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Topic:

Technology and Solutions


Protection and Substation Automation

BREAKER
FAILURE
PROTECTION
APPLICATION

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BASICS

Topic Objectives
Objectives
r Fault condition in a power grid
r Protection zones
r System behavior in case of breaker failure situation
r BFP solutions

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r BFP application

Line

Busbar
Transformer

Generator Transformer

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Busbar

Fault Condition in a Power Grid


Protection zones

G
BB

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Busbar

Fault Condition in a Power Grid


Busbar Fault

Fault Condition in a Power Grid

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Busbar Fault - cleared

Fault Condition in a Power Grid


Busbar Fault - Breaker Failure - solution

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a tripping command via


the intertripping system

trip command to all


surrounding CBs by
a remote tripping
command

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Line

Fault Condition in a Power Grid


Line Fault

Fault Condition in a Power Grid

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Line Fault - cleared

Fault Condition in a Power Grid


Line Fault - Breaker Failure - solution

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a tripping command via


the intertripping system

trip command to all


surrounding CBs by
a remote tripping
command

Fault Condition in a Power Grid

Transformer

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Transformer or Generator - Transformer Fault

Fault Condition in a Power Grid

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Transformer or Generator - Transformer Fault - cleared

Fault Condition in a Power Grid


Transformer or Generator - Transformer Fault
- Breaker Failure - solution

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a tripping command via


the intertripping system

trip command to all


surrounding CBs by

G
a remote tripping
command

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions

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How is it possible to
detect a non operating
circuit breaker (= Circuit
Breaker Failure)
???

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Breaker Failure Protection Solutions


1.

supervision of the feeder current (with


an overcurrent criteria) after a tripping
command
OR

2.

supervision of the CB auxiliary contacts


after a tripping command
OR

3.

supervision of the feeder current (with


the BBP measurement algorithm) after a
tripping command (only applicable if
the BFP is installed in the BBP system)
- BBP unbalancing

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions


solution 1:

t ~ higher than the highest possible CB


opening time + arc extinguish time

the trip from the protection


device is called Starting BFP

trip to CB from
protection device

!!!

CB opening
coil

BFP

&

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feeder
current

I>

t1

t2

~120 ms

~120 ms

re-trip to

trip to the
surrounding
CBs by

faulty CB

intertripping &

(coil 1 & 2)

remote tripping

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions


t ~ higher than the highest possible CB
opening time + arc extinguish time

solution 2:

the trip from the protection


device is called Starting BFP

trip to CB from
protection device

!!!

CB opening
coil

BFP

&
CB closed

t1

t2

~120 ms

~120 ms

faulty CB
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re-trip to

(coil 1 & 2)

trip to the
surrounding
CBs by
intertripping &
remote tripping

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions


solution 3:
trip to CB from
protection device x

trip to CB from
protection device y

CB opening
coil

t2

~120 ms

~120 ms

BBP
I = 0
BFP logic

CB x

t1

&

CB y

I = IF

feeder
current
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IF
BFP logic
re-trip to faulty CB
(coil 1 & 2) &

BFP

inter-

remote trip

CB x

tripping

BFP
CB y

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions

Which solution must be used


for which application
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An advanced BFP (& BBP)


system offers all 3 solutions
!!!

???

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions


Application & features of solution 1:
standard BFP application (most common used)
for line, transformer, generator, generator- transformer, reactors and
coupler CBs
for all voltage levels and switchgear configurations
overcurrent settable independently for all feeders (depending on the
minimum feeder short current)
operation independent on the CB auxiliary contacts (aux. contacts are
a week part of the protection chain)
for single, double and three phase auto- reclosure (tripping), (phase
segregated starting inputs)

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for detection of evolving faults (phase segregated timers for t1)


remote tripping signal settable after timer 1 or timer 2
advanced trip- redirection functionality in case of CB SF6
underpressure condition
not applicable for very low fault currents (e.g. generator
reverse power function) -> solution 2

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions


solution 1:
Start R S T
Start R
IR

Start S
IS

Start T

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IT

1
&

t1

I>
1
&

t1
1

I>

t2

1
&
I>

t1

remote
tripping
re-trip to
faulty CB

Trip
Redirection

set t1 & t2
to 10ms

(coil 1 & 2)

trip to the
surrounding
CBs by
intertripping

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions


phase segregated timers for the
detection of evolving faults

solution 1:

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phase segregated starting


inputs for single and double
pole auto reclosure

Start R S T
Start R
IR

Start S
IS

Start T
IT

1
&

t1

remote tripping
settable after t1
or t2

I>
1
&

t1
1

I>

t2

1
&

t1

I>

remote
tripping
re-trip to
faulty CB

Trip
Redirection

set t1 & t2
to 10ms

advanced trip redirection functionality

(coil 1 & 2)

trip to the
surrounding
CBs by
intertripping

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions


Application & features of solution 2:
applicable for very low fault currents (e.g. generator reverse power
function)
remote tripping signal settable after timer 1 or timer 2
advanced trip- redirection functionality in case of CB SF6
underpressure condition
very good addition to solution 1
no overcurrent (fault current) supervision
the starting signal must be switch off by the CB OFF aux. contact to
prevent an unwanted trip

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operation dependent on the CB auxiliary contacts (aux. contacts are a


week part of the protection chain)
not applicable for single and double phase auto- reclosure (tripping)
not applicable for detection of evolving faults

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions


solution 2 in addition to solution 1:
Start R S T
Start R
IR

Start S
IS

Start T

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IT

1
&

t1

I>
1
&

t1
1

I>

t2

1
&

t1

I>

External
Start BFP

t1

remote
tripping
re-trip to
faulty CB
(coil 1 & 2)

Trip
Redirection

set t1 & t2
to 10ms

trip to the
surrounding
CBs by
intertripping

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions


solution 2 in addition to solution 1:
current independent starting input

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Start R S T
Start R
IR

Start S
IS

Start T
IT

1
&

t1

I>
1
&

t1
1

I>

t2

1
&

t1

I>

External
Start BFP

t1

remote
tripping
re-trip to
faulty CB
(coil 1 & 2)

Trip
Redirection

set t1 & t2
to 10ms

trip to the
surrounding
CBs by
intertripping

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions


Application & features of solution 3:
applicable as basic BBP coupler functionality for the detection of faults
between coupler CB and CT (coupler function - CB reclaim time)
not applicable for line, transformer, generator, generator- transformer,
reactors feeders in HV systems
overcurrent (fault current) supervision depending on the BBP
differential current setting (high short current required)
functionality depending on the BBP
not applicable for single and double phase auto- reclosure (tripping)
not applicable for detection of evolving faults

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the starting signal must be switch off by the CB OFF aux. contact to
prevent an unwanted trip to the CB after timer 1
operation dependent on the CB auxiliary contacts (aux. contacts are a
week part of the protection chain)
no trip- redirection functionality in case of CB SF6 underpressure
condition
remote tripping signal fixed to timer 1

Breaker Failure Protection Solutions


Coupler function:
Zone 2

Zone 1
Input
Current
signal

I = 0

trip BBP
Zone 1
CB open

1
CB reclaim
time ~120 ms

coupler function
I = IF

Zone 2

BBP

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intertripping
Zone 2

CB opening
coil

CT
bypass

t
1

IF

&

Breaker Failure Protection Application


Transformer, Transformer- Generator, Reactor feeder and coupler:
Start R S T

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3 Phase trip

Start R

&

IR

t1

I>
1

Start S
Reverse Power (32)

I T & I G (87T & 87G)

CBx

IS

&

I>
1

Start T
IT

&

t1

I>

External

t1

t1

CB closed Start BFP


aux. contacts
G/T
Prot.

Trip
Redirection

set t1 & t2
to 10ms

BFP
CBx

Breaker Failure Protection Application


Line feeder with single phase auto reclosure:
3 Phase trip

CBx

Start R S T

single
Phase trip
Z< & DEF (21 & 67N)

OC (51)

Start R
IR

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t1

I>
1

Start S
IS

&

t1
1

I>
1

Start T
IT

AR

&

&

t1

I>

External

t1

Start BFP
Syn

Line
Prot.

Trip
Redirection

set t1 & t2
to 10ms

BFP
CBx

Breaker Failure Protection Application


Trip Redirection in case of CB SF6 Underpressure :
3 Phase trip

CBx

single
Phase trip
Z< & DEF (21 & 67N)

OC (51)

Start R

AR

&

IR

t1

I>
1

Start S
IS

&

t1
1

I>
1

Start T
IT

arc is to low

pressure to extinguish the

CB is blocked since SF6 gas

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Start R S T

&

t1

I>

External

t1

Start BFP
Syn

Line
Prot.

Trip
Redirection

set t1 & t2
to 10ms

BFP
CBx

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