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FRE

606(b)Jurors
Competency
asaWitness
During
Inquiry

401Relevance

Description
Duringaninquiryintothevalidityofaverdict/
indictment,ajurormaynottestifyaboutany
statementmadeorincidentthatoccurredduring
thejurysdeliberations;theeffectofanything
onthatjurors/anotherjurorsvote;orany
jurorsmentalprocessesconcerningtheverdict
ofindictment.Thecourtmaynotreceivea
jurorsaffidavitorevidenceofajurors
statementonthesematters.
Exceptions:Ajurormaytestifyaboutwhether
extraneousprejudicialinformationwas
improperlybroughttothejurysattention,an
outsideinfluencewasimproperlybroughtto
bearonanyjuror,oramistakewasmadein
enteringtheverdictontheverdictform.
Evidenceisrelevantif(a)ithasanytendencyto
makeafactmore/lessprobablethatitwouldbe
withouttheevidenceand(b)thefactisof
consequenceindeterminingtheaction.

NotableNuances
Thisruledealsonlywiththe
competencyofjurorstotestify
concerningthegroundsforsettingaside
verdictsitdoesnotspecifythe
substantivegroundsforsettingaside
verdictsforirregularity.

Rationale
Freedomofdeliberation,stabilityandfinality
ofverdicts,andprotectionofjurorsagainst
annoyanceandembarrassment.But,simply
puttingverdictsbeyondeffectivereachcan
onlypromoteirregularityandinjustice.
Thecentralfocusunderfederaldecisionshas
beenuponinsulationofthemannerinwhich
thejuryreacheditsverdict.
Jurorsmaytestifyastoprejudicial
extraneousinformation/influencesinjected
into/broughttobearuponthedeliberative
process.

Relevancyisnotaninherent
characteristicofanyitemofevidence
butexistsonlyasarelationbetweenan
itemofevidenceandamatterproprerly
provableinthecase.
Standard:Moreprobablethanitwould
bewithouttheevidence.
Thefacttowhichtheevidenceis
directedneednotbeindispute(could
beexcludedunder403though).

402General
Admissibility
ofRelevant
Evidence

Relevantevidenceisadmissibleunlessthe
Constitution,federalstatute,FRE,orotherrules
prescribedbytheS.Ct.saysotherwise.
Irrelevantevidenceisinadmissible.

LOWBAR
Notallrelevantevidenceisadmissible.

104(b)
Relevancethat
Dependson
Facts

Whentherelevanceofevidencedependson
whetherafactexists,proofmustbeintroduced
sufficienttosupportafindingthatthefactdoes
exist.Thecourtmayadmittheproposed
evidenceontheconditionthattheproofbe
introducedlater.

ConditionalRelevancestandard:
Huddlestonstandard.Lowerstandard.If
thejuryreasonablycouldconcludethat
fulfillmentoftheconditionis
established,theissueisforthem.Seefn
p.15.

Thisisafactualdetermination,sothejury
shouldultimatelydecide.

Thejudgemakesapreliminary
determinationwhetherthefoundation
evidenceissufficienttosupporta
findingoffulfillmentofthecondition.
Ifso,theitemisadmitted.
Arguable,judgeshouldonlyuse
admissibleevidencetomakethis
determination.

403Excluding
Relevant
Evidence

407
Subsequent
Remedial
Measures

408

Thecourtmayexcludeevidenceifitsprobative
valueissubstantiallyoutweighedbyadanger
ofunfairprejudice,confusingtheissues,
misleadingthejury,unduedelay,wastingtime,
orneedlesslypresentingcumulativeevidence.

Whenmeasuresaretakenthatwouldhavemade
anearlierinjury/harmlesslikelytooccur,
evidenceofthesubsequentmeasuresisnot
admissibletoprove:negligence,culpable
conduct,adefectinproduct/design,oraneed
forawarning/instruction.

Evidenceoffollowingisnotadmissible,on

Unfairprejudice:anunduetendencyto
suggestdecisiononanimproperbasis,
commonlyemotionalbasis.
Considerationshouldbegiventothe
probableeffectivenessofalimiting
instructionwhendecidingwhetherto
excludeongroundsofunfairprejudice.
Evidencemaybeofferedforpurposes
otherthanfault,suchasownership,
control,existenceofduty,and
feasibilityofprecautionarymeasuresif
controverted,andimpeachment.
Actionsa3rdpartytakesarenot
coveredundertherule,however,
probablynotrelevantsoalsoexcluded.
Therulerequiresthattheclaimbe

Certaincircumstancescallfortheexclusion
ofevidencewhichisofunquestioned
relevance.BUTWHY.

1.Theconductisnotinfactanadmissionof
faultsincetheconductisequallyconsistent
withinjurybymereaccident/through
contributorynegligence.
2.Socialpolicyofencouragingpeopleto
takestepsinfurtheranceofaddedsafety.

Theevidenceisirrelevant,sincetheoffer

Compromise
Offersand
Negotiations

409Offersto
PayMedical
andSimilar
Expenses

410Pleas

behalfofanyparty,toprove/disprovethe
validity/amountofadisputedclaimorto
impeachbyapriorinconsistentstatementor
acontradiction:furnishing/promising/
offering/accepting/offeringtoacceptavaluable
considerationincompromisingorattemptingto
compromisetheclaimandconductora
statementmadeduringcompromisenegotiations
abouttheclaim(exceptwhenofferedina
criminalcaseandwhenthenegotiationsrelated
toaclaimbyapublicofficeintheexerciseof
itsregulatory,investigative,orenforcement
authority).
Exceptions:Thecourtmayadmitthisevidence
foranotherpurpose,suchasprovingawitnesss
bias/prejudice,negatingacontentionofundue
delay,orprovinganefforttoobstructacriminal
prosecution/investigation.
Evidenceoffurnishing,promisingtopay,or
offeringtopaymedical,hospital,orsimilar
expensesresultingfromaninjuryisnot
admissibletoproveliabilityfortheinjury.

disputedastoeithervalidityor
amount.

(a)Prohibiteduses:inacivilorcriminalcase
evidenceofthefollowingisnotadmissible
againstthedefendantwhomadethepleaor
participatedinthepleadiscussions:guiltyplea
laterwithdrawn,nolocontondreplea,statement
madeduringaproceedingoneitherofthose
pleaseunderFRCrimPro11oracomparable
stateprocedure,orastatementmadeduringplea
discussionswithprosecutingattorneyifthe
discussionsdidnotresultinaguiltypleaorthey
resultedinalaterwithdrawnguiltyplea.
(b)Exceptions:Thecourtmayadmita410(3)/
(4)statementinanyproceedinginwhich

Usefor/againstotherpersonswillnot
impairtheeffectivenessofwithdrawing
pleasorthefreedomofdiscussion
whichtherulefosters,sothe
exclusionaryruleislimitedasagainst
theaccusedonly.

408(a)(2):Linesaremoreblurredthan
inthecriminalcontext.Agencyis
police+judgeallinone.Rulewriters
wantagenciestobeabletoinvestigate,
useinformationagainstyou.

maybemotivatedbyadesireforpeace
ratherthanfromanyconcessionofweakness
ofposition.
Also,promotionofpublicpolicyfavoring
thecompromiseandsettlementofdisputes.

Whereyouthinktherewillbeaclaim,
butnoclaimyet,theevidencecomesin.

Doesnotrequireadisputedclaim.

Evidenceofpaymentofmedicalexpensesof
aninjuredpartybytheopposingpartyisnot
admissiblebecausesuchofferisusuallyfrom
humaneimpulsesandnotfromanadmission
ofliability,andthattoholdotherwisewould
tendtodiscourageassistancetotheinjured
person.
Toadmitthewithdrawnpleawouldsetat
naughttheallowanceofwithdrawaland
placetheaccusedinadilemmainconsistent
withthedecisiontoawardhimatrial.
Admittingthepleacompelsdefendanttotake
thestandtoexplain,andopensthewayfor
theprosecutiontocallthelawyerwho
representedthedefendantatthetimeof
enteringtheplea.
Exclusionofofferstopleadguilty/nolohas
itspurposethepromotionofdispositionof
criminalcasesbycompromise.

411Liability
Insurance

anotherstatementmadeduringthesame
plea/discussionshasbeenintroducedifin
fairnessthestatementsoughttobeconsidered
togetherorinacriminalproceedingfor
perjury/falsestatementifthedefendantmade
thestatementunderoath/onrecordandwith
counselpresent.
Evidencethatapersonwas/wasnotinsured
againstliabilityisnotadmissibletoprove
whetherthepersonactednegligentlyor
otherwisewrongfully.But,thecourtmayadmit
thisevidenceforanotherpurpose,suchas
bias/prejudice/agency/ownership/control.

Theruleisdraftedbroadlytoinclude
contributorynegligenceorotherfaultof
aplaintiffaswellasfaultofa
defendant.

Tenuousinferenceatbest.Also,feelingthat
knowledgeofthepresence/absenceof
liabilityinsurancewouldinducejuriesto
decidecasesonimpropergrounds.

Ifofferedforapurposenotbarred,its
admissibilityremainsgovernedbythe
generalprinciplesof402,403,801.
Note:liabilityinsurancedoesnot
includecasualtyinsurance

404(a)(1)
Prohibited
Character
Uses
404(a)(2)
Exceptionsfor
aorVictim
inacriminal
case

404(b)
Crimes,
Wrongs,or
otherActs

Evidenceofapersonscharacter/traitisnot
admissibletoprovethatonaparticularoccasion
thepersonactedinaccordancewiththe
character/trait(notallowedforpropensity).
Inacriminalcase:
A) Amayofferevidenceofspertinent
trait,andifadmitted,thePmayoffer
evidencetorebut.
B) Amayoffer,subjectto412,evidence
ofVspertinenttraitandPmaythen
reb,andofferevidenceofssame
trait.
Prohibited:Evidenceofacrime,wrong,orother
actisnotadmissibletoproveapersons
characterinordertoshowthatonaparticular
occasionthepersonactedinaccordancewith
thecharacter.

True403Surrogate
Mostjxsdonotallowcircumstantial
useofcharacter(propensity),with
exceptions.Seerestofrule.

True403Surrogate
Limitationtopertinenttraitsof
characterratherthancharacter
generally
Inmostjxs,circumstantialuseof
characterisprohibitedexceptfor
these.
Thisisalmostsuperfluousdueto(a).
Nomechanicalsolutionisofferedthe
determinationmustbemadewhether
thedangeofundueprejudiceoutweighs

413Similar
Crimesin
sexualassault
cases

414Similar
Crimesin
Child
Molestation

Permitted:Anythingelse.Evidencemaybe
admissibleforanotherpurpose(e.g.motive,
opportunity,intent,preparation,plan,
knowledge,identity,absenceofmistake,orlack
ofaccident).InrequestbyacriminalD,the
prosecutormustprovidereasonablenoticeof
thegeneralnatureofsuchevidenceanddoso
beforetrial(orduringifcourtexcusesdueto
goodcause)
CriminalcaseinwhichDisaccusedofsexual
assault,thecourtmayadmitevidencethattheD
committedanyothersexualassault.Itmaybe
consideredonanymattertowhichitisrelevant.
Theprosecutormustdisclosethatitintendsto
offerthisevidence,includingwitnesss
statement/satleast15daysbeforetrial/laterfor
goodcause.Theruledoesnotlimitthe
admission/considerationofevidenceunderany
otherrule.Sexualassaultdefinedin(d).
InacriminalcaseinwhichaDisaccusedof
childmolestation,thecourtmayadmitevidence
thattheDcommittedanyotherchild
molestation,anditmaybeconsideredonany
mattertowhichitisrelevant.Samedisclosure
reuquirements.(d)defineschildmolestation.

theprobativevalueoftheevidencein
viewoftheavailabilityofothermeans
ofproofandotherfactorsappropriate
formakingdecisionsofthiskindunder
Rule403.
Thisrulerecognizesroutesaroundthe
propensityboxnottrueexceptionsto
propensityban.
These3rulespresumeadmissibility.
Toimplementthelegislativeintent,the
courtsmustliberallyconstruethese
rules.

415Similar
ActsinCivil
Cases
Involving
Sexual
Assault/Child
Molestation

Inacivilcaseinvolvingaclaimforreliefbased
onapartysallegedsexualassault/child
molestation,thecourtmayadmitevidencethat
thepartycommitedanyothersexualassaultor
childmolestation.Theevidencemaybe
consideredasprovidedinRules413and414.
Samedisclosurerequirement.

Allpreceding3enactedaspartofthe
ViolentCrimeControlandLaw
EnforcementActof1994.TheJudicial
Conferenceopposedthenewrulesand
recommendedthatCongress
abandon/redraft.Theytookeffectas
writtenin1995.

404(a)(2)(A)
Character

InCriminalcases,adefendantmayoffer
evidenceofhispertinenttrait,andifthe

Thelimitationtopertinenttraitsof
character,ratherthancharacter

Thesecasesaredistinctive,andturnon
difficultcredibilitydeterminations.Knowing
thatthedefendanthascommittedraeson
otheroccasionsisfrequentlycriticalin
assessingthereltiveplausibilityofthese
claimsandaccuratelydecidingcasesthat
wouldotherwisebecomeunresolvable
swearingmatches.

Ahistoryofsimilaractstendstobe
exceptionallyprobativebecauseitshowsan
unusualdispositionofthedefendantasado
sexualinterestinchildrenthatsimplydoes
notexistinordinarypeople.Plus,relianceon
childvictimswhosecredibilitycanbe
attackedwithoutsubstantialcorroboration.
CongressionalIntentrelevanthere.Book:p.
219222.
Toprotectthepublicfromcrimesofsexual
violence.
Thisreformiscriticaltotheprotectionofthe
publicfromrapistsandchildmolesters,and
isjustifiedbythedistinctivecharacteristics
ofthecasesitwillaffect.
Anunderlyingjustificationcanfairlybe
foundintermsoftherelativepresenceand

Evidence
Exceptionsfor
aDefendant
inaCriminal
Case

evidenceisadmitted,theprosecutormayoffer
evidencetorebutit.

404(a)(2)(B)
Character
Evidence
Exceptionsfor
aVictimina
Criminal
Case
405Methods
ofProving
Character

Inacriminalcase,subjectto412limitations,a
defendantmayofferevidenceofanalleged
victimspertinenttrait,andiftheevidenceis
admitted,theProsecutormayofferevidenceto
rebutitandofferevidenceofthedefendants
sametrait.

406Habit;
Routine
Practice

generallyisinaccordancewiththe
prevailingview.
Dmayalwayspresentthisevidence

(a)Byreputation/opinion:whenevidenceofa
personscharacter/traitisadmissible,itmaybe
provedbytestimonyaboutthepersons
reputation,orbytestimonyintheformofan
opinion.Oncrossofthecharacterwitness,the
courtmayallowaninquiryintorelevant
specificinstancesofthepersonsconduct.
(b)BySpecificInstances:Whenapersons
character/traitisanessentialelementofa
charge/claim/defense,thecharacterortraitmay
alsobeprovedbyrelevantspecificinstances
ofthepersonsconduct.
Evidenceofapersonshabit/anorganizations
routinepracticemaybeadmittedtoprovethat
onaparticularoccasiontheperson/organization
actedinaccordancewiththehabit/routine
practice.Thecourtmayadmitthisevidence
regardlessofwhetheritiscorroboratedor
whethertherewasaneyewitness.

PmayrebutonlyifDopensthedoor.
Pmaypresentthisevidenceonlyif
opensthedoor

absenceofprejudiceinthevarious
situations.Thecriminalruleissodeeply
imbeddedinourjurisprudenceastoassume
almostconstitutionalproportionsandto
overridedoubtsaboutthebasicrelevancyof
evidence.

Thisrequirementdoesnotapplytorules
413415:theserulesrequireproofby
specificacts.

Evidenceofspecificinstancesofconduct
possessesthegreatestcapacitytoarouse
prejudice,confuse,surprise,andtoconsume
time.Therefore,theruleconfidesthis
evidencetocasesinwhichcharacterisin
issueandhencedeservingofasearching
inquiry.Whencharacterisused
circumstantiallyproofmaybeonlyby
reputationandopinion.

Habitismorespecificthancharacterit
isapersonsregularpracticeofmeeting
aparticularkindofsituationwitha
specifictypeofconduct.Ex:turn
signal,seatbelt.Notreligiouspracties
notinvariableregularity.Volitional.

Habitevidenceishighlypersuasiveasproof
ofconductonaparticularoccasion.

Drunkennessisnotahabit:itisnot
mechanisticallyrepetitiveanditcarries
moralconnotations.
404(a)(3)
Character
Evidence

Evidenceofawitnessscharactermaybe
admittedunderrules607,608,and609.

Exceptionfor
aWitness
607WhoMay
Impeacha
Witness
608A
Witnesss
Characterfor
Truthfulness/
Untruthfulnes
s

609
Impeachment
byEvidence
ofaCriminal
Conviction

Anyparty,includingthepartythatcalledthe
witness,mayattackthewitnessscredibility.
(a)Reputation/Opinion:Awitnessscredibility
maybeattacked/supportedbytestimonyabout
thewitnesssreputationforhavinga
characterfortruthfulness/untruthfulnessor
byopiniontestimonyaboutthatcharacter.But
evidenceoftruthfulcharacterisadmissibleonly
afterthewitnessstruthfulnesshasbeen
attacked.(b)SpecificInstancesofConduct:
ExceptforacriminalconvictionunderRule
609,extrinsicevidenceisnotadmissibleto
provespecificinstancesofawitnesssconduct
inordertoattackorsupportthewitnesss
characterfortruthfulness.Butthecourtmay,on
crossexamination,allowthemtobeinquired
intoiftheyareprobativeofthecharacterfor
truthfulnessoruntruthfulnessof:thewitnessor
anotherwitnesswhose\characterthewitness
beingcrossexaminedhastestifiedabout.
(a)Attackingawitnessfortruthfulnessby
evidenceofacriminalconviction:(1)fora
felony,theevidencemustbeadmitted,subject
to403,inacivil/criminalcaseinwhichthe
witnessisnotaDefendant,andmustbe
admittedinacriminalcaseinwhichtheWisa
defendantiftheprobativevalueoutweighsits
prejudicialeffecttothatdefendant,and(2)for
anycrimeregardlessofthepunishment,the
evidencemustbeadmittedifthecourtcan
readilydeterminethatestablishingtheelements
ofthecrimerequiredprovingorthewitnesss
admittingadishonestact/falsestatement.(b)If
10yearshavepassedsincethewitnesss
conviction/release,whicheverislater,then

Bytestifyingonanothermatter,a
witnessdoesnotwaiveanyprivilege
againstselfincriminationfortestimony
thatrelatesonlytothewitnesss
characterfortruthfulness.

Theruleislimitedtocharacterfor
veracity,ratherthanallowingevidenceasto
charactergenerallytosharpenrelevancy,
reducesurprise,wasteoftime,and
confusion,andtomakethelotofthewitness
somewhatlessunattractive.

IFCRIMINALCONVICTIONS,GO
TO609.
Partyhastohavetestifiedtoattack
underthisrule.

Aconvictionthatsatisfiesthisruleis
admissibleevenifanappealispending.
Evidenceofthependencyisalso
admissible.
a(2):mustbeadmittedmeans403
doesntapply.Admittedautomatically.

Thereisgeneralagreementthatatleastsome
crimesarerrelevanttocredibility,butmuch
disagreementamongthecommentatorsabout
whichcrimesareusualforthispurpose.The
ruleincorporatesbasicsafeguardsdefinite
timelimitations,givingeffecttorehab,and
generallyexcludingjuvenileadjudications.

IFSTALElookat609(b)typically
dontadmitbcPVhastosubstantially
outweighUP
ITMUSTBEREADILY
DETERMINABLETHAT
ESTABLISHINGELEMENTSOF

412Sex
Offense
Cases:The
Victims
Sexual
Behavioror
Predisposition

evidenceoftheconvictionisadmissibleonlyif
itsprobativevalue,supportedbyspecificfacts
andcircumstances,substantiallyoutweighsits
prejudicialvalueandtheproponentgivesan
adversepartyreasonablewrittennoticeofthe
intenttouseitsothatthepartyhasafair
opportunitytocontestitsuse.(c)Ifthe
convictionhasbeenthesubjectofapardon,
annulment,orcertificateofrehabilitation,then
evidenceoftheconvictionisinadmissible.
Juvenileadjudicationsareadmissibleonlyif
offeredinacriminalcase,witnessisnota
defendant,asimilaradultconvictionwouldbe
admissible,andadmittingtheevidenceis
necessarytofairlydetermineguilt/innocence.
Inacivil/criminalproceedinginvolvedalleged
sexualmisconduct,thefollowingevidenceis
notadmissible:evidencetoproveavictim
engagedinothersexualbehavior,ortoprovea
victimssexualpredisposition.
Exceptionsincriminalcases:thecourtmay
introducespecificinstancesofavictimssexual
behaviortoprovethatsomeoneotherthanthe
wasthesourceofphysicalevidence;andof
specificinstancesofavictimssexualbehavior
withrespecttothepersonaccusedofthesexual
misconduct,ifofferedbythetoprove
consent/ifofferedbytheprosecutor,and
evidencewhoexclusionwouldviolatethe
defendantsconstitutionalrights.Exceptionin
CivilCases:thecourtmayadmitevidence
offeredtoproveavictimssexual
behavior/sexualpredispositionifitsprobative
valuesubstantiallyoutweighsthedangerof
harmtoanyvictimandofunfairprejudiceto
anyparty.Thecourtmayadmitevidenceofa
victimsreputationonlyifthevictimhasplaced
itincontroversy.ProceduretoDetermine

CRIMEREQUIREDPROVING
DISHONESTACTS/FALSE
STATEMENTS(ACNs)

403stillapplies
412supersedes404

Theruleaimstosafeguardtheallegedvictim
againsttheinvasionofprivacy,potential
embarrassment,andsexualstereotypingthat
isassociatedwithpublicdisclosureof
intimatesexualdetailsandtheinfusionof
sexualinnuendointothefactfinding
process.Byaffordingvictimsprotectionin
mostinstances,theruleencouragesvictims
ofsexualmisconducttoinstituteandto
participateinlegalproceedingsagainst
allegedoffenders.

Admissibility:Fileamtionthatdescribes
evidenceandstatesthepurpose14daysbefore
trial,servemotiononallpartiesandnotifythe
victim,alsoahearing,victimincludesalleged
victim.
801Hearsay
801(a)
Statement

Statementmeansapersonsoral/written
assertion,ornonverbalconduct,iftheperson
intendeditasanassertion.

Onlydirectedatpeople
Whenconductisofferedonthetheory
thatitisnotastatement,andnot
hearsay,apreliminarydetermination
willberequiredtodeterminewhether
anassertionisintendedburdenison
thepartyclaimingthattheintention
existed.
Ambiguouscasesareresolvedinfavor
ofadmissibility.

801(b)
Declarant
801(c)
Hearsay
802Rule
against
Hearsay
801(d)(2)
Opposing
Partys
Statement
Against
Opposing
Party

Verbalassertionfallsintostatement.Some
nonverbalconducteasyaswell.Other
nonverbalconductofferedasevidencethat
thepersonactedashedidbecauseofhis
beliefintheexistenceoftheconduction
soughttobeproved,fromwhichhisbeliefin
theexistenceoftheconditionmaybe
inferredthisisanassertionoftheexistence
ofthecondition.Althoughuntestedwith
respecttoperception,memory,andnarration,
thesedangersareminimalintheabsenceof
anintenttoassertanddonotjustifytheloss
oftheevidenceonhearsaygrounds.
Likelihoodoffabricationislesswith
nonverbalthanwithassertiveverbalconduct.

Thepersonwhomadethestatement.
Statementthatthedeclarantdoesnotmake
whiletestifyingatthecurrenttrial/hearinganda
partyoffersinevidencetoprovethetruthofthe
matterassertedinthestatement.
Hearsayisnotadmissibleunlessanyofthe
followingprovidesotherwise:afederalstatute,
theserules,orotherrulesprescribedbythe
SupremeCourt.
Admissionsbyapartyopponent

Onlystatementsofferedfortheirtruth.

Hearsaydoesnotsatisfytheidealconditions
fortestifying.

FederalRulesofCivil/Criminal
Procedure,ActsofCongress.

Declarantneednothavepersonal
knowledge(butseeE)

Theiradmissibilityittheresultofthe
adversarysystemratherthansatisfactionof
theconditionsofthehearsayrule.

801(d)(2)(A)
MadebyParty

OPsstatementofferedagainstOPandmadeby
party/partyrepresentative

801(d)(2)(B)
Manifested/
Adoptedtobe
True

OPsstatementofferedagainstOPandisone
thepartymanifestedthatitadoptedorbelieved
tobetrue.

801(d)(2)(C)
Party
Authorized

OPsstatementofferedagainstOPandwas
madebyapersonwhomthepartyauthorizedto
makeastatementonthesubject.

801(d)(2)(D)
PartysAgent/
Employee

OPsstatementofferedagainstOPandwas
madebythepartysagent/employeeona
matterwithinthescopeofthatrelationshipand
whileitexisted.

801(d)(2)(E)

OPsstatementofferedagainstOPandwas
madebythepartyscoconspiratorduringandin
furtheranceoftheconspiracy.

Ifhehasarepresentativecapacityandthe
statementisofferedagainsthiminthat
capacity,noinquirywhetherhewasactingin
therepresentativecapacityinmakingthe
statementisrequired.

Admissioncanbemadebyadopting
anothersstatementneednothave
knowledgeofcontents.Mahlandt.
Canbebyconduct.
Adoption/acquiescencemaybe
manifestedinanyappropriatemanner,
includingsilence.
Theruleisphrasedbroadlytoinclude
bothstatementsmadetothirdpersons
andstatementsmadebyagentto
principal.
Communicationtoanoutsiderhasnot
beenthoughttobeanessential
characteristicofadmission.Apartys
books/recordsareusableagainsthim
withoutregardtoanyintenttodisclose
tothirdpersons.
Usetheusualtestofagency:wasthe
admissionmadebytheagentactingin
thescopeofhisemployment?Sincefew
principlesemployagentstomake
damagingstatements,usualexclusion
ofthestatement.Trendforadmittiong
statementsrelatedtoamatterinthe
scopeoftheagency.
Limitedtostatementsmadeduringthe
courseofandinfurtheranceofthe
conspiracy.

Silence:Thepersonwould,ifuntrue,protest
thestatementmadeinhispresence.
Mitigatedincriminalcasesbyrightto
counsel/custodialinterrogation.

10

104(a)
Preliminary
Questions

Thecourtmustdecideanypreliminaryquestion
aboutwhetherawitnessisqualified,privilege
exists,orevidenceisadmissible.Courtisnot
boundbyevidencerules,exceptthoseon
privilege.

801(d)(1)
Statements
thatareNot
Hearsay

Severaltypesofstatementswhichwould
otherwiseliterallyfallwithinthedefinitionof
hearsayareexpresslyexcludedfromit.

801(d)(1)(A)
Declarants
Inconsistent
Prior
Statement
801(d)(1)(B)
Declarants
Consistent
Prior
Statement

Declarantwitnesstestifies,subjecttocross,
aboutapriorstatement,andthestatementis
inconsistentwiththedeclarantstestimonyand
wasgivenunderperjurypenaltyat
trial/hearing/deposition.
Declarantwitnesstestifies,subjecttocross,
aboutapriorstatement,andthestatementis
consistentwiththedeclarantstestimony
offeredtorebutanexpress/impliedchargethat
thedeclaranthasrecentlyfabricatedit/acted
fromarecentimproperinfluence/motiveinso
testifyingortorehabilitatethedeclarants
credibilityasawitnesswhenattackedon
anotherground.

Cheng:Interpretedbroadlyanddoesnt
requireactualconspiracyjustthatyou
hangaround
Byapreponderanceoftheevidence.
Mustreadwith104(b),whichmodifies
104(a).
Judgecanuseanyevidence,including
inadmissibleevidence,tomake
determination.Jurycanstillchooseto
ignoretheevidenceithearsthough!

Theadmissibilityofevidencewillturnupon
theanswertothequestionoftheexistenceof
thecondition.Oftenrulingsonevidencecall
foranevaluationoffactsintermsofa
legallysetstandard.

Traditionallyonlyadmissibleto
impeach,butundertherule,theyare
admissibleassubstantiveevidence.

Thetrieroffact,withthedeclarantbeforeit,
isinasgoodapositiontodeterminethetruth
ofthepriorstatementandoftheinconsistent
testimonygivenincourt.

Newaddition.

Iftheoppositepartywishestoopenthedoor
forapriorconsistentstatementsadmission,
thereisnosoundreasonapparentwhyit
shouldnotgenerallybereceived.

Substantiveevidence.
TomePriorconsistentstatementsare
irrelevantunlessmadebeforethetime
ofthefactsaidtoindicatebias.
Stilldoesnotallowthebolsteringofa
witnessstatementmayonlybebrought
beforethefactfinderonlyifthey
properlyrehabilitateawitnesswhose
credibilityhasbeenattacked.
Mustsatisfy403.

11

801(d)(1)(C)
Declarants
Prior
Identification

Declarantwitnesstestifies,subjecttocross,
aboutapriorstatementthatidentifiesaperson
assomeonethedeclarantperceivedearlier.

LineupIDs.

804(a)When
isadeclarant
unavailable?

Exemptedfromtestifyingbyprivilege,refuses
totestifydespiteorder,testifiestonot
remembering,cannotbepresent/testifybecause
ofdeath/mental/physicalillness,orabsentand
proponenthasbeenunabletogetattendance
(underexception804b1or6)or
attendance/testimony(under804b2/3/4).

Declarantisnotunavailableifthe
proponentprocured/wrongfullycaused
thedeclarantsunavailabilitytoprevent
thedeclarantfromattending/testifying.

804(b)(1)
Testimony
Exception:not
excludedby
ruleagainst
hearsay

Testimonythatwasgivenasawitnessata
trial/hearing/lawfuldepositionandnowoffered
againstapartywhohadanopportunityand
similarmotivetodevelopitbydirect,cross,or
redirectexamination.

Evidencemaybeoffered(1)againstthe
partyagainstwhomitwaspreviously
offered,or,(2)againstthepartyby
whomitwaspreviouslyoffered.

804(b)(2)
Beliefof
Imminent
Death
804(b)(3)
Statement
against
Interest

Inaprosecutionforhomicide/inacivilcase,
statementbydeclarant,whilebelievingown
deathsimminence,madeaboutits
cause/circumstances.
Areasonablepersonindeclarantsposition
wouldonlyhavemadestatementifhebelieved
ittobetruebecauseitissocontraryto
proprietary/pecuniaryinterest/exposetoliability
andsupportedbycorroboratingcircumstances
thatindicateitstrustworthinessifofferedina
criminalcasethatexposesdeclaranttocriminal
liability.
Whenahearsaystatement,ordescribedin

Theonlymissingoneoftheidealconditions
forgivingtestimonyispresenceoftrierand
opponentdemeanorevidence.Oathand
crossexaminationwerepresentinfact.
Couldbearguedthisbelongsin803,but
observingdemeanorgivesdepthand
meaningtooath/cross.Productionofwitness
ispreferable.Ifoffered(1),nounfairnessin
requiringhimtoaccepthisownpriorcross;
if(2)thenadoptiveadmissionor
recognizedirect/redirectofonesown
witnessasequivalentofcrossingan
opponentswitness.
Originallyhadareligiousjustification(at
commonlaw).Stilltherearepowerful
psychologicalpressures.

Thisisaliberalizingrule.

Thecircumstantialguarantyofreliabilityis
theassumptionthatpersnsdonotmake
statementswhicharedamagingto
themselvesunlesssatisfiedforgoodreason
thattheyaretrue.

806Attacking

testimonyhasselfincrimination
implications.

Courtroomidentificationsaregenerally
unsatisfactory/inconclusiveascompared
withthosemadeatanearliertimeunderless
suggestiveconditions.
-

Wanttoencouragestatementstoget
ontherecordtestimony,oratleasta
deposition

Thedeclarantofadmittedhearsayisineffect

12

and
Supportingthe
Declarants
Credibility

804(b)(6)
Statement
offered
Againsta
Partythat
Wrongfully
Causedthe
Declarants
Unavailability
803
v.804
exceptions

801(d)(2)(C/D/E)hasbeenadmitted,the
declarantscredibilitymaybeattacked/then
supportedbyanyevidencethatwouldbe
admissibleforthosepurposesifthedeclarant
hadtestifiedasawitness.Inconsistent
statementsmaybeadmitted,regardlessofwhen
orwhethergivenopportunitytoexaplain.If
partyagainstwhomstatementwasadmitted
callsdeclarantasawitness,thepartymay
examinethedeclarantasifoncross
examination.
Astatementofferedagainstapartythat
wrongfullycaused/acquiescedinwrongfully
causingthedeclarantsunavailabilityasa
witness,anddidsointendingthatresult.

awitness,sohiscredibilityshouldfairlybe
subjectedtoimpeachmentandsupportas
throughhehadinfacttestified.

Theruleappliestoallparties,including
thefederalgovernment.

Thisisaprophylacticruletodealwith
abhorrentbehaviorwhichstrikesattheheart
ofthesystemofjusticeitself.

Thewrongdoingneednotconsistofa
criminalact.

Rule803operatesregardlessofwhetherthe
declarantisavailableasawitness.804requires
thatdeclarantbeunavailable.

803(1)Present
sense
impression

Astatementdescribing/explainingan
event/condition,madewhile/immediatelyafter
declarantperceivedit.

Regardlessofdeclarantsavailability.

803(2)
Excited

Astatementrelatingtoastartling
event/condition,madewhilethedeclarantwas

Regardlessofdeclarantsavailability.

TheevidenceadmittedunderRule803is
sometimesbetterthandelcarantslive
testimony.Ahearsaystatementmaypossess
circumstantialguaranteesoftrustowrthines
sufficienttojustifynonproductionofthe
declaranteventhoughhemaybeavailable.
804preferstestimonyonthestandover
hearsay,hearsayovercompletelossof
declarantsevidence(ifconditionsmet).
Substantialcontemporaneityofeventand
statementnegativethelikelihoodof
deliberate/consciousmisrepresentation.IfW
istheD,hemaybeexaminedonthe
statement.IfWisnotD,hemaybe
examinedastothecircumstancesasanaidin
evaluatingthestatement.
Circumstancesmayoroduceaconditionof
excitementwhichtemporarilystillsthe

13

utterance

underthestressofexcitementthatiscaused.

803(3)Then
Existing
Mental,
Emotional,or
Physical
Condition

Astatementofdeclarantsthenexistingstateof
mind(motive,intent,plan)or
emotional/sensory/physicalcondition,butnot
includingastatementofmemory/belieftoprove
thefactremembersunlessitrelatestothe
validityortermsofthedeclarantswill.

803(4)
Statement
madefor
Medical
Dx/Tx

Statementmadeforandreasonablypertinentto
medicaldx/txanddescribesmedicalhistory,
past/presentsymptoms,theirinception,or
generalcause.

803(5)
Recorded
Recollection

Witnessonceknew,butcannolongerrecall
wellenoughtotestifyaccurately,made/adopted
bywitnesswhenmatterwasfresh,and
accuratelyreflectsthewitnesssknowledge.

612Writing
Usedto
Refresha
Witnesss
Memory

Adversepartysoptionswhenawitnessusesa
writingtorefreshmemoryinacriminalcase
adversepartycanhavethewritingproducedat
thehearing,inspectit,crossexamine,and
introduceinevidenceanyportionthatrelatesto
wstestimony.Ifproponentsaysitcontains
unrelatedmatter,courtexaminesit,deletesany
unrelatedportion,andordertheresttobe
deliveredtoadversepartyanyportiondeleted
overobjectionmustbepreservedfortherecord.
IfProsecutiondoesntcomplyincriminalcase,
thejudgemuststrikethetestimonyordeclarea
mistrial;otherwisecourtmayissueany
appropriateorderifwritingisnotproducedas

Biggestdistinctionwith(1)isthetime
lapsebetweeneventandstatement
allowed.
Essentiallyaspecializedapplicationof
(1),presentedseparatelytoenhanceits
usefulnessandaccessibility.

Regardlessofdeclarantsavailability.
Traditionally,statementsmadetoa
physicianconsultedonlyforthe
purposeofenablinghimtotestifyrule
rejectsthislimitation.
Regardlessofdeclarantsavailability.
Ifadmitted,therecordcanbereadinto
evidencebutmaybereceivedasan
exhibitonlyifofferedbyanadverse
party.

capacityofreflectionandproduces
utterancesfreeofconsciousfabrication.
Memories/bliefsareexcludedtoavoidthe
virtualdestructionofthehearsayrulewhich
wouldotherwiseresultfromallowingthe
stateofmind,provablebyhearsay,toserve
asthebassiforaninferenceofthehappening
oftheeventwhichproducedthestatementof
mind.
Statementsmadehaveaguaranteeof
trustworthinesspatientwontlietodoctor
becausehishealthisatrisk.

Unavailabilityisofalimitedandpeculiar
naturethatthewitnessnothavesufficient
recollectiontoenablehimtotestifyfullyand
accurately.Nothavingsuchalimitation
wouldincentivizetheuseofstatements
carefullypreparedforthepurposesof
litigationunderthesupervisionof
attorneys/claimsadjusters/investigators.
Topromotethesearchofcredibilityand
memory.

14

803(6)
Recordsofa
Regularly
Conducted
Activity
803(7)
Absenceofa
Recordof
Regularly
Conducted
Activity
803(8)Public
Records

803(10)
Absenceofa
PublicRecord

807Residual
Exception

ordered.
Recordwasmadeat/neartimebysomeonewith
knowledge,keptinregularcourseofbusiness,
makingrecordwasregularapractice,custodian
testifiestotheseconditions/certificationthat
comples,andopponentdoesnotshowthatthe
sourceindicatesalackoftrustworthiness.
Evidencethatamatterisnotincludedinan
803(6)recordiftheevidenceisadmittedto
proveitdidnotexist,recordwasregularlykept
forsuchmatters,andopponentdoesnotshow
sourcetobeuntrustworthy.
Record/statementofapublicofficeifitsetsout
officesactivities,isamatterobservedwhile
underalegaldutytoreport(notincluding,ina
criminalcase,amatterobservedbylaw
enforcementpersonnel),inacivilcase/against
governmentincriminal,factualfindingsfroma
legallyauthorizedinvestigation,andopponent
doesnotshowsourceisuntrustworthy.
Testimony/902certificationthatadiligent
searchfailedtodiscloseapublic
record/statement(a)ifadmittedtoprovethatthe
recorddoesntexist,oramatterdidnot
occur/existifapublicofficeregularlykepta
recordforsuchmatter,AND(b)inacriminal
case,aprosecutorwhointendstoofferacert
giveswrittennoticeatleast14daysbeforeand
Ddoesnotobjectwithin7days.
Hearsaystatementisnotexcludedbytherule
againsthearsayevenifthestatementisnot
specificallycoveredbyan803/804exception
when:
Thestatementhasequivalentcircumstantial
guaranteesoftrustworthiness,offeredas
evidenceofamaterialfact,moreprobativeon
pointforwhichitisofferedthananyother

Regardlessofdeclarantsavailability.
Opponentofevidencehastheburdento
provethepossiblesourcelacks
trustworthiness.
Regardlessofdeclarantsavailability.
Opponentofevidencehastheburdento
provethepossiblesourcelacks
trustworthiness.
Regardlessofdeclarantsavailability.
Extendstoopinionsinlegally
authorizedinvestigations.

Regardlessofdeclarantsavailability.
Ruleincludessituationsinwhich
absenceofarecordmayitselfbethe
ultimatefocalpointofinquiry.

Unusualreliabilityofbusinessrecordsis
suppliedbysystematicchecking,
regularity/continuitywhichproduce
precision,actualexperienceofbusiness
relyingonrecords,dutytomakeaccrate
recordasjob.
Probablynothearsay,but,someopinions
classevidenceashearsayoutsideany
exception.Thissetsthequestioninfavorof
admissibility.
Apublicofficialwillperformhisduty
properlyandtheunlikelihoodthathewill
rememberdetailsindependentlyofthe
record.

Extensionof803(7).Therefusalofcommon
lawtoallowproofbycertificateoflackofa
record/entryhasnoapparentjustification.

Usedtobepartof803.

15

701Lay
Witness
Opinion
Testimony

702Expert
Testimony

703Basesof
anExperts
Opinion
Testimony
704Opinion
onan
UltimateIssue

705
Facts/Data

evidenceproponentcanreasonablyobtain,and
admittingservespurposeoftheserulesand
justice.Onlyadmissibleifbeforetrial
proponentgivesreasonablenoticeofintentto
offerstatementanditsparticulars(nameand
address).
Laytestimonyislimitedintheformofan
opiniontoonethatisrationallybasedon
witnessperception(nothearsay),helpfulto
understandingtestimony/determiningafactin
issue(relevant),andnotbasedonspecialized
knowledge(notexpert;see702)

Theruleregardstestimony,not
witnesses.Thesamewitnesscan
providebothlayandexperttestimony
insasinglecase.
ACNp.165:LaywitnessescanIDa
narcoticifattyestablishesafoundation
offamiliaritywiththesubstance.

ACN:Retainsthetraditionalobjectiveof
puttingthetrieroffactinpossessionofan
accuratereproductionoftheevent;assumes
thatthenaturalcharacteristicsofthe
adversarysystemwillgenerallyleadtoan
acceptableresult.

Expertqualifiedbyknowledge,skill,
experience,training,oreducationmaygive
opinioniftestimony(a)willhelpjury,(b)is
basedonenoughfacts/data,(c)productof
reliableprinciplesandmethods,and(d)expert
reliablyappliedprinciples&methodstothe
factsofthecase.
PLUSRULE403(Peoplev.Collins)
Daubertfactorsforcourttoassessreliability
ofscientificexperttestimony:whetherexperts
theoryhasbeentested,hasbeensubjecttopeer
review,rateoferror,standards/controls,general
acceptancebyscientificcommunity.
1.Facts/dataEpersonallyobserved,2.FactsE
learnedatthehearing,3.FactsElearnedbefore
thehearing.

ACN:Anintelligentevaluationoffactsis
oftenhardwithouttheapplicationofsome
scientific,technical,orotherspecialized
knowledge.Expertsdonttestifyonlyin
opinions,butruleallowsexpertstotakethe
stepofsuggestingtheinferencewhich
shouldbedrawnfromapplyingthe
specializedknowledgetothefacts.

Opinionsthatembracetheultimateissuearenot
automaticallyobjectionable,exceptthatan
expertmaynotstateanopinionaboutwhether
theDdid/nothaveamentalstatethatconstitutes
anelement/defensethoseareforjuryonly.
Expertmaystateanopinionandgivereasons
foritwithoutfirsttestifyingtotheunderlying

ACN:Admitopinionswhenhelpfultothe
trieroffact.

ACN:Bringjudicialpracticeintolinewith
thepracticeofexpertswhentheyarenotin
court.P.176.

Reverse403analysis

????

16

Underlying
Expert
Opinion
901
Authenticatin
gor
Identifying
Evidence

902Self
Authenticatin
gEvidence

facts,unlessCourtordersotherwise.Expertmay
berequiredtodisclosethosefactsoncross.

Onlyappliestotheproponentofthe
evidence.

Tosatisfythisrequirement,theproponentmust
produceevidencesufficienttosupportafinding
thattheitemiswhattheproponentclaimsitis.

Governedby104(b)becauseitfalls
withinrelevancydependentupon
fulfillmentofaconditionoffact.

(b)listsanonexclusivelistofwaysto
authenticate:
(1):Witnesswithknowledge
(2):NonexpertHandwriting:basedon
familiaritynotacquiredforcurrentlitigation;
maynotdocomparison.
(3):Expert/Jury:comparison.OKtoexclude
expertwithDaubert.
(4):DistinctiveCharacteristics+
Circumstances:examplebeingthenumberof
peoplewhocouldhaveknowntheinfoisso
smallthatitsreasonabletoconcludeitshim.
(5):VoiceOpinionidentifyingavoice
(6):PhoneConversation
(7):PublicRecords
(8):AncientDocs/DataCompilations
(9):Process/System
(10):MethodsProvidedbyStatute/Rule
Evidencethatrequiresnoextrinsicevidenceof
authenticitytobeadmitted:
1) Domesticpublicdocumentsthatare
sealedandsigned
2) DomesticPublicDocumentsthatare
notsealed,butaresignedandcertified.
3) ForeignPublicDocumentsthatis
signed/attestedbyapersonauthorized
todoso.Finalcertification.
4) CertifiedCopiesofPublicRecords.
5) OfficialPublications
6) NewspapersandPeriodicals
7) TradeInscriptionsandtheLink

Ajurycouldreasonablyfindbya
preponderanceoftheevidence.

Authenticationandidentificationrepresenta
specialaspectofrelevancy.

Courtacceptstheexamplesasprima
faciegenuine.
Compliancewithrequirementsof
authenticationoridentificationdoesnot
assureadmissionsinceotherbars
(hearsay)mayremain.
standardofproofinauthenticationis
verylax;goestojurybutforother
rulesitishigherburden.

Innoinstanceistheoppositeparty
foreclosedfromdisputingauthenticity.
(5)Nosuchthingasanearexpert.
Whileyoumaybringinahandwriting
expert,theACNotesmakeclearthat
youcannotbringinanaudioexpertto
identifythevoiceonthetape.
Familiaritycanbeacquiredbefore/after
thespeakingwhichisthesubjectofthe
identification,likevisualid(andunlike
handwriting).

Sometimesauthenticityistakenas
sufficientlyestablishedforadmissibility
withoutextrinsicevidenceforpolicyreasons,
butmoreoftenbecausepractical
considerationsreducethepossibilityof
unauthenticitytoaverysmalldimension.

17

CONTENT
OF
WRITINGS,
ETC.
1001Definitio
ns

8) Acknowledgeddocuments.
9) Commericlapaperandrelated
documents.
10) Presumptionsunderafederalstatute.
11) Certifieddomesticrecordsofa
regularlyconductedactivity.
12) CertifiedForeignrecordsofaregularly
conductactivityinacivilcase
Writing:letters,words,numbers,orequivalent
inanymore
Recording:^recordedinanymanner
Photograph:image/equivalentstoredinany
form
Original:itself,counterpart,printout,negative
Duplicate:counterpartproducedbya
mechanicalprocess/techniquethataccurately
producestheoriginal

1002
Requirement
ofOriginal

Originalisrequiredtoproveitscontentunless
rules/statuteprovidesotherwise

1003
Admissibility
ofDuplicates

Duplicateisadmissibletothesameextentasthe
originalunlessagenuinequestionisraised
abouttheoriginalsauthenticity/circumstances
thatmakesItunfair.
Otherevidenceofcontentisadmissibleifall
originalsaredestroyednotinbadfaithgive
notice,notcloselyrelatedtoacontrollingissue

Usuallyadmissible,unlessgenuine
issueastoitsauthenticity

Thecommonlawgovernsaclaimofprivilege
unlesstheConstitution,federalstatute,orS.Ct.
ruleprovidesotherwise.
BUTinacivilcase,statelawgovernsprivilege

Infedlcriminalactionsandincivil
actionsinfedlcourtweherefedllaw
suppliesruleofdecision,fed.Privilege
lawapplies.

1004
Admissibility
ofother
evidenceof
content
501Privileges
InGeneral

(d)Sometimesnogoodpurposeserved
byproductionoforiginal.

Incivilcasesinfederalcourtswherean
elementofaclaimordefenseisnot
groundeduponafedlquestion,thereisno

18

regardingaclaim/defenseforwhichstatelaw
suppliestheruleofdecision.

Whenstatelawsuppliestheruleof
decision,asindiversity,stateprivilege
lawcontrols.

fedlintereststrongenoughtojustify
departurefromstatepolicy.Alsoremoves
incentivetoforumshop.

Rejectedrulesonlysuggestthat
privilegesshouldbedeterminedona
casebycasebasis.
504
Proposed.
Psychotherapi
stPatient
Privilege

506
Proposed.
Communicati
onsto
Clergymen
511Proposed
Waiverof
Privilegeby
Voluntary
Disclosure

Psychotherapist/Psychologist.Confidentialif
notintendedtobedisclosedtotheirpersons
otherthanthosepresenttofurtherthepatients
interest.Pt.hasprivilegetorefusetodisclose
andtopreventanyotherpersonfromdisclosing
confidentialcommunications;
patient/guardian/personalrepresentativecan
claimtheprivilege.Exceptions:Noprivilegefor
hospitalizationproceedings,examinationby
orderofjudge,conditionanelementof
claim/defense.
Clergyman/personreasonablybelievedtobeso
bythepersonconsultinghim.Acommunication
isconfidentialifmadeprivatelyandnot
intendedforfurtherdisclosureexcepttoother
personspresentinfurtheranceofthepurposeof
thecommunication.GeneralruleandWhomay
claimit.
Apersonuponwhomtheserulesconfera
privilegeagainstdisclosureoftheconfidential
matter/communicationwaivestheprivilegeifhe
orhispredecessorwhileholderoftheprivilege
voluntarilydisclosesorconsentstodisclosureof
anysignificantpartofthematteror
communication.Thisruledoesnotapplyifthe
disclosureisitselfaprivilegedcommunication.

2/3statesrecognizetheprivilegebystatute

Aclient,bydisclosingasubjectwhich
hediscussedwithhislawyer,doesnot
waivetheprivilege.Hewouldhaveto
disclosethecommunicationitselfin
ordertoeffectawaiver.Ex:Itoldmy
attorneythatIshotmybrother.

Centralpurposeofmostprivilegesisthe
promotionofsomeinterest/relationshipby
endowingitwithasupportingsecrecyof
confidentiality.Theprivilegeshould
terminatewhentheholder,byhisownact,
destroysthisconfidentiality.

19

Spectrum of Admissibility Standards

Admissible--Easy To admit

403 test

609(a)(2) Fresh Crimes of Deceit PV: 100; UP: 0

Admit, unless UP substantially outweighs PV.


Admit if PV is not substantially outweighed by any UP.

609(a)(1)(A) "fresh felonies" of non-criminal D (PV


80; UP 20)

Admit if PV outweighs unfair prejudice

609(a)(1)(B) "fresh felonies" of D (PV 50, UP 50)

Admit if PV substantially outweighs UP

Reverse 403

609(b) Stale Felonies (PV 20, UP 80)

Exclude unless violates due process/constitutional/fairness

609(d) Juvenile Adjudications

Inadmissible

Crimes that are non-felony, non-deceit crimes

20

21