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BAB

BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

BAGAN ALIR BAHASAN


GAYA ANGKAT
DIBAWAH
BANGUNAN AIR
(6)

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN

DISTRIBUSI
TEGANGAN
(8)

TEGANGAN
EFEKTIF
(7)

PEMAMPATAN
PEMAMPATAN
TANAH
TANAH
(9)
(9)

1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

REMBESAN
REMBESAN AIR
AIR
DALAM
TANAH
DALAM TANAH
(5)
(5)

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
(3)

TANAH
(1)

A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah

KOMPOSISI
TANAH
(2)

PEMADATAN
PEMADATAN
(4)
(4)

BAB
BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

1. WHY DO WE NEED TO CLASSIFY SOILS ???????


To describe various soil types encountered in the
nature in a systematic way and gathering soils that
have distinct physical properties in groups and units.
2. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF A SOIL
CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM:
a- Based on a scientific method
b- Simple
c- Permit classification by visual and manual tests.
d- Describe certain engineering properties
e- Should be accepted to all engineers.

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

BAB
BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

3. VARIOUS SOIL CLASSIFICATION


SYSTEMS:
a- Geologic Soil Classification System
b- Agronomic Soil Classification System
c- Textural Soil Classification System (USDA)
d- American Association of State Highway
Transportation Officials System (AASHTO)
e- Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)
f- American Society for Testing and Materials
System (ASTM)
g- Federal Aviation Agency System (FAA)

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

BAB
BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

1. KLASIFIKSAI TANAH DIDASARKAN PADA :


- PLASTISITAS TANAH
- UKURAN BUTIRAN.
2. TUJUAN KLASIFIKASI TANAH :
- MENGELOMPOKKAN TANAH YANG BERBEDA-BEDA TAPI
MEMPUNYAI SIFAT SERUPA KEDALAM GROUP-GROUP
DAN SUB GROUP UNTUK : MENDAPATKAN GAMBARAN
UMUM MENGENAI PERILAKU SUATU TANAH.
3. JENIS TEST UNTUK MENDAPATKAN UKURAN BUTIRAN :
- ANALISA/TEST AYAKAN (GAMBAR 1).
- ANALISA/TEST HYDROMETER (GAMBAR 2)
4. ANALISA AYAKAN :
- AYAKAN YANG DIKAPAI : AYAKAN US-STANDARD.
- UKURAN LUBANG AYAKAN.

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

BAB
BAB III
III

NO. AYAKAN

DIAMETER LUBANG AYAKAN


(mm)

4.75

3.35

2.36

10

2.00

20

0.85

30

0.60

40

0.425

50

0.30

60

0.25

80

0.18

100

0.15

140

0.106

170

0.088

200

0.075

KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

BAB
BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

BAB
BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

BAB
BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

BAB
BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

5. ANALISA HYDROMETER
DASAR : PRINSIP SEDIMENTASI DARI BUTIRAN TANAH DIDALAM AIR
FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KECEPATAN MENGENDAP :
BENTUK, UKURAN, BERAT BUTIRAN TANAH

BAB
BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

Grading curves
100

% Finer

80
60
40
20
0
0 .0 0 0 1

0 .0 0 1

0 .0 1

0 .1

P a r ti c l e s i ze ( m m )
W

Well graded

10

100

Grading curves
100

% Finer

80
60
40
20
0
0 .0 0 0 1

0 .0 0 1

0 .0 1

0 .1

P a r ti c l e s i ze ( m m )
W

Well graded

Uniform

10

100

Grading curves
100

% Finer

80
60
40
20
0
0 .0 0 0 1

0 .0 0 1

0 .0 1

0 .1

P a r ti c l e s i ze ( m m )
W

Well graded

Uniform

Poorly graded

10

100

Grading curves
100

% Finer

80
60
40
20
0
0 .0 0 0 1

0 .0 0 1

0 .0 1

0 .1

P a r ti c l e s i ze ( m m )
W

Well graded

Uniform

Poorly graded

Well graded with some clay

10

100

Grading curves
100

% Finer

80
60
40
20
0
0 .0 0 0 1

0 .0 0 1

0 .0 1

0 .1

P a r ti c l e s i ze ( m m )
W

Well graded

Uniform

Poorly graded

Well graded with some clay

Well graded with an excess of fines

10

100

D10: Maximum size of the smallest 10%


D30: Maximum size of the smallest 30%
D50: Maximum size of the smallest 50%
D60: Maximum size of the smallest 60%
D10: Effective size (eg for permeability)

Cu: Coefficient of Uniformity = D60/D10


Cc: Coefficient of Curvature = (D30)2/(D60D10)
(also called Cg: Coefficient of Gradation
Permeability, k= Ck (D10)2 cm/sec (Hazen)

5. ANALISA HYDROMETER
DASAR : PRINSIP SEDIMENTASI DARI BUTIRAN TANAH
DIDALAM AIR.
FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KECEPATAN
MENGENDAP : BENTUK, UKURAN, BERAT BUTIRAN TANAH.
6. KURVA DISTRIBUSI UKURAN BUTIRAN (GRAIN SIZE
DISTRIBUTION) ADA 3 (TIGA) KELOMPOK BENTUK GRAFIK :
- GAP GRADED (CURVA A) :
TANAH DIMANA 1 ATAU LEBIH UKURAN BUTIR TIDAK
ADA.
- WELL GRADED (CURVA B) :
TANAH DIMANA UKURAN BUTIRANNYA TERBAGI
MERATA DALAM SUATU BATASAN YANG LUAS.
- UNIFORM GRADED (CURVA C) :
TANAH YANG UKURAN BUTIRANNYA HAMPIR SAMA.

Sistem klasifikasi yang di pakai :


1. USCS ( Unified Soil Classification System)
Uscs
2. AASHTO ( American
Association of State
Highway and Transportation Officials)
1. Persamaan
2. Perbedaan

Persamaan :
1.Kedua system tsb. didasarkan pada
ukuran butir dan
plastisitas tanah
Persamaan
2.Kedua system memisahkan tanah
kedalam 2 kategori :
- tanah berbutir kasar ( coarse grained)
- tanah berbutir halus ( fine grained)

1. USCS ( Unified Soil Classification System)


Major Divisions

Gravels

Sands
50% or more of
course
fraction passes
the 4.75
(No. 4) sieve

Typical Names

GW

Well-graded gravels and


gravel-sand mixtures, little or
no fines

GP

Poorly graded gravels and


gravel-sand mixtures, little or
no fines

Clean
Gravels

50% or more of
Coursecourse
Grained Soils
fraction retained
on
More than 50%
the 4.75 mm
retained
Gravels
(No. 4) sieve
on the 0.075
with Fines
mm
(No. 200) sieve

GM
GC
SW

Clean
Sands

Sands
with Fines

Laboratory Crite

Group
Symbol

Silty gravels, gravel-sand-silt


mixtures
Clayey gravels, gravel-sandclay mixtures
Well-graded sands and
gravelly sands, little or no
fines

Fines
(%)

Grading
Cu > 4

0-5

1 < Cc < 3

0-5

Not satisfying GW
requirements

>12

Be

>12

Ab
Cu > 6

0-5

1 < Cc < 3

SP

Poorly graded sands and


gravelly sands, little or no
fines

0-5

Not satisfying SW
requirements

SM

Silty sands, sand-silt mixtures

>12

Be

>12

SC

Clayey sands, sand-clay


mixtures
Inorganic silts, very fine

ML

Inorganic silts, very fine sands,


rock four, silty or clayey fine
sands

Use plasticity chart

CL

Inorganic clays of low to


medium plasticity,
gravelly/sandy/silty/lean clays

Use plasticity chart

OL

Organic silts and organic silty


clays of low plasticity

Use plasticity chart

MH

Inorganic silts, micaceous or


diatomaceous fine sands or
silts, elastic silts

Use plasticity chart

CH

Inorganic clays or high


plasticity, fat clays

Use plasticity chart

OH

Organic clays of medium to high


plasticity

Use plasticity chart

Pt

Peat, muck, and other highly


organic soils

Silts and Clays


Fine-Grained
Soils
More than 50%
passes
the 0.075 mm
(No. 200) sieve

Liquid Limit 50% or less

Silts and Clays


Liquid Limit greater than
50%

Highly Organic Soils

2. Perbedaan
Uraian Perbedaan

AASHTO

yg lewat ayakan
Tanah dikatakan berbutir kasar apabila
Perbedaan
no. 200 < 35%
Ayakan yang dipakai untuk memisahkan
ayakan no. 10
pasir dan kerikil
Perbedaan tanah-tanah gravelly dan
Tidak diberikan
sandy soil
Klasifikasi untuk tanah organik

Tidak diberikan

USCS
yg lewat ayakan
no. 200 < 50%
ayakan no. 4
Dibedakan secara
jelas
OL,OH dan Pt
( Gambut)

Klasifikasi Tanah menggunakan 2 simbol huruf:


Huruf pertama menggambarkan komponen utama dari tanah,
terdiri dari :
1)
2)
3)
4)

coarse grained soils (gravel(G) and sand(S));


fine grained soils (silt(M) and clay(C));
organic soils (O); and
Peat (Pt).

Huruf kedua menggambarkan hubungan tanah dgn :


1) whether a coarse-grained soil is Well(W) or poorly(P) graded;
2) whether a coarse-grained soil contains appreciable silt(M) or
clay(C); and
3) whether a fine-grained soil plasticity is high(H) or low(L).

KLASIFIKASI USCS
(Unified Soil Classification System)
Run sieve analysis

< 50% pass #200

> 50% of coarse


fraction retained
on #4
Gravel

< 50% of coarse


fraction retained
on #4
Sand

> 50% pass #200

Use plasticity
chart (Fig. 3.14)
Silt, organic, or
clay

Persamaan garis A : PI = 0.73 (LL 20)

G
<5% pass #200

5-12% pass #200

> 12 % pass #200

GW

GW-GC

GC

GP

GW-GM

GM

GP-GC

GC-GM

GP-GM

Use gradation curve


to designate

Use gradation curve


to designate

Use gradation curve


and plasticity chart
to designate

Gravel/Kerikil
Run sieve analyasis and if less than 50% passed the #200 sieve, then the soil is
coarse. If more than 50% of the coarse material is retained on the #4 sieve, then the
soil is gravel.
% passing
Unified Soil Classification Criteria Group Symbol
Group Name
#200 sieve
Cu> 4 and 1 < Cc < 3
GW
Well graded gravel
Less than
5%
GP
Poorly graded gravel
Cu< 4 and 1 >Cc > 3
Cu> 4 and 1 < Cc < 3 and fines
classify as CL or CH
Cu> 4 and 1 < Cc < 3 and fines
Between
classify as ML or MH
5 % & 12% Cu< 4 and 1 >Cc > 3 and fines
classify as CL or CH
Cu< 4 and 1 >Cc > 3 and fines
classify as ML or MH
Fines classify as CL or CH ( LL
and PL above A-line)
More than Fines classify as ML or MH ( LL
12%
and PL below A-line)
Fines classify as CL - ML ( LL
and PL in shaded area)

GW - GC

Well graded gravel


with clay

GW - GM

Well graded gravel


with silt
Poorly graded gravel
with clay

GP - GC
GP - GM
GC
GM
GC - GM

Poorly graded gravel


with silt
Clayey gravel
Silty gravel
Silty, clayey gravel

7. TIGA PARAMETER DAPAT DITENTUKAN DARI KURVA


GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION :
- UKURAN EFEKTIF (EFFECTIVE SIZE)
D10 : DIAMETER BUTIRAN DIMANA 10% DARI
TOTAL BUTIRAN LOLOS/LEBIH KECIL
DARI DIAMETER TERSEBUT.
- KOEFISIEN KESERAGAMAN (UNIFORMITY COEF.) = Cu.

D60
Cu
D10
- KOEFISIEN GRADASI (GRADATION COEF.) = Cc.
2

D30
Cc
D60 x D10
D30 = DIAMETER BUTIRAN DIMANA 30% DARI
TOTAL BUTIRAN LOLOS/LEBIH KECIL DARI
DIAMETER TERSEBUT
D60 = IDEM, 60% < DIAMETER TERSEBUT

S
<5% pass #200

5-12% pass #200

> 12 % pass #200

SW

SW-SC
SW-SM
SP-SC
SP-SM

SC

SP

Use gradation curve


to designate

Use gradation curve


to designate

SM
SC-SM

Use gradation curve


and plasticity chart
to designate

Sand/Pasir
Run sieve analyasis and if less than 50% passed the #200 sieve, then the soil is
coarse. If less than 50% of the coarse material is retained on the #4 sieve, then the soil
is sand
% passing
Group Name
Unified Soil Classification Criteria Group Symbol
#200 sieve
Cu> 6 and 1 < Cc < 3
SW
Well graded sand
Less than
5%
SP
Poorly graded sand
Cu< 6 and 1 >Cc > 3
Cu> 6 and 1 < Cc < 3 and fines
classify as CL or CH
Cu> 6 and 1 < Cc < 3 and fines
Between classify as ML or MH
5 % & 12% Cu< 6 and 1 >Cc > 3 and fines
classify as CL or CH
Cu< 6 and 1 >Cc > 3 and fines
classify as ML or MH
Fines classify as CL or CH ( LL
and PL above A-line)
More than Fines classify as ML or MH ( LL
12%
and PL below A-line)
Fines classify as CL - ML ( LL
and PL in shaded area)

SW - SC

Well graded sand


with clay

SW - SM

Well graded sand


with silt
Poorly graded sand
with clay

SP - SC
SP - SM
SC
SM
SC - SM

Poorly graded sand


with silt
Clayey sand
Silty sand
Silty, clayey sand

Silt, organic, or clay


LL<50%

LLR<0.75

LLR>0.75

LL and PI
plot below
A-line

OL

LL>50%

ML

LLR<0.75

LL and PI
plot in
shaded
area

LL and PI
plot above
A-line

CL-ML

CL

LLR>0.75

LL and PI
plot below
A-line

OH

MH

LL and PI
plot above
A-line

CH

Silt, organic, or clay


LL<50%

LLR<0.75

LLR>0.75

LL and PI
plot below
A-line

OL

LL>50%

ML

LLR<0.75

LL and PI
plot in
shaded
area

LL and PI
plot above
A-line

CL-ML

CL

LLR>0.75

LL and PI
plot below
A-line

OH

MH

LL and PI
plot above
A-line

CH

SILT OR CLAY
Run sieve analyasis and if less than 50% passed the #200 sieve, then the soil is fine.Run
liquid limit and plastic limit tests on materials passing #40 sieve. Note that ASTM requires
that the liquid limit be determined using oven dried and undried samples . The ratio of the
dried to the undried value is called the liquid limit ratio LLR.
Liquid Limit

Less than
50%

More than
50%

Unified Soil Classification Criteria


LLR < 0.75
LLR > 0.75 and PI < 4 or plots
below A-line in Fig.
LLR > 0.75 and PI > 7 or plots
above A-line in Fig.
LLR > 0.75 and PI > 7 and LL and
PI in shaded area of Fig.
LLR < 0.75
LLR > 0.75 and PI plots below Aline in Fig.
LLR > 0.75 and PI plots on or
above A-line in Fig.

Group Symbol

Group Name

OL

Organic silt or clay

ML

Inorganic silt

CL
CL-ML
OH
MH
CH

Lean clay
Silty clay
Organic silt or clay
Elastic silt
Fat clay

PEAT
Highly organic soils. Normally more than 20% by weight is organic
Primary organic matter, dark in
color and organic odor

Pt

Peat

14. KUALITAS TANAH SUB-GRADE SEBANDING DENGAN


KEBALIKAN DARI HARGA GI
15. CATATAN :
LLR
= LIQUID LIMIT RATIO

HARGA LL TANAH YANG DIOVEN


LLR
HARGA LL TANAH NATURAL

PEAT = TANAH GAMBUT


= TANAH ORGANIK DENGAN KANDUNGAN
ORGANIK 75%.

GROUP OL dan OH :
LANAU ORGANIK atau
LEMPUNG ORGANIK
PLASTISITAS RENDAH UNTUK OL (SEPERTI ML)
PLASTISITAS TINGGI UNTUK OH (SEPERTI MH)
PERILAKUNYA DITENTUKAN OLEH KANDUNGAN
ORGANIK

Pt = Peat = TANAH DENGAN KANDUNGAN ORGANIK TINGGI


:

PEAT.= Tanah GAMBUT


HUMUS dan Bahan Organik yang telah membusuk/terurai
TANAH RAWA
DAYA DUKUNG RENDAH
KEMAMPUMAMPATAN TINGGI

Example

Passing No.200 sieve 30 %

LL= 33

Passing No.4 sieve 70 %

PI= 12

LL= 33
PI= 12
PI= 0.73(LL-20), A-line
PI=0.73(33-20)=9.49
SC
(15% gravel)
Clayey sand with
gravel

Highly

(Santamarina et al., 2001)

AASHTO SOIL CLASSIFICATION


AASHTO ( American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials)
C LA S S IF IC A T IO N O F H IG H W A Y S U B G R A D E M A T E R IA LS
(W ith suggested subgroups)

G eneral C lassification

A -2

A -1
G roup C lassification

N o. 10
N o. 40
N o. 200

A -7

A -3
A -1-a

S ieve A nalysis,
P ercent P assing:

S ilt-C lay M aterials (M ore than 35%


passing #200)

G ranular M aterials (35% or less passing N o. 200)

A -1-b

Dominan
kerikil

A -4
A -2-4

A -2-5

A -2-6

0-50
0-25

A -7-5
A -7-6

Lanau dgn
plastisitas

Lanau dgn
plastisitas
51-100
0-10

A -6

A -2-7

Dominan
pasir

0-50
0-30
0-15

A -5

Lempung dgn
plastisitas

0-35

0-35

0-35

0-35

36-100

36-100

36-100

36-100

0-40
0-10

41+
0-10

0-40
11+

41+
11+

0-40
0-10
0-8

41+
0-10
0-12

0-40
11+
0-16

41+
11+
0-20

C haracteristics of
fraction passing # 40:
Liquid Lim it
P lasticity Index
G roup Index
U sual T ypes of
S ignificicant C onstituent
M aterials

0-6
0

N .P .
0

S tone F ragm ents,


G ravel and S and

F ine
S and

G eneral R ating as
S ubgrade

A-1 (well graded)


A-7-5 IP < (LL-30)
A-7-6 IP > (LL-30)

E xcellent to G ood

0-4

S ilty or C layey G ravel and S and

S ilty S oils

F air to P oor

C layey S oils

Lempung dgn
plastisitas

REVIEW
JENIS TANAH UNTUK SOIL-CEMENT DAN CEMENT-MODIFIED SOIL
AASHTO Classification of Soils
General
classification
Group
classification
Sieve analysis,
Percent passing :
No. 10
No. 40
No. 200
Characteristics of
fraction passing
No. 40 :
Liquid limit
Plasticity index
Usual types of
significant
constituent
materials
General rating as
subgrade

Granular Materials
(35 % or less passing No. 200)
A-1
A-3
A2
A-1-a
A-1-b
A-2-4
A-2-5
A-2-6
50 max
30 max
15 max

30 max
15 max

A-2-7

Silt-Clay Materials
(more than 35 % passing No. 200
A-4
A-5
A-6
A-7
A-7-5, A-7-6

30 max
15 max

35 max

15 max

15 max

15 max

36 min

36 min

36 min

36 min

6 max

N.P.

40 max
10 max

40 min
10 max

40 max
11 min

41 min
11 min

40 max
10 max

41 min
10 max

40 max
11 min

41 min
11 min*)

stone fragments
gravel and sand

fine
sand

excellent to good

silty or clayey gravel and sand

silty soils

clayey soils

fair to poor

* ) Plasticity index of A-7-5 is equal to or less than L.L. minus 30. Plasticity index of A-7-6 subgroup is greater L.L. minus 30.

<50%
Pass
#40
<25%
#200

Run LL and
PL on
material
passing # 40

35%
pass
#200
implies
granular

>51%
Pass
#40

<15% pass #200


<30% pass # 40
<50% pass #10
PI is less than 6

A-1-a

<25% pass #200


<50% pass # 40
PI is less than 6

A-1-b

<10% pass #200

A-3

LL<40

A-2-4

LL>41

A-2-5

LL<40

A-2-6

LL>41

A-2-7

PI<10
Run sieve
analysis

35%
pass
#200

> 36%
pass
#200
implies
silt-clay

Run LL and
PL on
material
passing # 40

Run LL and
PL on
material
passing # 40

PI>11

LL<40

A-4

LL>41

A-5

LL<40

A-6

PI<10

PI>11
PI LL-30 or PL
30

A-7-5

PI > LL-30 or PL
< 30

A-7-6

LL>41

Figure 3.20. Flow chart showing the AASHTO classification system

Example

Passing No.200 86%


LL=70, PI=32
LL-30=40 > PI=32

Passing No.200 86%


LL=70, PI=32
LL-30=40 > PI=32

GI (F200 35)0.2 0.005(LL 40)


0.01(F200 15)(PI 10)
33.47 33 Round off

A-7-5(33)

BAB
BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
b. BATAS CAIR ( LIQUID LIMIT = LL)
LL = kadar air tanah dimana apabila dibuat goresan pada
tanah tersebut dengan spatula standard akan menutup
pada 25 kali pukulan.

A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

Apparatus and grooving


tool

Groove cut in sample


prior to the test

Groove closed over 12.5


mm soil at wL if this
requires 25 blows

BAB
BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

c. BATAS PLASTIS ( PLASTIC LIMIT = PL)


PL = Kadar air tanah dimana apabila tanah
tersebut digulung sampai dengan diameter
3.2 mm mulai terjadi retak-retak.

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

BAB
BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

d. INDEKS PLASTIS (PLASTICITY INDEX = IP)

PI = IP = LL - PL
e. INDEKS KECAIRAN (LIQUIDITY INDEX= LI)

LI

wC PL
IP

0 < LI < 1 Tanah berada dalam daerah plastis


LI > 1

Tanah dalam keadaan cair/hampir cair


PL

SL

0
SOLID

LI

SEMI SOLID

LL
CAIR

PLASTIS

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah

BAB
BAB III
III
KLASIFIKASI
KLASIFIKASI
TANAH
TANAH

C. STRUKTUR TANAH
1. STRUKTUR TANAH :
- Susunan geometrik partikel tanah
- Gaya antar partikel
2. TANAH BERBUTIR KASAR ( GRANULAR SOIL)
Gaya antar partikel sangat kecil diabaikan ,
jadi :
struktur tanah = susunan geometrik partikel
3. TANAH BERBUTIR HALUS YANG KOHESIVE
(COHESIVE SOIL; MIS. LEMPUNG)
Gaya antar partikel sangat dominan
Jadi : struktur tanah kohesive = susunan geometrik
partikel tanah + gaya antar partikel

POKOK
POKOK
BAHASAN
BAHASAN
A. Umum
B. Tujuan
Klasifikasi
Tanah
C. Jenis Pengujian
Tanah
1. Analisa Ayakan
2. Analisa
Hidrometer
3. Kurva Distribusi

D. Sistim
Klasifikasi
Tanah