Anda di halaman 1dari 25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Step 1 Mnemonics I: Behavioral, Biochem,


Embryo, Micro

112 terms by liam_osullivan

Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Create a free account

SpIN, SnOUT

Specificity - used to rule dz IN (good for


diagnostic tests)
Sensitivity - used to rule dz OUT (good
for screening tests)

Mr. T is mean

t-test checks difference btwn the


means of 2 grps

ANOVA

ANalysis Of VAriance - btwn means of 3


or more groups

PDR

Disease prevention:
P - prevent - primary (HPV vaccination)
D - detect - secondary (Pap smear)
R - reduce disability - tertiary
(chemotherapy)

APGAR

10-point scale evaluated at 1 minute


and 5 minutes of life in newborn:
Appearance
Pulse
Grimace
Activity
Respiration

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

1/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Death Arrives Bringing Grave


Acceptance

Kubler Ross grief stages:


Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Grieving
(depression), Acceptance

BATS Drink Blood

Sleep Stages:
Beta (Awake; highest frequency, lowest
amplitude)
Alpha (Awake, eyes closed)
Theta (light sleep)
Sleep spindles and K complexes
(bruxism)
Delta (Deepest; slowest frequency,
highest amplitude; enuresis)
Beta (REM; same frequency as awake!)

He's Got Purine Recovery Trouble

HGPRT - the defective E in Lesch-Nyhan


syndrome
XR; excess urate, retardation, selfmutilation (lip-biting), gout.
Tx - allopurinol

Rampant, Massive, Tiny

RNA types:
Rampant - rRNA - most abundant - RNA
pol I
Massive - mRNA - longest - RNA pol II
Tiny - tRNA - smallest - RNA poll III

U Go Away, U Are Away, U Are Gone

mRNA stop codons:


UGA
UAA
UAG

going APE

Ribosome sites, in order:


A site - incoming Aminoacyl tRNA
P site - accommodates growing Peptide
E site - holds Empty tRNA as it Exits

PMAT

Mitosis phases:
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

2/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Be So Totally Cool, Read Books

Collagen types:
I - Bone, Skin, Tendon (cornea, late
wound repair)
II - Cartilage (including hyaline)
III - Reticulin (skin, blood vessels,
uterus, granulation)
IV - Basement Membrane

Type IV: under the floor

Type IV collagen - basement membrane

strong, slippery, bloody BM

Collagen types:
I - strong
II - slippery
III - bloody
IV - basement membrane

SNoW DRoP

Blotting: procedures, sample, (probe)


S - southern, DNA (DNA)
N - northern, RNA (DNA)
W - western, Protein (Ab)

Be Wise, Fool's GOLD Heeds Silly Hope

X-linked recessive disorders:


B - Bruton's agammaglobulinemia
W - Wiskott-Aldrich
F - Fabry's
G - G6PD deficiency
O - ocular albinism
L - Lesch-Nyhan
D - Duchenne's MD (and Becker's)
HS - Hunter's Syndrome
H - Hemophilia A & B

WBC

X-linked immunodeficiencies:
W - Wiskott-Aldrich
B - Bruton's agammaglobulinemia
C - Chronic Granulomatous disease
(and some types of Hyper-IgM)

Try hunting for my fried eggs

Trinucleotide repeat diseases:


Huntington's (CAG)
MyoTonic dystrophy (CTG)
Fragile X (CGG)
Friedreich's AtAxia (GAA)

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

3/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Drink, Elect, Puberty

Autosomal trisomies:
Drink at 21 - Down's (epichantal folds,
simian crease)
Elect at 18 - Edward's (micrognathia,
clenched hands)
Puberty at 13 - Patau's (cleft lip/Palate,
holoProsencephaly, Polydactyly)

CATCH-22

Symptoms of 22q11 deletion


syndromes:
C - Cleft palate
A - Abnormal facies
T - Thymic aplasia --> T cell deficiency
C - Cardiac defects
H - Hypocalcemia - 2'ary to parathyroid
aplasia
DiGeorge Syndrome - thymic,
parathyroid, cardiac
Velocardiofacial - palate, facial, cardiac
BOTH - d/t aberrant dev of 3rd & 4th
branchial pouches

The Rich Never Pan Pyrite Filled Creeks

Water soluble vitamins:


B1 - Thiamine (TPP)
B2 - Riboflavin (FAD, FMN)
B3 - Niacin (NAD)
B5 - Pantothenate (CoA)
B6 - Pyridoxine (PLP)
(B7 - biotin)
B9 - Folate (THF)
B12 - Cobalamin
(Vitamin C (ascorbic acid))

Tender Loving Care For No one

Cofactors for PDH, alpha-ketoglutarate


dehydrogenase:
T - thiamine/TPP
L - lipoic acid
C - CoA
F - FAD
N - NAD

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

4/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

3 D's

3 D's of Pellagra (niacin deficiency):


Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia
NAD from niacin (3 ATP)

2 C's

2 C's of riboflavin deficiency:


Cheilosis (inflamm of lips, angular
stomatosis)
Corneal vascularization
FAD and FMN are derived from
riboFlavin - 2 ATPs

SAM the methyl donor man

S-adenosyl-methionine:
Transfers methyl units
Regenerates methionine, in a B12 and
folate-dependent process using
Homocysteine Methyltransferase
Required for conversion of NE --> Epi

Buy-a-tin of CO2

Biotin (B7) - cofactor for carboxylation


reactions:
Pyruvate carboxylase (glycolysis)
ACC (rds of FA synthesis)
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase

AVIDin in egg whites AVIDly binds biotin

Rare deficiency of biotin, can be caused


by excessive ingestion of raw eggs

E for Erythrocytes

Vitamin E - antioxidant that protects rbc


membranes from free radical damage
Aka - alpha-tocopherol (sp)
Deficiency --> hemolytic anemia

ADEK

Fat-soluble vitamins.
Toxicity more common b/c they
accumulate in fat

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

5/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

MEAL

Kwashiorkor results from a proteindeficient MEAL:


M - Malnutrition
E - Edema (swollen belly)
A - anemia
L - Liver (fatty - can't make apoproteins
-> can't export VLDLs)
Vs. marasmus, which is decreased
overall caloric intake --> m. wasting

HUGs take two

Metabolism sites occurring in both


cytoplasm and mitochondria:
H - Heme synthesis
U - Urea cycle
G - Gluconeogenesis

Citrate Is Krebs Starting Substrate For


Making Oxaloacetate

TCA cycle:
Citrate
Isocitrate
Ketoglutarate (alpha)
Succinyl-CoA
Succinate
Fumarate
Malate
Oxaloacetate

Pathway Produces Fresh Glucose

Gluconeogenesis E's:
P - Pyruvate carboxylase (mitochondria,
biotin)
P - PEP carboxykinase (cytosol, GTP)
F - Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
(cytosol, rds)
G - Glucose-6-phosphatase (ER)

PriVaTe TIM HALL

Essential Amino Acids:


PriVaTe - Phe, Val, Trp
TIM - Thr, Ile, Met
HALL - His, Arg, Leu, Lys

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

6/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Very Poor Carbohydrate Metabolism

Glycogen storage diseases (type I, II, III,


V):
V - Von Gierke's (glucose-6phosphatase; lactic acid)
P - Pompe's (lysosomal alpha-1,4glucosidase)
C - Cori's (debranching enzyme = alpha1,6-glucosidase)
M - McArdle's (skeletal m. glycogen
phosphorylase)

No man picks his nose with his


sphinger

Neimann-Pick disease.
Deficiency of sphingomyelinase -->
buildup of sphingomyelin

Young Liver Synthesizes Blood

Fetal erythropoiesis:
Y - Yolk sac (3-8 wk)
L - Liver (6-30 wk)
S - Spleen (9-28 wk)
B - Bone Marrow (wk 28 -->)
Fetal Hb = 2 alpha, 2 gamma - dec
affinity for 2,3-DPG --> increased
affinity for oxygen

CAP covers out to in

Branchial apparatus derivatives:


C - Clefts = ectoderm
A - Arches = mesoderm
P - Pouches = endoderm

Several Parts Build Diaphragm

Diaphram embryology:
S - septum transversum --> central
tendon
P - Pleuroperitoneal folds
B - Body wall
D - dorsal mesentery of esophagus -->
crura

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

7/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Babies who can't Pee in utero develop


___

Potter's syndrome
Malformation of ureteric bud -->
bilateral renal agenesis -->
oligohydramnios --> limb & facial
deformities, pulmonary hypoplasia

Kapsules Shield SHiN

Encapsulated bacteria (positive


quellung rxn):
K - Klebsiella pneumoniae
S - Salmonella
S - Streptococcus pneumoniae
Hi - Haemophilus influenzae, type B
N - Neisseria meningitidis
SHiN - produce IgA protease, cause
meningitis, and take up DNA from
environment (transformation)

anaerobes Can't Breathe Air

Obligate anaerobes:
C - Clostridium
B - Bacteroides
A - Actinomyces
Lack catalase and/or superoxide
dismutase --> susceptible to oxidative
damage
Tx - Clindamycin, metronidazole

stay inside when it's Really Cold

Obligate intracellular bacteria:


R - Rickettsia
C - Chlamydia
Can't make own ATP

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

8/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Some Nasty Bugs May Live


FacultativeLy

Facultative Intracellular bacteria:


S - Salmonella
N - Neisseria
B - Brucella
M - Mycobacterium
L - Listeria
F - Francisela
L - Legionella

PHUK, I have a stone

Urease-positive bugs (may --> stones):


P - Proteus
H - H. pyori
U - Ureaplasma
K - Klebsiella
Dx - urea breath test?

Israel has yellow sand

Actinomyces isrealii -> yellow "sulfur"


granules

Nagging Pests Must Breathe

Obligate aerobes (use an oxygendependent system to generate ATP):


N - Nocardia
P - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
M - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
B - Bacillus

These Rascals May Microscopically Lack


Color

Bugs that don't stain well on Gram


stain:
T - Treponema (too thin; use darkfield)
R - Rickettsia (intracellular parasite)
M - Mycobacteria (high lipid-content of
cell wall requires acid-fast stain)
M - Mycoplasma (no cell wall)
L - Legionella pneumophila (use silver
stain)
C - Chlamydia (intracellular parasite;
lacks muramic acid in cell wall)

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

9/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

PASs the sugar

Periodic Acid-Shiff stain


Stains glycogen
Used to diagnose Whipple's disease
(Tropheryma whippelii)

ABCDE

Genes for 5 bacterial toxins encoded in


lysogenic phage:
A - ShigA-like toxin
B - Botulinum toxin
C - Cholera toxin
D - Diphteria toxin
E - Erythrogenic toxin - S. pyogenes

MOPS

Streptococcus pneumoniae:
Most OPtochinin Sensitive
Most common cause of:
M - Meningitis
O - Otitis media (children)
P - Pneumonia
S - Sinusitis
Encapsulated. IgA protease.
Transformation. Diplococcus
"rusty sputum"

ABCDEFG

Corynebacterium diphtheriae exotoxin:


A - ADP ribosylation
B - Beta prophage (encoded by)
C - Corynebacterium
D - Diphtheriae
E, F - Elongation Factor 2
G - Granules (metachromic blue and
red)
ADP ribosylation of EF-2 inhibits protein
synthesis.

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

10/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Lactose is KEE

MacConKEE's agar
Media used to grow lactose fermenters
(pink colonies)
Fast fermenters:
K - Klebsiella
E - Enterobacter
E - E. coli

HaEMOPhilus influenzae

H. influenzae causes:
E - Epiglottitis ("cherry red", "thumb
sign" on XRay)
M - Meningitis
O - Otitis Media
P - Pneumonia
Does NOT cause the flu!

PSEUDOmonas

Pseudomonas a/w:
P - Pneumonia
S - Sepsis (black lesions on skin)
E - External otitis (swimmer's ear)
U - UTI
DO - Drug use and Diabetic
Osteomyelitis
+ burn victims, contact lens infection
Tx - 2 abx = gentamycin + piperacillin

4 A's

Klebsiella:
Aspiration pneumonia
Abscesses in lung
Alcoholics
di-A-betics
"red currant jelly sputum"

"Can't see, can't pee, can't climb a tree"

Reiter's syndrome

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

11/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

BAKE a key Lyme pie

Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi,


Ixodes tick)
B - Bell's palsy (can be bilateral)
A - Arthritis
K - Kardiac block (AV node)
E - Erythema chronicum migrans
(expanding "bull's eye" red rash with
central clearing)
Tx - doxycycline, or ceftriaxone (for
chronic arthritis)

"I don't have a clue why I smell fish in


the vagina garden!"

Gardnerella vaginalis
Vaginosis with gray discharge, fishy
smell, clue cells (covered with bacteria)
Tx - Metro

Rickettsia on the wRist, Typhus on the


Trunk

Rickettsia (RMSF) - starts on hands and


feet
Typhus rash starts centrally then
spreads, without involving the palms or
soles.

Q fever is Queer

Caused by Coxiella burnetii (does not


have Rickettsia in genus name)
No rash, no vector, negative Weil-Felix

You drive CARS using your palms and


soles

Palm and sole rash seen in:


CA - Coxsackievirus A (hand, foot,
mouth dz)
R - RMSF - Rickettsia rickettsii
S - Syphilis

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

12/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

You'll get sick if you EAT these

Nematode route of infection Ingestion:


E - Enterobius (anal pruritis, Scotch
tape test)
A - Ascaris (Loeffler's eosinophilic
pneumonitis)
T - Trichinella (undercooked pork,
larvae encyst in muscle, periorbital
edema)

These get into your feet from the SANd

Nematode route of infection Cutaneous


S - Strongyloides
A - Ancylostoma (iron deficiency
anemia)
N - Necator (iron deficiency anemia)

"Live small yellow chickens get


vaccinated with Sabin's and MMR!"

Live attenuated vaccines:


Smallpox, Yellow fever, Chickenpox
(VZV), Sabin's polio virus, MMR, (and
intranasal influenza)

RIP Always

Killed vaccines:
R - Rabies
I - Influenza
P - Salk Polio
A - HAV

"part-of-a-virus"

All DNA viruses are dsDNA (like our


DNA), except Parvovirus - ssDNA
parvus = small

"repeatovirus"

All RNA viruses are ssRNA (like our


mRNA), except Reovirus - dsRNA

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

13/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Naked CPR and PAPP smear

Naked (nonenveloped) viruses include:


CPR - Calcivirus, Picornavirus, Reovirus
PAPP - Parvovirus, Adenovirus,
Papilloma, Polyoma

DNA viruses are HHAPPPPy

Hepadna
Herpes
Adeno
Pox
Parvo
Papilloma
Polyoma

Get Herpes in a CHEVrolet

Herpesviruses:
C - CMV
H - HSV (-1 -> temporal lobe
encephalitis)
E - EBV
V - VZV - remains dormant in trigeminal
and DRG

PaRaMyxovirus:

Paramyxoviruses: enveloped, ss, linear,


nonsegmented RNA viruses:
Parainfluenza - (croup)
RSV - (bronchiolitis in babies)
Rubeola (Measles)

Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail


Replication

Negative stranded viruses.


Must transcribe negative strand to
positive. Virion brings its own RNAdependent RNA pol.
Arenaviruses, Bunyaviruses,
Paramyxoviruses, Orthomyxoviruses,
Filoviruses, Rhabdoviruses

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

14/25

12/12/2015

BOAR

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Segmented viruses. All are RNA viruses.


B - Bunyaviruses
O - Othormyxoviruses (influenza
viruses)
A - Arenaviruses
R - Reoviruses
Influenza viruses can undergo Ag shift -> worldwide pandemics

PERCH on a "peak" (pico)

PicoRNAviruses = small RNA viruses.


Include:
P - Poliovirus
E - Echovirus
R - Rhinovirus
C - Coxsackievirus
H - HAV
RNA is translated into one large
polypeptide that is cleaved by
proteases into functional viral proteins.

ROTA - Right Out The Anus

Rotavirus - the most important global


cause of infantile gastroenteritis.
Segmental dsRNA (reovirus).
Major cause of acute diarrhea in U.S.
during winter.
Villous destruction w atrophy --> dec
absorption of Na+ and water.

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

15/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

3 C's of Measles

Cough
Coryza (runny nose)
Conjunctivitis
Koplik's spots (red spots with bluewhite center on buccal mucosa).
Rash spreads from head to toe.

Parotid glands and testes as big as


POM-poms

Mumps virus.
P - Parotitis
O - Orchitis (inflamm of testes)
M - aseptic Meningitis

Asymptomatic, Acute, Alone (virus)

HAV - often asymptomatic, not chronic,


no carriers

Defective, Dependent (virus)

HDV - defective - requires HBsAg as its


envelope

Enteric, Expectant (mothers, Epidemics


(virus)

HEV - fecal-oral; high mortality in


pregnant women

4 Fs's

Stages of HIV infection.


1. Flulike (acute)
2. Feeling fine (latent, few years)
3. Falling CD4 count (opportunistic
infections)
4. Final crisis

Runts May Cough Sputum

Most common causes of pneumonia children 4 wk - 18 year:


R - RSV
M - Mycoplasma
C - Chlamydia pnemoniae
S - Strep pneumoniae

"Food poisoning from reheated rice? Be


serious!"

Bacillus cereus

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

16/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

SSEEK PP

UTI bugs:
Serratia marcescens
Staph saprophyticus
E. coli (#1 cause)
Enterobacter cloacae
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Proteus
Pseudomonas

ToRCHHeS

Congenital infections: microbes pass


from mother to fetus:
T - Toxoplasma gondii - (cat feces,
intracranial calcifications)
R - Rubella - (heart dz, cateracts,
deafness)
C - CMV - (unilateral hearing loss + toxo
S/S)
H - HIV - (prevent with Zidovudine,
HAART, C-sxn)
H - HSV - (temporal lobe encephalitis)
S - Syphilis - (stillbirth, hydrops fetalis,
rash (desquamation of hands and feet),
facial abnorm's - notched teeth, saddle
nose, saber shins)
Also, parvovirus B19 --> hydrops fetalis

Wind, water, wound, walking, wein,


wonder

Causes of post-op fever:


Wind - atelectasis, penumonia
Water - UTI's
Wound - wound infection
Walking - DVT's
Wein - thrombophlebitis
Wonder - wonder drugs (antibiotics iatrogenic)

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

17/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Aminopenicillins HELPS kill enterocci

Ampicillin/amOxicillin (Oral) kills certain


G+ bacteria and G- rods:
H- H. influenzae
E - E. coli
L - Listeria
P - Proteus
S - Salmonella
Indications: UTI's, neonatal infections

TCP Takes Care of Pseudomonas

Ticarcillin
Carbenicillin
Piperacillin
Same mech as penicillin; use clavulinic
acid.

"We're ECSTaTiC about bacteriostatics"

Erythromycin
Clindamycin
Sulfamethoxazole
Trimethoprim
Tetracyclines
Chloramphenicol

Very Finely Proficient At Cell Murder

Bactericidals:
Vancomycin
Fluoroquinolones
Penicillin
Aminoglygosides
Cephalosporins
Metronidazole

PEcK

Organisms covered by 1st generation


cephalosporins:
G+ cocci, plus:
Proteus
E. coli
Klebsiella

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

18/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

HEN PEcKS

Organisms covered by 2nd gen


cephalosporins
G+ cocci, plus:
Haemophilus influenzae
Enterobacter
Neisseria
Proteus
E. coli
Klebsiella
Serratia marcescens

the kill is LASTIN' with ciLASTATIN

Add cilastatin to imipenem to inhibit


metabolism by renal dihydropeptidase
I
Meropenem does not need cilastatin.
Coverage: G-rods, G+cocci, anaerobes
"Big guns"

Has some, but NOT many toxicities

Vancomycin:
Nephrotoxic
Ototoxic
Thrombophlebitis
Red Man Syndrome - px with
pretreatment with antihistamines and
slow infusion rate.

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

19/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Buy AT 30, CCELL (sell) at 50

Bacterial Protein Synthesis Inhibitors:


30S
A - Aminoglycosides (GNATS,
bactericidal)
T - Tetracyclines (bacteriostatic; px
attachment of aminoacyl tRNA)
50S
C - Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol
(bacteriostatic)
E - Erythromycin (macrolides azithromycin, clarishromycin bacteriostatic - bind 23S rRNA of 50S,
block translocation)
L - Lincomycin (bacteriostatic)
L - Linezolid (binds 23S rRNA, block
initiation complex)

GNATS canNOT kill anaerobes

Aminoglycosides
G - Gentamycin
N - Neomycin
A - Amikacin
T - Tobramycin
S - Streptomycin
N - Nephrotoxic - esp w cephalosporins
O - Ototoxic - esp w loops
T - Teratogen
Can kill aerobes (bactericidal), but
require oxygen for uptake --> can't kill
anaerobes
MECH - bind 30S, inhibit formtion of
initiation complex and cause
misreading of mRNA

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

20/25

12/12/2015

VACUUM THe BedRoomS

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Clinical use of tetracylines:


V. cholera, Acne, Chlamydia,
Ureaplasma, Urealyticum, Mycoplasma
pneumoniae, Tularemia, H. pylori,
Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia, SIADH
(demeclocycline)
Tetracycline, doxycycline,
demeclocycline, minocycline
MECH - bind 30S --> prevent
attachment of aminoacyle tRNA
Must not take with milk, antacids, or
iron - divalent cations inhibit GI
absorption
TOX - teratogen (bone, cartilage),
discolors teeth, inhibition of bond
growth in children, photosensitivity

PUS

Clinical uses of macrolides:


P - Pneumonia - atypicals (mycoplasma,
chlamydia, legionella)
U - URI's (S. pneumo, S. pyogenes)
S - STD (chlamydia, gonorrhea)
MECH - bind 23S rRNA of 5OS --> block
translocation
TOX - prolonged QT interval, GI, P-450
inhibition

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

21/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

TMP

Trimethoprim Treats Marrow Poorly


(TMP)
TOX - Megaloblastic anemia,
leukopenia, granulocytopenia
Alleviate with supplemental folinic acid
IND - UTI's, PCP (pneumocystis jiroveci),
SS (salmonella, shigella), TMP-SMX for
MRSA

FluoroquinolONES hurt attachment to


your ______

BONES
Contraindicated in pregnant women
and children d/t damage to cartilage.
Tendonitis and tendon rupture in
adults
MECH - I DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II)

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

22/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

GET GAP on the Metro!

Use metronidazole for anaerobic


infection below the diaphragm:
G - Giardia
E - Entamoeba histolytica
(phagocytoses rbc's)
T - Trichomonas
G - Gardnerella vaginalis (Clue cells, inc
pH)
A - Anaerobes (Bacteriodes,
Clostridium)
P - H. Pylori (part of triple therapy,
along with bismuth and amoxicillin (or
tetracycline))
MECH - forms toxic metabolites in
bacterial cell that damage DNA.
Bactericidal, antiprotozoal
TOX - disulfuram-like rxn with alcohol

'MYXins MIX up membranes

Polymixin B, E
MECH - cationic, detergent-like
molecules that bind cell membranes of
bacteria and disrupt osmotic properties
IND - Pseudomonas, burns
ADMIN - topical, NOT oral
TOX -neuro, nephro (acute tubular
necrosis)

RIPE for treatment

Tx for Mycobacterium tuberculosis:


R - Rifampin
I - Isoniazid
P - Pyrazinamide
E - Ethambutol
Prophylaxis - Isoniazid

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

23/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

INH-SPIRE

Anti-TB drugs
Streptomycin, Pyrazinamide, Isoniazid
(INH), Rifampin, Ethambutol
Ethambutol TOX - optic neuropathy =
red-green color blindness

INH

INH - Injures Neurons and Hepatocytes


MECH - decreases synthesis of mycolic
acids
IND - Px and Tx for M. tuberculosis
TOX - neuro, hepato, drug-induced
Lupus
*Use Pyridoxine (Vit B6) to prevent
neurotox

4 R's

4 R's of Rifampin:
RNA polymerase inhibitor
Revs up P-450
Red/orange body fluid (tears, urine,
vaginal)
Rapid resistance if used alone
IND - Tx - TB, leprosy; Px meningococcal, H. influenza B

"A man to dine" takes of his coat

Amantadine
MECH - blocks viral
penetration/uncoating (M2 protein);
Also causes release of dopamine
IND - influenza, Parkinson's
Rimantadine - does not cross BBB -->
fewer CNS s/e

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

24/25

12/12/2015

Step1MnemonicsI:Behavioral,Biochem,Embryo,Microflashcards|Quizlet

Never Ever Deliver nucleosides

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase


inhibitors (NNRTI's):
N - Nevirapine
E - Efavirenz
D - Delavirdine
MECH - inhibit reverse transcriptase of
HIV; prevent incorporation of DNA copy
of viral genome into host DNA

SAFE Moms Take Really Good Care

Antimicrobials to avoid in pregnancy:


S - Sulfonamides -> kernicterus
A - AG's -> ototoxicity
F - Fluoroquinolones -> cartilage
damage
E - Erythromycin
M - Metronidazole - mutagenesis
T - Tetracyclines -> discolored teeth,
inhibition of bone growth
R - Ribavirin - teratogenic
G - Griseofulvin - teratogenic
C - Chloramphenicol - "gray baby"

REM sleep is like sex

increased pulse
penile/clitoral tumescence
decreases with age

https://quizlet.com/2485989/step1mnemonicsibehavioralbiochemembryomicroflashcards/

25/25