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24 hour Chick

WHOLE MOUNT
1. Area Opaca
-

Peripheral region surrounding area pellucida and in contact with the yolk
(dark color & nutrition)
3 zones
a. Peripheral region
Margin of growth
Cells proliferate but no contact with the yolk
b. Zone junction
Intermediate region where cells cut free from the yolk and
are added to the area pellucida
c. Inner zone
Germ wall
Originates from zone junction and have yolk granules
Transition region for the area pellucida
2 regions
a. Vasculosa
Inner region
Thickening of splanchnic mesoderm
Forms BLOOD ISLANDS
b. Vitellina
Outer region
No blood islands

2. Area Pellucida
-

Central region of blastodisc


Forms PRIMITIVE STREAK
Lies over the subgerminal cavity and is translucent because of the thinness of
the blastoderm
a. Epiblast: outer = ectoderm and mesoderm
b. Hypoblast: inner

Longitudinal cleft formed on the surface of the amniotic blastodisc by


convergence of cells
Gastrulation begins as the epiblast cells migrate towards and into the streak
a. Primitive groove
Central furrow thickening
b. Primitive ridges
Margins of the primitive streak flanking the primitive groove on
either side
c. Primitive pit
Indented region of the blastoderm at the anterior end of the
primitive streak
d. Hensons node (Viktor Hensen, German anatomist and physiologist)
Thickened area at the anterior end of the primitive streak
through which cells invaginate to form the NOTOCHORD.
Homologous to the dorsal lip of the blastopore in amphibian
embryos
Synonym: primitive knot

3. Primitive streak
-

4. Proamnion
-

Anterior to the developing avian embryo, surrounding the head


Only endoderm and ectoderm
Will become INVADED WITH MESODERM AND INCORPORATED INTO THE
AMNION

5. Neural folds
-

Margins of the neural plate that will fuse at the mid dorsal region

Median longitudinal groove


Formed by rolling up the neural plate

Folded region of the blastoderm


Dark crescent line marking the boundary of the head of the embryo

Longitudinal band of cells extending causal from the region of the neural
folds to the Hensens node

6. Neural groove

7. Head fold

8. Notochord

9. Foregut

10.

11.

12.

13.
14.

- First part of the digestive tract


- Floor is composed of endodermal cells
- Dome shaped inside the head
Anterior intestinal portal (AIP)
- Opening of the foregut in amniotes
- Prominent arched line beneath the neural folds
- Continuous with the lateral walls of the foregut
- OPENING MOVES POSTERIORLY AND ULTIMATELY BECOMES PART OF THE YOLK
Mesenchyme of the head
- Lose network of cells in the space between the foregut and at the ectoderm
of the head
Mesoderm
a. Anterior border of the mesoderm
Faint line across the A.P.
Anterior end of the notochord
b. Thickened splanchnic mesoderm
Darker line of the lateral border of the AIP
Formed by delamination of the lateral plate mesoderm
Forms the HEART
Somites
- From the division of the dorsal mesoderm
- 3 4 pairs lateral to the plate mesoderm
Unsegmented mesoderm
- Undivided region of the mesoderm posterior to the somites
Transverse section

1. Head ectoderm
-

Cuboidal cells enclosing the head


Cuboidal origin

2. Neural folds

3.
4.

5.

6.

Anterior neuropore
Neural groove
Prechordal plate
Notochord

Margins of the neural epithelium


Fused at the midline
Temporary external opening of the neurocoel
Median longitudinal groove
Formed by rolling up the neural plate
Mass of chordamesodermal cells
Anterior to the notochord
Forms the HEAD MESENCHYME

Small medial mass between the foregut and the neural plate

Dorsoventral flattened tube with endodermal cells


Beneath the neural plate

Where floor of the foregut is in contact with the neural ectoderm of the head
BREAKS OPEN TO BECOME THE MOUTH
Synonym: oropharyngeal membrane

Loosely scattered cells


Fills up the space between the foregut and the neural plate

7. Foregut

8. Oral plate

9. Mesenchyme

10. Proamnion

11.
12.

13.

15.
16.

Subcephalic pocket
Somatopleure
Splanchnopleure
Coelom
Subgerminal cavity
-

Region of the blastoderm beneath the head


Ectoderm and endoderm only
Cavity formed beneath the head as the head folds develop
Membrane composed of ectoderm and somatic mesoderm
Forms PART OF THE BODY WALL, CHORION, AND AMNION
Cellular layer splanchnic mesoderm and endoderm
Forms PART OF THE BODY WALL, YOLK SAC, AND ALLANTOIS
Cavity when the somatic mesoderm and the mesoderm separates
Space beneath the hypoblast within the AP
Rise to a MIDGUT

Section through the Anterior Intestinal Portal


Neural folds already formed the neural tube
Open foregut and its endoderm is continuous with the rest of the endoderm
Opening of the closed foregut= AIP
Thickened splanchnic mesoderm = PROSPECTIVE CARDIAC MESODERM

Tube of tissue by thickening and rolling up the neural plate during neurulation
Forms the BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD

Edges of the neural plate above the neural tube


Migrate to form GANGLIA, PIGMENT CELLS, PARTS OF THE GILL ARCHES, ETC.

1. Neural tube

2. Neural Crest

3. Head fold
- Downward bend of the membranes around the head region
4. Anterior Intestinal Portal (AIP)
- Opening of the foregut in developing amniotes
- Gut elongates and moves posteriorly to BECOME PART OF THE YOLK SAC
5. Amnio-Cardiac Vesicle
- Region of the coelom
- Give rise to the HEART AND AMNION
- Thickened splanchnic mesoderm makes the proximal wall of the semi-cardiac
vesicle = forerunner of the heart
- Dorsal wall of the vesicle, somatopleure, = AMNION
- Middle part contains the yolk = MIDGUT
- Embryo was removed from the yolk for fixation, yolk at the bottom
6. Midgut
- Floorless region posterior to the AIP

Section through the Somite


Neural folds are not closed
Developed from the dorsal mesoderm
Lateral and adjacent to it = intermediate mesoderm = KIDNEYS
Lateral plate mesoderm = SOMATIC AND SPLANCHNIC MESODERM

Segmented mesodermal blocks on the side of the spinal cord


Rose from dorsal mesoderm

Stalk-like connection between somites and lateral plate mesoderm


Anteriorly = PRONEPHROS
Posteriorly = mesenchyme = MESONEPHROS and METANEPHROS
Synonym: intermediate mesoderm, mesomere, nephromere

Mesoderm distal to the nephrotome


SOMATIC AND SPLANCHNIC MESODERM

Section through the Primitive Streak


Consists of primitive groove and 2 primitive ridges

1. Somites
Dorsal mesoderm

2. Nephrotome
Intermediate mesoderm

3. Hypomere
Lateral plate mesoderm

1. Primitive streak
-

Longitudinal cleft on the surface of the amniote blastodisc by convergence


of cells
Gastrulation: epiblast migrate into the streak
a. Hensens node
Anterior end of the primitive streak
Cells invaginate = NOTOCHORD
Homologous to the dorsal lip of a blastopore in amphibians
Synonym: primitive knot
b. Primitive pit
Depression, slightly deeper than the groove and posterior to
hensens node
c. Primitive groove
Posterior cut reveals the central furrow
d. Primitive ridges
Thickened margins on the side of the primitive groove

33 hour chick
Whole mount
1. Prosencephalon
-

Most anterior brain region


DIVIDES INTO TELENCEPHALON AND DIENCEPHALON
Differentiate into CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, THALAMUS AND HYPOTHALAMUS,
AND OPTIC VESICLES THOC
Synonym: forebrain

Paired lateral evaginations on the sides of the prosencephalon


Contains opticoel

Ventral evagination of the floor of the diencephalon


Forms the POSTERIOR LOBE OF THE PITUITARY GLAND

Cavity of the prosencephalon


Rise to VENTRICLES 1 TO 3

2. Optic Vesicle

3. Infundibulum

4. Prosocoel

5. Mesencephalon
6. Rhombencephalon
-

Mid region of the brain


Cavity is mesocoel
Forerunner of the aqueduct of sylviu/ cerebral aqueduct
Synonym: midbrain
Most posterior region of the brain
Synonym: hindbrain
a. Metencephalon
More anterior
Cavity: metacoel
Part of the 4th ventricle
b. Meyelencephalon
More posterior
Last part of the brain
Cavity: myelocoel
Part of the 4th ventricle

7. Spinal cord

8.

9.

10.

11.

Sinus rhomboidalis
Notochord
Nephrotome
Somites
-

Region of the neural tube posterior to the myelencephalon


Narrow cavity: central/ spinal cord
Rhomboid shaped region at the caudal region
Primitive pit and hensens node are enclosed by unfused neural folds
Rod like structure originating from the mesoderm and dorsal to the gut
Defines the anterior/posterior axis
For skeletal support
Stalk like connection between somites and lateral plate mesoderm
Anteriorly = PRONEPHROS
Posteriorly = mesenchyme = MESONEPHROS and METANEPHROS
Synonyms: intermediate mesoderm, mesomere, nephromere
11 12 pairs

12. Anterior Intestinal Portal (AIP)


- Opening of the foregut
- Gut elongates and moves posteriorly to BECOME PART OF THE YOLK SAC
13. Foregut
- Faint lines from the margins of AIP
14. Heart
- Single, tubular, S-shaped organ bulging to the right side of the body
15. Area Pellucida and Area Vitellina
- Central region of blastodisc
- Forms PRIMITIVE STREAK
- Lies over the subgerminal cavity and is translucent because of the thinness of
the blastoderm
a. Epiblast: outer = ectoderm and mesoderm
b. Hypoblast: inner
- Outer region and no blood islands (av)
17. Area opaca vasculosa
a. Sinus terminalis
Vein encircling the area vasculosa
ARISE TO THE TERMINAL BLOOD VESSEL OF THE VITELLINE
CIRCULATION

b. Blood islands
Masses of splanchnic mesoderm
Form FIRST RED BLOOD CELLS AND BLOOD VESSELS
Found in the guts of wall of amphibians and yolk sac in
amniotes
c. Proamnion
Anterior region surrounding the head in avians
Only ectoderm and endoderm
Become INVADED WITH MESODERM AND INCORPORATED IN
AMNION
d. Subcephalic pocket
Cavity formed beneath the embryonic head as head fold
develops
TRANSVERSE SECTION
Section at the level of the Optic Nerve
Optic vesicles as lateral bulges of prosencephalon
Optic vesicles are forerunners of the retina
Overlies the head ectoderm
Induce ectoderm to thicken = LENS VESICLES
Proamnion consists of an ectodermal layer which will eventually be gone
Lack of mesoderm makes it stain pale in whole mounts

1. Prosencephalon
2. Anterior neuropore
3. Prosocoel

Forebrain
Consists of median vesicle and lateral out pocketing per side
Median cleft at the anterior tip of the neural tube
Indicates that neural folds have not yet fused
a. Optic vesicle
Paired lateral evaginations
prosencephalon
Contains opticoel
b. Opticoels

on

the

sides

of

the

4. Lens placode
-

Thickening of the head ectoderm overlying the optic vessel


Forerunner of the eye lens

Shallow depression of the prosencephalic floor of at the posterior border of


the optic vessels

Fold of somatopleure arising first at the the head, the at the sides, then at the
caudal end
Fusion of the amniotic folds = INNER AMNION AND OUTER CHORION

5. Infundibulum

6. Amniotic fluid

7. Yolk Sac
-

Extra embryonic membrane enclosing and absorbing the yolk in amniotes


From a layer of endoderm and layer of splanchnic mesoderm
(splanchnopleure)

Cuboidal cells enclosing the head

Fills up the space between the foregut and the neural plate

Edges of the neural plate above the neural tube

8. Head ectoderm
9. Mesenchyme
10. Neural crest

11. Subcephalic Pocket


12. Area pellucida
-

Migrate to form GANGLIA, PIGMENT CELLS, PARTS OF THE GILL ARCHES, ETC.
Cavity formed benath the head as the head folds develop
Central region of blastodisc
Forms PRIMITIVE STREAK
Lies over the subgerminal cavity and is translucent because of the thinness of
the blastoderm
a. Epiblast: outer = ectoderm and mesoderm
b. Hypoblast: inner

13. Coelom
-

Cavity when the somatic mesoderm and the mesoderm separates

Inner region
Thickening of splanchnic mesoderm
Forms BLOOD ISLANDS

Anterior to the developing avian embryo, surrounding the head


Only endoderm and ectoderm
Will become INVADED WITH MESODERM AND INCORPORATED INTO THE
AMNION

First part of the digestive tract


Floor is composed of endodermal cells
Dome shapped inside the head

14. Area vasculosa

15. Proamnion

16. Foregut

Scetion through the oral plate


Notochord ventral to the midbrain/mesencephalon
Foregut, vental to the notochord, smile-shaped cavity with thin endoderm
walls
Mid portion of the foregut is slightly thickened
Below the foregut is the ectoderm, oral plate = MOUTH
Below the head is the subcephalic space and extra embryonic germ layers

1. Mesencephalon
- Oval brain vesicle posterior to the prosencephalon
2. Anterior cardinal veins
- Paired blood vessels lying at the lateral sides of the mesencephalon
3. Pharynx
- Region of the foregut
4. Dorsal aorta
- Large, paired blood vessels dorsal to the pharynx
5. Stomadeum
- Shallow midventral depression in the ectoderm
- Forerunner of the buccal cavity
6. Oral plate
- Thickened area formed by the ventral ectoderm of the head and the
adjacent endodermal evagination of the pharynx
7. Ventral aorta
- Small paired blood vessels lying below the pharynx, one on each side of a
median depression in the floor of a foregut
8. First aortic arches
- Blood vessels that connect the dorsal aorta with the ventral aorta
- Anterior sections at the anterolateral region of the foregut

Section at the level of the Heart


Anterior Sections
1. Ventral Aortae
-

Median unpaired vessel formed by the fusion of the paired ventral aortae

Anterior chamber of the heart which connects the ventricle to the ventral
aorta
Synonym: bulbos cordis, conus arteriosus, truncus arterioisus

2. Bulbus arteriosus

3. Epimyocardium
-

Outer thick layer if the heart


Rose from the splanchnic mesoderm
Fuses with endocardium = HEART
Gives RISE TO THE EPICARDIUM (outer covering of the heart) and
MYOCARDIUM (cardiac musculature)

Broad connection between the heart and the foregut


Synonym: dorsal mesocardium

4. Isthmus

Section through the future ventricle


1. Ventricle
2. Rhombencephalon
3. Auditory pits
4. Neural crest
-

Region of the heart that bends to one side of the coelom


Dorsal mesocardium is narrower
Posterior part of the brain at the level of the future ventricle
Thick wall
Paired ectodermal thickenings at the hindbrain
Forerunners of the inner ear
Synonym: auditory placodes
Group of cells found at the edges of the neural plate, abve the neural tube
Migrate to form the GANGLIA, PIGMENT CELLS, PARTS OF THE GILL ARCHES,
ETC.

5. Thyroid Gland
-

Endocrine gland in the throat region, above the neural tube


Controls the metabolism and growth
From a ventral diverticulum of the endoderm of the pharynx
Thickened shallow depression of the foregut at the dorsal mesocardium
Posterior sections

1. Atrium
-

Posterior level of the heart when it goes back to the middle part of the
pericardial cavity
Forerunner of the future auricles

2. Sinus venosus
- Caudal continuation of the atrium
- Dorsoventral flattened tube in the midline
3. Anterior intestinal portal
- Margin of the ventral opening of the gut into the yolk
- Floorless gut becomes the MIDGUT
-

4. Vitelline veins
- Paired large vessels that enter the atrium via sinus venosus
- Arise laterally onto the blastoderm
5. Anterior cardinal veins
- Pair of small blood vessels above the dorsal aortae and adjacent to the
rhombencephalon
Sections through the somites
1. Spinal cord
-

Neural tube is elongated


Elliptical cavity
Cns region

Longitudinal band of cells extending causal from the region of the neural
folds to the hensens node

Segmented mesodermal blocks on the side of the spinal cord


Rose from dorsal mesoderm

Stalk-like connection between somites and lateral plate mesoderm


Anteriorly = PRONEPHROS
Posteriorly = mesenchyme = MESONEPHROS and METANEPHROS
Synonym: intermediate mesoderm, mesomere, nephromere

Mesoderm distal to the nephrotome


Somatic and splanchnic mesoderm

Pair of large vessels between the endoderm and somites


Continue laterally into the plexus of vessels = EMPHALOMESENTERIC ARTERIES

2. Notochord

3. Somites

4. Nephrotome

5. Hypomere

6. Dorasal aortae

Section through the Sinus Rhomboidalis


1. Neural Tube
-

Neural groove is open

2. Hensens Node
- Large mass of compact cells displacing the notochord tissue
3. Unsegmented Mesoderm
- Somites are not yet divided
4. Primitive Streak
- Posterior section, neural groove has flattened and disappeared
- Remains of the primitive streak
5. Omphalomesenteric Vein
- Far out in the splanchnopleure