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# Review Multiplication tables

Worked example
Is 2,648 divisible by 2? Yes, because 8 is divisible by an even number.
Is 91,542 divisible by 3? Yes, because 9+1+5+4+2 = 21 and 21 is a multiple of 3.
Is 216 divisible by 4? Yes, because 16 is a multiple of 4.
Is 36,545 divisible by 5? Yes, because the last digit is 5.
Is 9,918 divisible by 6? Yes, because the last digit, 8, is divisible by an even number and the sum of
all the digits, 27, is a multiple of 3.
Is 9,918 divisible by 6? Yes, because the last digit, 8, is divisible by an even number and the sum of
all the digits, 27, is a multiple of 3.
What is the lowest common multiple of 6 and 9? 3/3
US definition
Million: 1,000,000 or a thousand thousand (same as UK definition)
Billion: 1,000,000,000 or a thousand million
Trillion: 1,000,000,000,000 or a thousand billion
Multiply the digits greater than 0 together _+ Add that number of zeros to the right of the result of
**AVERAGE Tip: remember to include the zero as a value in your sum of the number of values.

Part = Percentage

Whole

> 10%
>

>

RATIO
Method 1 Define the ratio in words,
Method 2 The ratio of black cats to white cats is 5 : 10.
Method 3 Write the ratio as a fraction in its lowest terms. For example:Black cats/White cats
In order to compare two quantities, they must be expressed in terms of the same unit.
Two types of ratio are typically tested in numeracy tests. These are part to part ratios and part to
whole ratios.
1) Types of trees is the parent set, and consists of two subsets, willows and oaks.
Willows to Oaks = 2 : 4

1) The parent set is all files in the filing cabinet and consists of two subsets, secret files and top
secret files. You are given a part to part ratio and asked to express one part as a subset of the
whole.
When you compare two equivalent ratios of equal value you are finding a proportion.

## 20% tou 60% = 1200 /10000 = 0,12 12%

============================
So, for example, suppose we have a question which tells us that the
population of a country rises by 40000 to 4.312 million
consumption rises from 42.8 to 51.7 million tonnes.
What is the percentage per capita increase over the given period?
The population is in millions and the increase is given as a full number so we need to mentally convert
to millions before we can adjust the population for the start of the period which will be 4.3120.04=4.272. Essentially, the problem now boils down to:
100 * ((51.7/4.312m) - (42.8/4.272)) / (42.8/4.272)
At this point we can use our calculator to do And then calculate the final answer of 19.7% from these
figures.

SOS
Many of you would be thinking , what is the benefit of learning
Fraction ====> Percentage ====> Fraction conversions, when we already know the traditional
method to calculate percentages. To show the advantage of the above conversions. Let us take an
example.
Example 1: If population of Vatican City is 960.If population of Vatican City grows by 12.5 % in a
year. Calculate the population after one year.
Solution:
Population after one year = 960 + 12.5% of 960
= 960 + 12.5/100 X 960
= 960 + 120 = 1080 Ans.
In traditional method we need to do tedious calculation, but our conversion makes it so easy.
Using Conversion Method: In above section we have seen that 12.5 % is equivalent to 1/8 in fraction. I
have earlier discussed that calculating 12.5 % of any number is exactly same as calculating 1/8 of that
number.
Population after one year = 960 + 1/8 X 960 = 960 + 120 = 1080 Ans.
Actually you need not to write anything on the paper, lets see how you should calculate mentally.
12.5% increase = 1/8 increase
1/8 of 960
= 120
Total Population after a year = 960 + 120 = 1080
This question can be done mentally without using pen. Remembering these conversions are very
essential to succeed in entrance examination.
Now you have seen the magic of these conversions, Now do one work, I am providing a conversion
table below note it down in a A4 sheet of paper & paste it in front of your study table, glance through it
once a day. It will make your life easier.

if

Fraction
1/2
1/3
1/4
1/5
1/6
1/7
1/8
1/9
1/10

Percentage
50 %
33.33 %
25 %
20 %
16.67 %
14.28 %
12.5 %
11.11 %
10 %

Fraction
1/11
1/12
1/13
1/14
1/15
1/16
1/17
1/18
1/19

Percentage
9.09 %
8.33%
7.69 %
7.14 %
6.66 %
6.25 %
5.88 %
5.55 %
5.26 %

Fraction
1/20
1/21
1/22
1/23
1/24
1/25
1/30
3/8
2/5

Percentage
5.00 %
4.76 %
4.54 %
4.35 %
4.166 %
4.00 %
3.33 %
37.5 %
40 %

Fraction
5/8
7/8
2/3
5/6
4/5

Percentage
62.5 %
87.5 %
66.66 %
83.33 %
80 %

you know 1/8=> 12.5 % so if you multiply both sides by 3, you will get 3/8=>37.5 %.
Similarly 87.5%= 100 % - 12.5 %= 1-1/8 = 7/8.
Using above techniques if you remember basic conversions, you can calculate others.

## X% of Y and Y% of X are same.

Ques: Calculate 32 % of 50.
So, 32% of 50 = 50% of 32. 50% = 1/2
So, 50% of 32= 1/2*32= 16.
If you are good in converting percentage into fraction, and you know that X% of Y is same as Y% of
X.You can easily reduce calculation in many percentage problems.Q1) 68% of 25 = ?

Case 1: As income is 25% more than B. By how much percentage Bs income is less than
As Income.
In above given Question As income is 25% more than Bs Income. It means if we increase Bs
income by 25% we will get As income. (do not proceed until you understand this statement;
take your time). Let us represent this in our diagram.

Step 4: Now convert the Given Percentage to Fraction since we all know 25% = 1/4 and write
it above blue arrow ( in solving problems you need not to make more than one diagram only
one diagram will suffice)

)
If sign of the fraction in blue arrow is + (positive means increase)
then sign of the fraction in red arrow will be (negative: means
decrease).
Note: its common sense, Think if you have common sense, if you
dont have it ,do not worry just remember positive(+) becomes
negative(-) and negative(-) becomes (+).

b)

Let us write fraction in red arrow, numerator of red arrow will be same as numerator of
blue arrow.

Note: Always remember, while applying A-B Rule, Numerator does not Change
c)

## Denominator of red arrow = (denominator of blue arrow + numerator of blue arrow)

i.e. 4+1=5 (I have added 4 and 1 since + was preceding the blue arrow fraction).

If fraction above blue arrow has + symbol, denominator & numerator will be added.
If fraction above blue arrow has - symbol, denominator & numerator will be subtracted.

Answer: Since we know -1/5 = -20%, so if As income is 25% more than B. Then Bs
income is 20% less than A.
Case 2: As income is 25% less than B. By how much percentage Bs income is more than As
Income.

a)

If sign of the fraction in blue arrow is ( negative: means decrease) then sign of the
fraction in red arrow will + ( positive: means increase)
Note: its common sense, Think ,if you have common sense, if you dont have it,do not worry
just remember positive(+) becomes negative(-) and negative(-) becomes (+).

b)

Let us write fraction in red arrow, numerator of red arrow will be same as numerator of
blue arrow.
Note: Always remember, while applying A-B Rule, Numerator does not Change

c)

Denominator of red arrow = (denominator of blue arrow - numerator of blue arrow) i.e.
4-1=3 (I have subtracted 4 and 1 since - was preceding the blue arrow fraction).

If fraction above blue arrow has - symbol, denominator & numerator will be subtracted.
If fraction above blue arrow has + symbol, denominator & numerator will be added.

Answer: Since we know +1/3 = +33.33%, so if As income is 25% less than B. Then Bs
income is 33.33% more than A.
First i will suggest you to read Article of Multiplying factor.This will become much easier for you.

Solution:=> Price fist decresed by 20% => Price becomes = 80% ==> Again it increases by 50% ===>
Final price becomes = 120%. ==> It means that effectively price has been increased by 20%.
Now apply AB Rule:
Price increases by= 20% => +1/5
[DI-4] Query: Data Interpretation : How to Calculate Highest Percentage Growth?
Highest percentage growth means Highest Multiplying Factor.
So we have to find highest Multiplying factor.
Now compare Harish(0.06/1.44) and Kiran(0.06/1.68)
Numerator same => The one having smaller denominator will have larger value.
So , Between Harish and Kiran => Harish has high growth rate.
Now compare Harish(0.06/1.44) and Indira(0.11/1.45)
Denominator and numerator both have increased.
M.F. of Numerator ~ 2 ( Numerator approximately doubled )
while denominator is changing by very small amount.
=> M.F. of Numerator > M.F. of denominator
so, 0.11 /1.45 > 0.06/1.44
So, growth rate of Indira is more than growth rate of Harish.
Now compare Indira(0.11/1.45) and Lalit(0.12/1.80) and Manish(0.11/2.5)
Here numerators are almost same for everyone and there is lot of variation in denominator.
So, the fraction having smallest denominator will be largest.
So, Indira(0.11/1.45) is having Highest Percentage Growth.
Hence option[B] Indira is correct.
Practice above mentioned approach as much as you can,It will definitely save your time during exam,In
many questions you will be able to mark the answer just by looking at the table:)
Good Luck :)

## Awareness of Wrong Answers Choices

When the test writers are creating a multiple-choice question, they create wrong answer choices that fall
into several categories. Knowing these categories can help you correctly identify and eliminate wrong
o

Too Extreme

Rotten Fruit

## TrueBut Doesnt Answer the Question

100-21=?
Unit'splace digit=Complement of 1 with base 10 is 9(10-1=9)
Ten's place digit=Complement of 2 with base 9 is 7(9-2=7)
Ans 100-21=79
100-42=?
Unit'splace digit=Complement of 2 with base 10 is 8 (10-2=8)
Ten's place digit=Complement of 4 with base 9 is 5 (9-4=5)
Ans 100-42=58
Now lets take the base as 1000 and find complements of numbers
To find the complement of a number with 1000 as base follow the below steps
For the unit's place digit find the complement of the units place digit with 10 as base
For the ten's place digit find the complement of the ten's place digit with 9 as base
For the hundreth's place digit find the complement of the hundreth's place digit with 9 as base
We shall now practice some examples
1000-121=?
Unit'splace digit=Complement of 1 with base 10 is 9 (10-1=9)
Ten's place digit=Complement of 2 with base 9 is 7 (9-2=7)
Hundreth's place digit=Complement of 1 with base 9 is 8 (9-1=8)
Ans 1000-121=879

1000-472=?
Unit'splace digit=Complement of 2 with base 10 is 8 (10-2=8)
Ten's place digit=Complement of 7 with base 9 is 2 (9-7=2)
Hundreth's place digit=Complement of 4 with base 9 is 5 (9-4=5)