowest temperature
applications
Gas-insulated components ensure highest availability with
minimum maintenance effort
Metal-enclosed interrupter unit (earthed housing)
Current transformers (CT)
The dead-tank circuit-breakers can be equipped with bushing
current transformers for measurement or protection purposes,
fulfilling the requirements according to international standards
such as IEC, ANSI, etc. The current transformers are mounted in
weatherproof housings on both sides of each circuit-breaker
pole and are located at the base of the bushings. The current
transformer leads terminate in the control cubicle at shortcircuiting type terminal blocks. Our standard housing provides
space for up to three current transformers per bushing.

Fig. 4.1-11: SPS2/3AP1 DT 72.5 kV

Fig. 4.1-12: SPS2/3AP1 DT 145 kV

The 3AP DT high-voltage circuit-breaker operates safely and is


capable of bearing high loads. Extra-strong porcelain bushings
and an optimized circuit-breaker design give it a very high
seismic stability while in operation. The circuit-breaker covers
the whole temperature range from -60 C up to 55 C with pure
SF6, which makes it applicable for all climate zones.
Like the other circuit-breakers, our dead tanks are based on
our proven modular design using a patented self-compression
arc-quenching system and the stored-energy spring drive
mechanism. They assure consistent quenching performance
with rated and short-circuit currents even after many
switching operations.

Fig. 4.1-13: SPS2/3AP1 DT 362 kV (two-cycles)

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Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

Dead-tank circuit-breaker
Type SPS2 and 3AP DT
The type SPS2 power circuit-breakers are used for the US and
ANSI markets, and the 3AP DT circuit-breaker types are offered
in IEC markets. Both types are designed as general, definite-purpose circuit-breakers for use at maximum rated voltages of
72.5 kV up to 550 kV (table 4.1-2). In 2012, two new DT circuitbreakers with 2-cycles interruption for 245 kV and 362 kV have
complemented our DT portfolio and have been established on
the market with great success (fig. 4.1-13).
The design
Dead-tank circuit-breakers (except for the 550 kV version)
consist of three identical pole units mounted on a common
support frame. The opening and closing spring of the FA-type
operating mechanism is transferred to the moving contacts of
the interrupter unit through a system of connecting rods and
a rotating seal at the side of each phase.

The proven Siemens arc-quenching system ensures faultless


operation, consistently high arc-quenching capacity and a long
service life, even at high switching frequencies.
Thanks to constant further development, optimization and
consistent quality assurance, Siemens self-compression arcquenching systems meet all the requirements placed on modern
high-voltage technology.
A control cubicle mounted at one end of the circuit-breaker
houses the spring operating mechanism and circuit-breaker
control components. The interrupter units are located in the
aluminum housing of each pole unit. The interrupters use the
latest Siemens self-compression arc-quenching system.
The stored-energy spring mechanism is the same design as used
within the Siemens 3AP live-tank circuit-breakers, GIS and
compact switchgear. This design has been documented in
service for more than 10 years, and has a well-documented
reliability record.

The connection to the overhead lines and busbars is realized by


SF6-insulated air bushings. The insulators are available in either
porcelain or composite (epoxy-impregnated fiberglass tube with
silicone rubber sheds) materials.
The tanks and the bushings are charged with SF6 as at a rated
pressure of 6.0 bar. The SF6 is used for insulation and arcquenching purposes.

Operators can specify up to four (in some cases, up to six)


bushing-type current transformers (CT) per phase. These CTs,
mounted externally on the aluminum housings, can be removed
without dismantling the bushings.
Operating mechanism
The mechanically and electrically trip-free spring mechanism
type FA is used on type SPS2 and 3AP1/2 DT circuit-breakers. The
closing and opening springs are loaded for O-C-O operations.

The 3AP2/3 DT for 550 kV (fig. 4.1-14, fig. 4.1-15) consists of


two interrupter units in a series that features a simple design.
Technical data

Type

3AP1 DT / SPS2

3AP2/3 DT / SPS2

Rated voltage

[kV]

72.5

123

145

245

362

550

Rated power-frequency withstand voltage

[kV]

140 / 160

230 / 260

275 / 310

460

520

800 / 860

Rated lighting impulse withstand voltage

[kV]

325 / 350

550

650

1,050

1,380

1,865 / 1,800

1,095

1,350

Rated nominal current up to

Rated switching impulse withstand voltage [kV]


[A]

4,000

4,000

4,000

4,000

4,000

4,000 / 5,000

Rated breaking current up to

[kA]

40

40

63

63

63

63

Operating mechanism type

Stored-energy spring mechanism

Table 4.1-2: Technical data of dead-tank circuit-breaker

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173

Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

22.22
24

28

22.1

22.1.20

22.1.50
27
22.27

22.1.10
22
26
15

23
16.9

22.1.21

15
16.9
22
22.1
22.1.10
22.1.10.1
22.1.20
22.1.21
22.1.50
22.22
22.27
23
24
26
27
28

Fig. 4.1-14: Sectional view of a 3AP2/3-DT circuit-breaker pole

A weatherproofed control cubicle (degree of protection IP55)


has a large door, sealed with rubber gaskets, for easy access
during inspection and maintenance. Condensation is prevented
by heaters that maintain a difference in inside/outside temperature, and by ventilation.
The control system includes all the secondary technical components required for operating the circuit-breaker, which are
typically installed in the control cubicle. The current transformer
connections are also located in the control cubicle.
The control, tripping, motor and heating power supplies are
selectable in a great extent. Depending on customer requirements, two standard control versions are available.
Basic version
The basic variant includes all control and monitoring elements
that are needed for operation of the circuit-breaker. In addition
to the elementary actuation functions, it includes:
19 auxiliary switch contacts (9 normally open, 9 normally
closed, 1 passing contact)
Operations counter
Local actuator.
Compact version
In addition to the basic version, this type includes:
Spring monitoring by motor runtime monitoring
Heating monitoring (current measuring relay)
Luminaire and socket attachment with a common circuitbreaker to facilitate servicing and maintenance work
Overvoltage attenuation
Circuit-breaker motor
Circuit-breaker heating.

174

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 4.1-15: 3AP2 DT 550 kV

Corner g ear
Operating r od
Interrupter u nit
Housing
Cover
Cover
Cover with bursting disc
Cover with filter material
Additional heating
High-voltage t erminal
Conductor c onnection
Grading ca pacitor
Bushing co nductor
Closing r esistor
Current tr ansformer
Bushing

Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit Breakers

4.1.4 The 3AP1 DTC Dead-Tank


Compact a Compact Switchgear
up to 245 kV
The hybrid concept
The hybrid concept combines SF6-encapsulated components and
air-insulated devices. The application of gas-insulated components increases availability of switchgear. According to CIGRE
analyses, gas-insulated components are four times more reliable
than air-insulated components. The level of encapsulation can
be defined in accordance with the requirements of the individual
substation layout and the system operators project budget. This
leads to optimized investments and can be combined with
further air-insulated devices.
The modular design
Based on the well-proven modular design, the core components
of the main units are based on the same technology that is used
in the well-established high-voltage circuit-breakers, disconnectors and GIS product family of Siemens.
These components are (fig. 4.1-16):
Self-compression arc-quenching interrupter unit
of the AIS 3AP circuit-breaker
Stored-energy spring mechanism
SF6-insulated disconnector/earthing switch
from the GIS type 8DN8
Outdoor earthing switch from the disconnector
product range.
This allows for providing flexible solutions according to different
substation configurations (fig. 4.1-17, fig. 4.1-18, fig. 4.1-20):
Circuit-breaker with single-pole or three-pole operating
mechanism
Disconnector, earthing switch, high-speed earthing switch
Current transformer, voltage transformer and voltage
detecting system
Cable connections possible at various positions
Bushings available as porcelain or composite insulators
Additional separations of gas compartment, with SF6 density
monitor on request
Double breaker modules for ultra compact substation designs
Possibility of combination with stand-alone components, e.g.
disconnector module with voltage transformer.

1. Bushing
2. Current transformer
3. Circuit-breaker with self-compression principle
4. Three-position disconnector and earthing switch
5. Voltage transformer
6. Cable connection assembly
7. High-speed earthing switch

Fig. 4.1-16: Possible components for the 3AP1 DTC

Fig. 4.1-17: 3AP1 DTC 145 kV

Fig. 4.1-18: 3AP1 DTC 245 kV

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175

Products and Devices


Highlights and characteristics
Simple SF6 filling and monitoring, one gas compartment
possible (separation optional)
Flexibility in confined spaces and extreme environmental
conditions, e.g. low temperature applications down to 55 C
Single-pole encapsulation: no 3-phase fault possible and fast
replacement of one pole (spare part: one pole)
Safety can be enhanced by separated gas compartments, e.g.
between circuit-breaker and disconnector.
Complete module can be moved with a fork-lift truck
Fast installation and commissioning: easy assembly of fully
manufactured and tested modular units
Less maintenance effort: first major inspection after 25 years
Service life minimum 50 years
Single-pole and three-pole operated drive system for 145 kV
and 245 kV (fig. 4.1-19).

Standard
The international IEC 62271-205 standard treats compact
switchgear assemblies for rated voltages above 52 kV. The used
terminology for the hybrid concept is the so-called mixed technology switchgear (MTS).

Rated short circuit-breaking current (kA)

4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

DTC 245 kV

63

50
DTC 145 kV
40

31.5
72.5

123

145

170

245

300

362

Rated voltage (kV)

Fig. 4.1-19: DTC product range, 1-pole or 3-pole operation

Our compact switchgear is fully type-tested in accordance with


this standard (table 4.1-3).
We have one of the most modern testing laboratories available which are certified and part of the European network of
independent testing organizations (PEHLA). Also other international testing laboratories (KEMA, CESI) certify our circuitbreakers high quality standards.
Accessories for 3AP1 DTC
To enhance possibility of circuit-breaker monitoring, the Siemens
voltage detecting system (VDS) or SIVIS camera systems can be
used.
The VDS is an economic alternative to a voltage transformer if
there is no requirement for voltage values to be measured. Up to
three VDS systems can be integrated in the outgoing units to
monitor the voltage. The system is attached directly to the
disconnector and earthing switch component of the DTC, and
enables the voltage condition of the compact switchgear to be
checked.
SIVIS camera systems for the 3AP1 DTC make it possible to
quickly and easily check the disconnecting earthing switch
module positions. The systems are a complementary solution for
preexisting position indicators on earthing switch operating
mechanisms. With these camera systems, we have made it easy
for your maintenance and service personnel to monitor the
disconnector, earthing switch, and high-speed rating positions
during maintenance, which further improves the safety standards of your switchgear. According to your individual requirements you have the choice between a stationary and a mobile
camera system.

Fig. 4.1-20: 3AP1 DTC 145 kV with voltage transformer and


cable connection

High-voltage compact switchgear


Rated voltage
Rated normal current

3AP1 DTC

[kV]

145

245

[A]

3,150

4,000

Rated frequency

[Hz]

50/60

50/60

Rated lightning impulse


withstand voltage

[kV]

650

1050

Rated power-frequency
withstand voltage

[kV]

275

460

Rated short-time
withstand current (3 s)

[kA]

40

63

Rated peak withstand current

[kA]

108

170

Table 4.1-3: Technical data of 3AP1 DTC

176

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Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

4.1.5 The DCB Disconnecting


Circuit-Breaker
ONE device TWO functions
In switchgear, isolating distances in air combined with circuitbreakers are used to protect the circuit state in the grid.
Siemens developed a combined device in which the isolating
distance has been integrated in the SF6 gas compartment on
the basis of an SF6-insulated circuit-breaker in order to reduce
environmental influence. The combined device (DCB Disconnecting Circuit-Breaker) is used as a circuit-breaker and additionally as a disconnector two functions combined in one device
(fig. 4.1-21, fig. 4.1-23).

The DCB was developed on the basis of a higher-rated standard


3AP circuit-breaker to provide the higher dielectric properties
required and type-tested in accordance with IEC 62271-108 for
disconnecting circuit-breakers. Due to the SF6-insulated disconnector function there is no visible opening distance anymore.
The proper function of the kinematic chain has been most
thoroughly verified. The closest attention was paid to developing
a mechanical interlock which guarantees that the circuit-breaker
remains in open position when used as a disconnector. When
this mechanical interlock is activated, it is impossible to close the
breaker (fig. 4.1-22). The current status of the DCB can also be
controlled electrically and is shown by well visible position
indicators.
In addition, an air-insulated earthing switch could be mounted
onto the supporting structure. Its earthing function was implemented by a well-established earthing switch with a Ruhrtal
designed maintenance-free contact system.

Fig. 4.1-21: 3AP1 DCB 145 kV

The disconnecting circuit-breakers are type tested according to


class M2 and C2 of IEC 62271-108, a specific standard for combined switching devices (table 4.1-4).

Fig. 4.1-22: 3AP2 DCB interlock indicator

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177

Products and Devices


4.1 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers

Rated voltage

[kV]

Number of interrupter units per pole

3AP2 DCB

145

420

Rated power-frequency withstand voltage

[kV]

275/315

520/610

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage

[kV]

650/750

1,425/1,665

Rated switching impulse withstand voltage

[kV]

n.a.

1,050/1,245

Rated normal current up to

[A]

3,150

4,000

Rated short-circuit breaking current

[kArms]

40 (31.5)

40

[C]

-40 +40

-40 +40

SF6

SF6

M2, C2

M2, C2

Ambient air temperature

1)

Insulating medium
Classification CB
Classification DS

3AP1 DCB

Insulators
Attached earthing switch (optional)
1)
2)

M2

M2

composite 2)

composite

yes

no

Other ambient temperature values on request


Or porcelain

Table 4.1-4: Technical data of 3AP DCB

Combining the strengths of our well proven product portfolio,


we can provide a new type of device which fulfills the system
operators needs for highest reliability and safety, while saving
space and costs at the same time.
Highlights and characteristics
Maximum reliability by applying well-proven and established
components from Siemens circuit-breakers and Ruhrtal
designed earthing switches
Maximum availability due to longer maintenance intervals
Economical, space-saving solution by combining the circuitbreaker and the disconnector in one device
Minimized costs for transportation, maintenance, installation
and commissioning as well as civil works (foundation, steel,
cable ducts, etc.)
Compact and intelligent interlocking and position indicating
device
Optionally available without earthing switch
Porcelain or composite insulators obtainable.

Fig. 4.1-23: 3AP2 DCB 420 kV

For further information:


Email: support.energy@siemens.com
or
circuit-breaker@siemens.com

178

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Products and Devices


4.2 High-Voltage
Disconnectors
4.2.1 High-Voltage Disconnectors
and Earthing Switches
General
Disconnectors are an essential part of electrical power substations. They indicate a visible isolating distance in air isolated gap.
Modern production technologies and investments in our production sites worldwide ensure sustained product and process
quality in accordance with the high standards of Siemens.
Siemens disconnectors fulfil the system operators requirements
for low life-cycle costs with maximum availability and continuous economic service by:
Delivery of completely routine-tested and pre-adjusted
assembly groups
Easy erection and commissioning
Maintenance-free bearings and contact systems
Lifetime technical support
The contact systems have proved their reliability through
decades of service.
The most important features are:
Self-resilient contact fingers no further spring elements are
necessary to generate the contact force
Silver-plated contact surface provides maximum conductivity
without regular greasing lubrication
Factory set contact forces; no re-adjustments required during
service life
Ice layers up to 20 mm can be broken without difficulties
Maintenance-free contact system for up to 25 years.

Fig. 4.2-1: Center-break disconnector

The reliability of Siemens disconnectors and earthing switches


over many decades is ensured by a comprehensive testing and
quality assurance system certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001.
Center-break disconnectors
The center-break disconnector is the most frequently used disconnector type. The disconnector base supports the operating mechanism and two rotating porcelain support insulators. The current
path arms which are fixed to the insulators open in the center.
Each rotating unit comprises two high-quality ball bearings and is
designed for high mechanical loads. They are lubricated and
maintenance-free for the entire service life (fig. 4.2-1).
The current path of the center-break disconnector consists of
only a few components, thus the number of contact resistances
is reduced to a minimum. The main contact system of block
contact and spread contact fingers assures a steady contact
force even after decades of operation (fig. 4.2-2).

Fig. 4.2-2: Block and finger contact system

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179

Products and Devices


4.2 High-Voltage Disconnectors

Pantograph disconnectors
This type has a vertical isolating distance and is generally used
in busbar systems to connect two busbars, a busbar to a line or a
busbar to a power transformer.
The main components of a pantograph disconnector are shown
in (fig. 4.2-3).
The geometry of the pantograph ensures optimum operational
behavior. Rotary contact systems inside the joints, which have
thermal and dynamic current-carrying capacity, are used for
current transfer.
Ice loads of up to 20 mm can be broken without difficulties. The
specific contact force is adjusted at the factory and remains
unchanged during service life.

The rigidity of the scissor arms prevents opening during a short


circuit. The switch position cannot be changed by external forces.
In both end positions of the disconnector, the rotary arm in the
bearing frame is switched beyond the dead center point.
Pantograph disconnectors with rated voltages from 123 kV up
to 362 kV are optionally equipped with group operating mechanisms or 1-pole operating mechanisms. All pantograph disconnectors for higher rated voltages are equipped with 1-pole
operating mechanisms.
Vertical-break disconnectors
This type is for small phase distances. The current path of
the vertical-break disconnector opens vertically and requires
a minimum phase distance (fig. 4.2-4).
The current path performs two movements:
A vertical swinging movement
A rotary movement around its own longitudinal axis.
The rotary movement generates the contact force and breaks
possible ice layers.
In both end positions, the rotary arm is switched beyond the
dead center point. This locks the current path in the shortcircuit-proof CLOSED position, and prevents the current path
from switching to the OPEN position under external forces.

1. Scissor arms
2. Bearing frame
3. Support insulator
4. Rotating insulator
5. Motor operating mechanism
Fig. 4.2-3: Components of the pantograph
disconnector

The ample distance between support insulator and rotating


insulator ensures dielectric strength of the parallel insulation
even under saline fog conditions.
The installation and commissioning on site is easy and quick
since the movable part of the current path is one single subassembly which is pre-adjusted and routine tested at the factory.

Fig. 4.2-4: Vertical-break disconnector

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Products and Devices


4.2 High-Voltage Disconnectors

Double-side break disconnectors


The double-side break disconnector features three support
insulators. The support insulator in the center is mounted
on a rotating unit and carries the current path. Both end support
insulators are fixed.
The main application of double-side break disconnectors are
substations with limited phase distances and where vertical
opening of the current path is not possible. High mechanical
terminal loads are possible due to the compact and
stable design. It can also be combined with an integrated surge
arrester (fig. 4.2-5).
For voltage levels up to 245 kV, the contact fingers of the
double-side break disconnectors are integrated into the current
path tube, and the fixed contacts consist of contact blocks. The
current path performs a horizontal swinging movement, and the
contact force is generated by spreading the contact fingers while
sliding on the contact blocks.

For voltage levels higher than 245 kV, contact strips are attached
to the ends of the current path tubes. The contact fingers are
part of the fixed contacts. In this design, the current path performs a combined swinging and rotary movement. After completion of the swinging movement, the contact force is generated
by the rotation of the current path around its own axis.
Knee-type disconnectors
This disconnector type has the smallest horizontal and vertical
space requirements. The knee-type disconnector has two fixed
and one rotating insulator. Thanks to its folding-arm design, only
limited overhead clearance is required, which results in lower
investment costs (fig. 4.2-6).

Fig. 4.2-5: Double-side break disconnector with integrated


surge arrester

The very compact design has advantages for indoor applications


and mounting on wall or ceiling. This type is also available up to
800kV.

Fig. 4.2-6: Knee-type disconnector

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181

Products and Devices


4.2 High-Voltage Disconnectors

Earthing switches
The use of earthing switches (fig. 4.2-7) ensures absolute
de-energization of high-voltage components in a circuit or
switchgear.
Free-standing earthing switches are available for all voltage
levels up to 800 kV.
Suitable built-on earthing switches are available for all disconnector types of the Siemens scope of supply.
According to the system operators requirements, built-on
earthing switches can be arranged laterally or in integrated
arrangement with respect to the position of the main current
path of the disconnector when needed.

Optionally, all earthing switches can be designed for switching


induced inductive and capacitive currents according to
IEC 62271-102, Class A or Class B.
3DV8 and MA6/7 motor operating mechanisms
The 3DV8 type is the standard design and the MA6/7 types can
be provided optionally with the additional advantages given
below:
Motor operating mechanism is mechanically decoupled in the
end positions to prevent damages of the disconnector in case
of operating errors
Aluminum casting housing very robust.

for safety purposes. Heaters are provided to prevent condensation (fig. 4.2-8).

The motor operating mechanism can also be operated manually


by a hand crank which can be inserted in the cubicle. The insertion of the hand crank automatically isolates the motor circuit

The auxiliary switch is custom-fit to the gear unit and signals the
switch position with absolute reliability. This ensures safe substation operation.

Fig. 4.2-7: Free-standing earthing switch

3DV8

Steel, spray-zinc and painted (3DV8) / Cast-aluminum housing (MA6/7)


with door (1) degree of protection IP55; gear unit (2) with motor;
electrical equipment with auxiliary switch (3)

Fig. 4.2-8: Motor operating mechanism

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MA6/7

Products and Devices


4.2 High-Voltage Disconnectors
Technical data

Center break

Design
Rated voltage

72.5

123

145

170

245

300

362

420

550

230
265

275
315

325
375

460
530

380
435

450
520

520
610

620
800

550
630

650
750

750
860

1,050
1,200

1,050
1,050
(+170)

1,175
1,175
(+205)

1,425
1,425
(+240)

1,550
1,550 (+315)

850
700 (+245)

950
800 (+295)

1,050
900 (+345)

1,175
900 (+450)

Rated power-frequency withstand voltage 50 Hz/1 min


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance

[kV]
[kV]

140
160

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage 1.2/50 s


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance

[kV]
[kV]

325
375

Rated switching impulse withstand voltage 250/2,500 s


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance

[kV]
[kV]

Rated normal current up to

[A]

4,000

[kA]

160

Rated short-time withstand current up to [kA]

63

Rated duration of short circuit

1/3

Rated peak withstand current up to

[s]

Icing class

10/20

Temperature range

[C]

Operating mechanism type

60/+50
Motor operation/Manual operation

Control voltage

[V, DC]
[V, AC]

60/110/125/220
220230, 1~, 50/60 Hz

Motor voltage

[V, DC]
[V, AC]

60/110/125/220
110/125/220, 1~, 50/60 Hz
220/380/415, 3~, 50/60 Hz

Maintenance

25 years

Table 4.2-1: Center-break disconnector

After the motor starts, the auxiliary switch moves and the switch
position signal is cancelled. The disconnector operates thereafter until the end position is reached. The auxiliary switch then
moves again and issues the switch position signal.
This sequence ensures that the CLOSED position is indicated only
after the disconnector is locked and short-circuit-proof, and the

rated current can be carried. The OPEN position is indicated only


after the opened current path has reached the nominal dielectric
strength.
An overview of Siemens disconnectors is shown in table 4.2-1 to
table 4.2-5.

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183

Products and Devices


4.2 High-Voltage Disconnectors
Technical data

Pantograph

Design
Rated voltage

123

145

170

245

300

362

420

550

275
315

325
375

460
530

380
435

450
520

520
610

620
800

650
750

750
860

1,050
1,200

1,050
1,050 (+170)

1,175
1,175 (+205)

1,425
1,425 (+240)

1,550
1,550 (+315)

850
700 (+245)

950
800 (+295)

1,050
900 (+345)

1,175
900 (+450)

Rated power-frequency withstand voltage 50 Hz/1 min


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance

[kV]
[kV]

230
265

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage 1.2/50 s


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance

[kV]
[kV]

550
630

Rated switching impulse withstand voltage 250/2,500 s


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance
Rated normal current up to

[kV]
[kV]

[A]

5,000

[kA]

200

Rated short-time withstand current up to [kA]

80

Rated duration of short circuit

1/3

Rated peak withstand current up to

[s]

Icing class
Temperature range

10/20
[C]

Operating mechanism type

Motor operation/Manual operation

Control voltage

[V, DC]
[V, AC]

60/110/125/220
220230, 1~, 50/60 Hz

Motor voltage

[V, DC]
[V, AC]

60/110/125/220
110/125/220, 1~, 50/60 Hz
220/380/415, 3~, 50/60 Hz

Maintenance
Table 4.2-2: Pantograph disconnector

184

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25 years

Products and Devices


4.2 High-Voltage Disconnectors
Technical data

Vertical break

Design
Rated voltage

123

145

170

245

300

362

420

550

275
315

325
375

460
530

380
435

450
520

520
610

620
800

650
750

750
860

1,050
1,200

1,050
1,050 (+170)

1,175
1,175 (+205)

1,425
1,425 (+240)

1,550
1,550 (+315)

850
700 (+245)

950
800 (+295)

1,050
900 (+345)

1175
900 (+450)

Rated power-frequency withstand voltage 50 Hz/1 min


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance

[kV]
[kV]

230
265

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage 1.2/50 s


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance

[kV]
[kV]

550
630

Rated switching impulse withstand voltage 250/2,500 s


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance

[kV]
[kV]

Rated normal current up to

[A]

4,000

[kA]

160

Rated short-time withstand current up to [kA]

160

Rated duration of short circuit

1/3

Rated peak withstand current up to

[s]

Icing class

10/20

Temperature range

[C]

Operating mechanism type

60/+50
Motor operation/Manual operation

Control voltage

[V, DC]
[V, AC]

60/110/125/220
220230, 1~, 50/60 Hz

Motor voltage

[V, DC]
[V, AC]

60/110/125/220
110/125/230, 1~, 50/60 Hz
220/380/415, 3~, 50/60 Hz

Maintenance

25 years

Table 4.2-3: Vertical-break disconnector

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185

Products and Devices


4.2 High-Voltage Disconnectors
Technical data

Knee-type

Design
Rated voltage

123

550

[kV]
[kV]

230
265

620
800

[kV]
[kV]

550
630

1,550
1,550 (+315)

[kV]
[kV]

1,175
900 (+450)

Rated power-frequency withstand voltage 50 Hz/1 min


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance
Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage 1.2/50 s
To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance
Rated switching impulse withstand voltage 250/2,500 s
To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance
Rated normal current up to

[A]

Rated peak withstand current up to

[kA]

100

160

Rated short-time withstand current up to

[kA]

40

63

Rated duration of short circuit

[s]

Icing class

1/3
10/20

Temperature range

[C]

Operating mechanism type

60/+50
Motor operation/Manual operation

Control voltage

[V, DC]
[V, AC]

60/110/125/220
220230, 1~, 50/60 Hz

Motor voltage

[V, DC]
[V, AC]

60/110/125/220
110/125/230, 1~, 50/60 Hz
220/380/415, 3~, 50/60 Hz

Maintenance
Table 4.2-4: Knee-type disconnector

186

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25 years

Products and Devices


4.2 High-Voltage Disconnectors
Technical data

Double-side break

Design
Rated voltage

123

145

170

245

300

420

550

800

275
315

325
375

460
530

380
435

520
610

450
520

830
1,150

650
750

750
860

1,050
120

1,050
1,050
(+170)

1,425
1,425
(+240)

1,550
1,550
(+315)

2,100
2,100 (+455)

850
700 (+245)

1,050
900 (+345)

1,175
900 (+450)

1,550
1200 (+650)

Rated power-frequency withstand voltage 50 Hz/1 min


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance

[kV]
[kV]

230
265

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage 1.2/50 s


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance

[kV]
[kV]

550
630

Rated switching impulse withstand voltage 250/2,500 s


To earth and between phases
Across the isolating distance
Rated normal current up to

[kV]
[kV]

[A]

4000

[kA]

160

Rated short-time withstand current up to [kA]

63

Rated duration of short circuit

1/3

Rated peak withstand current up to

[s]

Icing class
Temperature range

10/20
[C]

Operating mechanism type

60/+50
Motor operation/Manual operation

Control voltage

[V, DC]
[V, AC]

60/110/125/220
220230, 1~, 50/60 Hz

Motor voltage

[V, DC]
[V, AC]

60/110/125/220
110/125/230, 1~, 50/60 Hz
220/380/415, 3~, 50/60 Hz

Maintenance

25 years

Table 4.2-5: Double-side break disconnector

For further information, please contact:


Fax: + 49 30 3 86-2 58 67
Email: support.energy@siemens.com

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

187

Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and
Components for Medium Voltage
4.3.1 Overview of Vacuum Switching
Components
Medium-voltage equipment is available in power stations
(in generators and station supply systems) and in transformer
substations (of public systems or large industrial plants) of the
primary distribution level. Transformer substations receive power
from the high-voltage system and transform it down to the
medium-voltage level. Medium-voltage equipment is also available in secondary transformer or transfer substations (secondary
distribution level), where the power is transformed down from
medium to low voltage and distributed to the end consumer.

The product line of the medium-voltage switching devices


contains (fig. 4.3-1):
Circuit-breakers
Switches
Contactors
Disconnectors
Switch-disconnectors
Earthing switches

Circuit-breakers
Circuit-breakers must make and break all
currents within the scope of their ratings,
from small inductive and capacitive load
currents up to the short-circuit current,
and this must occur under all fault
conditions in the power supply system,
including earth faults and phase
opposition. Outdoor circuit-breakers have
the same applications, but are also
exposed to weather influences.
Switches
Switches must make and break normal
currents up to their rated normal current,
and be able to make on existing short
circuits (up to their rated short-circuit
making current). However, they cannot
break any short-circuit currents.

Fig. 4.3-1: Product line of medium-voltage switching devices

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Requirements
In CLOSED condition, the switching device has to offer minimum
resistance to the flow of normal and short-circuit currents.
In OPEN condition, the open contact gap must withstand the
appearing voltages safely. All live parts must be sufficiently
isolated to earth and between phases when the switching device
is open or closed.
The switching device must be able to close the circuit if voltage
is applied. For disconnectors, however, this condition is only
requested for the de-energized state, except for small load
currents.
The switching device should be able to open the circuit while
current is flowing. This is not requested for disconnectors.
The switching device should produce switching overvoltages
as low as possible.

Contactors
Contactors are load breaking devices
with a limited making and breaking
capacity. They are used for high
switching rates but can neither make
nor break short-circuit currents.
Switch-disconnectors
A switch-disconnector is to be
understood as the combination of
a switch and a disconnector, or
a switch with isolating distance.

Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

4.3.2 Selection of Components


by Ratings

exceed defined values. Permissible temperature rises always


refer to the ambient air temperature. If a device is mounted in
an enclosure, it is possible that it may not be loaded with its full
rated current, depending on the quality of heat dissipation.

The switching devices and all other equipment must be selected


for the system data available at the place of installation. This
system data defines the ratings of the components (table 4.3-1)

Rated peak withstand current


The rated peak withstand current is the peak value of the first
major loop of the short-circuit current during a compensation
process after the beginning of the current flow that the device
can carry in closed state. It is a measure for the electrodynamic
(mechanical) load of an electrical component. For devices with
full making capacity, this value is not relevant (see the paragraph Rated short-circuit making current later in this section).

Rated insulation level


The rated insulation level is the dielectric strength from phase to
earth, between phases and across the open contact gap, or
across the isolating distance.
The dielectric strength is the capability of an electrical component to withstand all voltages with a specific time sequence up
to the magnitude of the corresponding withstand voltages.
These can be operating voltages or higher-frequency voltages
caused by switching operations, earth faults (internal overvoltages) or lightning strikes (external overvoltages). The dielectric
strength is verified by a lightning impulse withstand voltage
test with the standard impulse wave of 1.2/50 s and a powerfrequency withstand voltage test (50 Hz/1 min).

Rated breaking current


The rated breaking current is the load breaking current in normal
operation. For devices with full breaking capacity and without
a critical current range, this value is not relevant (see the paragraph Rated short-circuit breaking current later in this section).
Rated short-circuit breaking current
The rated short-circuit breaking current is the root-mean-square
value of the breaking current in the event of short circuit at the
terminals of the switching device.

Rated voltage
The rated voltage is the upper limit of the highest system
voltage the device is designed for. Because all high-voltage
switching devices are zero-current interrupters except for some
fuses the system voltage is the most important dimensioning
criterion. It determines the dielectric stress of the switching
device by means of the transient recovery voltage and the
recovery voltage, especially while switching off.

Rated short-circuit making current


The rated short-circuit making current is the peak value of the
making current in the event of short circuit at the terminals of
the switching device. This stress is greater than that of the rated
peak withstand current, because dynamic forces may work
against the contact movement.

Rated normal current


The rated normal current is the current that the main circuit of
a device can continuously carry under defined conditions. The
heating of components especially of contacts must not

Rated insulation
level

Rated voltage

Rated normal
current

Rated peak
withstand current

Rated breaking
current

Rated short-circuit
breaking current

Rated short-circuit
making current

Standards
The switching devices, and also non-switching components, are
subject to national and international standards.

Circuit-breaker

Switch

p1)

p1)

p1)

Component designation

Switching devices

Switch-disconnector
Make-proof earthing switch
Contactor

p Influence on selection of component

p
p
p

No influence on selection of component

1)

Limited short-circuit making capacity

Table 4.3-1: Table of switching devices according to ratings

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189

Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

4.3.3 Vacuum Circuit-Breakers

Siemens medium-voltage vacuum circuit-breakers are available


with rated voltages up to 36 kV and rated short-circuit breaking
currents up to 72 kA (table 4.3-2). They are used:
For universal installation in all customary medium-voltage
switchgear types
As 1-pole or multi-pole medium-voltage circuit-breakers for all
switching duties in indoor switchgear
For breaking resistive, inductive and capacitive currents
For switching generators
For switching contact lines (1-pole traction circuit-breakers).

Auto-reclosing in traction line systems


To check the traction line system via test resistors for the
absence of short circuits after a short-circuit shutdown, the
operating sequence is O-15 s-CO.

Switching duties
The switching duties of the circuit-breaker depend partly upon
its type of operating mechanism:
Stored-energy mechanism
For synchronizing and rapid load transfer
For auto-reclosing
Spring-operated mechanism (spring CLOSED, stored-energy
OPEN) for normal closing and opening.

Switching of transformers
In the vacuum circuit-breaker, the chopping current is only 2 to
3 A due to the special contact material used, which means that
no hazardous overvoltages will appear when unloaded transformers are switched off.

Switching duties in detail


Synchronizing
The closing times during synchronizing are so short that, when
the contacts touch, there is still sufficient synchronism between
the systems to be connected in parallel.
Rapid load transfer
The transfer of consumers to another incoming feeder without
interrupting operation is called rapid load transfer. Vacuum
circuit-breakers with stored-energy mechanisms feature the
very short closing and opening times required for this purpose.
Beside other tests, vacuum circuit-breakers for rapid load
transfer have been tested with the operating sequence
O-3 min-CO-3 min-CO at full rated short-circuit breaking current
according to the standards. They even control the operating
sequence O-0.3 s-CO-3 min-CO up to a rated short-circuit
breaking current of 31.5 kA.
Auto-reclosing
This is required in overhead lines to clear transient faults or
short circuits that could be caused by, for example, thunderstorms, strong winds or animals. Even at full short-circuit
current, the vacuum circuit-breakers for this switching duty
leave such short dead times between closing and opening that
the de-energized time interval is hardly noticeable to the power
supply to the consumers. In the event of unsuccessful autoreclosing, the faulty feeder is shut down definitively. For vacuum
circuit-breakers with the auto-reclosing feature, the operating
sequence O-0.3 s-CO-3 min-CO must be complied with according
to IEC 62 271-100, whereas an unsuccessful auto-reclosing only
requires the operating sequence O-0.3 s-CO.

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Multiple-shot reclosing
Vacuum circuit-breakers are also suitable for multiple-shot
reclosing, which is mainly applicable in English-speaking countries. The operating sequence O-0.3 s-CO-15 s-CO-15 s-CO is
required.

Breaking of short-circuit currents


While breaking short-circuit currents at the fault location directly
downstream from transformers, generators or current-limiting
reactors, the full short-circuit current can appear first; second,
the initial rate of rise of the transient recovery voltage can be far
above the values according to IEC 62 271-100. There may be
initial rates of rise up to 10 kV/s, and while switching off shortcircuits downstream from reactors, these may be even higher.
The circuit-breakers are also adequate for this stress.
Switching of capacitors
Vacuum circuit-breakers are specifically designed for switching
capacitive circuits. They can switch off capacitors up to the
maximum battery capacities without restrikes, and thus without
overvoltages. Capacitive current breaking is generally tested up
to 400 A. These values are technically conditioned by the testing
laboratory. Operational experience has shown that capacitive
currents are generally controlled up to 70 % of the rated normal
current of the circuit-breaker. When capacitors are connected in
parallel, currents up to the short-circuit current can appear,
which may be hazardous for parts of the system due to their
high rate of rise. Making currents up to 20 kA (peak value) are
permissible; higher values are can be achieved if specifically
requested.

Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

Switching of overhead lines and cables


When unloaded overhead lines and cables are switched off,
the relatively small capacitive currents are controlled without
restrikes, and thus without overvoltages.
Switching of motors
When small high-voltage motors are stopped during start-up,
switching overvoltages may arise. This concerns high-voltage
motors with starting currents up to 600 A. The magnitude of
these overvoltages can be reduced to harmless values by means
of special surge limiters. For individually compensated motors,
no protective circuit is required.
Switching of generators
When generators with a short-circuit current of < 600 A are
operated, switching overvoltages may arise. In this case, surge
limiters or arresters should be used.

Switching of filter circuits


When filter circuits or inductor-capacitor banks are switched off,
the stress for the vacuum circuit-breaker caused by the recovery
voltage is higher than when switching capacitors. This is due to
the series connection of the inductor and the capacitor, and
must be taken into account for the rated voltage when the
vacuum circuit-breaker is selected.
Switching of arc furnaces
Up to 100 operating cycles are required per day. The vacuum
circuit-breaker type 3AH4 is especially adequate for this purpose.
Due to the properties of the load circuit, the currents can be
asymmetrical and distorted. To avoid resonance oscillations in
the furnace transformers, individually adjusted protective circuits are necessary.

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191

Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage
Rated shortcircuit breaking
current
12.5 kA

Rated voltage and frequency

Rated normal
current

7.2 kV
50/60 Hz

12 kV
50/60 Hz

15 kV 50/60
Hz

800 A

17.5 kV
50/60 Hz
SION

1,250 A

SION

13.1 kA

800 A

16 kA

800 A

SION

SION

3AH5

SION

1,250 A

SION

SION

3AH5

SION

800 A

SION

SION

3AH5

1,250 A

SION

SION

3AH5

3AH5

2,000 A
20 kA

SION

2,000 A

3AH5

2,500 A
25 kA

800 A

SION

SION

3AH5

SION

3AH5

1,250 A

SION

SION

3AH5

SION

3AH5

2,000 A

SION

2,500 A
31.5 kA

SION

3AH5

SION

SION

3AH5

SION

3AH5

800 A

SION

SION

1,250 A

SION

SION

3AH5

3AH4

3AH4

SION

SION
3AH5

2,000 A

SION

SION

3AH5

3AH4

3AH4

SION

3AH5

2,500 A

SION

SION

3AH5

SION

3AH5

SION

SION

SION

3AK7

3,150 A
4,000 A
40 kA

1,250 A
1,600 A

3AH4

3AH4

3AH4

3AH4

2,000 A

SION

SION

3AH4

3AH4

SION

3AK7

2,500 A

SION

SION

3AH4

3AH4

SION

3AK7

3,150 A

SION

SION

3AH4

3AH4

SION

3AK7

4,000 A
50 kA

3AK7

1,250 A

3AH3

3AK7

3AH3

3AK7

3AH3

3AH3

3AK7

2,000 A

3AH3

3AK7

3AH3

3AK7

3AH3

3AH3

3AK7

2,500 A

3AH3

3AK7

3AH3

3AK7

3AH3

3AH3

3AK7

3,150 A

3AH3

3AK7

3AH3

3AK7

3AH3

3AH3

3AK7

4,000 A

3AH3

3AK7

3AH3

3AK7

3AH3

3AH3

3AK7

5,000 A
6,300 A
8,000 A
63 kA

1,250 A

3AH3

3AH3

3AH3

3AH3

2,000 A

3AH3

3AH3

3AH3

3AH3

2,500 A

3AH3

3AH3

3AH3

3AH3

3,150 A

3AH3

3AH3

3AH3

3AH3

4,000 A

3AH3

3AH3

3AH3

3AH3

5,000 A
6,300 A
8,000 A
72 kA

3,150 A
4,000 A
5,000 A
6,300 A
8,000 A

Table 4.3-2: Portfolio of vacuum circuit-breakers

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Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage
Rated shortcircuit breaking
current
12.5 kA

Rated normal
current

Rated voltage and frequency


17.5 kV
50/60 Hz

17.5 kV
16 Hz

24 kV
50/60 Hz

800 A

SION

1,250 A

SION

800 A

SION

3AH5

1,250 A

SION

3AH5

2,000 A

SION

27.5 kV
50/60 Hz

36 kV
50/60 Hz

40,5 kV
50/60 Hz

13.1 kA
16 kA

20 kA

25 kA

800 A

SION

1,250 A

SION

3AH5

2,000 A

SION

3AH5

2,500 A

SION

3AH5

800 A

SION

1,250 A
2,000 A

3AH47

2,500 A
31.5 kA

3AH5

SION

3AH5

3AH4

3AH47

3AH5

SION

3AH5

3AH4

3AH47

3AH5

SION

3AH5

800 A
1,250 A

3AH4

2,000 A

3AH4

3AH47

2,500 A
4,000 A
1,250 A

3AH4

1,600 A

3AH4

2,000 A

3AH4

2,500 A

3AH4

3,150 A

3AH4

3AH4

3AH3

3AH4

3AH4

3AH3

3AH4

3AH3

3AH4

3AH3

3AH4

3AH3

3AH4

3AH3

3AH4

3AH3

3AH4

3AH3

3AH4

3AH3
3AH47

3AH3

3AH4

3AH3

3AH4

3AH3

3AH4

3AH3

3AH4

1,250 A
2,000 A

3AH3

2,500 A

63 kA

3AH3
3AH3

3AH3

4,000 A
50 kA

3AH47
3AH47
3AH47

3,150 A
40 kA

3AH47

3AH47

3,150 A

3AH38

3AH3

3AH38

4,000 A

3AH38

3AH3

3AH38

5,000 A

3AH37

3AH37

6,300 A

3AH37

3AH37

8,000 A

3AH37

3AH37

1,250 A
2,000 A
2,500 A

72 kA

3,150 A

3AH38

3AH38

4,000 A

3AH38

3AH38

5,000 A

3AH37

3AH37

6,300 A

3AH37

3AH37

8,000 A

3AH37

3AH37

3,150 A

3AH38

3AH38

4,000 A

3AH38

3AH38

5,000 A

3AH37

3AH37

6,300 A

3AH37

3AH37

8,000 A

3AH37

3AH37

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Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

Portfolio of circuit-breakers

SION

The standard circuit-breaker for variable application:


p Available as standard circuit-breaker or complete slide-in
module
p Up to 30,000 operating cycles
p Retrofit solution possible

3AH5

The standard circuit-breaker for small switching capacities:


p Up to 10,000 operating cycles.

3AH3

The circuit-breaker for high switching capacities:


p Rated short-circuit breaking currents of up to 63 kA
p Rated normal currents of up to 4,000 A
p Up to 10,000 operating cycles

3AH4

The circuit-breaker for a high number of operating cycles,


i.e. for arc furnace switching:
p Up to 120,000 operating cycles
p Rated normal currents of up to 4,000 A
p Rated short-circuit breaking currents of up to 40 kA

3AH37/3AH38

The circuit-breaker for high-current and generator applications


p Rated short-circuit breaking currents of up to 72 kA
(according to IEEE C37.013)
p Rated normal currents up to 6,300 A
p Up to 10,000 operating cycles
p Design for phase segregation
up to 24 kV, 80 kA, 12,000 A
up to 24 kV, 90 kA, 6,300 A

3AH47

The circuit-breaker for applications in traction systems


p System frequency 16 , 25, 50 or 60 Hz
p 1-pole or 2-pole
p Up to 60,000 operating cycles

3AK7

The compact, small circuit-breaker for high-current and


generator applications
p Rated short-circuit breaking currents of up to 50 kA
p For generator switching according to IEEE C37.013
Rated short-circuit breaking currents of up to 50 kA
p Rated normal currents up to 4,000 A

Table 4.3-3: Different types of vacuum circuit-breakers

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Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

4.3.4 Vacuum Circuit-Breaker for


Generator Switching Application
In numerous power stations around the world, the 3AH38
high-current and generator circuit-breaker has become the
standard for switching rated operating currents up to 4,000 A.
The circuit-breakers has been modularly constructed in order to
be able to use the best materials for the current circuit, magnetic flux and cooling. In this way, features such as low resistance of the main circuit, high mechanical stability and ideal
cooling behavior have been combined in the 3AH37.
The 3AH37 is the first 72 kA vacuum circuit-breaker in the world
that has been type-tested in accordance with the criteria of the
generator circuit-breaker guideline IEEE Std C37.013. The
3AH37 high-current and generator circuit-breaker has a classic
VCB design and is available to extend the product portfolio to
master operating currents up to 6,300 A on a sustained Basis up
to 24 kV without forced cooling. With forced cooling the 3AH37
is able to carryoperating currents up to 8,000 A.

For generator switching application with phase segregation the


VCBs are designed for pole simultaneity and have been tested
with ratings up to 80 kA with 12,000 A continuing current and
90 kA (fig. 4.3-2).
Advantages in daily operation:
High mechanical stability through the column construction
Compact dimensions through vertical arrangement of the
vacuum interrupters
Low fire load as solid insulation is not required
High normal current possible without forced cooling due to
free convection also in horizontal installation
Secondary equipment can be easily retrofitted
Maintenance-free throughout its entire service life
Suitable for horizontal and vertical installation

3AK, 3AH37 and 3AH38 are type-tested according to


IEEE Std C37.013

In
17.5 kV

24 kV

12,000 A

360 MVA

500 MVA

8,000 A

240 MVA

330 MVA

180 MVA

260 MVA

120 MVA

160 MVA

100 MVA

130 MVA

Design Classic

Design Phase-segregated

3AH371 / 3AH372
3AH373 / 3AH374

6,300 A

4,000 A
3,150 A

3AH381 / 3AH372
3AK763 /

3AK765 /

40 kA

50 kA

63 kA

72 kA

3AH375 / 3AH376

80 kA

90 kA

Ik

with forced cooling

Fig. 4.3-2: Vacuum circuit-breaker for generator switching application 17.5 kV and 24 kV

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Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

4.3.5 Outdoor Vacuum Circuit-Breakers


Outdoor vacuum circuit-breakers perform the same functions as
indoor circuit-breakers (table 4.3-2) and cover a similar product
range. Due to their special design, they are preferred for use in
power supply systems with a large extent of overhead lines.
When using outdoor vacuum circuit-breakers, it is not necessary
to provide for closed service locations for their installation.
The design comprises a minimum of moving parts and a simple
structure in order to guarantee a long electrical and mechanical
service life. At the same time, these circuit-breakers offer all
advantages of indoor vacuum circuit-breakers.
In live-tank circuit-breakers (fig. 4.3-3), the vacuum interrupter
is housed inside a weatherproof insulating enclosure, e.g., made
of porcelain. The vacuum interrupter is at electrical potential,
which means live.

The significant property of the dead-tank technology is the


arrangement of the vacuum interrupter in an earthed metal
enclosure (fig. 4.3-4).

Fig. 4.3-3: Live-tank circuit-breaker

The portfolio of outdoor vacuum circuit-breakers is shown in


table 4.3-4.

Fig. 4.3-4: Dead-tank circuit-breaker

Type

3AG01 / 3AF01 /
3AF03

3AF04 / 3AF05 for


AC traction power
supply

SDV6 / SDV7

SDV7M

12 40.5 kV

27.5 kV

15.5 38 kV

15.5 27.6 kV

28 70 kV

95 kV

50 80 kV

50 60 kV

Rated voltage
Rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage
Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage
Rated normal current

75 200 kV

200 kV

110 200 kV

110 150 kV

1,250 2,500 A

2,000 A

1,200 3,000 A

1,200 2,000 A

20 31.5 kA

31.5 kA

20 40 kA

20 25 kA

1 or 2

Rated short-circuit breaking current


Number of poles
Operating mechanism
Design
Table 4.3-4: Portfolio of outdoor vacuum circuit-breakers

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Spring

Spring

Spring

Magnetic

Live-tank

Live-tank

Dead-tank

Dead-tank

Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

4.3.6 Reclosers
Vacuum reclosers offer dependable protection for overhead lines
in order to provide improved reliability of the distribution network.
At the core of the system, the controller provides a high level of
protection, easiest operation, and high operating efficiency.
Up to 90 % of the faults in overhead line networks are temporary
in nature. In case of a fault, a vacuum recloser trips to interrupt
the fault current. Technical data and ratings see (table 4.3-5).
After a few cycles, it recloses again and will remain closed if
a transient fault has disappeared. This cycle is performed up to
five times in order to bring the line back to service before the
device finally switches to a lockout state should a permanent
network fault be present.

Fig. 4.3-5: Argus-M controller

Siemens vacuum reclosers can easily be installed anywhere on


the overhead line, so network operators can choose an easily
accessible location. The reclosers will be parameterized to
sequentially protect the feeder in either star, ring or meshed
networks.
The included trouble-free operating features are:
Advanced vacuum switching technology
A sophisticated solid epoxy insulation system with integrated
sensors
A dual-coil low-energy magnetic actuator
The advanced Siemens controller
A weatherproof control cubicle
Reliable operation due to self-monitoring and standby.
Controller
The controller (fig. 4.3-5) the brain of the recloser comprises indicators and control elements, communication interfaces, and a USB port for convenient connection of a laptop.
Access to the user level is protected by multi-level password
authentication. The controller is mounted in a cubicle which also
contains the auxiliary power supply and a battery-backed UPS
unit, fuses, and a general purpose outlet to power a laptop.
The controller provides comprehensive protection functions as:
Earth fault and sensitive earth fault detection along with
overcurrent-time protection (definite and inverse)
Inrush restraint
Load shedding.
Further features of the controller are:
A multitude of inputs and outputs for customer use
Additional communication modules for data transfer
Self-monitoring and measuring functions.
Switch unit
The switch unit (fig. 4.3-6) contains integrated current transformers and optionally also voltage sensors. It consists of one or
three poles and the actuator housing. The poles are made of
weatherproof epoxy resin which holds the vacuum interrupter.
A switching rod connects the vacuum interrupter with the
magnetic actuator.

Fig. 4.3-6: Vacuum recloser with cubicle and controller

A mechanical lockout handle, which allows for mechanical


tripping and lockout, sticks out of the actuator housing. As long
as this handle is extended, the unit can neither be closed electrically nor mechanically. The lockout handle needs to be reset
manually to activate the unit.
A position indicator is located underneath the housing. Thanks
to its size and the application of reflective materials, the indicator is highly visible from the ground and the switching state
can be clearly recognized even at night.

Rated operating current

200 A to 800 A

Rated voltage acc. to ANSI C37-60

12 kV; 15.5 kV; 27 kV; 38 kV

Short-circuit breaking current

12.5 kA; 16 kA

Lightning impulse withstand voltage

95 kV to 190 kV

Number of operating cycles

10,000

Number of short circuit operations

up to 200

Number of phases

three-phases; single-phases;
single-triple

Standards

ANSI C37.60; IEC 62271-111;


IEC 60255; IEC 62271-100

Table 4.3-5: Technical data and ratings

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Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

4.3.7 Fusesaver
In most rural network configurations, the feeder is protected by
a circuit-breaker or recloser. Lateral lines* are usually protected
by fuses.
As a fuse is unable to distinguish between temporary and permanent faults, it blows on ALL faults, causing downstream
customers to lose power and requiring a line crew to replace the
fuse.

Whilst the fuse protects the lateral line, the Fusesaver protects
the fuse from translent faults:
In this case (fig. 4.3-8, the fault disappears during the
Fusesavers dead time. After closing, the power supply is
restored. The fuse did not operate, and the Fusesaver is ready
for the next fault. Only the customers on the affected lateral
line experience an interruption in power during the Fusesavers
dead time, while all other customers on the feeder, including
nearby lateral, did not even notice its operation.
Temporary fault

In rural networks it may take hours for the line crew to drive to
site, patrol the line (only to find no fault) and reconnect supply.
This leads to unnecessary high operating costs for the utility.
Furthermore, downstream users are left without power for
extended periods of time potentially resulting in financial
penalties to the utility.

Since typically 80 percent of a rural networks faults are


transient, 80 percent of its fuses are blown unnecessarily.

Load current

Current

Dead time
Open
Fusesaver Closed

1 30 sec

Blown
Fuse intact

Due to the low customer numbers on rural lateral lines* it is


often difficult for the utility to find a cost-effective solution to
this problem until now!
Fusesaver (fig. 4.3-7, fig. 4.3-10), the worlds fastest mediumvoltage (MV) outdoor vacuum circuit-breaker, is the most costeffective solution for optimizing reliability while minimizing
operating costs of rural overhead MV networks. It is capable of
almost completely removing the impacts of temporary faults on
lateral lines*. Thanks to its unique fault-clearing speed (as fast as
one half-cycle), the Siemens Fusesaver protects the fuse in the
case of temporary faults (table 4.3-6, table 4.3-7). Fusesaver is
a new class of intelligent, compact and low-cost single-phase
circuit-breaker that minimizes lost minutes of supply by protecting lateral line fuses from blowing on transient faults.

Fig. 4.3-8: Performance with temporary faults

When the Fusesaver closes, the fault is still present, resulting


in an immediate fault current. The Fusesaver will not operate
again and allow the fault current to blow the fuse. Loss of
power is unavoidable for customers on this lateral line, while
all other customers receive an uninterrupted power supply.
The Siemens Fusesaver restrict blown fuses on lateral lines to
unavoidable cases of permanent faults (fig. 4.3-9).
Permanent
fault
Current

The Fusesaver complies with the relevant parts of


IEC 62271-100.
* Also referred to as spur lines, T-off or T-taps

Dead time
Open
Fusesaver Closed

1 30 sec

Blown
Fuse intact

Fig. 4.3-9: Performance with permanent faults

Fig. 4.3-7: Fusesaver (left) and Remote Control Unit RCU (right)

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Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

The Fusesaver is designed to be installed in series with the fuse.


When it senses a fault current, it will open and stay open for
a pre-determined time (dead time). Then, the Fusesaver closes
again reconnecting supply. With on-board microprocessor
control and wireless connectivity, Fusesaver has configurable
protection, multi-phase operation functions, on-board event
history, and can be integrated into a SCADA system for remote
control. It is an electrically floating device that hangs directly
from the MV line. With no earth connection, it has no electrical
stresses on its insulators, resulting in long life. It self-powers by
harvesting and storing energy from the lateral line current. Fault
detection is achieved with a cutting-edge, high-speed protection
algorithm.

Fig. 4.3-10: Fusesaver and RCU installation (with solar panel for RCU)

Model type

Low range

Standard range

High range

Minimum line current for operation

0.15

0.5

1.0

Fuse ratings

2 to 20

5 to 50

5 to100

Rated current

40

100

200

Rated short-circuit breaking current Isc

kA

1.5

Rated short-circuit making current Ipeak

kA

3.75

10

10

Rated short-time withstand current

kA

1.5

0.4

0.2

1.0

No.

200

30

30

Rated short-time withstand current duration


Fault break operations at 100%
Table 4.3-6: Fusesaver types and rating overview

The low range, standard range and high range, Fusesavers are all available with the following voltage rating options:
Rated voltage

kV

12

15.5

24

27

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Up

kV

75

110

125

125

Rated power-frequency withstand voltage Ud (60s)

kV

42

50

50

60

Table 4.3-7: Fusesaver voltage rating overview

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199

Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

4.3.8 Vacuum Contactors


3TL vacuum contactors (fig. 4.3-11 to fig. 4.3-13) are 3-pole
contactors with electromagnetic operating mechanisms for
medium-voltage switchgear. They are load breaking devices with
a limited short-circuit making and breaking capacity for applications with high switching rates of up to 1 million operating
cycles. Vacuum contactors are suitable for operational switching
of alternating current consumers in indoor switchgear.
They can be used, e.g., for the following switching duties:
AC-3: Squirrel-cage motors: Starting, stopping of running
motor
AC-4: Starting, plugging and inching
Switching of three-phase motors in AC-3 or AC-4 operation
(e.g., in conveying and elevator systems, compressors,
pumping stations, ventilation and heating)
Switching of transformers (e.g., in secondary distribution
switchgear, industrial distributions)
Switching of reactors (e.g., in industrial distribution systems,
DC-link reactors, power factor correction systems)
Switching of resistive consumers (e.g., heating resistors,
electrical furnaces)
Switching of capacitors (e.g., in power factor correction
systems, capacitor banks).
Further switching duties are:
Switching of motors
Switching of transformers
Switching of capacitors.

Fig. 4.3-11: Vacuum contactor 3TL6

Fig. 4.3-12: Vacuum contactor 3TL71

In contactor-type reversing starter combinations (reversing


duty), only one contactor is required for each direction of rotation if high-voltage high-rupturing capacity fuses are used for
short-circuit protection.
The portfolio of the vacuum contactors is shown in table 4.3-8.

Fig. 4.3-13: Vacuum contactor 3TL81

Type
Rated voltage

3TL81

3TL65

3TL68

3TL71

7.2 kV

7.2 kV

12 kV

15 kV

24 kV

50/60 Hz

50/60 Hz

50/60 Hz

50/60 Hz

50/60 Hz

400 A

450 A

400 A

320 A

800 A

Rated making current*

4,000 A

4,500 A

4,000 A

3,200 A

4,500 A

Rated breaking current*

3,200 A

3,600 A

3,200 A

2,560 A

3,600 A

Mechanical endurance of the contactor*

1 million
operating cycles

3 million
operating cycles

1 million
operating cycles

1 million
operating cycles

1 million
operating cycles

Electrical endurance of the vacuum


interrupter (rated current)*

0.25 million
operating cycles

1 million
operating cycles

0.5 million
operating cycles

0.25 million
operating cycles

0.5 million
operating cycles

Rated frequency
Rated normal current

* Switching capacity according to utilization category AC-4 (cos = 0.35)

Table 4.3-8: Portfolio of vacuum contactors

200

3TL61

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

4.3.9 Contactor-Fuse Combination


Contactor-fuse combinations 3TL62/63/66 are type-tested units
comprising contactors and HV HRC (high-voltage high-rupturing
capacity) fuses. They have been specially developed for flexible
use in restricted spaces and do not require any additional room
for HV HRC fuses or any additional conductors between contactor and fuse. The components are laid out on the base plate
so as to enable optimum ventilation, thereby allowing a high
normal current. This design even meets the high dielectric
strength standards required in countries such as China.

4
3
2

A number of different designs are available for integration in the


switchgear panel, for example with different pole-center distances and widths across flats. A choice of single and double
fuse holders, control transformer and an extensive range of
other accessories are available as delivery versions (table 4.3-9).
Construction
The contactor-fuse combination (fig. 4.3-14, fig. 4.3-15) consists
of the components vacuum contactor (1), insulating cover with
fuse holder (2), fuse-links (3), contacts (4) and optionally a control transformer (5). These are accommodated on a base plate (6).
In normal operation, the vacuum contactor (1) breaks the
corresponding currents reliably. To do this, the vacuum
switching technology, proven for nearly 40 years, serves as arcquenching principle by using vacuum interrupters. The vacuum
interrupters are operated by the magnet system through an
integral rocker.

5
7
1

1 Vacuum contactor
2 Insulating cover
with fuse holder
3 Fuse element

4
5
6
7

Disconnecting contacts
Optional control transformer
Base plate
Cross-member

Fig. 4.3-14: Construction of the contactor-fuse combination 3TL6

The insulating cover with fuse holder (2) is mounted on one


side of the contactor. On the other side it stands on a crossmember (7) under which there is room for the optional control
transformer. The holders, which are especially conceived for the
use of two HV HRC fuse-links, ensure a homogeneous distribution of the current to the two fuse-links of one phase.
The contactor-fuse combination is optimized for using 3GD2
fuses. But also fuse links from other manufacturers can be used
(3). When selecting the fuses for an operational scenario, the
technical limit values such as heating due to power dissipation,
the limit switching capacity and the maximum let-through
current must be taken into account.
The contacts (4) are used to establish the connection to the
busbar compartment and the cable compartment via bushings,
which can also be delivered optionally.
The optional control transformer (5) is connected to the highvoltage terminals of the contactor-fuse combination on its
primary part, so that no additional cables are required. To protect the transformer, a separate upstream fuse is seriesconnected on the primary side and accommodated in the crossmember. Due to its different versions, the control transformer
can be optimally selected to the existing power system.

Fig. 4.3-15: Installation of the contactor-fuse combination in the


contactor panel

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Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

Type

3TL62

3TL63

3TL66

Rated voltage

7.2 kV

7.2 kV

12 kV

Rated normal current (depending on installation


and coordination with the selected fuses)

450 A

400 A

400 A

Thermal current Ith

Depending on installation and coordination with the selected fuses

Rated short-circuit breaking current ISC


(prospective)

50 kA

50 kA

40 kA

Max. let-through current ID

46 kA

46 kA

46 kA

Short-circuit capability of the contactor


(limit switching capacity)

5 kA

4.6 kA

4.6 kA

60 kV / 40 kV

60 kV / 40 kV

75 kV / 60 kV

20 kV

32 kV

28 kV

1,200 operating cycles/h

600 operating cycles/h

600 operating cycles/h

1 mio. operating cycles

1 mio. operating cycles

1 mio. operating cycles

1 315 A or 2 250 A

1 315 A or 2 250 A

1 200 A or 2 200 A

120 mm

120 mm

120 mm

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage


(to earth / open contact gap)
Rated short-duration power-frequency
withstand voltage

Switching rate
Mechanical endurance
Max. number of fuses per phase
Pole-center distances
Widths across flats

205 mm, 275 mm, 310 mm

Various different contact systems and comprehensive accessories are available

Table 4.3-9: Portfolio of contactor-fuse combination 3TL6

Mode of operation
Basically, there are three different modes or states of operation:
normal operation, short circuit and overload.
During normal operation, the combination behaves like a
contactor. To close the contactor, the magnetic system can
be operated with a control current, optional taken out of the
control transformer. The DC magnet system operates as an
economy circuit, proving a high mechanical endurance and
a low pickup and holding power. An optional latch may hold the
vacuum contactor in closed position even without excitation of
the magnet system. The vacuum contactor is released electrically by means of a latch release solenoid or mechanically by an
optional cabel operated latch release.
In case of short circuit, the HV HRC fuse melts already during the
current rise. The released thermal striker activates an indication
and operates the vacuum contactor. In the optimum time
sequence, the fuse has already interrupted the short-circuit
current at this time.
In case of overload, a high continuous current overloads the fuselink thermally, thus tripping the thermal striker. The contactor
already operates within the arcing time of the fuse, making
a take-over current flow through the vacuum interrupters. The
take-over current must not exceed maximum switching capability,
as this could damage the vacuum interrupter. This is prevented by
selecting the correct fuse.

202

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Application examples
Contactor-fuse combinations are suitable for operational switching
of alternating-current consumers in indoor switchgear. They are
used, for example, for the following switching functions:
Starting of motors
Plugging or reversing the direction of rotation of motors
Switching of transformers and reactors
Switching of resistive consumers (e.g., electric furnaces)
Switching of capacitors and compressors.
With these duties, contactor-fuse combinations are used in conveyor and elevator systems, pumping stations, air conditioning
systems as well as in systems for reactive power compensation,
and can therefore be found in almost every industrial sector.
Standards
Contactor-fuse combinations 3TL62/63/66 are designed
according to the following standards for high-voltage
alternating-current contactors above 1 kV to 12 kV:
IEC 62271-1

DIN EN 62271-1

IEC 62271-106

DIN EN 62271-106

IEC 60529

DIN EN 60529

IEC 60721

DIN EN 60721

IEC 60282-1

DIN EN 60282-1

Test voltage according to GB 14808, DL/T 593

Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

Advantages at a glance
Up to one million electrical operating cycles
Usable for all kinds of switching duties
Maintenance-free, reliable operation of vacuum interrupter and
magnetic operating mechanism for maximum cost-efficiency
Wide range of types for the most varied requirements
Type-tested, compact construction
(also for installation in narrow switchgear panels)
Specially developed fuse holders for homogeneous
current distribution
Optimized construction for high power density
Reliable for optimized availability
Excellent environmental compatibility
Over 35 years experience with vacuum contactors.

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203

Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

4.3.10 Switch-Disconnectors
Disconnectors (also called isolators) are used for almost no-load
opening and closing of electrical circuits. While doing so, they
can break negligible currents (these are currents up to 500 mA,
e.g., capacitive currents of busbars or voltage transformers), or
higher currents if there is no significant change of the voltage
between the terminals during breaking, e.g., during busbar
transfer in double-busbar switchgear, when a bus coupler is
closed in parallel.
The actual task of disconnectors is to establish an isolating
distance in order to work safely on other operational equipment
that has been isolated by the disconnector. For this reason,
stringent requirements are placed on the reliability, visibility and
dielectric strength of the isolating distance.

Fig. 4.3-16: Switch-disconnector

Switch-disconnectors (table 4.3-10, fig. 4.3-16) combine the


functions of a switch with the establishment of an isolating
distance (disconnector) in one device, and they are therefore
used for breaking load currents up to their rated normal current.
While connecting consumers, making on an existing short circuit
cannot be excluded. That is why switch-disconnectors today
feature a short-circuit making capacity. In combination with
fuses, switches (switch-disconnectors) can also be used to break
short-circuit currents. The short-circuit current is interrupted by
the fuses. Subsequently, the fuses trip the three poles of the
switch (switch-disconnector), disconnecting the faulty feeder
from the power system.

Type
Rated voltage

12 kV

17.5 kV

24 kV

36 kV

Rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

28 kV/32 kV

38 kV/45 kV

50 kV/60 kV

70 kV/80 kV

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage

75 kV/85 kV

95 kV/110 kV

125 kV/145 kV

170 kV/195 kV

400 A

400 A

400 A

630 A

Rated normal current


Rated normal current without fuse-link

630 A/1000 A

630 A

630 A/1000 A

630 A/1000 A

Rated short-time withstand current (1 sec)

25 kA

25 kA

25 kA

20 kA

Rated short-circuit making current

63 kA

63 kA

50 kA

25 kA

Rated closed-loop breaking current

400 A/630 A

400 A/630 A

400 A/630 A

630 A

Rated cable-charging breaking current

50 A

75 A

50 A

25 A

Rated earth-fault breaking current

150 A

200 A

150 A

70 A

Rated cable-charging breaking current under earthfault conditions

86 A

100 A

86 A

40 A

Number of mechanical operating cycles

2,500

2,500

2,500

1,000

Torque of spring-operated/stored-energy mechanism

44/60

54/62

64/64

90/150

Torque of earthing switch

60

65

70

120

Standard fuse reference dimension e

292

362

442

538

Table 4.3-10: Portfolio of switch-disconnectors

204

3CJ2

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Products and Devices


4.3 Vacuum Switching Technology and Components for Medium Voltage

Arc-extinguishing principle
Switch-disconnectors operate according to the principle of
a hard-gas switch, and so the arc is not extinguished in
a vacuum interrupter. The arc splits off some gas from an insulating material that surrounds the arc closely and this gas
quenches the arc.
Because the material providing the gas cannot regenerate itself,
the number of operating cycles is lower than in vacuum interrupters. Nevertheless, switch-disconnectors that use the hardgas principle are used most frequently because of their good
cost/performance ratio.

3
Fig. 4.3-17: 3CJ2 switch-disconnector: (1) flat hard-gas arcing
chamber, (2) contact blade, (3) auxiliary blade

3CJ2 switch-disconnectors operate with a flat, hard-gas arcing


chamber, (1) in fig. 4.3-17. During the opening movement, the
contact blade, (2) in fig. 4.3-17, is separated first. Because the
auxiliary blade, (3) in fig. 4.3-17, guided in the arcing chamber
is still touching, the current now flows through the auxiliary
blade. When the switching blades reach the isolating distance,
the auxiliary blade opens the connection suddenly. The opening
arc burns in a small gap, and the thermal effect releases enough
gas to extinguish the arc rapidly and effectively.

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205

Products and Devices


4.4 Low-Voltage Devices
4.4.1 Requirements on Low-Voltage
Devices in the Three Circuit Types
Device application in the supply circuit
The system infeed is the most sensitive circuit in the entire
power distribution. A failure here would affect the whole network, leaving the building or the production concerned without
power. This worst-case scenario must be considered during the
planning. Redundant system supplies and selective protection
settings are important preconditions for a safe network configuration. The selection of the correct protective devices is therefore of elementary importance in order to create these preconditions. Some of the key dimensioning data is described in the
following.

Internal accessories
Depending on the respective control, not only shunt releases (previously: f-releases), but also undervoltage releases are required.
Communication
Information about the current operating states, maintenance,
error messages and analyses, etc. is being increasingly required,
especially from the very sensitive supply circuits. Flexibility may
be required with regard to a later upgrade or retrofit to the
desired type of data transmission.

Rated current
The feeder circuit-breaker in the LVMD must be dimensioned for
the maximum load of the transformer/generator. When using
ventilated transformers, the higher normal current of up to
1.5 IN of the transformer must be taken into account.

Device application in supply circuits (coupling)


If the coupling (connection of network 1 to network 2) is operated in open condition, the circuit-breaker (tie breaker) only has
the function of a disconnector or main switch. A protective
function (release) is not absolutely necessary.

Short-circuit strength
The short-circuit strength of the feeder circuit-breaker is determined by (n1) Ik max of the transformer or transformers (n =
number of transformers). This means that the maximum shortcircuit current that occurs at the place of installation must be
known in order to specify the appropriate short-circuit strength
of the protective device (Icu: rated ultimate short-circuit breaking
capacity). Exact short-circuit current calculations including
attenuations of the medium-voltage levels or the laid cables can
be made, for example, with the aid of the SIMARIS design
dimensioning software. SIMARIS design determines the maximum and minimum short-circuit currents and automatically
dimensions the correct protective devices.

The following considerations apply to closed operation:


Rated current
This must be dimensioned for the maximum possible normal
current (load compensation). The simultaneity factor can be
assumed to be 0.9.
Short-circuit strength
The short-circuit strength of the feeder circuit-breaker is
determined by the sum of the short-circuit components that
flow through the coupling. This depends on the configuration
of the component busbars and their supply.
Utilization category
As for the system supply, utilization category B is also required
for the current-carrying capacity (Icw).
Release
Partial shutdown with the couplings must be taken into
consideration for the supply reliability. As the coupling and the
feeder circuit-breakers have the same current components
when a fault occurs, similar to the parallel operation of two
transformers, the LSI characteristic is required. The special
zone selective interlocking (ZSI) function should be used for
larger networks and/or protection settings that are difficult to
determine.

Utilization category
When dimensioning a selective network, time grading of the
protective devices is essential. When using time grading up to
500 ms, the selected circuit-breaker must be able to carry the
short-circuit current that occurs for the set time. Close to the
transformer, the currents are very high. This current-carrying
capacity is specified by the Icw value (rated short-time withstand
current) of the circuit-breaker; this means the contact system
must be able to carry the maximum short-circuit current, i.e.,
the energy contained therein, until the circuit-breaker is tripped.
This requirement is satisfied by circuit-breakers of utilization
category B (e.g., air circuit-breakers, ACB). Current-limiting
circuit-breakers (molded-case circuit-breakers, MCCB) trip during
the current rise. They can therefore be constructed more compactly.
Release
For a selective network design, the release (trip unit) of the
feeder circuit-breaker must have an LSI characteristic. It must be

206

possible to deactivate the instantaneous release (I). Depending


on the curve characteristic of the upstream and downstream
protective devices, the characteristics of the feeder circuitbreaker in the overload range (L) and also in the time-lag shortcircuit range (S) should be optionally switchable (I4t or I2t
characteristic curve). This facilitates the adaptation of upstream
and downstream devices.

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Device application in the distribution circuit


The distribution circuit receives power from the higher level
(supply circuit) and feeds it to the next distribution level (final
circuit).
Depending on the country, local practices, etc., circuit-breakers
and fuses can be used for system protection; in principle, all
protective devices described in this chapter. The specifications
for the circuit dimensioning must be fulfilled. The ACB has
advantages if full selectivity is required. For cost-reasons,

Products and Devices


4.4 Low-Voltage Devices

however, the ACB is only frequently used in the distribution


circuit with a rated current of 630 A or 800 A. As the ACB is not
a current-limiting device, it differs greatly from other protective
devices such as MCCB, MCB, and fuses.
Table 4.4-1 shows the major differences and limits of the
respective protective devices.

Device application in the final circuit


The final circuit receives power from the distribution circuit and
supplies it to the consumer (e.g., motor, lamp, non-stationary
load (power outlet), etc.). The protective device must satisfy the
requirements of the consumer to be protected by it.
Note:
All protection settings, comparison of characteristic curves, etc.
always start with the load. This means that no protective devices
are required with adjustable time grading in the final circuit.

ACB

MCCB

Fuse switch-

Switch-

MCB

air

molded-case

disconnector

disconnector

miniature

values,

circuit-breaker

circuit-breaker

with fuses

circuit-breaker

specifications

IEC

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Region

Application

System protection

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Power supply system

Installation

Fixed mounting

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Plug-in

Up to 800 A

Partly

Standards

Reference

Availability

Withdrawable unit

Yes

Yes

Rated current

In

6,300 A

1,600 A

630 A

630 A

125 A

Normal current IB

Short-circuit
breaking capacity

Icu

Up to 150 kA

Up to 100 kA

Up to 120 kA

Up to 120 kA

Up to 25 kA

Maximum shortcircuit current Ik max

Current-carrying
capacity

Icw

Up to 80 kA

Up to 5 kA

Circuit

Number of poles

3-pole

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

4-pole

Yes

Yes

Partly

Tripping
characteristic
Tripping function

Characteristics

Protection against
electric shock,
tripping condition
Communication
(data
transmission)
Activation

Derating

ETU

Yes

Yes

TMTU

Up to 630 A

Yes

Yes

Yes

LI

Yes

Yes

Yes 1)

Yes 1)

Yes

LSI

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Fixed

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Adjustable

Yes

Yes

Optional

Yes

Yes

Detection
of Ik min

No
limitation

No
limitation 1)

Depends on
cable length

Depends on
cable length

Depends on
cable length

High

Yes

Medium

Yes

Yes

Low

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Local

Yes

Yes

Yes

Remote (motor)

Yes

Yes

Full rated current


up to

60 C

50 C

30 C

Yes

Up to 800 A

System
synchronization
1)

Power supply system

Power supply system

Power supply system

Power supply system

Minimum shortcircuit current Ik min


Customer
specification

Customer
specification

30 C

30 C

Switchgear

Power supply system

According to the fuse characteristic

Table 4.4-1: Overview of the protective devices; *) with electronic trip unit (ETU): no limitation / with thermomagnetic trip unit (TMTU):
depends on cable length

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207

Products and Devices


4.4 Low-Voltage Devices

4.4.2 Low-Voltage Protection and


Switching Devices
The following chapter focuses on the relevant characteristics and
selection criteria of the respective devices (table 4.4-2 and
table 4.4-3) that are used in the main power distribution circuits
in commercial buildings and in industry.

Circuit-breakers
ACB

Air circuit-breaker
Non-current-limiting circuit-breaker
Current-zero cut-off circuit-breaker

MCCB

Molded-case circuit-breaker
Current-limiting circuit-breaker

MCB

Miniature circuit-breaker

MSP

Motor starter protector

MPCB

Motor protector circuit-breaker


Circuit-breaker for motor protection

Note:
All figures apply to low-voltage power systems or distribution
boards in IEC applications. Different regulations and criteria
apply to systems according to UL standards.
Depending on the country, standard specifications, local
practices, planning engineer, technical threshold values, etc.,
low-voltage power distribution systems are made up of various protective devices.*

Circuits and device assignment


(see also section 3.3.2 Dimensioning of Power Distribution
Systems)
Basic configuration of a low-voltage power distribution system
and assignment of the protective devices including core
functions
Core functions in the respective circuits:
Supply circuit
Task: System protection
Protective device:
ACB (air circuit-breaker)
Distribution circuit
Task: System protection
Protective devices:
ACB (air circuit-breaker)
MCCB (molded-case circuit-breaker)
SD (switch-disconnector)
Final circuit
Task: Motor protection
Protective devices:
MCCB (circuit-breaker for motor protection)
SD (switch-disconnector)
MSP (3RT contactor, 3RU overload relay, 3UF motor
protection, and control devices).

Table 4.4-2: Overview of circuit-breaker devices

Switching devices
(fuse switch-disconnector/disconnector)
SD

Switch-disconnector
Depending on the type of
operation, these devices are
divided into two main groups:

Operator-dependent
Without circuit-breaker latching
system, with protection (fuse); with
these devices, the fuse is also
moved when making and breaking
(= fuse switch-disconnector)
With circuit-breaker latching system,
with protection (fuse); with these
devices, the fuse is not moved when
making and breaking
(= disconnector with fuse)
Operator-independent
With circuit-breaker latching system,
without protection (without fuse); these
devices are only used to interrupt the
circuit, similar to a main switch
(= disconnector without fuse)
Table 4.4-3: Overview of switching devices

* If you have questions on UL applications, please contact your local Siemens


representative. Siemens provides solutions for these applications, but they must
be treated completely differently.

208

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Products and Devices


4.4 Low-Voltage Devices

Criteria for device selection


A protective device is always part of a circuit (fig. 4.4-1) and
must satisfy the corresponding requirements (see also section
3.3.2 Dimensioning of Power Distribution Systems). The most
important selection criteria are shown in the following.

ACB

Main selection criteria


Fig. 4.4-2 shows the seven most important selection criteria that
must be at least taken into account for the device selection.
ACB

MCCB

SD

MCCB

SD

MSP

Fig. 4.4-1: Core functions of the protective devices in the individual


circuit types

1. Application
Plants/motors/disconnectors
2. 3-pole/4-pole
3. Fixed mounting/plug-in/
withdrawable-unit design
4. Rated current In
6,300 A
ACB:
1,600 A
MCCB:
630 A
Fuse:
M

5. Short-circuit
breaking capacity Icu
6. Release
Influences selectivity
and protection setting

Fuse-protected

7. Communication
and data transfer

Circuit-breaker-protected

Fig. 4.4-2: Main selection criteria

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209

Products and Devices


4.4 Low-Voltage Devices

4.4.3 Power Management System for


the Low-Voltage Power Distribution
The focus of a power management system is on the demand for
improved transparency of energy consumption and energy
quality, as well as on ensuring the availability of power distribution. Holistic transparency is the basis for optimizing power
consumption and costs. The information obtained through this
transparency provides a realistic basis for cost center allocations
as well as for measures to improve the energy efficiency. In
addition, it documents the savings achieved.
Functions of the power management system
Analysis of the energy data / energy flows with specific load
curve diagrams
Visualization of the interdependencies
Detection of savings potentials, assessed minimum and
maximum values
Energy measurements for accounting purposes (internal cost
center allocation, external billing)
Benchmarking, internal (rack-line / building part) or external
(property/installations with comparable use based on obtained
measured values)
Visualization of the power supply with switching states and
energy flows
Preparation of decisions, e.g., regarding power supply
extensions
Verifiable efficiency improvements
Targeted troubleshooting from fast, detailed information about
events and faults that occur in the power distribution system
inside the server room / building
Fault and event messages (e.g., switching sequences) are
logged with a date and time stamp, so that downtimes can be
documented and fault processes traced and analyzed later
using the data recorded
Compliance with purchasing contracts via the selective control
of consuming devices
Automatic notification of the service personnel.

Levels of the power management system


Power management is the special energy view on a building
or an infrastructure property ranging from the power infeed and
distribution through to the power consumers themselves. It
comprises the following levels:
Energy value acquisition using measuring devices 7KM PAC
(fig. 4.4-3)
Processing of the measurement data
Monitoring including visualization, archiving, report, and
messaging.
Data acquisition systems and measuring devices can be directly
connected to the server with the power management software,
e.g. powermanager from Siemens, via Modbus TCP. The software then handles the actual recording, visualization and
logging of the acquired values. A SIMATIC S7 controller allows
a comparable network for industrial bus systems such as
PROFINET or PROFIBUS-DP to be built up. PROFIBUS expansion
modules can be used for the direct integration of measuring

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devices as well as for the 7KM PAC3200, for example. In both


cases, a 7KM PAC4200 measuring device can serve as gateway to
a subordinate Modbus RTU network linked either via Modbus TCP
or via PROFIBUS-DP using PROFIBUS expansion modules
(fig. 4.4-4).

Fig. 4.4-3: 7KM PAC measuring devices

System configuration
Operation & monitoring
Windows or Web Clients

Ethernet

Data processing server


powermanager
Power monitoring software

Data acquisition
Measuring/protection devices
Ethernet (Modbus)
7KM
PAC3200

7KM
PAC4200

7KM
PAC3200

Modbus RS485

7KM
PAC3100

7KT
PAC1500

3WL air
circuitbreakers

3V...
molded
case circuitbreakers

Fig. 4.4-4: Network structure of a power management system

Products and Devices


4.4 Low-Voltage Devices

4.4.4 Software for Power System


Dimensioning
An exact protective device selection, and thus the dimensioning
of power distribution systems, requires extensive short-circuit
current and voltage drop calculations. Catalog data for the shortcircuit energies, the selectivity and the backup protection of the
individual devices and assemblies must also be consulted. In
addition, the appropriate regulations and standards must be
observed. At this point, a reference should be made to the
SIMARIS design dimensioning tool that automatically takes
account of the above mentioned conditions, catalog data,
standards, and regulations and consequently automatically
makes the device selection.
Selectivity and backup protection
Rooms used for medical purposes (IEC 60364-7-710, VDE 0100710) and meeting rooms (IEC 60364-7-718, VDE 0100-718)
require the selection of protective devices in subareas. For other
building types, such as data centers, there is an increasing
demand for a selective grading of the protective devices,
because only the circuit affected by a fault would be disabled
with the other circuits continuing to be supplied with power
without interruption.
Because the attainment of selectivity results in increased costs,
it should be decided for which circuits selectivity is useful.
Backup protection is the lower-cost option. In this case, an
upstream protective device, e.g., an LV HRC fuse as group
backup fuse, supports a downstream protective device in
mastering the short-circuit current, i.e., both an upstream and

a downstream protective device trip. The short-circuit current,


however, has already been sufficiently reduced by the upstream
protective device so that the downstream protective device can
have a smaller short-circuit breaking capacity. Backup protection
should be used when the expected solid short-circuit current
exceeds the breaking capacity of the switching device or the
consumers. If this is not the case, an additional limiting protective device unnecessarily reduces the selectivity or, indeed,
removes it.
The following scheme should be followed for the selectivity or
backup protection decision:
Determine the maximum short-circuit current at the
installation point
Check whether the selected protective devices can master this
short-circuit current alone or with backup protection using
upstream protective devices
Check at which current the downstream protective devices and
the upstream protective devices are selective to each other.

Selectivity and backup protection exemplified


for a data center
Data centers place very high demands on the safety of supply. This
is particularly true for the consumers attached to the uninterruptible power supply, and ensures a reliable data backup in case of
a fault and service interruption. Those solutions providing selectivity and backup protection relying on the previously mentioned
SIMARIS design configuration tool should be presented at this
point. Fig. 4.4-5 shows a distribution system in SIMARIS design.
A 3WL circuit-breaker as outgoing feeder switch of the main
distribution is upstream to the distribution system shown here.

ACB 1.1A.1a
Circuit-breaker
In = 630 A
3WL11062CB411AA2/L51
LVMD 1.1A
Fuse-SD 1.1A.1a
Fuse switch-disc.
In = 100 A
3 x 3NA3830/Size 000
3NP40100CH01

TN-S Un = 400 V

Busbar 1.1A.1
Busbar
14 m
BD2A-2-160
TN-S Un = 400 V

LVSD 1.1A.1

MCB 1.1A.1.1a
Miniature circuit-breaker
In = 13 A
55Y63136/B

MCB 1.1A.1.2a
Miniature circuit-breaker
In = 13 A
55Y61136/B

MCB 1.1A.1.3a
Miniature circuit-breaker
In = 10 A
55Y61106/B

C/L 1.1A.1.1
Cable/Line
30 m
Cu 1(3x1.5/1.5/1.5)

C/L 1.1A.1.2
Cable/Line
30 m
Cu 1(3x1.5/1.5/1.5)

C/L 1.1A.1.3
Cable/Line
30 m
Cu 1(1x1.5/1.5/1.5)

Load 1.1A.1.1
Inner zone
In = 10 A
Un = 400 V
3+N-pole

Load 1.1A.1.2
Inner zone
In = 10 A
Un = 230 V
1+N-pole

Load 1.1A.1.3
Inner zone
In = 6 A
Un = 230 V
1+N-pole

Fig. 4.4-5: Subdistribution in a data center; display in SIMARIS design

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211

Products and Devices


4.4 Low-Voltage Devices

The following figures show the selectivity diagrams for the


considered distribution system automatically generated by
SIMARIS design (fig. 4.4-6). SIMARIS design specifies the characteristic curve band of the considered circuit (red lines), the
envelope curves of all upstream devices (blue line) and all
downstream devices (green line). In addition to the specification
of the minimum and maximum short-circuit currents, any selectivity limits for the individual circuits are also specified.
Fig. 4.4-7 shows the selective grading of the 3WL circuit-breaker
from the main distribution system and the group backup fuse
(100 A LV HRC fuse) of the subdistribution system. The consumers critical for functional endurance which are installed in
a redundant manner in the subdistribution system should not be
protected with the same backup fuse but rather be assigned to
different groups.

The selectivity diagram shows the circuit diagram of a singlephase consumer in the subdistribution system. This circuit
diagram is protected with a 10 A miniature circuit-breaker with
characteristic B and for a maximum short-circuit current of
5,892 kA selective to the 100 A group backup fuse.

Fig. 4.4-6: Selectivity of the group backup fuse to the upstream


protective devices

The same subdistribution system also contains an example for


backup protection. Fig. 4.4-8 shows the selectivity diagram for
the combination of the group backup fuse with a 13 A miniature
circuit-breaker of the characteristic B. Up to the breaking
capacity of the 6 kA miniature circuit-breaker, the two protective
devices are selective to each other. Above this value, the current
is limited by the fuse and the miniature circuit-breaker protected
by a fuse; both devices trip.
SIMARIS design automatically generates these characteristic
curves to provide exact information about the maximum and
minimum short-circuit currents of the associated circuit.
Fig. 4.4-8 also shows up to which current (Isel-short-circuit) the
protective devices are selective to each other.

Fig. 4.4-7: Selectivity of the group backup fuse/miniature circuitdiagram combination

Fig. 4.4-8: Backup protection of the group backup fuse/miniature


circuit-breaker

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Products and Devices


4.4 Low-Voltage Devices

4.4.5 The Safe Power Supply


of Tomorrow
Whether for wind power, photovoltaics or electromobility:
Siemens integrated portfolio offers high-quality and standardcompliant components for the implementation of sustainable
power concepts.
Ready for the future
In view of the limited resources of fossil fuels, the use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly important. Alongside wind turbines, photovoltaic systems are a key area of
interest. Both the ecological and economic aspects of these
systems are of great importance. As a global leading supplier
of first-class, standard-compliant components and systems
for low-voltage power distribution, Siemens contributes to
a responsible and sustainable use of electrical energy.

With a consistent portfolio enabling power supply and


distribution, personal, fire and line protection, as well as
power monitoring, Siemens supports sustainable energy
concepts in the areas of wind energy, photovoltaics, electromobility, and smart buildings, infrastructures, and industry
(fig. 4.4-9).
Wind power plants face demanding ambient conditions
The power output of a wind turbine can change with the wind
strength and direction quickly and unexpectedly. The components used in the nacelle are also subjected to mechanical
stresses and climatic effects around the clock especially lowfrequency vibrations and temperature changes between 25 C
and +50 C. Current-carrying components are also subjected to
thermal stress by the frequent on/off switching of the wind
turbine.
To reliably maintain the functional capability and availability of
the protection equipment under these circumstances, components must be used, which have a safe range that is matched to
the requirements of the wind turbine. Siemens protection,
switching and measuring devices with optional communication
modules, which support the monitoring of the plant and the
adherence to the service intervals, provide an ideal solution.
The main circuit of a wind turbine is responsible for power
generation via the generator and the transmission of power up
to the infeed into the grid (fig. 4.4-10). High power outputs
must be distributed and transmitted in the wind turbine safely
and with as little loss as possible. This can be achieved by means
of the LI system from the SIVACON 8PS busbar trunking systems,
which can be fitted both quickly and safely. It is ideally suited to
the distribution and transmission of power within the main
circuit for a current range of 800 A to 6,300 A.
The 3WL air circuit-breaker from the SENTRON portfolio protects
the main circuit in the event of overload and short circuit. It can
be fitted with various electronic trip units, which enable the
tripping characteristic to be optimally adapted to the conditions
required. The connection between the generator and the con-

Fig. 4.4-9: Key technologies for the power supply of tomorrow

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

213

Products and Devices


4.4 Low-Voltage Devices

verter, which has to contend with variable frequencies, is protected by the externally controlled 3WL air circuit-breaker. The
sensitive power semiconductors of the converter react sensitively to short circuit and overload. In the event of uncontrolled
failure due to extreme circumstances, this can result in substantial damage and downtime for the entire wind turbine. A particularly fast protective device is required for protection. SITOR
semiconductor fuses are the ideal solution for meeting these
requirements.
The equipment of vital functions of the wind turbine, like pitch
and yaw systems as well as ventilation or hydraulic systems,
must be fitted with coordinated components to ensure effective
protection against overvoltages, overloads, and short circuits.
The 3V molded-case circuit-breakers and the 3NP1 fuse switchdisconnectors protect the infeed system of the auxiliary circuits
against short circuit and overload. Miniature circuit-breakers and
fuse systems offer perfect protection for feeders and electrical
equipment against short circuit and overload. Residual current
operated circuit-breakers protect against electrically ignited fires
and offer personnel protection, e.g., in the case of insulation
faults. UC-sensitive residual-current-operated circuit-breakers of
types B and B+ guarantee maximum protection even when

1
2
3

~
6

Due to their usually exposed positions, wind turbines are at


particular risk of being struck by lightning. In order to protect
electrical equipment against lightning and overvoltages,
Siemens offers a graded portfolio of surge arresters of types
1, 2 and 3.
Within the electric circuits of a wind turbine, measurement
technology allows for the precise display and reliable monitoring of electrical variables. By recording changes in harmonic
or current mean values, critical system states, and system
component defects can be detected at an early stage, and
subsequent damage, such as caused by fire, can be prevented.
Thanks to their many communication options, the high-quality
7KM PAC measuring devices can be very easily integrated into
higher-level communication systems of the wind turbine or
wind farm control rooms for further processing of the measured data.

SENTRON circuit protection/


monitoring devices

SENTRON control and


switch-disconnectors

~
~

Gen

smooth DC residual currents arise. These can occur with frequency converters or defective switching network components.
Further key functions are available thanks to an extensive
range of accessories: remote tripping, remote reconnection,
and remote querying of switching states.

Aux

4
SENTRON protection
and measuring devices
5

3
6

SIVACON
busbar trunking systems

Fig. 4.4-10: Low-voltage power distribution devices in wind turbines (exerpt)

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Products and Devices


4.4 Low-Voltage Devices

Standard-compliant components for photovoltaic systems


Photovoltaic (PV) systems play an important role in CO2 reduction and also make good business sense, not least in view of the
feed-in tariffs, guaranteed by local laws (e.g. German Renewable
Energy Sources Act EEG). The construction and operation of
photovoltaic systems is now integrated in a couple of standards
like IEC 60364-7-712 (VDE 0100-712) and IEC 60269-1/-6, as
well as in the series of standards VDE 0126 (also comprising
a couple of international standards like EN 50521, EN 50548,
and the series IEC 60904).
A central factor in the operation of a PV system that feeds into
the local power grid is grid safety. In the event of a fault, the PV
modules must be disconnected from the system at the infeed
point. It is also necessary to prevent infeed to the grid in the
event of grid and system faults. The standards require that
isolating arresters be provided on both sides of the inverter.
These must feature suitable load-switching capacity on both
the DC and AC sides.
It is absolutely necessary that switch-off equipment (disconnection under load for maintenance work, for example) is provided.

DC disconnectors designed with a suitable switching capacity for


direct currents enable functions such as safe disconnection
of the PV generator under load on all poles. According to the
standards, isolating equipment must be provided on the AC side.
The AC main switch must be able to safely disconnect the AC
circuit under load on all poles. The use of switch-disconnectors
with suitable AC switching capacity is recommended for this.
Overvoltage protection devices for the DC and AC sides limit
voltage spikes, caused by lightning strikes or gridside overvoltages, and ensure the safety and uninterrupted availability of
the system.
Siemens offers a high-quality, standard-compliant product range
for the operation of PV systems (fig. 4.4-11, fig. 4.4-12), which
guarantees a high level of operational safety and a long-term
stability of yield. Whether for lightning strikes, overloads, or
simply maintenance work the comprehensive and coordinated
range of SENTRON protection, switching, measuring, and monitoring devices offers all the components needed for the safe
construction and operation of photovoltaic systems from DC
overvoltage protection to universal current sensitive RCCBs
from a single source.

Light

PV generators

2
3
4

Inverter
U<

5TE2 DC disconnector
3NW PV cylinder fuse system
5SD7 DC overvoltage protection
5SL/5SY AC miniature circuit-breaker
5SP3 selective main miniature circuit-breaker
5SD7 AC overvoltage protection
5SM3 residual current circuit-breaker
7KT PAC1500 measuring device

kWh

Consumption meter
5

Infeed meter 8

kWh

For systems consisting of more than three strings,


protection against return currents (PV fuse) should
be provided
Overvoltage protection as well for the AC and DC
For increased safety in hazardous situations, such
as in case of fire, a remotely tripped DC isolator that
safely switches off the strings is recommended
Protection against short circuit and overload
on the AC
Calibrated measuring devices for settlement
purposes

Fig. 4.4-11: Example for the setup of a PV system

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

215

Products and Devices


4.4 Low-Voltage Devices

Sustainable technologies for the electromobility of tomorrow


Electromobility places special demands on the power grid and
the power supply companies, but also on personal and fire
protection at the charging point. Our comprehensive product
portfolio offers components and specific integrated solutions for
all requirements in the charging infrastructure (fig. 4.4-12). Our
tried-and-tested SENTRON protection, switching, and monitoring
devices provide a maximum of safety during the charging
operation. Matching components for the charging power,
ambient conditions, and point of installation are required from
the low-voltage power distribution range. Our offering includes
predefined integrated solutions compliant with standards like
the series IEC 61851 (VDE 0122) and IEC 62196 (VDE 0623),
which can be scaled in their functionality and performance class:
Miniature circuit-breaker or SIRIUS circuit-breaker for reliable
protection against overload and short circuit, as well as an
Insta contactor or a SIRIUS power contactor for switching the
voltage supply

For the conductive charging modes 1 to 4 according to


IEC 61851-1 (VDE 0122-1), Siemens offers overcurrent
protective devices and RCCBs
Surge arresters and measuring devices are recommended
For charging mode 3, the standard-compliant charging
controller family SIPLUS ECC is available
For charging mode 4 (DC charging via rectifier), Siemens
offers AC/DC sensitive RCCBs and overcurrent protective
devices as well as SITOR semiconductor fuses
The WB140A charging unit is a system-tested, CE-compliant
unit for charging electric vehicles in charging mode 3 in
accordance with IEC 61851-1 (VDE0122-1) and IEC 62196-1
(VDE 0623-5-1) for indoor and outdoor use, e.g., carports,
garages, workshops, underground parking garages, or
multistorey parking decks.

Wind power applications

Photovoltaic applications

Electromobility

3WL/3VA/3VL circuit-breakers protect against


short circuit and overload; 7KT/7KM
measuring devices monitor energy flows.

Cylindrical fuses and LV HRC fuses ensure


the safe operation of photovoltaic systems.

The WB140A charging unit is equipped


with tried-and-tested SENTRON protection,
switching, and monitoring devices.

Fig. 4.4-12: SENTRON components for sustainable energy concepts (excerpt)

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Products and Devices


4.5 Surge Arresters
The main task of an arrester is to protect equipment from the
effects of overvoltages. During normal operation, an arrester
should have no negative effect on the power system. Moreover,
the arrester must be able to withstand typical surges without
incurring any damage. Non-linear resistors with the following
properties fulfill these requirements:
Low resistance during surges so that overvoltages are limited
High resistance during normal operation so as to avoid
negative effects on the power system
Sufficient energy absorption capability for stable operation.
With this kind of non-linear resistor, there is only a small flow of
current when continuous operating voltage is being applied.
When there are surges, however, excess energy can be quickly
removed from the power system by a high discharge current.

Arrester voltage
referred to continuous
operating voltage /C
2

1
20 C
115 C
150 C
0

10-4

10-3

10-2

10-1

Rated voltage R
Continuous operating voltage C

104
101
102
103
Current through arrester Ia [A]

Fig. 4.5-1: Current/voltage characteristics of a non-linear


MO arrester

4.5.1 High-Voltage Surge Arresters


Non-linear resistors
Non-linear resistors, comprising metal oxide (MO), have proved
especially suitable for this use. The non-linearity of MO resistors
is considerably high. For this reason, MO arresters, as the
arresters with MO resistors are known today, do not need series
gaps (fig. 4.5-1).

Pressure relief
diaphragm
Seal
Flange with
gas diverter
nozzle

Siemens has many years of experience with arresters with


the previous gapped SiC arresters and the new gapless MO
arresters in low-voltage systems, distribution systems and
transmission systems. They are usually used for protecting
transformers, generators, motors, capacitors, traction vehicles,
cables, and substations

Compressing
spring
Metal-oxide
resistors

There are special applications such as the protection of:


Equipment in areas subject to earthquakes or heavy pollution
Surge-sensitive motors and dry-type transformers
Generators in power stations with arresters that possess
a high degree of short-circuit current strength
Gas-insulated high-voltage metal-enclosed switchgear (GIS)
Valves in HVDC transmission installations
Static compensators
Airport lighting systems
Electric smelting furnaces in the glass and metals industries
High-voltage cable sheaths
Test laboratory apparatus.
MO arresters are used in medium-, high-, and extra-high-voltage
power systems. Here, the very low protection level and the high
energy absorption capability provided during switching surges
are especially important. For high-voltage levels, the simple
construction of MO arresters is always an advantage. Another
very important advantage of MO arresters is their high degree of
reliability when used in areas with a problematic climate, for
example, in coastal and desert areas, or in regions affected by
heavy industrial air pollution. Furthermore, some special
applications have become possible only with the introduction

Composite
polymer
housing FRP
tube/silicone
sheds

Fig. 4.5-2: Surge arrester


in traditional
porcelain housing;
available for system
voltages up to
800 kV

Fig. 4.5-3: Cross-section of


a polymer-housed
arrester in tube
design

of MO arresters. One instance is the protection of capacitor


banks in series reactive-power compensation equipment that
requires extremely high energy absorption capabilities.

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217

Products and Devices


4.5 Surge Arresters

Tradition and innovation


Fig. 4.5-2 shows a Siemens MO arrester in a traditional porcelain
housing, a well proven technology representing decades of
Siemens experience. Siemens also offers surge arresters with
polymer housings for all system voltages and mechanical
requirements.

SF6-SF6 bushing
(SF6-oil bushing on request)

MO
FRP rods

These arresters are divided into two subgroups:


Cage design arresters
Tube design arresters.
Fig. 4.5-3 shows the sectional view of a tube design arrester. The
housing consists of a fiberglass-reinforced plastic tube with
insulating sheds made of silicone rubber. The advantages of this
design, which has the same pressure relief device as an arrester
with porcelain housing, are absolutely safe and reliable pressure
relief characteristics, high mechanical strength even after pressure relief, and excellent pollution-resistant properties. The very
good mechanical features mean that Siemens arresters with
a polymer housing (type 3EQ) can serve as post insulators as
well. The pollution-resistant properties are the result of the
water-repellent effect (hydrophobicity) of the silicone rubber,
which even transfers its effects to pollution.

Silicone
rubber sheds

Access
cover with
pressure
relief
device and
filter
Spring contact
Grading hood
Metaloxide resistors
Supporting rods
Enclosure

Fig. 4.5-4: 3EL-range surge


arrester in cage
design

Fig. 4.5-5: Gas-insulated metalenclosed arrester


(GIS arrester)

The newest types of polymer surge arresters also feature the


cage design. While using the same MO resistors, they have the
same excellent electrical characteristics as the 3EP and 3EQ
types. The difference is that the 3EL (fig. 4.5-4) types get their
mechanical performance from a cage built up by fiber-reinforced
plastic rods. Furthermore, the whole active part is directly and
completely molded with silicone rubber to prevent moisture
ingress and partial discharges. The polymer-housed high-voltage
arrester design chosen by Siemens and the high-quality materials used by Siemens provide a whole series of advantages,
including long life and suitability for outdoor use, high mechanical stability and ease of disposal.
Another important design are the gas-insulated metal-enclosed
surge arresters (GIS arresters, fig. 4.5-5). Siemens has been
making these arresters for more than 25 years. There are two
reasons why, when GIS arresters are used with gas-insulated
switchgear, they usually offer a higher protective safety margin
than when outdoor-type arresters are used: First, they can be
installed closer to the item to be protected so that traveling
wave effects can be limited more effectively. Second, compared
with the outdoor type, inductance of the installation is lower
(both that of the connecting conductors and that of the arrester
itself). This means that the protection offered by GIS arresters is
much better than that offered by any other method, especially in
the case of surges with a very steep rate of rise or high frequency, to which gas-insulated switchgear is exceptionally
sensitive.
Monitoring
Siemens also offers a wide range of products for diagnosis and
monitoring of surge arresters. The innovative arrester condition
monitor (fig. 4.5-6) is the heart of the future-proof (IEC 61850)
monitoring product line.

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 4.5-6: Arrester condition


monitor (ACM)

Products and Devices


4.5 Surge Arresters

4.5.2 Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage


Surge Arresters and Limiters
Surge arresters and limiters protect operational equipment both
from external overvoltages caused by lightning strikes in overhead lines and from internal overvoltages produced by switching
operations or earth faults. Normally, the arrester is installed
between phase and earth. The built-in stack of non-linear,
voltage-dependent resistors (varistors) made of metal oxide
(MO) or zinc oxide (ZnO) becomes conductive from a defined
overvoltage limit value onward, so that the load can be discharged to earth. When the power-frequency voltage underflows
this limit value, called discharge voltage, the varistors return to
their original resistance value so that only a so-called leakage
current of a few mA flows at operating voltage. Because this
leakage current heats up the resistors, and thus the arrester, the
device must be designed according to the neutral-point treatment of the system in order to prevent impermissible heating of
the arrester.

Fig. 4.5-7: Medium-voltage


MO arrester for
special applications

In contrast to the normal surge arrester, the surge limiter contains a series gap in addition to the MO resistor stack. If the load
generated by the overvoltage is large enough, the series gap
ignites, and the overvoltage can be discharged to earth until the
series gap extinguishes and the varistors return to their non-conductive state. This process is repeated again and again
throughout the entire duration of the fault. This makes it possible to design the device with a considerably lower discharge
voltage as a conventional surge arrester, and is especially useful
for the protection of motors with normally a poor dielectric
strength. To guarantee a sufficient protective function, the
discharge voltage value of the arresters or limiters must not
exceed the dielectric strength of the operational equipment to
be protected.
The medium-voltage product range includes:
The 3EB and 3EC surge arresters for railway DC as well as AC
applications (fig. 4.5-7).
The 3EF group of surge arresters and limiters for the
protection of motors, dry-type transformers, airfield lighting
systems and cable sheath as well as for the protection of
converters for drives (fig. 4.5-7).
The 3EK silicone-housed surge arrester for distribution
systems, medium-voltage switchgear up to 72.5 kV and line
surge arresters for outdoor use (fig. 4.5-8 and fig. 4.5-9).

Fig. 4.5-8: Medium-voltage


arrester 3EK4 for
distribution systems

An overview of the complete range of Siemens arresters appears


in the table 4.5-1 to table 4.5-3.

Fig. 4.5-9: Medium-voltage


arrester 3EK7 for
distribution systems

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Products and Devices


4.5 Surge Arresters

Special
applications

Medium-voltage distribution
class

Railway applications

3EF1; 3EF3;
3EF4; 3EF5

3EB2

3EC3

3EB4

3EB1

3EK4

3EK7

SIEMENS
R

SIEMENS

SIEMENS
R

Motors, dry-type
transformers,
airfield lighting
systems, sheath
voltage limiters,
protection of
converters for
drives

DC overhead
contact lines

DC systems
(locomotives,
overhead
contact lines)

AC and DC
systems
(locomotives,
overhead
contact lines)

AC and DC
systems
(locomotives,
overhead
contact lines),
for highest
speed

Distribution
systems and
mediumvoltage
switchgear

Distribution
systems and
mediumvoltage
switchgear

Highest voltage for


12
equipment (Um) kV

72.5

30

45

72.5

Maximum rated
voltage

60 (AC);
4 (DC)

45 (AC);
4 (DC)

36

60

1
1
20
10
10

20

20

10

10 (AC);
20 (DC)

10

0.8
4
10
12.5
8

10

10

7 (AC);
10 (DC)

3.51)

4.41)

1,500

1,600 (AC);
1,500 (DC)

850 (AC);
1,200 (DC)

325

325

4
Applications

kV

15

3EF1
Nominal discharge
3EF3
current
kA 3EF4
3EF5
Maximum thermal
energy absorption
capability
(per kV of Ur) kJ/kV

3EF1
3EF3
3EF4
3EF5

Maximum longduration current


impulse, 2 ms

3EF4
3EF5

1,600
1,500
1,200

Rated short-circuit
40
current
kA

40

40

40

40

20

20

Housing material

Polyethylene

Silicone

Porcelain

Silicone

Silicone

Silicone

Silicone

Directly
molded

Hollow
insulator

Design principle

3EF1 polyethylene directly


molded onto MO;
3EF3/3EF4/ 3EF5
Hollow insulator

Hollow
insulator,
silicone directly
molded onto
FRP tube

Hollow
insulator,
silicone directly
molded onto
FRP tube

Cage design,
silicone directly
molded onto
MO

Cage design,
silicone directly
molded onto
MO

Pressure relief device

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

1)

Energy absorption capability under the conditions of the operating duty test according to IEC 60099-4

Table 4.5-1: Medium-voltage metal-oxide surge arresters and limiters (300 V to 72.5 kV)

220

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Products and Devices


4.5 Surge Arresters

Porcelain

Silicone

3EP5

3EP4

3EP6

3EP3

3EL5

3EL1

3EL2

3EQ1

3EQ4

3EQ3

3EQ5

Mediumand highvoltage
systems,
outdoor
installations

Mediumand highvoltage
systems,
outdoor
installations

Highvoltage
systems,
outdoor
installations

Highvoltage
systems,
outdoor
installations,
HVDC,
SC&SVC
applications

Mediumand highvoltage
systems,
station
and line
surge
arrester

Mediumand highvoltage
systems,
station
and line
surge
arrester

Mediumand highvoltage
systems,
station
and line
surge
arrester

Mediumand highvoltage
systems,
outdoor
installations

Highvoltage
systems,
outdoor
installations

Highvoltage
systems,
outdoor
installations,
HVDC,
SC&SVC
applications

Highvoltage
systems,
outdoor
installations,
HVDC applications

Highest voltage for


equipment (Um) kV

123

362

800

800

145

362

550

362

800

800

1,200

Maximum rated
voltage

96

288

588

624

126

288

468

288

500

624

850

Maximum nominal
discharge current kA

10

10

20

20

10

10

20

10

20

20

20

Maximum line
discharge class

Maximum thermal
energy absorption
capability
kJ/kV
(per kV of Ur)

14

16

6.0

10

16

16

66

1,100

1,100

2,000

3,200

550

800

1,200

1,100

3,200

3,200

11,000

Rated short-circuit
current
kA

40

65

65

65

20

65

65

50

80

80

80

Maximum permissible
service load
kNm

2.0
(SSL)1)

4.5
(SSL)1)

16.0
(SSL)2)

34
(SSL)1)

0.5
(SSL)1)

1.2
(SSL)1)

4.0
(SSL)1)

6.0
(SSL)1)

38
(SSL)1)

72
(SSL)1)

225
(SSL)1)

Applications

Maximum longduration current


impulse, 2 ms

kV

Housing material

Porcelain

Design principle

Hollow insulator

Silicone directly molded


onto MO

Hollow insulator, silicone directly


molded onto FRP tube

Yes

No

Yes

Pressure relief device


1)

SSL = Specified short-term load

2)

Silicone

30.0 available on request

Table 4.5-2: High-voltage metal-oxide surge arresters (72.5 to 1,200 kV)

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221

Products and Devices


4.5 Surge Arresters

3ES5-C/M/N,
3ES4-K
3-phase

Applications

3ES2-E
1-phase

3ES4-L, 3ES5-H
1-phase

3ES9-J
1-phase

3ES with oilSF6


1-phase

3ES6
3-phase

High-voltage systems, protection of metal-enclosed, gas-insulated switchgear and transformers

Highest voltage for equipment (Um)

kV

170

245

550

800

550

420

Maximum rated voltage

kV

156

216

444

612

444

336

Maximum nominal discharge current kA

20

20

20

20

20

20

Maximum line discharge class

Maximum thermal energy absorption


kJ/kV
capability (per kV of Ur)

10

10

13

18

13

1,200

1,200

1,600

2,100

1,600

1,600

63

50

63

63

63

63

Maximum long-duration
current impulse, 2 ms
Rated short-circuit current

A
kA

Maximum permissible service load kNm


Housing material
Pressure relief device

Metal
Yes

Table 4.5-3: Metal-oxide surge arresters for GIS (72.5 to 800 kV)

For further information, please contact:


Fax: ++ 49 30 3 86-3 32 22
E-mail: arrester.energy@siemens.com

222

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Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument
Transformers
4.6.1 High-Voltage Instrument
Transformers
Introduction
Electrical instrument transformers transform high currents and
voltages to standardized low and easily measurable values that
are isolated from the high voltage. When used for metering
purposes, instrument transformers provide voltage or current
signals that are very accurate representations of the transmission line values in both magnitude and phase. These signals
allow accurate determination of revenue billing.

When used for protection purposes, the instrument transformer


outputs must accurately represent the transmission line values
during both steady-state and transient conditions. These critical
signals provide the basis for circuit-breaker operation under fault
conditions, and as such are fundamental to network reliability
and security.
Instrument transformers used for network control supply important information for determining the state of the operating
conditions of the network.

Fig. 4.6-1: 800 kV gas-insulated


current transformers

Reliability and security


Reliability of an instrument transformer refers to its ability to
consistently satisfy prescribed performance criteria over its
expected useful lifetime under specified operating conditions.
Security refers to the acceptability and consequences of the
instrument transformer failure mode in the event that it does
fail, due either to being subjected to stresses in excess of those
for which it was designed, or due to its reaching the end of its
expected service life.

Oil-immersed instrument transformers


The reliability and security of Trench oil-insulated inductive
instrument transformers is proven by in-service experience
spanning up to 50 years and more than 100,000 units in service
under a wide variety of different environmental conditions in
almost every country worldwide. The transformer is based on
state-of-the-art design and a secure failure mode approach. In
the event of unexpected stresses from the network, secure
failure is achieved through the use of a barrier construction
design in the free oil section. This approach consists of inserting
insulating barriers at critical points through the free oil space,
thereby preventing the formation of fiber bridges.

The reliability and security characteristics of an instrument


transformer are governed by the electrical and insulation design,
the manufacturing and processing technology used and the
specific physical arrangement. The partial discharge performance under in-service conditions is a key determining factor in
the life expectancy and long-term reliability of an instrument
transformer.
IEC standards for oil-immersed or gas-filled devices require
a partial discharge value of less than 10 pC at Umax. Due to the
demanding requirements of todays HV and UHV networks, the
Trench Group has elected to adopt even more stringent internal
requirements. As such, Trench instrument transformers typically
perform much better than required by these standards with
proven field experience. Typical designs are oil-immersed
(fig. 4.6-2) or gas-insulated (fig. 4.6-1).

Fig. 4.6-2: 550 kV oil-immersed


current transformers

Furthermore, a rupture of the housing, particularly of the hollow


insulator with built-in finely graded capacitor bushing, is improbable because of the safe dimensioning of the bushing and the
solid electrical connection between the core housing and the
ground.
If over pressure occurs, protection is guaranteed by the:
Welded elastic housing
Stainless-steel bellows for the oil expansion.
Both the welded seam, which connects the upper and lower
portions of the head housing, and the metallic bellows are
designed to act as pressure relief points in the event of severe
internal pressure buildup.

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223

Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers

Because the unit has a normal internal oil pressure of approximately 1 bar absolute, it is possible to design these pressure
relief points to rupture at very moderate pressures. Additional
safety is achieved by the selection of composite insulators,
available in the whole range as an alternative to the traditional
porcelain.
Pressure relief for capacitor voltage transformers is provided by
a bellows puncture pin and through the use of porcelain, which
is strong enough to result in any rapid pressure rise being
released through the seal plates at the ends of the porcelain
rather than via explosion of the porcelain itself.

under saline fog or polluted conditions. As a long-term benefit,


the change of cores or windings, even after years, can be realized easily for new requirements like additional metering.
Current transformers
All Trench current transformer (CT) designs are based on head
type construction. CTs are available with either oil (fig. 4.6-2,
fig. 4.6-3) or SF6 gas dielectric systems (fig. 4.6-4).

Gas-insulated instrument transformers


The reliability and security of Trench gas-insulated instrument
transformers is based on:
50 years of experience as a manufacturer of instrument
transformers covering epoxy resin and oil-paper
Thousands of gas-insulated instrument transformers in service
under a wide variety of different environmental conditions.

Explosion-proof design
The present Trench gas-insulated instrument transformers were
initially designed in 1965 at the request of customers who
sought to achieve explosion-proof operation. SF6 gas insulation,
combined with composite insulators, is particularly suitable for
this, because in the event of an internal flashover, the pressure
increase will be linear and hence technically manageable.
A controlled pressure relief device at the head of the transformer
(rupture disc) eliminates unacceptable mechanical stresses in
the housing; i.e., only the rupture disc is released. Gas escapes,
but the complete transformer remains intact and no explosion
occurs.

Fig. 4.6-3: 300 kV oil-immersed current transformers

Most reliable insulation properties


SF6 gas is the main insulation medium between high-voltage
and earth potential. A stable quality can be guaranteed by the
use of SF6 gas according to IEC 60137 (2005) / ASTM 2472 D and
the fact that this inert gas shows no ageing even under the
highest electrical and thermal stresses. The insulation properties
remain unchanged throughout its lifetime. All of these features
guarantee an operation period over many years without any
control of the insulation condition.
Full functional security and monitoring
The guaranteed SF6 leakage rate is less than 0.5 % per year. The
gas pressure can be checked on site or by means of a remote
control device, i.e., a densimeter with contacts for remote
control. In the case of loss of SF6 pressure, the transformer still
operates at rated pressure.
Environmentally beneficial under extremely severe conditions
SF6 gas is absolutely safe for humans. It bears no ecologically
toxic potential and its decomposition products have no deleterious effects on the environment, e.g. groundwater pollution.
This SF6 gas insulation medium allows easy waste management
of the transformers. Furthermore, the hydrophobic features of
the composite insulator result in problem-free service even

224

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 4.6-4: 420 kV gas-insulated current transformers

Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers

Features of oil-immersed type


Low weight and minimum oil volume
Excellent seismic performance as a consequence of the
optimized design of flanges, vast choice of porcelain strengths
and their interconnection and low weight
Available for the full voltage range of 72.5 kV up to 550 kV
and full current range of few Amperes up to 5,000 A with
multiple-turn primaries for small primary currents. Ratio
change available either on primary side or secondary side
Short, symmetrically arranged low-reactance bar-type primary
conductor permits higher short-circuit currents up to 80 kA
and avoids large voltage drop across the primary winding
Excellent control of internal and external insulation stresses
through the use of a proprietary finely graded bushing system
Hermetically sealed by stainless-steel metallic bellows and
high-quality gaskets
Uniformly distributed secondary windings guarantee accurate
transformation at both rated and high currents
Essentially unaffected by stray external magnetic fields
Stable accuracy over life-time
Perfect transient performance
Exclusive use of corrosion-resistant materials
Full range of products available with composite insulator.
Features of gas-insulated transformer
Explosion-proof design by the compressible insulation medium
SF6 gas and rupture disc
Excellent seismic performance due to the properties of the
composite insulator
Available for the full voltage range of 72.5 kV up to 800 kV
and full current range of 100 A up to 4,800 A
Low-reactance, bar-type primary providing optimal shortcircuit performance
Optimum field grading is accomplished by a fine condenser
grading system especially developed for this application
Multiple-turn primaries for small primary currents and
uniformly distributed secondary windings guarantee accurate
transformation at both rated and high currents
Stable accuracy over life-time
Perfect transient performance
Exclusive use of corrosion-resistant materials
Replacing cores on assembled units is possible without
affecting the integrity of the high-voltage insulation.
Inductive voltage transformers
Inductive voltage transformers are designed for 72.5 kV to
800 kV systems and are used to provide voltage for metering and
protection applications. They are available with either oil
(fig. 4.6-5) or SF6 gas dielectric systems (fig. 4.6-6).
Features of oil-immersed type
Low weight and minimum oil volume
Excellent seismic performance as a consequence of optimized
designs of flanges, large choice of porcelain strengths and
their interconnection and low weight
Available for the full voltage range of 72.5 kV up to 550 kV
Excellent control of internal and external insulation stresses
through the use of a proprietary finely graded bushing system

Fig. 4.6-5: 420 kV oil-paper


insulated inductive
voltage transformers

Fig. 4.6-6: 765 kV gas-insulated


voltage transformer

Optimized high-voltage coil ensures identical electric stresses


under both transient and steady-state conditions
Essentially unaffected by stray external magnetic fields
Hermetically sealed stainless-steel metallic bellows for units
rated 123 kV and above
Stable accuracy over a long period of time
Perfect transient performance
Suitable for line discharging
Applicable as a low-cost alternative to small power
transformer
Exclusive use of corrosion-resistant materials
Full range of products available with composite insulator.
Features of gas-insulated transformer
Explosion-proof design by the compressible insulation medium
SF6 gas and rupture disc
Excellent seismic performance due to the properties of the
composite insulator
Available for the full voltage range of 72.5 kV up to 800 kV
Optimum field grading is accomplished by a fine condenser
grading system especially developed for this application
Wide range ferroresonance-free design without the use of an
external damping device (please ask for details)

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225

Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers

Essentially unaffected by external stray magnetic fields


Stable accuracy over a long period of time
Suitable for line discharging
Optimized high-voltage coil ensures identical electric stresses
under both transient and steady state conditions
Exclusive use of corrosion-resistant materials
Applicable as a low-cost alternative to small power
transformer.
Capacitor voltage transformer (oil-immersed)
Coupling capacitors (CC) are utilized to couple high-frequency
carrier signals to the power line. A CC supplied with an electromagnetic unit is called a capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) and
is used to provide voltage for metering and protection applications (fig. 4.6-7).

Features
Capable of carrier coupling PLC signals to the network
Optimized insulation system design utilizing state-of-the-art
processing techniques with either mineral oil or synthetic
insulating fluids
Stability of capacitance and accuracy over a long period of
time due to superior clamping system design
Oil expansion by way of hermetically sealed stainless-steel
bellows ensures the integrity of the insulation system over
time
Bellows puncture pin provides for release of internal pressure
in the event of severe service conditions leading to internal
discharges
Extra-high-strength porcelains provide both superior seismic
performance and the ability to mount large line traps directly
on the CVT with corresponding savings in installed cost
Maintenance-free oil-filled cast aluminum basebox
Superior transient response characteristics
Internal company routine tests and quality requirements
exceed those of international standards with impulse tests and
partial discharge test being performed on a routine basis
Not subject to ferroresonance oscillations with the network or
circuit-breaker capacitor
High-capacitance CVTs, when installed in close proximity to
EHV circuit-breakers, can provide enhanced circuit-breaker
short line fault/TRV performance.

Fig. 4.6-7: 245 kV capacitor


voltage transformers

Electronic voltage measuring system for HVDC


Trench offers special voltage transformers for HVDC systems.
These units are primarily used to control the HV valves of the
rectifiers or inverse rectifiers. The measuring system consists of
an RC voltage divider that provides inputs to a specially designed
electronic power amplifier. The high-voltage divider can be
supplied either for outdoor operation or for installation into SF6
gas-insulated switchgear (GIS).
The resulting system can accurately transform voltages within
a defined burden range with linear frequency response of up to
approximately 10 kHz. Thus, the system is ideal for measurement of dynamic and transient phenomena and harmonics
associated with HVDC systems.
Fig. 4.6-8: 245 kV oil-immersed combined instrument transformers

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Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers

Combined instrument transformer


The combined instrument transformer offers the station
designer the ability of being able to accommodate the current
transformer and the voltage transformer in one free-standing
unit. This allows optimum use of substation space while yielding
cost savings by elimination of one set of mounting pads and
support structures. In addition, installation time is greatly
reduced. Combined ITs are available with either oil (fig. 4.6-8) or
SF6 gas dielectric systems (fig. 4.6-9, fig. 4.6-10).
Features of oil-immersed combined instrument transformers
Low weight and minimum oil volume
Short symmetrically arranged low-reactance, bar-type primary
conductor permits higher short-circuit currents and avoids
large voltage drop across primary winding
Excellent control of internal and external insulation stresses
through the use of a proprietary finely graded bushing system
Available for the full voltage range of 72.5 kV up to 300 kV
and full current range of 0.5 A up to 5,000 A
Excellent seismic capability as a consequence of optimized
design of flanges, large choice of porcelain strengths and their
interconnection and low weight
Hermetically sealed by stainless-steel metallic bellows and
high-quality gaskets
Only one foundation required in the switchyard as
a consequence of combining the voltage and current-sensing
functions in one transformer
Uniformly distributed secondary windings guarantee accurate
transformation at both rated and high current
Essentially unaffected by stray external magnetic fields
Stable accuracy over a long period of time
Perfect transient performance
Suitable for line discharging
Exclusive use of corrosion-resistant materials
Full range of products available with composite insulator.
Features of gas-insulated combined instrument transformers
Head-type design with voltage transformer section located on
top of the current transformer
Low weight and compact SF6 design
Explosion-proof design by the compressible insulation medium
SF6 gas and rupture disc
Excellent seismic performance due to the properties of the
composite insulator
The single-section high-voltage coil (not cascaded) of the
voltage transformer section enables a product range for
combined instrument transformers of up to 800 kV
Optimum field grading is accomplished by a fine condenser
grading system especially developed for this application
Wide-range ferroresonance-free design without the use of an
external damping device
Low-reactance type primary conductor allows for high shortcircuit currents and covers all core standards
Less foundation space required compared to individual current
transformers and voltage transformers
Suitable for line discharging
Essentially unaffected by external stray magnetic fields
Exclusive use of corrosion-resistant materials.

4
Fig. 4.6-9: 420 kV gas-insulated
combined instrument
transformers

Fig. 4.6-10: 800 kV gas-insulated


combined instrument
transformer

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227

Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers

Instrument transformer for GIS


In addition to the measurement of the voltages and currents,
this instrument transformer type for voltage measurement
(inductive) has the best discharge capabilities for HV lines
(fig. 4.6-11, fig. 4.6-14, fig. 4.6-15, fig. 4.6-16).
Features of inductive type
Custom-designed instrument transformers for each specific
application and extended function designs comply with
dimensional restrictions, flange sizes and insulator
requirements
Standard designs for 1-phase and 3-phase units
Meets all national and international standards in regard to
pressure vessel codes
Prevention of occurrence of stable ferroresonances by
integrated ferroresonance suppression
Shielded against transient overvoltages in accordance with
IEC standards. Special additional shielding is available
Guaranteed SF6 leakage rate of less than 0.5 % per year
Equipped with pressure relief disc and deflection device
All components are designed and tested for mechanical stress
to withstand up to at least 20 g
Accuracy classes in accordance with DIN VDE 0414, IEC 60044,
ANSI: IEEE C57.13, AS 1243 (other standards or classes on
request)
Shock indicators warn against inadmissible acceleration
during transportation.

Fig. 4.6-11: 145 kV inductive


voltage transformer
for GIS

RC dividers
Resistive-capacitive voltage dividers, also called resistive-capacitive voltage transformers, are designed for measurement of
the voltage in HVDC transmission systems, air-insulated (AIS)
(fig. 4.6-13) or gas-insulated (GIS) switchgear (fig. 4.6-12). In AC
transmission systems, the transformers are used for the measurement of harmonics and they give an accurate representation
of the voltage over a wide frequency band (typically from DC up
to 500 kHz).
Features of RC dividers
RC divider for voltage measurements
Conform to microprocessor-based secondary technology
Ferroresonance-free
Able to perform voltage test on site
1-phase or 3-phase system
Significant size and weight reduction.
LoPo the low-power transducers
The low-power current transducers (LPCT) and low-power
voltage transducers (LPVT) can be used for a wide range of
medium-voltage and high-voltage applications in which
they replace the conventional measuring transformers for
measurement and protection purposes.

Fig. 4.6-13: 420 kV RC dividers


(AC) for AIS

228

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Fig. 4.6-12: 145 kV RC divider


for GIS

Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers

Features
The voltage transducers are based on resistive, capacitive, as
well as resistive-capacitive dividers
The current transducers are based on an iron-core or an
air-core design and provide a secondary voltage that
represents the primary current
Standard cables and connectors; twisted pair and double
shielded cable
Connection capability for multiple protection and measuring
devices
Metal-clad housing ensuring operator safety
Immune to all methods of online switchgear and cable testing
Current transducers provide a linear transmission up to shortcircuit current
Completely EMC shielded: immune to RFI/EMI.
Advantages
System conforms to low-power digital microprocessor-based
technology for protection and metering
Simple assembly with compact size and low weight
No secondary circuit problems; voltage transducers are shortcircuit-proof, current transducers can have an open secondary
Voltage transducers are ferroresonance-free
Environment-friendly (no oil).

Fig. 4.6-14: 420 kV core-in-air current transformer for GIS

Non conventional instrument transformers


Conventional instrument transformers provide high power
output in a proven insulation technology, using mainly inductive
technology. Non conventional instrument transformers (NCIT)
are current and/or voltage measurement devices that provide
a low output power (< 0.5 VA). The NCIT technologies Trench is
providing are Low Power Current Transformers with voltage
output and RC dividers, which are both described in previous
chapters. They have a wide linearity range and their output
signals are suitable to match to modern secondary equipment
such as Merging Units.
Merging units convert the output signals of both conventional
and non conventional instrument transformers into a digital
signal according to the IEC 61850-9-2 protocol. The output is
a standardized data stream independent from sensor features.
The measurements are distributed with one optical Ethernet
connection. The only burden of the instrument transformer is
the input impedance of the merging unit. A Trench Merging Unit
is under preparation.

Fig. 4.6-15: 145 kV Siemens switchgear 8DN8 with Trench voltageand current transformer

Fig. 4.6-16: 420 kV Siemens switchgear 8DQ1 with Trench voltage


transformer and Trench core-in-air current transformer

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229

Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers

4.6.2 Power Voltage Transformers


Power voltage transformers for AIS
Power voltage transformers (Power VTs) avoid major investments to achieve power supply for remote customers. The Power
VTs just have to be connected directly to the high-voltage overhead line to ensure customized power supply. A power VT for
AIS is shown in fig. 4.6-17.
Features of Power VTs for AIS
Available for the full voltage range of 72.5 up to 800 kV
SF6 or oil insulated power enhanced instrument voltage
transformer with proven reliability
Composite insulator (fibre-glass insulator with silicone sheds)
Maintenance free
Single phase unit.

Applications
Power supply for remote farms and small villages
Power supply for relay stations for mobile phones
Auxiliary power supply for substations
Power supply during substation construction works.
Power voltage transformers for GIS
Inductive Voltage Transformer with different active parts
becomes a Power VT, which then allows for a high-voltage test
of the primary system without special high-voltage test equipment. A Power VT for GIS is shown in fig. 4.6-18.

Fig. 4.6-17: 145 kV, 100 kVA


gas-insulated power
VT for AIS

Features of Power VTs for GIS


Same dimension as standard VTs and also usable like
a standard VT
No extra space needed for installation of huge high-voltage
testing facilities
No SF6-gas handling at site needed for test preparation
Reduced transport and packages requirements
After test the switchgear can be put into operation without
mechanical work on the primary circuit (i.e. normally the
high-voltage test set must be removed)
Easy support by neutral testing companies (e.g. OMICRON)
or testing institutes
With a Power VT the high-voltage test becomes like testing
a protection relay
Light weight units allow handling at site without lifting
facilities or cranes
Power supply via standard socket outlet
(e.g. 1-phase, 230 V, 16 A)
Test facilities available with transport cases allowing transport
as carry-on luggage during travelling to site or the use of
standard parcel services
Test preparation within minutes e.g. after S/S-extension,
re-assembling or extensive service activities
Low investment in site-based testing facilities
Possibility for investigation into sporadic effects at PD test
voltage levels.
An overview of the range of Trench instrument transformers
appears in table 4-6.1 to table 4-6.7.

230

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 4.6-18: 145 kV power VT


for GIS

Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers
Current transformers for gas-insulated switchgear (GIS)

Type
Voltage range

[kV]

SAD/SA

LPCT

72.5 550

72.5 550

SF6

Insulation medium

Technical data SAD/SA


Voltage level

[kV]

72.5

123

145

170

245

300

Output current

[A]

Rated short-time thermal


current

[kA]

Rated duration of short circuit

[s]

Rated dynamic current

[kA]

Rated frequency

[Hz]

16 2/3 50 60

Temperature range

[C]

35 +60

362

420

550

1 5 (LoPo: 3.25 V)
31.5

50

63
13

78.75

Insulation class

125

160

E, F

Metering accuracy class

0.1 0.2 0.2S 0.5 0.5S 1.0

Protection accuracy class

5P 10P TPY TPX TPZ TPS PR PX

Values in accordance with IEC; other values like ANSI are available
Table 4.6-1: Technical data of Trench current transformers for gas-insulated switchgear (GIS)

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231

Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers

Voltage transformers / RC dividers for gas-insulated switchgear (GIS)

Type
Voltage range

[kV]

SUD/SU

RCVD

72.5 800

72.5 550

SF6

Oil / SF6

Insulation medium

Technical data SUD/SU

Voltage level

[kV]

72.5

123

145

170

245

300

362

420

550

800

Rated power-frequency
withstand voltage

[kV]

140

230

275

325

460

460

510

630

680

975

Rated lightning impulse


withstand voltage

[kV]

325

550

650

750

1,050

1,050

1,175

1,425

1,550

2,100

Rated switching impulse


withstand voltage

[kV]

850

950

1,050

1,175

1,550

Output voltage

[V]

110/3 200/3 (other values upon request) (AC & DC RC divider: 5 200V)

Rated voltage factor

1.2 1.5 1.9 (other values upon request)

Rated frequency

[Hz]

16 50 60

Temperature range

[C]

35 +40 (other values upon request)

Insulation class

Metering accuracy class

0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 3.0

Output burden

for different classes according to customer specification

Protection accuracy class

3P 6P

Output burden

for different classes according to customer specification

Thermal limiting output

2,000

IID

Values in accordance with IEC; other values like ANSI are available;

1)

3,000 1)

valid only for voltage transformers

Table 4.6-2: Technical data of Trench voltage transformers for gas-insulated switchgear (GIS)

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Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers
Current transformers for air-insulated switchgear (AIS)

Type
Voltage range

[kV]

SAS

TAG

IOSK

72.5 800

72.5 550

72.5 550

Insulation medium

SF6

SF6

Oil

Composite insulator

Porcelain insulator

Technical data
Voltage level

[kV]

72.5

123

145

170

245

300

362

420

550

800

Rated power-frequency
withstand voltage

[kV]

140

230

275

325

460

460

510

630

680

975

Rated lightning impulse


withstand voltage

[kV]

325

550

650

750

1,050

1,050

1,175

1,425

1,550

2,100

Rated switching impulse


withstand voltage

[kV]

850

950

1,050

1,175

1,550

Rated normal current up to

[A]

5,000

Output current

[A]

125

Rated short-time thermal


current

[kA]

63 (80 on special request)

Rated duration of short


circuit

[s]

Rated dynamic current

[kA]

160 (200 on special request)

Rated frequency

[Hz]

16 50 60

Creepage distance

[mm/
kV]

25 31 (higher upon request)

Temperature range

[C]

Insulation class

13

40 +40 (other values upon request)


E (SF6 insulated devices) A (oil insulated devices)

Metering accuracy class

0.1 0.2 0.2S 0.5 0.5S 1.0

Protection accuracy class

5P 10P TPY TPX TPZ TPS PR PX

Values in accordance with IEC; other values like ANSI are available

Table 4.6-3: Technical data of Trench current transformers for air-insulated switchgear (AIS)

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233

Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers
Voltage transformers / RC dividers for air-insulated switchgear (AIS)

Type

Voltage range

[kV]

SVS

TVG

VEOT/VEOS

TCVT

AC RCD

DC RCD

72.5 800

72.5 420

72.5 550

72.5 1200

72.5 800

72.5 800

Insulation medium

SF6

SF6

Oil

Oil

Oil

Oil / SF6

Composite insulator

Porcelain insulator

Technical data
Voltage level

[kV]

72.5

123

145

170

245

300

362

420

550

800

Rated power-frequency
withstand voltage

[kV]

140

230

275

325

460

460

510

630

680

975

Rated lightning impulse


withstand voltage

[kV]

325

550

650

750

1,050

1,050

1,175

1,425

1,550

2,100

Rated switching impulse


withstand voltage

[kV]

850

950

1,050

1,175

1,550

Output voltage

[V]

110/3 200/3 (other values upon request) (AC & DC RC divider: 5 200V)

Rated voltage factor

1.2 1.5 1.9 (other values upon request)

Rated frequency

[Hz]

16 50 60 (AC & DC RC divider: 0 1 MHz)

Creepage distance

[mm/
kV]

25 31 (higher upon request)

Temperature range

[C]

40 +40 (other values upon request)


E (SF6 insulated devices) A (oil-insulated devices)

Insulation class
Metering accuracy class

0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 3.0

Output burden (only AC)

for different classes according to customer specification


(very low output burden for RC divider > 100 k)

Protection accuracy class

3P 6P

Output burden (only AC)

for different classes according to customer specification

Thermal limiting output

[VA]

3,000 1)

Values in accordance with IEC; other values like ANSI are available; 1) valid only for voltage transformers

Table 4.6-4: Technical data of Trench voltage transformers for air-insulated switchgear (AIS)

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Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers
Combined instrument transformers for air-insulated switchgear (AIS)

Type
Voltage range

[kV]

SVAS

AVG

IVOKT

72.5 800

72.5 245

72.5 300

Insulation medium

SF6

SF6

Oil

Composite insulator

Porcelain insulator

Technical data
Voltage level
Rated power-frequency
withstand voltage
Rated lightning impulse
withstand voltage
Rated switching impulse
withstand voltage

[kV]

72.5

123

145

170

245

300

362

420

550

800

[kV]

140

230

275

325

460

460

510

630

680

975

[kV]

325

550

650

750

1,050

1,050

1,175

1,425

1,550

2,100

[kV]

850

950

1,050

1,175

1,550

Rated frequency

[Hz]

16 50 60

Creepage distance

[mm/
kV]

25 31 (higher upon request)

Temperature range

[C]

40 +40 (other values upon request)


CT ratings

Rated normal current up to

[A]

5,000

Output current

[A]

125

Rated short-time thermal current [kA]


Rated duration of short circuit

[s]

Rated dynamic current

[kA]

Insulation class

63 (80 on special request)


13
160 (200 on special request)
E (SF6 insulated devices) A (oil insulated devices)

Metering accuracy class

0.1 0.2 0.2S 0.5 0.5S 1.0

Protection accuracy class

5P 10P TPY TPX TPZ TPS PR PX


VT ratings

Output voltage

[V]

Rated voltage factor

1.2 1.5 1.9 (other values upon request)

Metering accuracy class

0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 3.0

Output burden

for different classes according to customer specification

Protection accuracy class

3P 6P

Output burden
Thermal limiting output

110/3 200/3 (other values upon request)

for different classes according to customer specification


[VA]

3000 (other values upon request)

Values in accordance with IEC; other values like ANSI are available

Table 4.6-5: Technical data of Trench combined instrument transformers for air-insulated switchgear (AIS)

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Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers
Power voltage transformers for air-insulated switchgear (AIS)

Type

PSVS
Technical data

Voltage level

[kV]

72.5

123

145

170

245

362

420

550

Rated power-frequency withstand voltage IEC

[kV]

140

230

275

325

460

460

510

630

680

Rated lighting impulse withstand voltage IEC

[kV]

325

550

650

750

1,050

1,050

1,175

1,425

1,550

Rated switching impulse withstand voltage IEC

[kV]

850

950

1,050

1,175

Rated power frequency withstand voltage IEEE

[kV]

140

230

275

325

460

460

575

800

Rated lighting impulse withstand voltage IEEE

[kV]

350

550

650

750

1,050

1,050

1,300

1,800

Rated switching impulse withstand voltage IEE

[kV]

825

825

1,175

Output power

[kVA]

up to 75

Output voltage

[V]

up to 125
120 to 400 (values in between according to customer specification)

Rated voltage factor

1.5 (30 s) 1.4 (60 s)

Rated frequency

[Hz]

Creepage distance

[mm/kV]

Temperature range

[C]

50 60
25 31 (higher upon request)
30 1) +40 1)

Insulation class

E
0.2 2)

Metering accuracy class IEC

1.0 2) 3.0

3P 2) 6P

Protection accuracy class


Values in accordance with IEC and IEEE; other values upon request

0.5 2)

0.3 2) 0.6 2) 1.2 2)

Metering accuracy class IEEE


1)

lower or higher temperature upon request

2)

not under full load condition

Table 4.6-6: Technical data of Trench power voltage transformers for air-insulated switchgear (AIS)

236

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Products and Devices


4.6 Instrument Transformers
Power voltage transformers for gas-insulated switchgear (GIS)

Type

PSUD

Technical data
Voltage level

[kV]

72.5

123

145

Rated power-frequency withstand voltage

[kV]

140

230

275

Rated lighting impulse withstand voltage

[kV]

325

550

650

Rated switching impulse withstand voltage

[kV]

Rated frequency

[Hz]

50 60

Output power

[kVA]

depends on customer-specific load cycle

Output voltage

[V]

as required (typically 110/3)

Rated voltage factor


Temperature range

1.9 for 8 h
[C]

30 +50

Insulation class
Metering accuracy class
Protection accuracy class

E
according to IEC 61869-3

Values in accordance with IEC; other values like ANSI are available

Table 4.6-7: Technical data of Trench power voltage transformers for gas-insulated switchgear (GIS)

For further information:


Instrument Transformers Portfolio:
http://www.trenchgroup.com/Products-Solutions/Instrument-Transformers

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

237

Products and Devices


4.7 Coil Products
Introduction
With 60 years of successful field experience, Trench is the recognized world leader in the design and manufacture of air-core,
dry-type, power reactors for all utility and industrial applications.
The unique custom design approach, along with fully integrated
engineering and manufacturing facilities in North America,
Brazil, Europe and China have enabled Trench to become the
technical leader for high-voltage inductors worldwide.
A deep commitment to the power industry, along with extensive
investment in engineering, manufacturing and test capability, give
Trench customers the utmost in high-quality, reliable products that
are individually designed for each application. Trench reactor
applications have grown from small-distribution class, current-limiting reactors to complex EHV-applied reactors surpassing 300 MVA
per coil.

Reactors are manufactured in accordance with ISO 9001, 14001


and 18001 standards. Trenchs highly developed research and
development program constantly addresses new technologies
and their potential application in reactor products. Trench
welcomes challenges for new applications for power reactors.
Design features
Design features of air-core dry-type reactors are:
Epoxy impregnated, fiberglass-encapsulated construction
Aluminum construction throughout with all current-carrying
connections welded
Highest mechanical and short-circuit strength
Essentially zero radial-voltage stress, with uniformly graded
axial-voltage distribution between terminals
Low noise levels are maintained throughout the life of the
reactor
Weatherproof construction, with minimum maintenance
requirements
Design service life in excess of 30 years
Designs available in compliance with ANSI/IEEE, IEC and other
major standards.
Construction
A Trench air-core dry-type reactor consists of a number of parallel-connected, individually insulated, aluminum (copper on
request) conductors (fig. 4.7-1). These conductors can be small
wire or proprietary cables custom-designed and custom-manufactured. The size and type of conductor used in each reactor is
dependent on the reactor specification. The various styles and
sizes of conductors available ensure optimum performance at
the most economical cost.
The windings are mechanically reinforced with epoxy resinimpregnated fiberglass, which after a carefully defined ovencure cycle produces an encapsulated coil. A network of horizontal and vertical fiberglass ties coupled with the encapsulation
minimizes vibration in the reactor and achieves the highest
available mechanical strength. The windings are terminated at
each end to a set of aluminum bars called a spider. This con-

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Lifting eyenut
Metallic spider

Cooling duct
spacers

Terminal

Insulator

Fig. 4.7-1: Typical Trench air-core dry-type reactor construction

struction results in a very rigid unit capable of withstanding the


stresses developed under the most severe short-circuit conditions.
Exceptionally high levels of terminal pull, tensile strength, wind
loading and seismic withstand can be accommodated with the
reactor. This unique design can be installed in all types of climates and environments and still offer optimum performance.
Trench air-core dry-type reactors are installed in polluted and
corrosive areas and supply trouble-free operation. In addition to
the standard fixed reactance type of coil, units can be supplied
with taps for variable inductance. A number of methods are
available to vary inductance for fine-tuning or to provide a range
of larger inductance steps.
In addition, Trench utilizes various other designs for reactors,
e.g., iron-core and water-cooled.
Series reactors
Reactors are connected in series with the line or feeder. Typical
uses are fault-current reduction, load balancing in parallel
circuits, limiting inrush currents of capacitor banks, etc.
Current-limiting reactors
Current-limiting reactors reduce the short-circuit current to
levels within the rating of the equipment on the load side of the
reactor (fig. 4.7-2). Applications range from the simple distribution feeder reactor to large bus-tie and load-balancing reactors
on systems rated up to 765 kV/2100 kV BIL.

Products and Devices


4.7 Coil Products

Capacitor reactors
Capacitor reactors are designed to be installed in series with
a shunt-connected capacitor bank to limit inrush currents due to
switching, to limit outrush currents due to close-in faults, and to
control the resonant frequency of the system due to the addition
of the capacitor banks. Reactors can be installed on system
voltages through 765 kV/2100 kV BIL. When specifying capacitor
reactors, the requested continuous current rating should
account for harmonic current content, tolerance on capacitors
and allowable system overvoltage.
Buffer reactors for electric arc furnaces
The most effective performance of electric arc furnaces is achieved
by operating the furnace at low electrode current and long arc
length. This requires the use of a series reactor in the supply
system of the arc furnace transformer for stabilizing the arc.

Duplex reactors
Duplex reactors are current-limiting reactors that consist of two
half coils, magnetising against each other. These reactors provide a desirable low reactance under normal conditions and
a high reactance under fault conditions.
Load-flow control reactors
Load-flow control reactors are series-connected on transmission
lines of up to 800 kV. The reactors change the line impedance
characteristic such that load flow can be controlled, thus ensuring
maximum power transfer over adjacent transmission lines.

Fig. 4.7-2: 3-phase stacked current-limiting reactor

Filter reactors
Filter reactors are used in conjunction with capacitor banks to
form tuned harmonic filter circuits, or in conjunction with
capacitor banks and resistors to form broadband harmonic filter
circuits. When specifying filter reactors, the magnitudes of
fundamental and harmonic frequency current should be indicated. If inductance adjustment for fine-tuning is required, the
required tapping range and tolerances must be specified. Many
filter applications require a Q factor that is much lower than the
natural Q of the reactor. This is often achieved by connecting
a resistor in the circuit.
An economical alternative is the addition of a de-Qing ring
structure on a reactor. This can reduce the Q factor of the reactor
by as much as one tenth without the necessity of installing
additional damping resistors. These rings, mounted on the
reactor, are easily coupled to the magnetic field of the reactor.
This eliminates the concern of space, connection and reliability
of additional components such as resistors.
Shunt reactors
Shunt reactors are used to compensate for capacitive VARs
generated by lightly loaded transmission lines or underground
cables. They are normally connected to the transformer tertiary
winding but can also be directly connected on systems of up to
345 kV.
Thyristor-controlled shunt reactors (TCR) are extensively used
in static VAR systems in which reactive VARs are adjusted by

Fig. 4.7-3: Tertiary-connected shunt reactors

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239

Products and Devices


4.7 Coil Products

thyristor circuits (fig. 4.7-3). Static VAR compensator reactor


applications normally include:
Thyristor-controlled shunt reactors. The compensating power
is changed by controlling the current through the reactor by
means of the thyristor valves.
Thyristor-switched reactors (TSR)
Thyristor-switched capacitor reactors (TSC)
Filter reactors (FR)
Step less adjustable shunt reactors with iron core in oil filled
design.
HVDC reactors
HVDC lines are used for long-distance bulk power transmission
as well as back-to-back interconnections between different
transmission networks. HVDC reactors normally include
smoothing reactors, AC and DC harmonic filter reactors, as well
as AC and DC PLC noise filter reactors. In addition, self-commutated HVDC schemes include converter reactors.

Smoothing reactors
Smoothing reactors (fig. 4.7-4) are used to reduce the magnitude of the ripple current in a DC system. They are used in power
electronics applications such as variable-speed drives and UPS
systems. They are also required on HVDC transmission lines for
system voltages of up to 800 kV. Several design and construction
techniques are offered by Trench.

Fig. 4.7-4: HVDC smoothing


reactor

Test lab reactors


Test lab reactors are installed in high-voltage and high-power
test laboratories. Typical applications include current-limiting,
synthetic testing of circuit-breakers, inductive energy storage
and artificial lines.
Neutral earthing reactors
Neutral earthing reactors limit the line-to-earth fault current to
specified levels. Specification should also include unbalanced
condition continuous current and short-circuit current duration.
Arc-suppression coils
Single-phase neutral earthing (grounding) reactors
(arc-suppression coils) are intended to compensate for the
capacitive line-to-earth current during a 1-phase earth fault. The
arc-suppression coil (ASC) represents the central element of the
Trench earth-fault protection system (fig. 4.7-5).
Because the electric system is subject to changes, the inductance of the ASC used for neutral earthing must be variable. The
earth-fault protection system developed by Trench utilizes the
plunger core coil (moveable-core design). Based on extensive
experience in design, construction and application of ASCs,
Trench products can meet the most stringent requirements for
earth-fault compensating techniques.

Fig. 4.7-5: Arc-suppression coil 110 kV

For further information:


Coil Products Portfolio:
www.trenchgroup.com/Products-Solutions/Coil-Products
Coil Products Downloads:
www.trenchgroup.com/Downloads/Coil-Products

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Products and Devices


4.8 Bushings
Introduction
HSP Hochspannungsgerte GmbH known as HSP and Trench
have a long history and a well-known reputation in manufacturing high-voltage bushings and equipment. Both are world
leaders in power engineering and design of specialized electrical
products.
As HSP & Trench Bushing Group they share their knowledge in
the development, design and production of AC and DC bushings
up to 1,200 kV. Customers will substantially benefit from their
close cooperation in terms of innovation, joint research & development, and common design.
The bushing group provides a wide range of bushing products
including bushings for power transformers and HVDC transmission. The portfolio includes epoxy-resin-impregnated bushings
(ERIP) up to 1,200 kV, oil-impregnated paper bushings (OIP) up
to 1,200 kV, and SF6-gas bushings up to 1,200 kV. Whatever
your bushing requirements, the bushing group has the right
bushing for your application.
Their technologies have been successfully in service for more
than 60 years now. The bushing group operates globally from
their production locations in Troisdorf (Germany), St. Louis
(France), Shenyang (China) and their sales office in Pickering
(Canada).

4.8.1 High-Voltage Bushings


A bushing is an electrical engineering component that insulates
a high-voltage conductor passing through a metal enclosure or
a building. Bushings are needed on:
Transformers
Buildings
Gas-insulated switchgear (GIS)
Generators
Other high-voltage equipment.
Typical environmental conditions are:
Oil-to-air
Oil-to-gas
Oil-to-oil
SF6-to-air
Air-to-air.
The internal insulation of a bushing is made of a combination of
different insulating materials:
Oil-impregnated paper (OIP)
Epoxy-resin-impregnated paper (ERIP)
SF6 gas.
The external insulation is made of:
Epoxy resin for indoor applications
Porcelain or fiberglass tubes with silicone rubber sheds for
outdoor application

1
2
3
4

4
7

9
10

1. Terminal
2. Assembly
3. Head
4. Oil filling
5. Insulator
6. Active part
7. Flange
8. CT pocket
9. Oil-side end
10. End shielding

Fig. 4.8-1: Transformer bushing oil-impregnated paper (OIP) design


sectional view

Selected state-of-the-art bushing designs are described in the


sections that follow.
Transformer bushings: oil-impregnated paper design (OIP)
An oil-impregnated paper transformer bushing is made of the
following components (fig. 4.8-1):
1. Terminal
Terminal (Al or Cu) for connection of overhead lines or busbars
and arcing horns. State-of-the-art designs provide maintenancefree termination, and ensure that the connection will not
become loose in service.
2. Assembly
The whole bushing is tightened together by the central tube or
conductor.

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Products and Devices


4.8 Bushings

3. Head
Al-casted head with oil expansion chamber and oil level indicator.
The chamber is hermetically sealed against the atmosphere.
4. Oil filling
State-of-the-art bushings are filled with dried, degassed insulating mineral oil.
5. Insulator
Porcelain insulator made of high-grade electrotechnical porcelain according to IEC 815. The insulator is connected to the
mounting flange using Portland cement, and sealed with O-ring
gasket. Composite insulators are increasingly demanded and are
readily available.
6. Active part
The active part is made of oil-impregnated wide-band paper with
conductive layers made of aluminum foil to control the electrical
field radially and axially. Depending on the current rating, the
paper and foil are wound on either a central tube or a solid
conductor.

7. Flange
The mounting flange with integrated test tap made of corrosion
free aluminum alloy is machined to ensure an excellent seal
between the bushing and the transformer.
8. CT pocket
If current transformers are required on the bushing, the ground
sleeve can be extended.

1
2
3

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Terminal
Dry filling
Insulator
Active part
Flange
Oil-side end

Fig. 4.8-2: Transformer bushing epoxy-resin-impregnated paper


(ERIP) design sectional view

9. Oil-side end
The insulator on the oil side is made of an epoxy resin tube. It is
designed to stay installed during the in-tank drying process of the
transformer, and can withstand temperatures of up to 130 C.
10. End shielding
For voltages starting with 52 kV, a special aluminum electrode is cast
into the end of the epoxy resin tube. This end shielding controls the
electrical field strength in this area to earth.
Transformer bushings: epoxy-resin-impregnated
paper design (ERIP)
An epoxy-resin-impregnated paper transformer bushing is made
of the following components (fig. 4.8-2).
Fig. 4.8-3: Transformer bushing high current

1. Terminal
Terminal (Al or Cu) for connection of overhead lines or busbars
and arcing horns. State-of-the-art designs provide maintenancefree termination, and ensure that the connection will not
become loose in service.
2. Dry filling
State-of-the-art bushings are filled with dry-type foam.
3. Insulator
The external insulation consists of a composite insulator with
silicone sheds. These are vulcanized on the mechanical support,

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Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

a high-quality wound insulating tube made of epoxy resins with


glass fiber laminate structure. In most cases the flange is part of
the insulator.
4. Active part
The active part is made of resin-impregnated paper with conductive layers made of aluminum foil to control the electrical field
radially and axially. Depending on the current rating, the paper
and foil are wound on either a central tube or a solid conductor.

Products and Devices


4.8 Bushings

5. Flange
The mounting flange with integrated test tap made of corrosion
free aluminum alloy is machined to ensure an excellent seal
between the bushing and the transformer.
6. Oil-side end (including CT pocket if required)
The insulator on the oil side is made of an epoxy resin tube. It is
designed to stay installed during the in-tank drying process of the
transformer, and can withstand temperatures of up to 130 C.

Transformer bushings: high current


High-current bushings for transformer-to-phase busbar-isolated
connections are designed for 24 kV to 52 kV and currents from
7,800 A to 40,000 A. Conductors are in standard aluminum or
copper on request. The main insulation is vacuum-impregnated
epoxy condenser (fig. 4.8-3).
Other transformer bushings: oil-to-gas and oil-to-oil
Oil-to-gas types are intended for the direct connection of power
transformers to gas-insulated switchgear; oil-to-oil types are
intended for the direct connections within the power transformer (fig. 4.8-4). Both consist of a main insulating body of
ERIP (epoxy-resin-impregnated paper). The condenser core is
made of special epoxy resin vacuum-impregnated paper incorporating grading foils to ensure uniform voltage distribution. This
insulation has proven its reliability in over 40 years of service in

Connections
The modular bushing systems offer a large choice of connecting
systems. At the upper end of the bushing head, there is a clamp
through which the conductor or the cable bolt is fixed. A releasable cross-pinned fitting at the clamping device prevents it from
slipping into the transformer during operation. In addition it
serves as locking element. The bolt is sealed through double
seals. The clamp is made of stainless steel, and all screws are of
non-corrosive steel. The venting of the central tube is located on
one side under the edge of the clamp, and can be operated
independently of the conductor bolt. In addition to the
cable bolt, solid conductor bolts are available, e.g., for highercurrent applications. These bolts are wedged against the inner
wall of the central tube with insulated spacers. Solid conductor
bolts can be provided with a separation point, preferably at the
flange or to suit any particular case. The bolts are equipped with
a threaded hole at the top, so that a draw wire or a rod can be
screwed in and the bolt pulled through the central tube.

Fig. 4.8-4: Transformer bushing oil-to-gas

Fig. 4.8-5: Transformer bushing 800 kV UHVDC project YunnanGuangdong, China

Fig. 4.8-6: Transformer bushing 500 kV HVDC project Three


Gorges, China

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

243

Products and Devices


4.8 Bushings

various system applications. A high-quality insulation enables


a compact design. Furthermore, bushings with this insulation
have a low partial discharge level, not only at service voltage but
far in excess.
HVDC bushings: transformer and wall
The growing demand for HVDC transmission requires reliable and efficient transformer and wall bushings of up to
1,000 kV DC (fig. 4.8-6). ERIP solutions are often preferred due
to their superior performance in heavily polluted areas, or due to
their mechanical strength especially regarding seismic behavior.
An example of state-of-the-art solutions is the project YunnanGuangdong/China (fig. 4.8-5, fig. 4.8-8), which incorporates
wall bushings and transformer bushings up to 800 kV.

Wall bushings
Wall bushings (fig. 4.8-7) are designed for use in high-voltage
substations for roof or wall according to their positioning:
Indoor/indoor bushings for dry indoor conditions
Outdoor/indoor bushings for use between open air (outer
atmosphere) and dry indoor conditions
Outdoor/outdoor bushings where both ends are in contact
with the open air (outer atmosphere)
The main insulating body is capacitive-graded. A number of
conductive layers are coaxially located at calculated distances
between the central tube and the flange. This leads to a virtual
linearization of the axial distribution of voltage on the bushing
surface resulting in minimum stress on the surrounding air.

Fig. 4.8-8: Wall bushing 800 kV HVDC project YunnanGuangdong, China

GIS bushings
These bushings are designed for use in GIS substations mainly to
connect to overhead lines. Designs are either electrode design
up to 245 kV or condenser design above 245 kV (fig. 4.8-9).
Composite designs are increasingly demanded, especially for
higher voltage ranges and polluted areas.
Generator bushings
Generator bushings (fig. 4.8-10) are designed for leading the
current induced in the stator windings through the pressurized
hydrogen-gastight, earthed generator housing. Generator
bushings are available from 12 kV to 36 kV and current ratings
of up to 50,000 A. They are natural, gas or liquid-cooled.

Fig. 4.8-9: GIS bushing 420 kV SF6 outdoor bushing with composite
housing

Fig. 4.8-7: Wall bushing air-to-air

For further information:


www.siemens.com
www.bushing-group.com
sales@hspkoeln.de and sales-bushing.fr@trench-group.com

Fig. 4.8-10: Generator bushing

244

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Products and Devices


4.9 Medium-Voltage Fuses
HV HRC (high-voltage high-rupturing-capacity) fuses are used for
short-circuit protection in high-voltage switchgear (frequency
range of 50 to 60 Hz). They protect devices and parts of the
system such as transformers, motors, capacitors, voltage transformers and cable feeders against the dynamic and thermal
effects of high short-circuit currents by breaking them when
they arise.
Fuses consist of the fuse-base and the fuse-links. The fuse-links
are used for one single breaking of overcurrents and then they
must be replaced. In a switch-fuse combination, the thermal
striker tripping of the 3GD fuse prevents the thermal destruction
of the fuse. The fuses are suitable both for indoor and outdoor
switchgear. They are fitted in fuse-bases available as individual
1-phase or 3-phase components, or as built-in components in
combination with the corresponding switching device.

4
Fig. 4.9-2: 3-phase fuse-link with fuse monitor

Fig. 4.9-1: Fuse-link

Rated voltage

Reference dimension

7.2 kV

192 mm

Fig. 4.9-3: Switch-disconnector with fuse-links

Rated current (A)


6

10

16

20

25

31.5

40

50

63

80

100

442 mm
442 mm for
motor protection
12 kV

292 mm

442 mm
442 mm for
motor protection

24 kV

442 mm

36 kV

537 mm

125

160

200

250

315

Table 4.9-1: Portfolio of fuses

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

245

Products and Devices


4.10 Silicone Long Rod Insulators
for Overhead Power Lines
4.10.1 3FL Silicone Long Rod Insulators
Performance Meets Durability
Good reasons to use 3FL
The new Siemens silicone long rod insulators type 3FL
(fig. 4.10-1) combine the highest levels of electrical insulation
and mechanical tensile strength with a compact, lightweight
design. Thanks to their superior design and minimized weight,
3FL long rod insulators are especially suited for overhead compact-line applications where low tower design and short line
spans are required. They are also more economical to transport
and install.

Design
The 3FL insulator housing is a one-piece HTV1 silicone rubber
housing made by the one-shot injection molding process. The
HTV silicone is directly molded onto the core rod by overlapping
the triple junction point and part of the metal end fittings. The
design ensures a total enclosure of the most sensitive part of
a silicone insulator the junction zone (metal end fitting/FRP
rod/silicone housing), where usually the highest electrical field
strength is concentrated. This overlapping system eliminates any
need of traditional sealing systems while preventing any moisture ingress attacks (fig. 4.10-2).
Core
The core rod is a boron-free, corrosion-resistant ECR2 glass-fiberreinforced plastic rod (FRP rod). Due to the extremely high
hydrolysis and acid resistance of the FRP rod the risk of so-called
brittle fracture is completely eliminated for 3FL insulators.
End fittings
The end fittings, made of hot-dip galvanized forged steel or
ductile cast iron, are directly attached to the FRP core rod by
a circumferential crimping process. Each crimping process is
strongly monitored with a special control system. A complete
range of end fittings according to the latest IEC and ANSI standards is available up to 210 kN of SML. The 3FL is 100%
exchangeable and compatible with existing insulators and line
hardware of all types.
The special design of the end fitting in the junction minimizes
the electrical field strength and partial discharge inside the
junction zone as well as on the silicone housing surface, by
utilizing an integrated grading ring. This reliably prevents corrosion of the insulating material and eliminates the risk of subsequent failure of the insulator.

Fig. 4.10-1: 3FL long rod insulators can be used either as suspension
or tension insulatorsrequirements

Brittle-fracture-resistant
ECR-glass FRP rod
One-piece HTV
silicone rubber housing

Junction zone

Junction point: FRP rod/metal


fitting/silicone (triple point)
completely embedded in the
silicone housing
Integrated grading ring reduces the electric field
inside and outside the junction zone

1 HTV: High-temperature vulcanizing


2 ECR glass: Electrical- and corrosion-resistant glass

Fig. 4.10-2: 3FL a superior design to meet the highest requirements

246

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Products and Devices


4.10 Silicone Long Rod Insulators

3FL HTV silicone rubber housing for best


pollution performances (fig. 4.10-3)
The excellent pollution layer characteristics of the HTV silicone
rubber ensure maximum reliability of the 3FL insulator, even
under extreme service conditions. The high hydrophobic
housing prevents the formation of conductive film on its surface.
Even the most severe ambient conditions, such as salt fog in
coastal regions or dust-laden air in industrial areas, cannot
impair the intrinsic hydrophobicity of the HTV silicone rubber.
Surface currents and discharges are ruled out. Neither water nor
dirt on the housing surface can cause insulator flashovers
a significant factor for insulator performance.
Quality from Siemens
According to long-established Siemens tradition and experience
in high-voltage equipment for more than a century, each production step for the 3FL beginning with numerous incoming
raw material inspections through the assembly of the individual
components to routine tests of the finished product is rigorously monitored and well controlled.

4
Fig. 4.10-3: HTV silicone rubber for best pollution performances

4.10.2 Maximized Service Life


No moisture ingress
The one-piece housing of the 3FL insulators, i.e. weathersheds
and core rod sheath (coating) is one-piece, and has only one
internal interface throughout the whole insulator, namely the
boundary interface between the housing and the FRP core rod.
This design eliminates all internal inter faces between weathersheds and the core rod coating. These kinds of longitudinal
interfaces are normally very sensitive to tangential electrical
field stress, which in worst case scenarios can easily lead to
erosion damage of the polymer interfaces. In particular leading
to erosion of the bonding between sheds and rod sheath, and
thus damage to the insulator housing.
Furthermore, the junction point in the connection zone, where
all three elements (FRP rod, metal end fitting, and silicone
housing) meet each other, is absolutely water- and air-tight
sealed during manufacturing by using an overmolding housing
system. It totally encloses this junction point with the HTV silicone rubber of the housing itself. The highest bonding strength
of the one-piece HTV silicone housing to the FRP core rod combined with the overmolding design system prevent moisture
ingress at the connection zone of the insulator (fig. 4.10-4).
Minimized electrical field strength
After numerous electrical calculations regarding E-field distribution along the insulator, and the connection zone on the
high-voltage side in particular, the design of the 3FL insulator
was optimized for maximum reduction of electrical field stress,
reduced corona effect, and minimized RIV value. Two design
keys ensure improved life expectancy by reducing electrical field
stress in the triple point and on the silicone surface:

Housing
(HTV SiR)

FRP rod

Connection
zone

End fitting

Fig. 4.10-4: 3FL cross-section

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

247

Products and Devices


4.10 Silicone Long Rod Insulators

The spherical-shaped rim of the end fitting inside the housing


homogenizes the E-field distribution on the high-voltage side
of the 3FL insulator with an integrated grading ring up to
170 kV (fig. 4.10-5, table 4.10-1).
The overmolded design system and the silicone housing shape
at the connection zone reduce the electrical field strength
inside the housing, at the inner triple point in particular, as
well as on the silicone surface directly. This by displacing the
higher electrical field strength outside the housing (i.e. to the
surrounding air area), and by taking advantage of the higher
silicone relative permittivity (fig. 4.10-6).
In this way, 3FL insulators can be applied on 170 kV systems
without the need for additional grading/corona rings.
Standards and tests
All 3FL long rod insulators are designed and tested in compliance with the latest IEC standards.

Each Siemens 3FL insulator that leaves the factory is routinely


tested with a corresponding mechanical tensile test load of at
least 50 percent of the defined SML load for at least ten seconds.

248

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

IEC 61109

Insulators for overhead lines Composite suspension


and tension insulators for a.c. systems with a nominal
voltage greater than 1,000 V

IEC 62217

Polymeric insulators for indoor and outdoor use with


a nominal voltage >1,000 V

IEC 60815

Selection and dimensioning of high-voltage insulators


intended for use in polluted conditions

IEC 61466-1, -2 Composite string insulator units for overhead lines


with a nominal voltage greater than 1,000 V
Table 4.10-1: Product standards

Products and Devices


4.10 Silicone Long Rod Insulators

Silicone
surface

Sphericalshaped rim

Inner triple
point

Fig. 4.10-5: E-field distribution (%/mm) in silicone housing and in FRP core rod at 3FL insulator high-voltage end

Fig. 4.10-6: E-field distribution (%/mm) at 3FL insulator high-voltage end

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

249

Products and Devices


4.10 Silicone Long Rod Insulators

Socket and Ball

acc. to IEC 60120


Designation

SML

16
20

Dimensions in mm
A

70 kN / 100 kN / 120 kN

33

17

19

160 kN / 210 kN

41

21

23

Clevis
acc. to IEC 60471 and IEC 61466-1

Designation

Dimensions in mm

SML

13L

70 kN

13

14

17

42

16L

100 / 120 kN

16

18

32

46

16N

100 / 120 kN

16

18

32

46

19L

160 kN

19

20

37

56

19N

160 kN

19

22.5

26

56

22L

210 kN

22

20

43

60

22N

210 kN

22

26

30

60

Tongue
acc. to IEC 60471 and IEC 61466-1

Designation

SML

13L

70 kN

Dimensions in mm
A

13

14

42

16L

100 kN / 120 kN

16

17.5

46

16N

100 kN / 120 kN

12.7

17.5

46

19L

160 kN

19

20

56

19N

160 kN

19

20.6

46

22L

210 kN

19

24

60

22N

210 kN

22

23.8

52

Y-Clevis
acc. to IEC 61466-1
Dimensions in mm

SML

Designation

16

70 kN

16

32

19

100 / 120 kN

19

34

22

160 / 210 kN

22

41

Eye

250

acc. to IEC 61466-1

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Designation

SML

Dimensions in mm
A

17

70 kN

20

32

15

24

100 kN / 120 kN

24

48

19

25

160 kN / 210 kN

25

50

22

30

160 kN / 210 kN

30

60

25

Products and Devices


4.10 Silicone Long Rod Insulators

Arcing horns

Recommended corona rings (diameter in mm) by line voltage

Corona ring

Line voltage (kV)

Ground end (top end fitting)

Line end (conductor end fitting)

170 kV

None

None

245 kV

None

210

300 kV

None

330

362 kV

None

330

420 kV

210

330

550 kV

210

420

Maximum values

Accessories
Arc protection devices such as arcing horns
and corona rings for reduction of electrical
field stress and corona effect are carefully
designed based on numerous electrical
simulations regarding electrical field
distribution. For system voltages above
170 kV, corona rings are included in the 3FL
insulator application as a standard feature.
Customer-specific solutions as well as other
connection and cable clamps are also
available on request.

Highest voltage for equipment, Um

Nominal system voltage, Un

units

3FL2

3FL3

3FL4

3FL5

3FL6

from

kV

12

72.5

72.5

72.5

72.5

to

kV

72.5

550

550

550

550

from

kV

10

60

60

60

60

to

kV

69

500

500

500

500

kN

70

100

120

160

210

from

mm

332

821

821

871

871

to

mm

782

6,125

6,125

6,125

6,125

Specified mechanical load, SML class


Maximum section length,
length increments 52 mm
(with Socket and Ball)

Long rod insulators type 3FL2, SML 70 kN


3FL2 long rod insulators are designed to
meet the highest requirements in distribution
power systems up to 72 kV. They have high
lightning impulse and power-frequency
withstand voltages and a long creepage class
(> 31 mm/kV). 3FL2 insulators are available
with mechanical ratings up to SML = 70 kN.

End fittings with SML = 70 kN


Designation as per standard

Standard

Connection length

Name/size

V, mm

Ball 16

IEC 60120

75

Socket 16A

IEC 60120

79

Clevis 13L

IEC 60471

87

Tongue 13L

IEC 60741

87

Y-clevis 16

IEC 61466-1

94

Eye 17

IEC 61466-1

93

Technical data 3FL2


Highest
voltage
for equipment

Typical
nominal
system
voltages

Lightning
impulse
withstand
voltage
(1.2/50 s, dry)

Powerfrequency
withstand
voltage (50 Hz,
1min., wet)

Arcing
distance

Creepage
distance

Housing
length

Section
length*
(with
Socket and
Ball)

Um, kV

Un, kV

LIWL min, kV

PFWL min, kV

S, mm

C, mm

H, mm

L, mm

12.0

10, 11, 12

158

73

214

426

178

331

3FL2 018-4SB11-1XX1

24.0

15, 20, 22, 24

216

89

300

805

268

421

3FL2 027-4SB11-1XX1

2.0

36.0

30, 33, 35, 36

243

111

390

1,184

358

511

3FL2 036-4SB11-1XX1

2.4

72.5

60, 66, 69, 72

400

200

660

2,321

628

781

3FL2 063-4SB11-1XX1

3.6

Catalog number

Weight
(with Socket
and Ball)

W, kg

1.6

*Reference value of the section length of an insulator for version with Socket and Ball end fittings of size 16 in accordance with IEC 60120. To obtain the section length
of an insulator equipped with other end fittings, the housing length and connection lengths (see table End fittings) of both end fittings must be added together.

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

251

Products and Devices


4.10 Silicone Long Rod Insulators
Long rod insulators 3FL3 and 3FL4
3FL silicone long rod insulators for suspension and tension
applications are available in lengths appropriate for 60 kV through
550 kV. Length increments are 52 mm. A few selected insulator
lengths are listed in the following table. Intermediate, shorter, or
longer lengths available on request.

Specified mechanical load


Routine test load

3FL3

3FL4

SML:

100 kN

120 kN

RTL:

50 kN

60 kN

Technical data 3FL3 and 3FL4

252

Highest
voltage for
equipment
based on
25 mm/kV

Lightning
impulse
withstand
voltage
(1.2/50 s,
dry)

Switching
impulse
withstand
voltage
(250/
2,500 s,
positive,
wet)

Powerfrequency
withstand
voltage
(50 Hz,
1 min,
wet)

Arcing
distance

Standard
creepage
distance
catalog
code: 3

Extra-high
creepage
distance
catalog
code: 4

Nominal
housing
length

Section
length*
with
Socket
and Ball

Um
kV

LIWV
kV

SIWV min
kV

PFWV
kV

S
mm

C
mm

C
mm

H
mm

L
mm

Catalog code

3FL_1-___2-_3_4_521-1_6_71

Grading
ring
diameter
top/
bottom
(earth-/
HV-side)

App. net
weight for
standard
creepage
distance

D
mm

W
kg

<72.5

449

160

644

1,706

2,291

614

821

3FLx - 061-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

3.2

72.5

476

180

696

1,868

2,516

666

873

3FLx - 067-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

3.3

72.5

503

200

748

2,031

2,740

718

925

3FLx - 072-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

3.4

72.5

530

220

800

2,194

2,964

770

977

3FLx - 077-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

3.5

72.5

556

240

852

2,356

3,189

822

1,029

3FLx - 082-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

3.6

72.5

583

260

904

2,519

3,413

874

1,081

3FLx - 087-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

3.7

72.5

610

280

956

2,681

3,637

926

1,133

3FLx - 093-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

3.8

72.5

637

300

1,008

2,844

3,862

978

1,185

3FLx - 098-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

3.9

72.5

664

320

1,060

3,007

4,086

1,030

1,237

3FLx - 103-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

4.0

123

690

340

1,112

3,169

4,310

1,082

1,289

3FLx - 108-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

4.1

123

717

360

1,164

3,332

4,535

1,134

1,341

3FLx - 113-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

4.2

123

744

380

1,216

3,494

4,759

1,186

1,393

3FLx - 119-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

4.3

145

771

400

1,268

3,657

4,983

1,238

1,445

3FLx - 124-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

4.4

145

797

420

1,320

3,820

5,208

1,290

1,497

3FLx - 129-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

4.5

145

824

440

1,372

3,982

5,432

1,342

1,549

3FLx - 134-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

4.6

145

851

460

1,424

4,145

5,656

1,394

1,601

3FLx - 139-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

4.7

170

882

469

1,476

4,307

5,881

1,446

1,653

3FLx - 145-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

4.8

170

913

478

1,528

4,470

6,105

1,498

1,705

3FLx - 150-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

4.9

170

943

488

1,580

4,633

6,329

1,550

1,757

3FLx - 155-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

5.0

170

974

497

1,632

4,795

6,554

1,602

1,809

3FLx - 160-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

5.1

170

1,005

506

1,684

4,958

6,778

1,654

1,861

3FLx - 165-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

5.2

170

1,036

515

1,736

5,120

7,002

1,706

1,913

3FLx - 171-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

5.3

170

1,066

525

1,788

5,283

7,227

1,758

1,965

3FLx - 176-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

5.4

170

1,097

534

1,840

5,446

7,451

1,810

2,017

3FLx - 181-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

5.5

170

1,128

543

1,892

5,608

7,675

1,862

2,069

3FLx - 186-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

5.6

170

1,159

552

1,944

5,771

7,900

1,914

2,121

3FLx - 191-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

5.7

170

1,189

562

1,996

5,933

8,124

1,966

2,173

3FLx - 197-3SB11-1XX1

x/x

5.8

245

1,220

571

2,003

6,096

8,348

2,018

2,225

3FLx - 202-3SB11-1XS1

x / 210

6.8

245

1,251

580

2,055

6,259

8,573

2,070

2,277

3FLx - 207-3SB11-1XS1

x / 210

6.9

245

1,282

586

2,107

6,421

8,797

2,122

2,329

3FLx - 212-3SB11-1XS1

x / 210

7.0

245

1,313

593

2,159

6,584

9,021

2,174

2,381

3FLx - 217-3SB11-1XS1

x / 210

7.1

245

1,344

599

2,211

6,747

9,246

2,226

2,433

3FLx - 223-3SB11-1XS1

x / 210

7.2

245

1,375

605

2,263

6,909

9,470

2,278

2,485

3FLx - 228-3SB11-1XS1

x / 210

7.3

245

1,406

612

2,315

7,072

9,694

2,330

2,537

3FLx - 233-3SB11-1XS1

x / 210

7.4

245

1,437

618

2,367

7,234

9,919

2,382

2,589

3FLx - 238-3SB11-1XS1

x / 210

7.5

245

1,468

1,032

625

2,419

7,397

10,143

2,434

2,641

3FLx - 243-3SB11-1XS1

x / 210

8.4

300

1,499

1,042

631

2,456

7,560

10,367

2,486

2,693

3FLx - 249-3SB11-1XM1

x / 330

8.5

300

1,530

1,052

637

2,508

7,722

10,592

2,538

2,745

3FLx - 254-3SB11-1XM1

x / 330

8.6

300

1,561

1,062

644

2,560

7,885

10,816

2,590

2,797

3FLx - 259-3SB11-1XM1

x / 330

8.7

300

1,623

1,081

656

2,664

8,210

11,265

2,694

2,901

3FLx - 269-3SB11-1XM1

x / 330

8.9

300

1,654

1,091

663

2,716

8,373

11,489

2,746

2,953

3FLx - 275-3SB11-1XM1

x / 330

9.0

300

1,716

1,111

676

2,820

8,698

11,938

2,850

3,057

3FLx - 285-3SB11-1XM1

x / 330

9.2

362

1,778

1,130

688

2,924

9,023

12,386

2,954

3,161

3FLx - 295-3SB11-1XM1

x / 330

9.4

362

1,809

1,140

695

2,976

9,186

12,611

3,006

3,213

3FLx - 301-3SB11-1XM1

x / 330

9.5

362
362

1,840
1,873

1,150
1,170

701
709

3,028
3,132

9,348
9,673

12,835
13,284

3,058
3,162

3,265
3,369

3FLx - 306-3SB11-1XM1
3FLx - 316-3SB11-1XM1

x / 330
x / 330

9.6
9.8

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Products and Devices


4.10 Silicone Long Rod Insulators
1

Specified mechanical load (SML): use 3 for 100 kN; use 4 for 120 kN.
Nominal housing length in mm/10. 3 Standard creepage distance: 3;
Extra-high creepage distance: 4.
4 Upper end fitting (earth side) 5 Bottom end fitting (high-voltage side)
6 Upper corona ring (earth side) 7 Bottom corona ring (high-voltage side).
For all insulator types having no preinstalled corona rings and indicated
by the code X optional corona rings can be added, if requested. For
this, use the smallest corona ring available, i.e. catalog code S, please
refer to page 10 for further catalog numbering information.
2

Technical data 3FL3 and 3FL4


Highest
voltage for
equipment
based on
25 mm/kV

Lightning
impulse
withstand
voltage
(1.2/ 50 s,
dry)

Switching
impulse
withstand
voltage
(250/
2500 s,
positive,
wet)

Powerfrequency
withstand
voltage
(50 Hz,
1 min.,
wet)

Arcing
distance

Standard
creepage
distance
catalog
code: 3

Extra-high
creepage
distance
catalog
code: 4

Nominal
housing
length

Section
length*
with
Socket
and Ball

Um
kV

LIWV
kV

SIWV min
kV

PFWV
kV

S
mm

C
mm

C
mm

H
mm

L
mm

Catalog code

3FL_1-___2-_3_4_521-1_6_71

Grading ring App. net


diameter
weight for
top/bottom
standard
(earth-/HVcreepage
side)
distance

D
mm

W
kg

362

1,889

1,179

713

3,184

9,836

13,508

3,214

3,421

3FLx - 321-3SB11-1XM1

x / 330

9.9

362

1,922

1,199

720

3,288

10,161

13,957

3,318

3,525

3FLx - 332-3SB11-1XM1

x / 330

10.1

362

1,939

1,209

724

3,340

10,324

14,181

3,370

3,577

3FLx - 337-3SB11-1XM1

x / 330

10.2

420

1,971

1,229

732

3,399

10,649

14,629

3,474

3,681

3FLx - 347-3SB11-1SM1

210 / 330

11.3

420

2,004

1,248

740

3,503

10,974

15,078

3,578

3,785

3FLx - 358-3SB11-1SM1

210 / 330

11.5

420

2,037

1,268

748

3,607

11,300

15,527

3,682

3,889

3FLx - 368-3SB11-1SM1

210 / 330

11.7

420

2,054

1,278

752

3,659

11,462

15,751

3,734

3,941

3FLx - 373-3SB11-1SM1

210 / 330

11.8

420

2,070

1,288

756

3,711

11,625

15,975

3,786

3,993

3FLx - 379-3SB11-1SM1

210 / 330

11.9

420

2,103

1,307

763

3,815

11,950

16,424

3,890

4,097

3FLx - 389-3SB11-1SM1

210 / 330

12.1

420

2,136

1,327

771

3,919

12,275

16,873

3,994

4,201

3FLx - 399-3SB11-1SM1

210 / 330

12.3

420

2,169

1,346

779

4,023

12,600

17,321

4,098

4,305

3FLx - 410-3SB11-1SM1

210 / 330

12.5

420

2,185

1,356

783

4,075

12,763

17,546

4,150

4,357

3FLx - 415-3SB11-1SM1

210 / 330

12.6

420

2,201

1,366

787

4,127

12,926

17,770

4,202

4,409

3FLx - 420-3SB11-1SM1

210 / 330

12.7

420

2,218

1,376

791

4,179

13,088

17,994

4,254

4,461

3FLx - 425-3SB11-1SM1

210 / 330

12.8

420

2,251

1,396

798

4,283

13,413

18,443

4,358

4,565

3FLx - 436-3SB11-1SM1

210 / 330

13.0

550

2,284

1,415

806

4,362

13,739

18,892

4,462

4,669

3FLx - 446-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

14.8

550

2,300

1,425

810

4,466

14,064

19,340

4,566

4,773

3FLx - 457-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

15.0

550

2,300

1,425

810

4,674

14,714

20,238

4,774

4,981

3FLx - 477-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

15.4

550

2,300

1,425

810

4,778

15,040

20,686

4,878

5,085

3FLx - 488-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

15.6

550

2,300

1,425

810

4,882

15,365

21,135

4,982

5,189

3FLx - 498-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

15.8

550

2,300

1,425

810

4,986

15,690

21,584

5,086

5,293

3FLx - 509-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

16.0

550

2,300

1,425

810

5,090

16,015

22,032

5,190

5,397

3FLx - 519-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

16.2

550

2,300

1,425

810

5,194

16,340

22,481

5,294

5,501

3FLx - 529-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

16.4

2,300

1,425

810

5,350

16,828

23,154

5,450

5,657

3FLx - 545-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

16.7

2,300

1,425

810

5,454

17,153

23,603

5,554

5,761

3FLx - 555-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

16.9

2,300

1,425

810

5,558

17,479

24,051

5,658

5,865

3FLx - 566-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

17.1

2,300

1,425

810

5,662

17,804

24,500

5,762

5,969

3FLx - 576-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

17.4

2,300

1,425

810

5,818

18,292

25,173

5,918

6,125

3FLx - 592-3SB11-1SL1

210 / 420

17.7

Section length adjustment table* for other end fittings combinations,


Base end fittings: Socket and Ball (catalog code: SB)

End fittings types and standards

Type

Standard

Catalog
code

Length
V

Upper end fitting


(earth side)

Bottom end fitting


(high-voltage side)

Catalog
code

Length change,
mm

Ball 16

IEC 60120

108 mm

Clevis 16L

Tongue 16L

CT

+30

Socket 16A

IEC 60120

99 mm

Clevis 16L

Clevis 16L

CC

+31

Socket 16B

IEC 60120

103 mm

Clevis 16L

Eye 24

CE

+40

Clevis 16L

IEC 60471

119 mm

Clevis 16L

Ball 16

CB

+20

Tongue 16L

IEC 60741

118 mm

Tongue 16L

Tongue 16L

TT

+29

Y-clevis 19

IEC 61466-1

127 mm

Eye 24

Ball 16

EB

+29

Eye 24

IEC 61466-1

128 mm

Eye 24

Eye 24

EE

+49

Y-clevis 19

Eye 24

YE

+48

Y-clevis 19

Ball 16

YB

+28

* To determine the section length of an insulator with a different end fitting combination than Socket and Ball, please add the appropriate adjustment section length shown in the table above.
For all other configurations not shown in this table, contact your Siemens representative.

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

253

Products and Devices


4.10 Silicone Long Rod Insulators
Long rod insulators 3FL5 and 3FL6
3FL silicone long rod insulators for suspension and tension
applications are available in lengths appropriate for 60 kV
through 550 kV. Length increments are 52 mm. A few selected
insulator lengths are listed in the following table. Intermediate,
shorter, or longer lengths available on request.

Specified mechanical load


Routine test load

3FL5

3FL6

SML:

160 kN

210 kN

RTL:

80 kN

105 kN

Technical data 3FL5 and 3FL6

254

Highest
voltage for
equipment
based on
25 mm/kV

Lightning
impulse
withstand
voltage
(1.2/50 s,
dry)

Switching
impulse
withstand
voltage
(250/
2,500 s,
positive,
wet)

Powerfrequency
withstand
voltage
(50 Hz,
1 min,
wet)

Arcing
distance

Standard
creepage
distance
catalog
code: 3

Extra-high
creepage
distance
catalog
code: 4

Nominal
housing
length

Section
length*
with
Socket
and Ball

Um
kV

LIWV
kV

SIWV min
kV

PFWV
kV

S
mm

C
mm

C
mm

H
mm

L
mm

Catalog code

3FL_1-___2-_3_4_521-1_6_71

Grading
ring
diameter
top/
bottom
(earth-/
HV-side)

App. net
weight for
standard
creepage
distance

D
mm

W
kg

<72.5

449

160

643

1,702

2,288

614

878

3FLx - 061-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

5.2

72.5

476

180

695

1,865

2,512

666

930

3FLx - 067-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

5.3

72.5

503

200

747

2,027

2,736

718

982

3FLx - 072-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

5.4

72.5

530

220

799

2,190

2,961

770

1,034

3FLx - 077-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

5.6

72.5

556

240

851

2,352

3,185

822

1,086

3FLx - 082-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

5.7

72.5

583

260

903

2,515

3,409

874

1,138

3FLx - 087-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

5.9

72.5

610

280

955

2,678

3,634

926

1,190

3FLx - 093-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

6.0

72.5

637

300

1,007

2,840

3,858

978

1,242

3FLx - 098-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

6.1

123

664

320

1,059

3,003

4,082

1,030

1,294

3FLx - 103-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

6.3

123

690

340

1,111

3,166

4,307

1,082

1,346

3FLx - 108-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

6.4

123

717

360

1,163

3,328

4,531

1,134

1,398

3FLx - 113-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

6.5

123

744

380

1,215

3,491

4,755

1,186

1,450

3FLx - 119-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

6.7

145

771

400

1,267

3,653

4,980

1,238

1,502

3FLx - 124-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

6.8

145

797

420

1,319

3,816

5,204

1,290

1,554

3FLx - 129-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

6.9

145

824

440

1,371

3,979

5,428

1,342

1,606

3FLx - 134-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

7.1

145

851

460

1,423

4,141

5,652

1,394

1,658

3FLx - 139-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

7.2

170

882

469

1,475

4,304

5,877

1,446

1,710

3FLx - 145-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

7.3

170

913

478

1,527

4,466

6,101

1,498

1,762

3FLx - 150-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

7.5

170

943

488

1,579

4,629

6,325

1,550

1,814

3FLx - 155-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

7.6

170

974

497

1,631

4,792

6,550

1,602

1,866

3FLx - 160-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

7.7

170

1,005

506

1,683

4,954

6,774

1,654

1,918

3FLx - 165-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

7.9

170

1,036

515

1,735

5,117

6,998

1,706

1,970

3FLx - 171-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

8.0

170

1,066

525

1,787

5,279

7,223

1,758

2,022

3FLx - 176-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

8.1

170

1,097

534

1,839

5,442

7,447

1,810

2,074

3FLx - 181-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

8.3

170

1,128

543

1,891

5,605

7,671

1,862

2,126

3FLx - 186-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

8.4

170

1,159

552

1,943

5,767

7,896

1,914

2,178

3FLx - 191-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

8.5

170

1,189

562

1,995

5,930

8,120

1,966

2,230

3FLx - 197-3SB21-1XX1

x/x

8.7

245

1,220

571

2,002

6,092

8,344

2,018

2,282

3FLx - 202-3SB21-1XS1

x / 210

9.7

245

1,251

580

2,054

6,255

8,569

2,070

2,334

3FLx - 207-3SB21-1XS1

x / 210

9.8

245

1,282

586

2,106

6,418

8,793

2,122

2,386

3FLx - 212-3SB21-1XS1

x / 210

10.0

245

1,313

593

2,158

6,580

9,017

2,174

2,438

3FLx - 217-3SB21-1XS1

x / 210

10.1

245

1,344

599

2,210

6,743

9,242

2,226

2,490

3FLx - 223-3SB21-1XS1

x / 210

10.2

245

1,375

605

2,262

6,906

9,466

2,278

2,542

3FLx - 228-3SB21-1XS1

x / 210

10.4

245

1,406

612

2,314

7,068

9,690

2,330

2,594

3FLx - 233-3SB21-1XS1

x / 210

10.5

245

1,437

618

2,366

7,231

9,915

2,382

2,646

3FLx - 238-3SB21-1XS1

x / 210

10.6

245

1,468

1,032

625

2,403

7,393

10,139

2,434

2,698

3FLx - 243-3SB21-1XM1

x / 210

11.5

300

1,499

1,042

631

2,455

7,556

10,363

2,486

2,750

3FLx - 249-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

11.7

300

1,530

1,052

637

2,507

7,719

10,588

2,538

2,802

3FLx - 254-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

11.8

300

1,561

1,062

644

2,559

7,881

10,812

2,590

2,854

3FLx - 259-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

11.9

300

1,623

1,081

656

2,663

8,206

11,261

2,694

2,958

3FLx - 269-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

12.2

300

1,654

1,091

663

2,715

8,369

11,485

2,746

3,010

3FLx - 275-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

12.3

300

1,716

1,111

676

2,819

8,694

11,934

2,850

3,114

3FLx - 285-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

12.6

362

1,778

1,130

688

2,923

9,019

12,382

2,954

3,218

3FLx - 295-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

12.9

362

1,809

1,140

695

2,975

9,182

12,607

3,006

3,270

3FLx - 301-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

13.0

362

1,840

1,150

701

3,027

9,345

12,831

3,058

3,322

3FLx - 306-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

13.1

362

1,873

1,170

709

3,131

9,670

13,280

3,162

3,426

3FLx - 316-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

13.4

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Products and Devices


4.10 Silicone Long Rod Insulators
1

Specified mechanical load (SML): use 3 for 100 kN; use 4 for 120 kN.
Nominal housing length in mm/10. 3 Standard creepage distance: 3;
Extra-high creepage distance: 4.
4 Upper end fitting (earth side) 5 Bottom end fitting (high-voltage side)
6 Upper corona ring (earth side) 7 Bottom corona ring (high-voltage side).
For all insulator types having no preinstalled corona rings and indicated
by the code X optional corona rings can be added, if requested. For
this, use the smallest corona ring available, i.e. catalog code S, please
refer to page 10 for further catalog numbering information.
2

Technical data 3FL5 and 3FL6


Highest
voltage for
equipment
based on
25 mm/kV

Lightning
impulse
withstand
voltage
(1.2/ 50 s,
dry)

Switching
impulse
withstand
voltage
(250/
2500 s,
positive,
wet)

Powerfrequency
withstand
voltage
(50 Hz,
1 min.,
wet)

Arcing
distance

Standard
creepage
distance
catalog
code: 3

Extra-high
creepage
distance
catalog
code: 4

Nominal
housing
length

Section
length*
with
Socket
and Ball

Um
kV

LIWV
kV

SIWV min
kV

PFWV
kV

S
mm

C
mm

C
mm

H
mm

L
mm

Catalog code

3FL_1-___2-_3_4_521-1_6_71

Grading ring App. net


diameter
weight for
top/bottom
standard
(earth-/HVcreepage
side)
distance

D
mm

W
kg

362

1,889

1,179

713

3,183

9,832

13,504

3,214

3,478

3FLx - 321-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

13.6

362

1,922

1,199

720

3,287

10,158

13,953

3,318

3,582

3FLx - 332-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

13.8

362

1,939

1,209

724

3,339

10,320

14,177

3,370

3,634

3FLx - 337-3SB21-1XM1

x / 330

14.0

420

1,971

1,229

732

3,398

10,645

14,625

3,474

3,738

3FLx - 347-3SB21-1SM1

210 / 330

15.1

420

2,004

1,248

740

3,502

10,971

15,074

3,578

3,842

3FLx - 358-3SB21-1SM1

210 / 330

15.4

420

2,037

1,268

748

3,606

11,296

15,523

3,682

3,946

3FLx - 368-3SB21-1SM1

210 / 330

15.6

420

2,054

1,278

752

3,658

11,459

15,747

3,734

3,998

3FLx - 373-3SB21-1SM1

210 / 330

15.8

420

2,070

1,288

756

3,710

11621

15,971

3,786

4,050

3FLx - 379-3SB21-1SM1

210 / 330

15.9

420

2,103

1,307

763

3,814

11,946

16,420

3,890

4,154

3FLx - 389-3SB21-1SM1

210 / 330

16.2

420

2,136

1,327

771

3,918

12,272

16,869

3,994

4,258

3FLx - 399-3SB21-1SM1

210 / 330

16.5

420

2,169

1,346

779

4,022

12,597

17,317

4,098

4,362

3FLx - 410-3SB21-1SM1

210 / 330

16.7

420

2,185

1,356

783

4,074

12,759

17,542

4,150

4,414

3FLx - 415-3SB21-1SM1

210 / 330

16.9

420

2,201

1,366

787

4,126

12,922

17,766

4,202

4,466

3FLx - 420-3SB21-1SM1

210 / 330

17.0

420

2,218

1,376

791

4,178

13,085

17,990

4,254

4,518

3FLx - 425-3SB21-1SM1

210 / 330

17.1

420

2,251

1,396

798

4,282

13,410

18,439

4,358

4,622

3FLx - 436-3SB21-1SM1

210 / 330

17.4

550

2,284

1,415

806

4,361

13,735

18,888

4,462

4,726

3FLx - 446-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

19.2

550

2,300

1,425

810

4,465

14,060

19,336

4,566

4,830

3FLx - 457-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

19.5

550

2,300

1,425

810

4,673

14,711

20,234

4,774

5,038

3FLx - 477-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

20.0

550

2,300

1,425

810

4,777

15,036

20,682

4,878

5,142

3FLx - 488-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

20.3

550

2,300

1,425

810

4,881

15,361

21,131

4,982

5,246

3FLx - 498-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

20.6

550

2,300

1,425

810

4,985

15,686

21,580

5,086

5,350

3FLx - 509-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

20.8

550

2,300

1,425

810

5,089

16,012

22,028

5,190

5,454

3FLx - 519-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

21.1

550

2,300

1,425

810

5,193

16,337

22,477

5,294

5,558

3FLx - 529-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

21.4

2,300

1,425

810

5,349

16,825

23,150

5,450

5,714

3FLx - 545-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

21.8

2,300

1,425

810

5,453

17,150

23,598

5,554

5,818

3FLx - 555-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

22.1

2,300

1,425

810

5,557

17,475

24,047

5,658

5,922

3FLx - 566-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

22.3

2,300

1,425

810

5,661

17,800

24,496

5,762

6,026

3FLx - 576-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

22.6

2,300

1,425

810

5,817

18,288

25,169

5,918

6,182

3FLx - 592-3SB21-1SL1

210 / 420

23.0

Section length adjustment table* for other end fittings combinations,


Base end fittings: Socket and Ball (catalog code: SB)

End fittings types and standards

Type

Standard

Catalog
code

Length
V

Upper end fitting


(earth side)

Bottom end fitting


(high-voltage side)

Catalog
code

Length change,
mm

Ball 20

IEC 60120

135 mm

Clevis 19L

Tongue 19L

CT

+25

Socket 20

IEC 60120

129 mm

Clevis 19L

Clevis 19L

CC

+26

Clevis 19L

IEC 60471

145 mm

Clevis 19L

Eye 25

CE

+34

Clevis 22L

IEC 60471

154 mm

Clevis 19L

Ball 20

CB

+16

Tongue 19L

IEC 60741

144 mm

Tongue 19L

Tongue 19L

TT

+24

Tongue 22L

IEC 60741

153 mm

Eye 25

Ball 20

EB

+24

Y-clevis 22

IEC 61466-1

156 mm

Eye 25

Eye 25

EE

+42

Eye 25

IEC 61466-1

153 mm

Y-clevis 22

Eye 25

YE

+45

Y-clevis 22

Ball 20

YB

+27

* To determine the section length of an insulator with a different end fitting combination than Socket and Ball, please add the appropriate adjustment section length shown in the table above.
For all other configurations not shown in this table, contact your Siemens representative.

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

255

256

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Transformers

5.1
Introduction
Transformers
5.1.1 Overview

258
258

5.2

Reliability and Project Performance

260

5.3

Transformer Loss Evaluation

262

5.4

Power Transformers

264

5.4.1 Large Power Transformers

264

5.4.2 Medium Power Transformers

265

5.4.3 Small Power Transformers

265

5.5

Reactors

266

5.6

Special Transformers
for Industrial Applications

267

5.7

Phase-Shifting Transformers

269

5.8

HVDC Transformers

270

5.9

Distribution Transformers

271

5.9.1 Liquid-Immersed Distribution Transformers


for European/US/Canadian Standard

271

5.9.2 Voltage Regulators

274

5.9.3 GEAFOL Cast-Resin Transformers

275

5.9.4 GEAFOL Special Transformers

280

5.10

Traction Transformers

292

5.11

Transformer Lifecycle Management

293

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

257

5 Transformers
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Overview
Whether in infrastructure systems, industry or households,
transformers always play a key role in the reliable transmission
and distribution of power. The construction, rated power,
voltage level and scope of the application are all key factors that
determine the transformers design.
Siemens provides the right transformer for every need from
compact distribution transformers to large power transformers
with ratings far above 1,000 MVA. The Siemens product range
covers all mainstream requirements like UHV DC applications,
low noise emission and environmentally friendly products with
alternative insulation liquids, also embedded in a complete
power system from generation via transmission to distribution
networks. The long-term reliability of a transformer begins with
its initial high quality. Then transformer lifecycle management
measures maintain that quality throughout the transformers
entire life.

Fig. 5.1-1 and table 5.1-1 are an overview of how various transformers can be used in a network.
Global footprint
Emerging countries are not just extended workbenches for
producing goods. First and foremost, they are important future
markets. Through its own local production and sales locations,
Siemens provides service to customers in the most important
global markets. The local presence of Siemens in many countries
also ensures that customers have better access to Siemens
services and that they benefit from an efficient and effective
distribution of Siemens resources as part of a global network. As
Siemens factories around the world develop and produce their
products, Siemens also encourages them to share their expertise.
Siemens meets the growing global demand for transformers in a
variety of ways: by further optimization of value-added steps in the
worldwide network, by use of approaches such as vertical integration and by the pursuit of programs for boosting productivity.

In 2015 the Ecodesign Directive from the European Commission takes effect. The new regulations will apply throughout
Europe starting from July 2015; an additional stage with
stricter minimum standards is planned for 2021. Find the
complete document HYPERLINK here: www.eceee.org/
ecodesign/products/distribution_power_transformers/
revised_ecodesign_directive

For further information:


www.siemens.com/energy/transformers

258

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Transformers
5.1 Introduction

Fig. 5.1-1: Product range of Siemens transformers


Generator and
system
transformers

Above 2.5 MVA up to more than 1,000 MVA, above 30 kV up to 1,500 kV (system and system

Phase shifters

To control the amount of active power by changing the effective phase displacement

Reactors

Liquid-immersed shunt and current-limiting reactors up to the highest rated powers


eactors for HVDC transmission systems
R

HVDC transformers

ransformers and smoothing reactors for bulk power transmission systems up to 800 kV DC
T
ransformers for DC coupling of different AC networks
T

Cast-resin
distribution and
power transformers
GEAFOL

100 kVA to more than 40 MVA, highest voltage for equipment up to 36 kV, of 3-phase or 1-phase

Liquid-immersed
distribution
Transformers

10 to 2,500 kVA, highest voltage for equipment up to 36 kV, with copper or aluminum windings,

Special
transformers for
industry

lectric arc furnace transformers


E
lectric arc furnace series reactors
E
DC electric arc furnace transformers
Rectifier transformers
Converter transformers for large drives
Traction transformers mounted on rolling stock

Traction
transformers

Transformer
lifecycle
management

interconnecting transformers, with separate windings or auto-connected), with on-load tap


changers or off-circuit tap changers, of 3-phase or 1-phase design

design, GEAFOL-SL substations

hermetically sealed or with conservator of 3- or 1-phase design


pole mounted transformers and distribution transformers acc. to IEC and CS/IEEE with amorphous
cores

ondition assessment and diagnostics


C
 nline monitoring
O
Consulting and expertise
Maintenance and lifecycle extension
Spare parts and accessories
Repair and retrofit
Transport, installation and comissioning

Table 5.1-1: Product range of Siemens transformers

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

259

Transformers
5.2 Reliability and Project
Performance
The quality strategy in the transformer business is based on the
three cornerstones of product, people and process quality
(fig. 5.2-1). The objective is to achieve the greatest customer
satisfaction with cost-efficient processes. This is only possible if
all employees are involved in the processes have a profound
understanding of the customer needs and specific requirements
in the transformer business.
The strategy is implemented in the form of mandatory elements.
These elements cover product and service quality, which is visible
to customers; personnel quality, which is achieved by training
and ongoing education; and process quality in all processes used.
Business and process-specific indicators must be used to ensure
that each single element is measurable and transparent.
Nine mandatory elements are defined:
Customer integration
Embedded quality in processes and projects
Consequent supplier management
Business-driven quality planning
Focused quality reporting
Qualification of employees on quality issues
Continuous improvement
Management commitment
Control and support role of quality manager.

Elements of quality (mandatory elements)


Customer integration
Customer integration depends on the consistent use of:
Analysis tools for customer requirements and market studies
Analysis of customer satisfaction
Professional management of feedback from and to the
customer
Complaint management.
Customer requirements need to be precisely defined in a specification. And the specification must be continuously updated
throughout the definition phase of a transformer project. The
actual requirements must also be available to all responsible
employees.
Rapid feedback loops in both directions are essential in order
to increase customer trust and satisfaction.
Siemens resolves customer complaints to the customers satisfaction in a timely manner through its complaint management
system.
Embedded quality in processes and projects
The quality of the processes used to produce a product has a
significant impact on the quality of the product that is actually
produced. Process discipline and process stability can be

260

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Product/Service
quality
Greatest possible
customer
satisfaction

Process
quality

Quality
strategy

... combined with


efficient processes
results in the best
cost position

Personnel
quality
... and best trained
and motivated employees

Fig. 5.2-1: Cornerstones of quality strategy

achieved by a high degree of process standardization. All processes should be standardized for all employees based on simple
procedures. If this condition is met, it is possible to implement
clearly defined work instructions (fig. 5.2-2).
Quality gates are placed at points in the process at which
quality-relevant decisions are necessary. The following quality
gates are mandatory for the power transformer business.
Bid approval
Entry order clarified
Release of design
Release of fully assembled transformer
Evaluation of project.
For each quality gate, there is a clear definition of participants,
preconditions, results (traffic light) and the escalation process, if
necessary. If the result is not acceptable, the process must be
stopped until all requirements are fulfilled.
Supplier management
The quality of the product depends not only on the quality of the
own processes but also on that of the suppliers. Problems and
costs caused by inadequate supplier quality can only be reduced
by a systematic supplier management process that includes:
Selection
Assessment
Classification
Development
Phasing out of suppliers as well as the support process
Supplier Qualification.

Transformers
5.2 Reliability and Project Perfomance

A further condition for a high level of supplier quality is close


cooperation with the suppliers. Joint development of requirements for suppliers and processes leads to continuous improvements in quality. In this context, supplier know-how can also be
used to create innovations. This aspect of the relationship with
suppliers is becoming more and more important, especially in
the transformer business.

SIEMENS

TPD
2.01.02

Core assembly stacking core


laminates

PEQ

SIEMENS
PEQ

Page 1/6

1. Purpose/objective
Process description for the manufacture of transformer core
within the tolerances which are laid down

applies to all the core forms of the power transformers


does not apply to the cores of compensating reactors
Adjusting the
construction
supports

3. Process overview/description

Business-driven quality planning


Planning quality means analyzing possible future scenarios and
anticipated problems and taking preventive steps to solve those
problems. It is crucial that both current and future critical business factors are considered in planning. That means that quality
is based on business-driven planning and specific objectives,
activities and quantitative indicators.

Stack of core laminations dimensions checked by the supplier to


ensure that they agree with the drawing
Frame parts dimensions checked by the supplier to ensure that they
agree with the drawing
Insulating parts dimensions checked by the supplier (internal ore
external )to ensure that they agree with the drawing
washers, small accessories Job related core drawings
Process report TPD 2.01.01

Tools
Assembly area with special support beams for fixing the core
laminations which have been put on into position

Stacking
core
laminates

Measure-Measure
ment

> Setting the middle distance of the support beams to one


another in accordance with the drawing guideline
> Tolerance +/5 mm to the desired size

Integrated slewing mechanism for mounting the finished core


> Setting the clearance of the support
trestles (on the support beams) for
the core-limb laminations

Process owner
Staff trained in core assembly

Adjusting
the support
trestles

> The position of support trestles are to be


placed in the middle between the single
bandages
> The position and clearance of the
bandages are defined in the core
drawing

Completed core with clamping frame also completely mounted


OUTPUT

Process report TPD 2.01.02


Max. sheet width BS
Measure-Measure
ment

Checked/approved:

Dr. Knorr

Clearance support trestles


The following clearances
apply to cores without
single bandages (e.g.
wound bandage cylinders):

References/guidelines, recommendations
Stack height tolerances as in drawing N00 08 792
Arrangement of the cooling duct shims as in drawing N10 11 100
Locking the screwed connections in accordance with TPD 3.036.01
Measurement of insulation resistance with TUQ 1634

Drawn up by: Matthes

As of date:

2004-02

Drawn up by:

Matthes

Checked/approved:

Middle distance
support trestles

< 650

550

650 to 800

450

800 to 1,000

350

1,000 to 1,200

300

1,200 to 1,500

The passing on as well as the duplication of this document. use and communication of its contents is not permitted. nor may thecontents be expressed. Offenders are liable to pay damages. All rights
reserved. in particular for the case of patent granting or GM-entry

Focused quality reporting


Reporting is based on:
Focused key performance indicators such as non-conformance
costs, external failure rate, internal failure rate and on-time
delivery
Concrete quality incidents
Root cause analysis of quality problems including definition of
corrective and preventive measures.

Page 1/6

Subprocess 1:
Setting up the construction devices and limit stops

2. Scope/application

INPUT
INPUT

TPD
2.01.02

Core assemblystacking core


laminates

4. Process sequence

Dr. Knorr

As of date:

250

2004-02

The passing on as well as the duplication of this document. use and communication of its contents is not permitted. nor may thecontents be expressed. Offenders are liable to pay damages. All rights
reserved. in particular for the case of patent granting or GM-entry

Fig. 5.2-2: Example of standardized working instruction

For customers, the reliability of transformers is of special importance. ANSI C57.117 has made an attempt to define failures.
Based on this definition, statistics on in-service failures and
reliability values can be derived. An example for power transformers appears in table 5.2-1.
Qualification of employees on quality issues
People are the decisive factor influencing quality. Therefore, all
employees involved in the processes must have the skills and
abilities appropriate to the quality aspects of the process steps
they perform. Any qualification measures that may be necessary
must be determined on the basis of a careful analysis of existing
deficits.

Continuous improvement
Because there is nothing that cannot be improved, continuous
improvement must be an integral part in all processes.
The objective is to continue optimizing each process step. This is
also the purpose of improvement teams. Appropriate coaching
of these teams should make it possible to reach almost all
employees.

E T TR In-service failure statistic 2000 2009 for power transformers


based on ANSI C 57.117

E T TR

Plant
1

Plant
2

Plant
3

Plant
4

Plant
5

Plant
6

Plant
7*

Plant
8

Plant
9

Plant
10

Plant
11

Plant
12

Plant
13*

Plant
14**

Plant
15

11,278

572

1,704

755

793

774

534

735

1,076

705

649

994

1007

980

SY

51,429

2,358

7,479

3,858

4,326

1,996

3,341

4,561

4,17

2,889

4,899

3,781

4,771

91

10

11

11

13

FRe (%)

0.18

0.38

0.09

0.26

0.37

0.02

0.55

0.09

0.13

0.05

0.24

0.16

0.08

0.27

MTBF (yrs)

565

262

1068

386

273

4,326

181

1,114

760

2,085

413

612

1,26

367

nF

* Plant 7 and 13: new plants; ** Plant 14: 9 years 2001 2009
N = No. of units in service
SY = No. of service years
nF = No. of units failed
FRe (%) = Failure rate = nF 100/SY
MTBF (yrs) = Mean time between failures = 100/FRe

FRe
0.5 % <
1.0 % <
1.5 % <
FRe >

0.5 %
FRe 1.0 %
FRe 1.5 %
FRe 2.0 %
2.0 %

excellent
good
satisfactory
acceptable
not acceptable

Table 5.2-1: In-service failure statistic

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

261

Transformers
5.2 Reliability and Project Perfomance

Methods like, Kaizen, 5S and methods and tools from Six Sigma
e.g. DMAIC circle, FMEA, IPO are helpful in supporting this
continuous improvement process (fig. 5.2-3).
Management commitment
Every manager in a company also bears responsibility for quality.
Thus, each managers actions must be characterized by a high
level of quality awareness.
The level of commitment shown by all levels of management in
the event of quality problems, the establishment of quality
demands and the creation of targeted quality controls in day-today work together produce a culture in which there is a high
level of quality.

The sharply increased cost of electrical energy has made it


almost mandatory for buyers of electrical machinery to carefully
evaluate the inherent losses of these items. For distribution and
power transformers, which operate continuously and most
frequently in loaded condition, this consideration is especially
important. As an example, the added cost of loss-optimized
transformers can in most cases be recovered via savings in
energy use in less than three years.

Control and support role of the quality manager


The role of the quality manager is of fundamental importance
for well-running processes. The quality manager combines a
supporting role with that of a neutral controller. Quality management must be directly involved in processes and projects.
The independence of the quality department and individual
quality managers in the processes and projects must be guaranteed and agreed by top management.

Low-loss transformers use more and better materials for their


construction and are thus intially more expensive than low-cost
transformers. By stipulating loss evaluation figures in the transformer inquiry, the manufacturer receives the necessary incentive to provide a loss-optimized transformer rather than the
low-cost model. Detailed loss evaluation methods for transformers have been developed and are described accurately in
the literature. These methods take the project-specific evaluation factors of a given customer into account.

Conclusion
The quality of a transformer is based on the quality of all processes that are necessary from project acquisition to project
closing. The quality of the processes depends essentially on
people. Only well-trained and motivated employees are able to
guarantee that a process will be performed with a high degree
of quality.

A simplified method for a quick evaluation of different quoted


transformer losses makes the following assumptions:
The transformers are operated continuously.
The transformers operate at partial load, but this partial load is
constant.
Additional cost and inflation factors are not considered.
Demand charges are based on 100 % load.

Define
Our process
should be like this

Check
DpMO

PONC x 1000 RMB

7000
6000
5000

DpMO
NCC

140
120
100

Measure

4000
3000
2000
1000
0

Are we
improving?

DMAIC
circle

Improve

What must be done


in order to achieve
the goal

How far are we


from the goal

Analyze

What is preventing
us to fulfill the
requirements

Fig. 5.2-3: DMAIC circle

ANSI Standard C57.117, 1986,


Guide for Reporting Failure Data for Power Transformers
and Shunt Reactors on Electric Utility Power Systems.

262

5.3 Transformer Loss


Evaluation

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

The total cost of owning and operating a transformer for one


year is thus defined as follows:
Capital cost (CC), taking into account the purchase price (Cp),
the interest rate (p) and the depreciation period (n)
Cost of no-load loss (CP0) based on the no-load loss (P0) and
energy cost (Ce)
Cost of load loss (CPk) based on the load loss (Pk), the
equivalent annual load factor (a) and energy cost (Ce)
Cost resulting from demand charges (Cd) based on the amount
set by the utility and the total kW of connected load (fig. 5.3-1).
The following examples show the difference between a low-cost
transformer and a loss-optimized transformer (fig. 5.3-2).
Note that the lowest purchase price is unlike the total cost of
ownership.

Transformers
5.3 Transformer Loss Evaluation

Capital cost

Example: Distribution transformer

taking into account the purchase price Cp, the interest rate p,
and the depreciation period n

Depreciation period
Interest rate
Depreciation factor
Energy charge
Demand charge
Equivalent annual load factor

Cc = Cp r / 100 [amount / year]


Cp = purchase price
r
q
p
n

= p . qn / (qn 1) = depreciation factor


= p / 100 + 1 = interest factor
= interest rate in % p.a
= depreciation period in years

Cost of no-load loss


based on the no-load loss P0, and energy cost Ce

CP0 = Ce 8,760 h / year . P0


Ce = energy charges [amount / kWh]
P0 = no-load loss [kW]

a2

Pk

a = constant opperation load / rated load


Pk = copper loss [kW]

Cost resulting from demand charges


based on the no-load loss P0, and energy cost Ce

CD = Cd (P0 + Pk)
Cd = demand charges [amount / (kW . year)]

Fig. 5.3-1: Calculation of the individual operation cost of a


transformer in one year

B. Loss-optimized transformer
P0 = 16 kW
no-load loss
Pk = 124 kW
load loss
C p = 585,000 purchase price

.
Cc = 521,000 13.39
100

.
C c = 585,000 13.39
100

= 69, 762 / year


CP0 = 0.25 . 8,760 . 19
= 41,610 / year

= 234,067 / year

based on the load loss Pk, the equivalent anual load factor a,
and energy cost Ce

= 0.8

no-load loss
P0 = 19 kW
Pk = 167 kW
load loss
Cp = 521,000 purchase price

CPk = 0.25 . 8,760 . 0.64 . 167

Cost of load loss

C Pk = Ce 8,760 h / year

A. Low-cost transformer

n = 20 years
p = 12 % p. a.
r = 13.39
Ce = 0.25 / kWh
Cd = 350 / (kW . year)

CD = 350 (19 + 167)


= 65,100 / year

Total cost of owning and operating


this transformer is thus:
410,539 / year

= 78,332 / year
C P0 = 0.25 8,760 16
= 35,040 / year

CPk = 0.25 8,760 0.64 124


= 170,624 / year
CD = 350 (16 + 124)
= 49,000 / year
Total cost of owning and operating
this transformer is thus:

332,996 / year

The energy saving of the optimized distribution transformer of


77,543 per year pays for the increased purchase price in less
than one year.
C. Minimum efficiency
as per CSA
P0 = 0.182 kW
Pk = 0.966 kW
Cp = 2,355

no-load loss
load loss
purchase price

D. High efficiency transformer


(Amorphous core)
P0 = 0.078 kW
Pk = 0.732 kW
Cp = 2,654

no-load loss
load loss
purchase price

.
Cc = 2,355 13.39
100

.
Cc = 2,654 13.39
100

= 315 / year

= 355 / year

CP0 = 0.25 . 8,760 . 0.182


= 399 / year
CPk = 0.25 . 8,760 . 0.64 . 0.966
= 1,354 / year
CD = 350 (0.182 + 0.966)
= 402 / year
Total cost of owning and operating
this transformer is thus:
2,470/ year

CP0 = 0.25 . 8,760 . 0.078


= 171 / year
CPk = 0.25 . 8,760 . 0.64 . 0.732
= 1,026 / year
CD = 350 (0.078 + 0.732)
= 284 / year
Total cost of owning and operating
this transformer is thus:
1,836 / year

The energy saving of the optimized distribution transformer of


634 per year pays for the increase purchase price in less
than one year.

Fig. 5.3-2: Example for cost saving with optimized distribution


transformer

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

263

Transformers
5.4 Power Transformers
5.4.1 Large Power Transformers
In the power range above 250 MVA, generator and network
intertie transformers with off-load or on-load tap changers, or a
combination of both, are recommended. Depending on the on-site
requirements, they can be designed as multiwinding transformers
or autotransformers, in 3-phase or 1-phase versions. Even with
ratings of more than 1,000 MVA and voltages up to 1,200 kV
(800 kV), the feasibility limits have not yet been reached. We
manufacture these units according to IEC 60076 as well as other
international and national standards (e.g., ANSI/IEEE), (fig. 5.4-1).
Generator step-up (GSU) transformers
GSU units transform the voltage up from the generator voltage
level to the transmission voltage level, which may be as high as
1,200 kV system voltage. Such transformers are usually YNd-connected.

In order to make an inquiry regarding a GSU power transformer,


the technical data for the items in this section are required.
Step-down transformers
Step-down transformers transform the voltage down from the
transmission voltage level to an appropriate distribution voltage
level. The power rating of step-down transformers may range up
to the power rating of the transmission line.

Fig. 5.4-1: Large power transformer

264

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

System interconnecting transformers


System interconnecting transformers connect transmission
systems with different voltages together so that active as well as
reactive power can be exchanged between the systems.
Main specification data
Standard
Installation indoor/outdoor
Max. ambient air temperature
Rated frequency f
Vector group
Rated power S
Primary rated voltage UrHV
Tapping range/taps
Voltage regulation
Secondary rated voltage UrLV
Impedance uk at Sr and Ur
Max. sound power level LWA
Insulation level HV-Ph Um/AC/LI
Insulation level HV-N Um/AC/LI
Insulation level LV-Ph Um/AC/LI
Type of cooling
HV connection technique
LV connection technique
Transportation medium
Losses.

Transformers
5.4 Power Transformers

5.4.2 Medium Power Transformers


Medium power transformers with a power range from 30 to
250 MVA and a voltage of over 72.5 kV are used as network and
generator step-up transformers (fig. 5.4-2).
Specific items
Transformer design according to national and international
standards (IEC/ANSI) with or without voltage regulation
3-phase or 1-phase
Tank-attached radiators or separate radiator banks.
Main specification data
Number of systems (HV, LV, TV)
Voltage and MVA rating
Regulation range and type
Vector group
Frequency
Losses or capitalization
Impedances
Type of cooling
Connection systems (bushing, cable)
Noise requirements (no-load, load and/or total noise)
Special insulation fluid
Application of high temperature/extra small size operation.

Fig. 5.4-2: Medium power transformer with natural-oil-based


insulation fluid

5.4.3 Small Power Transformers


Small power transformers are distribution transformers from 5 to
30 MVA with a maximum service voltage of 145 kV. They are used
as network transformers in distribution networks (fig. 5.4-3).
This type of transformer is normally a 3-phase application and
designed according to national and international standards. The
low-voltage windings should be designed as foil or layer windings. The high-voltage windings should use layer or disc execution, including transposed conductors. Normally, the cooling
type is ONAN (oil-natural, air-natural) or ONAF (oil-natural,
air-forced). The tapping can be designed with off-circuit or
on-load tap changers (OCTC or OLTC).
Main specification data
Voltage and MVA rating
Frequency
Regulation range and type
Vector group
Losses or capitalization
Impedances
Noise requirements
Connection systems (bushing, cable)
Weight limits
Dimensions
Information about the place of installation
Special insulation fluid
Application of high temperature/extra small size operation
Type of cooling.

Fig. 5.4-3: Small power transformer

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265

Transformers
5.5 Reactors
In AC networks, shunt reactors and series reactors are widely
used in the system to limit the overvoltage or to limit the shortcircuit current. With more high-voltage overhead lines with long
transmission distance and increasing network capacity, both
types of reactors play an important role in the modern network
system.
Made for every requirements
Oil-filled reactors are manufactured in two versions:
With an iron core divided by air gaps
Without an iron core, with a magnetic return circuit.
Oil-filled reactors offer individual solutions: They satisfy all the
specified requirements regarding voltage, rating, type of operation, low-noise and low loss and type of cooling, as well as transportation and installation.
The windings, insulation tank monitoring devices and connection method are practically the same as those found in the
construction of transformers.

Shunt reactors
For extra-high-voltage (EHV) transmission lines, due to the long
distance, the space between the overhead line and the ground
naturally forms a capacitor parallel to the transmission line,
which causes an increase of voltage along the distance.
Depending on the distance, the profile of the line and the power
being transmitted, a shunt reactor is necessary either at the line
terminals or in the middle. An liquid-immersed shunt reactor is a
solution. The advanced design and production technology will
ensure the product has low loss and low noise level.
Shunt reactors also can be built as adjustable shunt reactors.
This offers the possibility in fine tuning the system voltage and
also the reduction of high-voltage equipment by substitution
of several unregulated reactors by a regulated one.
Series reactors
When the network becomes larger, sometimes the short-circuit
current on a transmission line will exceed the short-circuit
current rating of the equipment. Upgrading of system voltage,
upgrading of equipment rating or employing high-impedance
transformers are far more expensive than installing liquidimmersed series reactors in the line. The liquid-immersed design
can also significantly save space in the substation.
Specification
Typically, 3-phase or 1-phase reactors should be considered first.
Apart from the insulation level of the reactor, the vector group,
overall loss level, noise level and temperature rise should be
considered as main data for the shunt reactor.
Although the above data are also necessary for series reactors,
the rated current, impedance and thermal/dynamic stability
current should also be specified.

266

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 5.5-1: Reactor

Transformers
5.6 Special Transformers for
Industrial Applications
A number of industry applications require specific industrial
transformers due to the usage of power (current) as a major
resource for production. Electric arc furnaces (EAF), ladle furnaces (LF) and high-current rectifiers need a specific design to
supply the necessary power at a low-voltage level. These transformer types, as well as transformers with direct connection to a
rectifier are called special-purpose or industrial transformers,
whose design is tailor-made for high-current solutions for
industry applications.
Electric arc furnace transformers
EAF and LF transformers are required for many different furnace
processes and applications. They are built for steel furnaces,
ladle furnaces and ferroalloy furnaces, and are similar to short or
submerged arc furnace transformers (fig. 5.6-1).
EAF transformers operate under very severe conditions with
regard to frequent overcurrents and overvoltages generated by
short circuit in the furnace and the operation of the HV circuitbreaker. The loading is cyclic. For long-arc steel furnace operation, additional series reactance is normally required to stabilize
the arc and optimize the operation of the furnace application
process.

5
Fig. 5.6-1: Electric arc furnace transformer

Specific items
EAF transformers are rigidly designed to withstand repeated
short-circuit conditions and high thermal stress, and to be
protected against operational overvoltages resulting from the
arc processes. The Siemens EAF reactors are built as 3-phase
type with an iron core, with or without magnetic return circuits.
Design options
Direct or indirect regulation
On-load or no-load tap changer (OLTC/NLTC)
Built-in reactor for long arc stability
Secondary bushing arrangements and designs
Air or water-cooled
Internal secondary phase closure (internal delta).
Main specification data
Rated power, frequency and rated voltage
Regulation range and maximum secondary current
Impedance and vector group
Type of cooling and temperature of the cooling medium
Series reactor and regulation range and type (OLTC/NLTC).
DC electric arc furnace transformers
Direct-current electric arc furnace (DC EAF) transformers are
required for many different furnace processes and applications.
They are built for steel furnaces with a Thyristor rectifier. DC EAF
transformers operate under very severe conditions, like rectifier
transformers in general but using rectifier transformers for
furnace operation. The loading is cyclic.

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267

Transformers
5.6 Special Transformers for Industrial Applications

Rectifier transformers
Rectifier transformers are combined with a diode or Thyristor
rectifier. The applications range from very large aluminum
electrolysis to various medium-size operations. The transformers
may have a built-in or a separate voltage regulation unit. Due to
a large variety of applications, they can have various designs up
to a combination of voltage regulation, rectifier transformers in
double-stack configuration, phase-shifting, interphase reactors,
transductors and filter-winding (fig. 5.6-2).
Specific items
Thyristor rectifiers require voltage regulation with a no-load tap
changer, if any. A diode rectifier will, in comparison, have a
longer range and a higher number of small voltage steps than an
on-load tap changer. Additionally, an auto-connected regulating
transformer can be built in the same tank (depending on transport and site limitations).
Design options
Thyristor or diode rectifier
On-load or no-load tap changer (OLTC/NLTC)/filter winding
Numerous different vector groups and phase shifts possible
Interphase reactor, transductors
Secondary bushing arrangements and designs
Air or water-cooled.

Main specification data


Rated power, frequency and rated voltage
Regulation range and number of steps
Impedance and vector group, shift angle
Type of cooling and temperature of the cooling medium
Bridge or interphase connection
Number of pulses of the transformer and system
Harmonics spectrum or control angle of the rectifier
Secondary bushing arrangement.
Converter transformers
Converter transformers are used for large drive application, static
voltage compensation (SVC) and static frequency change (SFC).
Specific items
Converter transformers are mostly built as double-tier, with two
secondary windings, allowing a 12-pulse rectifier operation.
Such transformers normally have an additional winding as a
filter to take out harmonics. Different vector groups and phase
shifts are possible.
Main specification data
Rated power, frequency and rated voltage
Impedance and vector group, shift angle
Type of cooling and temperature of the cooling medium
Number of pulses of the transformer and system
Harmonics spectrum or control angle of the rectifier.

268

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Fig. 5.6-2: Rectifier transformer for an aluminum plant

Line feeder
This kind of transformer realizes the connection between the
power network and the power supply for the train. Transformer
is operating in specific critical short-circuit condition and overload condition in very high frequencies per year, higher reliability is required to secure the train running in safety.
Main specification data
Rated power, frequency and rated voltage
Impedance and vector group
Overload conditions
Type of cooling and temperature of the cooling medium
Harmonics spectrum or control angle of the rectifier.
Design options
Direct connection between transmission network and railway
overheadcontactline
Frequence change via DC transformation
(e.g. 50 Hz 16,67 Hz)
Thyristor or diode rectifier
On-load or no-load tap changer (OLTC/NLTC)/filter winding
Secondary bushing arrangements and designs
Air or water-cooled.

Transformers
5.7 Phase-Shifting
Transformers
A phase-shifting transformer is a device for controlling the
power flow through specific lines in a complex power transmission network.The basic function of a phase-shifting transformer
is to change the effective phase displacement between the input
voltage and the output voltage of a transmission line, thus
controlling the amount of active power that can flow in the line.
Guidance on necessary information
Beside the general information for transformers, the following
specific data are of interest (fig. 5.7-1):
Rated MVA
The apparent power at rated voltage for which the phaseshifting transformer is designed.
Rated voltage
The phase-to-phase voltage to which operating and
performance characteristics are referred to at no-load.
Rated phase angle
Phase angle achieved when the phase-shifting transformer
is operated under no-load condition, or if stated at full load, at
which power factor.
Phase shift direction
In one or both directions. Changeover from and to under load
or no-load condition.
Tap positions
Minimum and/or maximum number of tap positions.
Impedance
Rated impedance at rated voltage, rated MVA and zero phase
shift connection as well as permissible change in impedance
with voltage and phase angle regulation.
System short-circuit capability
When the system short-circuit level is critical to the design of
phase-shifting transformers, the maximum short-circuit fault
level shall be specified.
BIL
Basic impulse level (BIL) of source, load and neutral terminals.
Special design tests
Besides the standard lightning impulse tests at all terminals, it
has to be considered that the lightning impulse might occur
simultaneously at the source and the load terminal in case of
closed bypass breaker. If such a condition is likely to appear
during normal operation, a BIL test with source and load
terminals connected might be useful to ensure that the phaseshifting transformer can withstand the stresses of lightning
strokes in this situation.
Special overload condition
The required overload condition and the kind of operation
(advance or retard phase angle) should be clearly stated.
Especially for the retard phase angle operation, the overload
requirements may greatly influence the cost of the phaseshifting transformer.

Fig. 5.7-1: Phase-shifting transformer

Operation of phase-shifting transformer


Operation with other phase-shifting transformers in parallel or
series.
Single or dual-tank design
In most cases, a dual-core design requires a dual-tank design
as well.
Symmetric or non-symmetric type
Symmetric means that under a no-load condition the voltage
magnitude at the load side is equal to that of the source side.
For non-symmetric phase-shifting transformers, the
permissible variation in percent of rated voltage at maximum
phase angle must be stated.
Quadrature or non-quadrature type
A quadrature-type phase-shifting transformer is a unit where
the boost voltage, which creates the phase shift between
source and load terminals, is perpendicular to the line voltage
on one terminal.
Internal varistors
It has to be clarified whether internal metal oxide varistors are
allowed or not.

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269

Transformers
5.8 HVDC Transformers
HVDC transformers are key components of HVDC stations. HVDC
converter and inverter stations terminate long-distance DC
transmission lines or DC sea cables. This type of transformer
provides the interface between AC grids and high power rectifiers and are used to control the load flow over the DC transmission lines. These actors adapt the AC grid voltage to an adequate
level which is suitable for feeding the valve system of DC converter and inverter.
Design options
The design concept of HVDC transformers is mainly influenced
by the rated voltage, rated power and transportation requirements like dimensions, weight and mode of transportation.
Many large power HVDC converter station are located in rural
areas of low infrastructure. Frequently, special geometrical
profiles have to be fulfilled in order to move such transformers
by railway.
Typically, HVDC transformers are single phase units containing
2 winding limbs. This concept can include either 2 parallel valve
windings (two for delta or two for wye system, fig. 5.8-1) or two
different valve windings (one for delta and one for wye,
fig. 5.8-2). In order to reduce the total transportation height
frequently the core assembly includes 2 return limbs. Due to
redundancy requirements in HVDC stations 3 phase units are
quite uncommon.

Fig. 5.8-1: Converter transformer for UHVDC bipolar transmission


system 800 kVDC, 6,400 MW; 2,071 km: single phase;
550 kVAC, 816 kVDC; 321 MVA; high pulse wye system
feeding

The valve windings are exposed to AC and DC dielectric stress


and therefore a special insulation assembly is necessary. Furthermore, special lead systems connecting the turrets and windings
have to be installed in order to withstand the DC voltage of
rectifier. Additionally, the load current contains harmonic components of considerable energy resulting in higher losses and
increased noise. Above all, special bushings are necessary for
the valve side to access upper and lower winding terminals of
each system from outside. Conclusively, two identical bushings
are installed for star or delta system.
Fig. 5.8-2: Converter transformer for HVDC bipolar transmission
system 500 kVDC; 2,500 MW: single phase; 420 kVAC;
515 kVDC; 397 MVA; wye system (left side of figure) and
delta system (right side of figure)

For approving the proper design and quality of manufacturing


special applied DC and DC polarity reversal tests have to be
carried out. The test bay has to be equipped with DC test apparatus accordingly and needs to provide adequate geometry to
withstand the DC test voltage.

270

Technical items
In addition to the standard parameters of power transformers,
special performance requirements have to be known for the
design of HVDC transformers. These parameters are jointly
defined by designers of the HVDC station and transformer design
engineers in order to reach a cost-effective design for the entire
equipment.

Special parameters are:


Test levels: DC applied, DC polarity reversal and long-time AC
defines the insulation assembly of the transformer
Harmonic spectrum of the load current and phase relation

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

generate additional losses, which have to compensated by the


cooling circuit
Voltage impedance impacting the dimensions of windings and
the total height of the transformer
DC bias in load and current and transformer-neutral have to be
considered for no-load noise and no-load losses
Derivative of the load current (di/dt) is a key parameter for the
on-load tap changer
Overload requirements have to be considered for cooling
circuit and capacity of coolers
Regulation range and number of steps influence the voltage
per turn which is a key design parameter
Seismic requirements have to be considered for mechanical
strength of turrets, outlets and bushings.

Transformers
5.9 Distribution
Transformers
5.9.1 Liquid-Immersed Distribution
Transformers for European/US/
Canadian Standard
On the last transformation step from the power plant to the
consumer, distribution transformers (DT) provide the necessary
power for systems and buildings. Accordingly, their operation
must be reliable, efficient and, at the same time, silent.
Distribution transformers are used to convert electrical energy
of higher voltage, usually up to 36 kV, to a lower voltage,
usually 250 up to 435 V, with an identical frequency before and
after the transformation. Application of the product is mainly
within suburban areas, public supply authorities and industrial
customers.

Fig. 5.9-1: 1-phase DT, pole-mounted, Canada

Distribution transformers are fail-safe, economical and have a


long life expectancy. These fluid-immersed transformers can be
1-phase or 3-phase. During operation, the windings can be
exposed to high electrical stress by external overloads and high
mechanical stress by short circuits. They are made of copper or
aluminum. Low-voltage windings are made of strip or flat wire,
and the high-voltage windings are manufactured from round
wire or flat wire.
Three product classes standard, special and renewable
are available, as follows:
Standard distribution transformers:
1- or 3-phase, pole-mounted (fig. 5.9-1) or pad-mounted
(fig. 5.9-2), wound or stacked core technology distribution
transformer ( 2,500 kVA, Um 36 kV)
Medium distribution transformer (> 2,500 6,300 kVA,
Um 36 kV)
Large distribution transformer
(> 6.3 30.0 MVA, Um 72.5 kV)
Special distribution transformers:
Special application: self-protected DT, regulating DT, lowemission DT or others (autotransformer, transformer for
converters, double-tier, multiwinding transformer, earthing
transformer)
Environmental focus: amorphous core DT with significant
low no-load losses, DT with special low load-loss design,
low-emission DT in regard of noise and/or electromagnetic
field emissions, DT with natural or synthetic ester where
higher fire-resistance and/or biodegradability is required
Renewable distribution transformers:
Used in wind power plants, solar power plants or sea flow/
generator power plants.

Fig. 5.9-2: 3-phase DT, pad-mounted

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271

Transformers
5.9 Distribution Transformers

Oil distribution transformer selection table Technical data, dimensions and weights
Rated
power

Rated
medium
voltage

Impedance
voltage*

No-load
losses *

Load
losses*

Total
losses*

Sn
[kVA]

Um
[kV]

U2
[%]

PO
[W]

Pk 75
[W]

100

12

210

4
4
24

160

12

24

250

12

24

400

12

24

630

12

24

800

12

24

272

Sound
power
level*

Total
weight*

Length

Width

Height

PO +
Pk 75
[W]

Sound
press.
level
1 m*
LPA
[dB]

LPA
[dB]

GGES
[kg]

A1
[mm]

B1
[mm]

H1
[mm]

Distance
between
wheel
centers
E
[mm]

1,750

1,960

34

49

640

1,050

800

1,350

520

210

1,475

1,685

34

49

650

1,000

800

1,350

520

145

1,475

1,620

33

41

625

950

750

1,400

520

210

1,750

1,960

34

49

640

1,050

800

1,350

520

210

1,475

1,685

34

49

650

1,000

800

1,350

520

145

1,475

1,620

33

41

625

950

750

1,400

520

300

2,350

2,650

36

52

740

1,100

800

1,350

520

300

2,000

2,300

36

52

810

1,050

875

1,400

520

210

2,000

2,210

34

44

750

1,100

825

1,450

520

300

2,350

2,650

36

52

740

1,100

800

1,350

520

300

2,000

2,300

36

52

810

1,050

875

1,400

520

210

2,000

2,210

34

44

750

1,100

825

1,450

520

425

3,250

3,675

39

55

980

1,150

850

1,450

520

425

2,750

3,175

39

55

1100

1,150

1,000

1,500

520

300

2,750

3,050

37

47

1050

1,150

850

1,600

520

425

3,250

3,675

39

55

980

1,150

850

1,450

520

425

2,750

3,175

39

55

1100

1,150

1,000

1,500

520

300

2,750

3,050

37

47

1050

1,150

850

1,600

520

610

4,600

5,210

41

58

1,230

1,200

900

1,550

670

610

3,850

4,460

41

58

1,450

1,350

1,050

1,650

670

430

3,850

4,280

39

49

1,400

1,250

950

1,650

670

610

4,600

5,210

41

58

1,230

1,200

900

1,550

670

610

3,850

4,460

41

58

1,450

1,350

1,050

1,650

670

430

3,850

4,280

39

49

1,400

1,250

950

1,650

670

860

6,500

7,360

43

60

1,660

1,550

950

1,700

670

860

5,400

6,260

43

60

1,950

1,550

1,100

1,700

670

600

5,400

6,000

41

52

2,050

1,450

1,100

1,800

670

800

6,750

7,550

43

60

1,670

1,600

1,000

1,650

670

800

5,600

6,400

43

60

2,050

1,650

1,100

1,700

670

560

5,600

6,160

41

52

2,100

1,400

1,100

1,775

670

860

6,500

7,360

43

60

1,660

1,550

950

1,700

670

860

5,400

6,260

43

60

1,950

1,550

1,100

1,700

670

600

5,400

6,000

41

52

2,050

1,450

1,100

1,800

670

800

6,750

7,550

43

60

1,670

1,600

1,000

1,650

670

800

5,600

6,400

43

60

2,050

1,650

1,100

1,700

670

560

5,600

6,160

41

52

2,100

1,400

1,100

1,775

670

930

8,400

9,330

45

62

2,070

1,650

1,050

1,650

670

930

7,000

7,930

45

62

2,400

1,700

1,200

1,750

670

650

7,000

7,650

43

53

2,600

1,800

1,125

1,825

670

930

8,400

9330

45

62

2,070

1,650

1,050

1,650

670

930

7,000

7930

45

62

2,400

1,700

1,200

1,750

670

650

7,000

7,650

43

53

2,600

1,800

1,125

1,825

670

Siemens Energy Sector Power Engineering Guide Edition 7.1

Transformers
5.9 Distribution Transformers
Oil distribution transformer selection table Technical data, dimension and weights
Rated
power

Rated
medium
voltage

Impedance
voltage*

No-load
losses *

Load
losses*

Total
losses*

Sn
[kVA]

Um
[kV]

U2
[%]

PO
[W]

Pk 75
[W]

1,000

12

1,100

1,100

24

1,250

12

24

1,600

12

24

2,000

12

24

2,500

12

24

Sound
power
level*

Total
weight*

Length

Width

Height

PO +
Pk 75
[W]

Sound
press.
level
1 m*
LPA
[dB]

LPA
[dB]

GGES
[kg]

A1
[mm]

B1
[mm]

H1
[mm]

Distance
between
wheel
centers
E
[mm]

10,500

11,600

45

63

2,390

1,800

1,150

1850

820

9,000

10,100

45

63

2,800

2,050

1,400

1,900

820

770

9,000

9,770

43

55

2,900

1,850

1,150

2,050

820

1,100

10,500

11,600

45

63

2,390

1,800

1,150

1,850

820

1,100

9,000

10,100

45

63

2,800

2,050

1,400

1,900

820

770

9,000

9,770

43

55

2,900

1,850

1,150

2,050

820

1,350

13,500

14,850

46

64

3,125

1,850

1,160

1,850

820

1,350

11,000

12,350

46

64

2,950

1,600

1,050

1,650

820

950

11,000

11,950

44

56

3,150

1,600

1,140

1,800

820

1,350

13,500

14,850

46

64

3,125

1,850

1,160

1,850

820

1,350

11,000

12,350

46

64

2,950

1,600

1,050

1,650

820

950

11,000

11,950

44

56

3,150

1,600

1,140

1,800

820

1,700

17,000

18,700

47

66

3,570

1,870

1,150

1,950

820

1,700

14,000

15,700

47

66

3,980

1,600

1,130

2,120

820

1,200

14,000

15,200

45

58

3,660

1,770

1,010

1,980

820

1,700

17,000

18,700

47

66

3,570

1,870

1,150

1,950

820

1,700

14,000

15,700

47

66

3,980

1,600

1,130

2,120

820

1,200

14,000

15,200

45

58

3,660

1,770

1,010

1,980

820

2,100

21,000

23,100

48

68

4,480

2,110

1,380

1,900

1,070

2,100

18,000

20,100

48

68

4,500

1,830

1,380

2,200

1,070

1,450

18,000

19,450

46

60

4,200

1,920

1,380

2,150

1,070

2,100

21,000

23,100

48

68

4,480

2,110

1,380

1,900

1,070

2,100

18,000

20,100

48

68

4,500

1,830

1,380

2,200

1,070

1,450

18,000

19,450

46

60

4,200

1,920

1,380

2,150

1,070

2,500

26,500

29,000

51

71

5,220

2,160

1,390

2,100

1,070

2,500

22,000

24,500

51

71

5,300

1,900

1,380

2,300

1,070

1,750

22,000

23,750

46

63

5,200

1,980

1,380

2,250

1,070

2,500

26,500

29,000

51

71

5,220

2,160

1,390

2,100

1,070

2,500

22,000

24,500

51

71

5,300

1,900

1,380

2,300

1,070

1,750

22,000

23,750

46

63

5,200

1,980

1,380

2,250

1,070

Dimensions and weights are approximate values and valid for 400 V on the secondary side, vector-group is Dyn 5.
Rated power figures in parentheses are not standardized.
* Remarks: The guaranteed values are subject to tolerance according to IEC standards as follows:
Impedance voltage: 10%
No-load losses: + 15%
Load losses: + 15%
Total losses (No-load losses + Load losses): +10%
Sound pressure level: + 3 dB (A)
Sound power level: + 3 dB(A)
Rated power > 2500 kVA to 12 MVA upon request.
Loss values according to new EU Directive:
Rated power 1000 kVA > A0 / Ck
Rated power > 1000 kVA > A0 / Bk

Table 5.9-1: Oil distribution transformer selection table Technical data, dimensions and weights

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Transformers
5.9 Distribution Transformers

5.9.2 Voltage Regulators


Siemens invented the voltage regulator in 1932 and pioneered
its use in the United States. Voltage Regulators are tapped step
autotransformers used to ensure that a desired level of voltage
is maintained at all times. A voltage regulator comprises a
tapped autotransformer and a tap changer. The standard
voltage regulator provides 10 % adjustment in thirty-two
0.625 % steps. Voltage Regulators with 15 % and 20 %
regulation are available for some designs.
Voltage regulators are liquid-immersed and can be 1-phase or
3-phase. They may be self-cooled or forced air-cooled. Available
at 50 or 60 Hz and with 55 or 65 C temperature rise, they can
be used in any electrical system to improve voltage quality.
Voltage regulator ratings are based on the percent of regulation
(i.e., 10 %). For example, a set of three 1-phase 333 kVA regulators would be used with a 10 MVA transformer (e.g., 10 MVA
0.10/3 = 333 kVA). 1-phase voltage regulators are available in
ratings ranging from 2.5 kV to 19.9 kV and from 38.1 kVA to
889 kVA (fig. 5.9-3). 3-phase voltage regulators are available at
13.2 kV or 34.5 kV and from 500 kVA to 4,000 kVA.

Auxiliary PT
Operation at different voltages.
Testing
All voltage regulators shall be tested in accordance with the
latest ANSI C57.15 standards.
Standard tests include:
Resistance measurements of all windings
Ratio tests on all tap locations
Polarity test
No-load loss at rated voltage and rated frequency
Excitation current at rated voltage and rated frequency
Impedance and load loss at rated current and rated frequency
Applied potential
Induced potential
Insulation power factor test
Impulse test
Insulation resistance.

Voltage regulators can be partially or completely untanked for


inspection and maintenance without disconnecting any internal
electrical or mechanical connections. After the unit is untanked,
it is possible to operate the voltage regulator mechanism and
test the control panel from an external voltage source without
any reconnections between the control and the regulator.
Standard external accessories
The standard accessories are as follows:
External metal-oxide varistor (MOV) bypass arrester
Cover-mounted terminal block with a removable gasketed
cover. It allows easy potential transformer reconnections
for operation at different voltages
Oil sampling valve
Two laser-etched nameplates
External oil sight gauge that indicates oil level at 25 C
ambient air temperature and oil color
External position indicator that shows the tap changer position
Mounting bosses for the addition of lightning arresters to the
source (S), load (L) and source-load (SL) bushings. They shall
be fully welded around their circumference.
Accessories and options
Remote mounting kit
Extra-long control cable shall be provided for remote mounting
of the control cabinet at the base of the pole.
Sub-bases
To raise the voltage regulator to meet safe operating clearances
from the ground to the lowest live part.

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Fig. 5.9-3: 1-phase voltage


regulator, JFR

Transformers
5.9 Distribution Transformers

5.9.3 GEAFOL Cast-Resin Transformers


GEAFOL transformers have been in successful service since
1965. Many licenses have been granted to major manufacturers
throughout the world since then. Over 100,000 units have
proven themselves in power distribution or converter operation
all around the globe.
Advantages and applications
GEAFOL distribution and power transformers in ratings from 100
to approximately 50,000 kVA and lightning impulse (LI) values
up to 250 kV are full substitutes for liquid-immersed transformers with comparable electrical and mechanical data. They
are designed for indoor installation close to their point of use at
the center of the major load consumers. The exclusive use of
flame-retardant insulating materials frees these transformers
from all restrictions that apply to oil-filled electrical equipment,
such as the need for oil collecting pits, fire walls, fire extinguishing equipment. For outdoor use, specially designed sheet
metal enclosures are available.

GEAFOL transformers are installed wherever oil-filled units


cannot be used or where use of liquid-immersed transformers
would require major constructive efforts such as inside buildings, in tunnels, on ships, cranes and offshore platforms, inside
wind turbines, in groundwater catchment areas and in food
processing plants. For outdoor use, specially designed sheet
metal enclosures are available.
Often these transformers are combined with their primary and
secondary switchgear and distribution boards into compact
substations that are installed directly at their point of use.
When used as static converter transformers for variable speed
drives, they can be installed together with the converters at the
drive location. This reduces construction requirements, cable
costs, transmission losses and installation costs.
GEAFOL transformers are fully LI-rated. Their noise levels are
comparable to oil-filled transformers. Taking into account the
indirect cost reductions just mentioned, they are also mostly

5
Three-leg core
Made of grain-oriented,
low-loss electrolaminations
insulated on both sides

LV terminals
Normal arrangement:
Top, rear
Special version:
Bottom, available on
request at extra charge

LV winding
Made of aluminum strip.
Turns firmly glued together
by means of preimpregnated
fibres (Prepreg)
HV terminals
Variable arrangements,
for optimal station design.
HV tapping links for
adjustment to system
conditions, reconnectable
in de-energized state*
Temperature monitoring
By PTC or Pt 100 thermistor
detectors in the LV winding
Paint finish
on steel parts
Two-component varnish
RAL 5009 (for aggressive
environments or high
humidity several layers)

Ambient class E2
Climatic category C2
(If the transformer is installed
outdoors, degree of protection
IP23 must be assured)
Fire class F1

* on-load tap changers on request

HV winding
Consisting of vacuum-potted
single foil-type aluminum coils.
See enlarged detail
in fig. 5.9-5
Insulation
Mixture of epoxy resin
and quartz powder
makes the transformer
practically maintenancefree, moisture-proof,
tropicalized, flame-resistant
and self-extinguishing
Resilient spacers
To insulate core and
windings from mechanical
vibrations, resulting in low
noise emissions
Clamping frame and truck
Rollers can be swung
around for lengthways
or sideways travel

Fig. 5.9-4: GEAFOL cast-resin dry-type transfomer properties

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275

Transformers
5.9 Distribution Transformers

cost-competitive. By virtue of their design, GEAFOL transformers


are practically maintenance-free.
Standards and regulations
GEAFOL cast-resin dry-type transformers comply with
VDE 0532-76-11, IEC 60076-11/DIN EN 60076-11 and
DIN EN 50541-1. On request other standards, such as GOST,
SABS or CSA/ANSI/IEEE, can also be taken into account.
Characteristic properties (fig. 5.9-4)
HV winding
The high-voltage windings are wound from aluminum foil
interleaved with high-grade insulating foils. The assembled and
connected individual coils are placed in a heated mold and are
potted in a vacuum furnace with a mixture of pure silica (quartz
sand) and specially blended epoxy resins. The only connections
to the outside are casted brass nuts that are internally
bonded to the aluminum winding connections.
The external delta connections are made of
insulated copper or aluminum connectors to
guarantee an optimal installation design. The resulting highvoltage windings are fire-resistant, moisture-proof and corrosion-proof, and they show excellent aging properties under all
operating conditions.

The foil windings combine a simple winding technique with a


high degree of electrical safety. The insulation is subjected to
less electrical stress than in other types of windings. In a conventional round-wire winding, the interturn voltages can add up to
twice the interlayer voltage. In a foil winding, it never exceeds
the voltage per turn, because a layer consists of only one
winding turn. This results in high AC voltage and impulse
voltage withstand capacity (fig. 5.9-5).
One reason for using aluminum is because the thermal expansion
coefficients of aluminum and cast resin are so similar that thermal
stresses resulting from load changes are kept to a minimum.
LV winding
The standard low-voltage winding with its considerably reduced
dielectric stresses is wound from single aluminum sheets with
epoxy-resin preimpregnated fiberglass fabrics (Pregreg).
The assembled coils are then oven-cured to form uniformly
bonded solid cylinders that are impervious to moisture. Through
the single-sheet winding design, excellent dynamic stability
under short-circuit conditions is achieved. Connections are
submerged arc-welded to the aluminum sheets and are extended
either as aluminum or copper bars to the secondary terminals.
Fire safety
GEAFOL transformers use only flame-retardant and selfextinguishing materials in their construction. No additional
substances, such as aluminum oxide trihydrate, which could
negatively influence the mechanical stability of the cast-resin
molding material, are used. Internal arcing from electrical faults

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Round-wire winding
The interturn voltages can add up
to twice the interlayer voltage

U
2468

1357
Foil winding
The interlayer voltage is equal
to the interturn voltage
Fig. 5.9-5: High-voltage encapsulated winding design of
GEAFOL cast-resin transformer and voltage stress of a
conventional round-wire winding (above) and the foil
winding (below)

Transformers
5.9 Distribution Transformers

and externally applied flames do not cause the transformers to


burst or burn. After the source of ignition is removed, the transformer is self-extinguishing. This design has been approved by
fire officials in many countries for installation in populated
buildings and other structures. The environmental safety of the
combustion residues has been proven in many tests (fig. 5.9-6).
Categorization of cast-resin transformers
Dry-type transformers have to be classified under the categories
listed below:
Environmental category
Climatic category
Fire category.
These categories have to be shown on the rating plate of each
dry-type transformer.
The properties laid down in the standards for ratings within the
category relating to environment (humidity), climate and fire
behavior have to be demonstrated by means of tests.

Fig. 5.9-6: Flammability test of cast-resin transformer

These tests are described for the environmental category


(code numbers E0, E1 and E2) and for the climatic category
(code numbers C1 and C2) in IEC 60076-11. According to this
standard, the tests are to be carried out on complete transformers. The tests of fire behavior (fire category code numbers
F0 and F1) are limited to tests on a duplicate of a complete
transformer that consists of a core leg, a low-voltage winding
and a high-voltage winding.
GEAFOL cast-resin transformers meet the requirements of the
highest defined protection classes:
Environmental category E2 (optionally E3 according
to IEC 60076-16 wind turbines application)
Climatic category C2 *1)
Fire category F1
Insulation class and temperature rise
The high-voltage winding and the low-voltage winding utilize
class F insulating materials with a mean temperature rise of
100 K (standard design).
Overload capability
GEAFOL transformers can be overloaded permanently up to 50 %
(with a corresponding increase in impedance voltage and load
losses) if additional radial cooling fans are installed (dimensions
can increase by approximately 100 mm in length and width.)
(fig. 5.9-7). Short-time overloads are uncritical as long as the
maximum winding temperatures are not exceeded for extended
periods of time (depending on initial load and ambient air
temperature).
Temperature monitoring
Each GEAFOL transformer is fitted with three temperature
sensors installed in the LV winding, and a solid-state tripping
device with relay output. The PTC thermistors used for sensing
are selected for the applicable maximum hot-spot winding
temperature.

Fig. 5.9-7: Radial cooling fans on GEAFOL transformer for AF cooling

Um (kV)

LI (kV) *2)

AC (kV) *2)

1.1

12

75

28

24

95/125

50

36

145 /170

70

*2) other levels upon request

Table 5.9-2: Standard insulation levels of GEAFOL

*1) On request designs for ambient air temperature below 25

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Transformers
5.9 Distribution Transformers

C are available
Additional sets of sensors can be installed, e.g. for fan control
purposes. Alternatively, Pt100 sensors are available. For operating voltages of the LV winding of 3.6 kV and higher, special
temperature measuring equipment can be provided.
Auxiliary wiring is run in a protective conduit and terminated in
a central LV terminal box (optional). Each wire and terminal is
identified, and a wiring diagram is permanently attached to the
inside cover of this terminal box.
Installation and enclosures
Indoor installation in electrical operating rooms or in various
sheet metal enclosures is the preferred method of installation.
The transformers need to be protected only against access to the
terminals or the winding surfaces, against direct sunlight and
against water. Unless sufficient ventilation is provided by the
installation location or the enclosure, forced-air cooling must be
specified or provided by others.
Instead of the standard open terminals, plug-type elbow connectors can be supplied for the high-voltage side with LI ratings
up to 170 kV. Primary cables are usually fed to the transformer
from trenches below but can also be connected from above
(fig. 5.9-8).

Secondary connections can be made by multiple insulated


cables, or by connecting bars from either below or above.
Terminals are made of aluminum (copper upon request).
A variety of indoor and outdoor enclosures in different protection classes are available for the transformers alone, or for
indoor compact substations in conjunction with high-voltage
and low-voltage switchgear panels. PEHLA-tested housings are
also available (fig. 5.9-9).
Cost-effective recycling
The oldest of the GEAFOL cast-resin transformers that entered
production in the mid-1960s are approaching the end of their
service life. Much experience has been gathered over the years
with the processing of faulty or damaged coils from such transformers. The metal materials and resin used in GEAFOL cast-resin
transformers, that is, approximately 95 % of their total mass, can

Fig. 5.9-8: GEAFOL transformer with plug-type cable connections

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Fig. 5.9-9: GEAFOL transformer in protective housing to IP20/40

be recyled. The process used is non-polluting. Given the value of


secondary raw materials, the procedure is often cost-effective,
even with the small amounts currently being processed.
The GEAFOL Basic a true GEAFOL and more
The GEAFOL Basic is based on almost 50 years of proven GEAFOL
technology and quality, but it offers numerous innovations that
has allowed Siemens to provide it with several very special
characteristics. For example, the GEAFOL Basic distribution
transformer with a maximum rated power of 3.15 MVA and a
maximum medium voltage of 36 kV is almost ten percent lighter
than a comparable model from the proven GEAFOL series. And
this slimming down also positively affects the dimensions. This
could be achieved by a considerably improved heat dissipation
because of the new, patented design.
Of course all GEAFOL Basic distribution transformers meet the
specifications of VDE 0532-76-11/IEC 60076-11/DIN EN 60076-11
and DIN EN 50541-1. They meet the highest requirements for safe
installation in residential and work environments with Climatic
Class C2, Environmental Class E2 and Fire Classification F1. With
fewer horizontal surfaces, less dust is deposited, which leads to a
further reduction in the already minimal time and effort needed
for maintenance and also increases operational reliability.
Optimum compromise
The GEAFOL Basic distribution transformer represents an
optimum compromise between performance, safety and small
dimensions. In addition, the high degree of standardization
ensures the best possible cost-benefit ratio. Thanks to their
compact shape and comprehensive safety certification, GEAFOL
Basic distribution transformers can be used in almost every
environment.

Transformers
5.9 Distribution Transformers

6
2

9
3

A new design for your success


the reliable, space-saving GEAFOL Basic

1 Three-limb core made of


grain-oriented, low-loss electric
sheet steel insulated on both sides
2 Low-voltage winding made
of aluminum strip; turns are permanently bonded with insulating sheet
3 High-voltage winding made
of individual aluminum coils using
foil technology and vacuum casting
4 Low-voltage connectors (facing up)
5 Lifting eyes integrated into the
upper core frame for simple transport

6 Delta connection tubes


with HV terminals
7 Clamping frame and truck
Convertible rollers for longitudinal
and transverse travel
8 Insulation made of an epoxy
resin/quartz powder mixture
makes the transformer extensively
maintenance-free, moisture-proof
and suitable for the tropics,
fire-resistant and self-extinguishing
9 High-voltage tappings 2 x 2.5 %
(on the high-voltage terminal side)
to adapt to the respective network
conditions; reconnectable off load

Temperature monitoring with PTC thermistor


detector in limb V of the low-voltage winding
(in all three phases on request)
Painting of steel parts
high-build coating, RAL 5009 on request:
two-component coating (for particularly
aggressive environments)
Structure made of individual components,
for example, windings can be individually
assembled and replaced on site
Climatic Class C2
Environmental Class E2
Fire Classification F1

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Transformers
5.9 Distribution Transformers

5.9.4 GEAFOL Special Transformers

GEAFOL cast-resin transformers with oil-free


on-load tap changers (OLTC)
The voltage-regulating cast-resin transformers connected on the
load side of the medium-voltage power supply system feed the
plant-side distribution transformers. The on-load tap changer
controlled transformers used in these medium-voltage systems
need to have appropriately high ratings.

under control. However, the maximum control range utilizes


only 20 % of the rated voltage.

Siemens offers suitable transformers with OLTC in its GEAFOL


design (fig. 5.9-10), which has proved successful over many
years and is available in ratings of up to 50 MVA. The range of
rated voltage extends to 36 kV, and the maximum impulse
voltage is 200 kV. The main applications of this type of transformer are in modern industrial plants, hospitals, office and
apartment blocks and shopping centers.

The effects of such conversion equipment on transformers and


additional construction requirements are as follows:
Increased load by harmonic currents
Balancing of phase currents in multiple winding systems
(e.g., 12-pulse systems)
Overload capability
Types for 12-pulse systems, if required

Linking 1-pole tap changer modules together by means of


insulating shafts produces a 3-pole on-load tap changer for
regulating the output voltage of 3-phase GEAFOL transformers.
In its nine operating positions, this type of tap changer has a
rated current of 500 A and a rated voltage of 900 V per step.
This allows voltage fluctuations of up to 7,200 V to be kept

Siemens supplies oil-filled converter transformers of all ratings


and configurations known today, and dry-type cast-resin converter transformers up to 50 MVA and 250 kV LI (fig. 5.9-11).

Transformers for static converters


These are special cast-resin power transformers that are
designed for the special demands of thyristor converter or diode
rectifier operation.

To define and quote for such transformers, it is necessary to


know considerable details on the converter to be supplied and

Fig. 5.9-10: 16/22-MVA GEAFOL cast-resin transformer with oil-free on-load tap changer

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Transformers
5.9 Distribution Transformers

on the existing harmonics. These transformers are almost exclusively inquired together with the respective drive or rectifier
system and are always custom-engineered for the given application.
Neutral earthing transformers
When a neutral earthing reactor or earth-fault neutralizer is
required in a 3-phase system and no suitable