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Durham E-Theses

Ritual tradition and performance : The Berava caste of


southern Sri Lanka.
Simpson, R.

How to cite:

Simpson, R. (1984)

Ritual tradition and performance : The Berava caste of southern Sri Lanka.,

Durham

theses, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/1213/

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RITUAL
TRADITION
THE BERAVX
OF
CASTE

AND PERFORMANCE:
SRI
LANKA
SOUTHERN

by
Robert

The

A Thesis
Degree
of
University

Simpson

Presented
for
Doctor
Philosophy
of
the
at
Durham
of

1984

Department
University

of

Anthropology
Durham
of

The copyright of this thesis rests with the author.


No quotation from it should be published without
his prior written consent and information derived
from it should be acknowledged.

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CONTAINS
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BEST COPY

AVAILABLE
Poor text in the original
thesis.
Some text bound close to
the spine.
Some imagesdistorted

DEDICATION

To

Arthur
mY father,
(1924-1983)

Simpson.

ABSTRACT

The
Southern
traditionally

is
in
based
present
work
out
on fieldwork
carried
Sri
Lanka
the
Beravayo,
among
caste
a low
status
for
responsible
the
performance
various
of
drumming
duties.
ritual
Although
this
occupational
back
is
association
goes
centuries
still
and
an important
in
their
identity,
element
Beravy
contemporary
the
caste
involved
in
are
nowadays
range
a
wide
ritual
of
other
include
in
temple
activitiea
which
work.
art
astrology
and
the
healing
particular
performance
elaborate
of
rituals
for
the
relief
of
sickness
and
misfortune.
The
thesis
lives
the
centers
those
on
and
work
of
Beravy
involved
who
are
the
most
closely
with
healing
The
performance
of
first
such
rituals.
of
part
(Chapters
the
thesis
1-4)
deals
the
with
social
the
Berav
of
organisation
caste,
particular
paying
the
in
to
way
traditions
attention
the
which
various
of
knowledge
and
skill
which
their
make
performances
ritual
The
traditions
are
reproduced.
possible
on within
passed
the
viewed
are
the
caste
as a kind
property
and
role
of
in
they
is
play
strategies
of
marriage
and
apprenticeship
4
Chapter
deals
translation
the
examined.
with
of
into
traditions
the
for
personal
caste
services
specific
is
known.
the
the
This
caste
which
examining
entails
the
troupes
come
and
organisation
which
structure
of
to
together
the
various
perform
certain
rituals
and
factors,
and
such
cost,
as
scale
performance
of
must
the
patron
of
preparations
which
ritual
elaborateness
consider.
deals
(Chapters
5-7)
The
the
thesis
of
second
part
the
ritual
called
a specific
ritual,
an astrological
with
the
is
intended
Tovil
to
Bali
malign
combat
which
beliefs
the
influences
the
A description
of
planets.
of
by
is
followed
ideas
the
given.
underlie
and
which
ritual
Tovil.
Bali
of
a
an account
particular
performance
of
a
for
in
7
to
The
Chapter
account
attempts
analysis
given
type
this
of
the
the
performance
of
power
persuasive
which
its
in
has
on
ritual
producing
effect
a
positive
participants.
(8)
impact
final
Chapter
looks
The
the
of
changes
at
tradition
the
ritual
organisation
of
upon
oriented
system
The
described
in
the
chapters.
performance
previous
and
in
the
from
tourism
new
question
coming
and
are
changes
With
for
brings.
this
cultural
artefacts
markets
which
in
demand,
the
this
to
of
style
production
meet
changes
for
who
traditions
those
the
have
meaning
which
various
how
them
8 demonstrates
is
Chapter
re-evaluated.
possess
these
traditions
transformed
to
are
creatively
meet
for
has
the
this
circumstances
and
changing
consequences
Berav
the
wider
community.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The
debts,
often
production
of
a thesis
many
creates
discharged.
which
are
not
of
a kind
easily
(as
like'to
R.
C.
I would
to
the
S.
thanks
S.
express
my
it
then),
funded
who
research.
was
my postgraduate
like
I would
to
the
to
also
express
my deep
gratitude
individuals
in
have
following
ma4e
various
ways
who
all
important
to
Professor
the
to
contributions
work:
present
De Saram
D. D.
who
provided
me
grounding
with
an excellent
Sinhala;
to
Kapferer
in
Professor
Bruce
who
colloquial
I work
the
Berav
first
suggested
gave
with
and
who
Johnson,
information;
Will
Mr.
to
advice
of
and
generously
Hodge
Dr.
Andy
Mark
Kendrick.
my
Dr.
and
who
were
in
the
field;
to
Mr.
B. N. Wijeratne
who
was
contemporaries
became
but
a valued
assistant
research
my
also
only
not
to
Mr.
Vitarana
C.
who
gave
friend
companion;
and
in
fieldwork
towards
the
invaluable
my
assistance
end
of
to
material;
the
and
collation
of
genealogical
collection
Dr.
Durham
the
community
postgraduate
the
of
members
Dr.
James,
Mr.
Tom
Holman,
Dr.
Alison
Fillimore.
Peter
Whitelaw
and
Ian
Mr.
Brendan
Quayle,
Dr.
Johnson,
Marie
learned
have
I
in
discussion
Young,
Malcolm
whom
with
Mr.
Dr.
to
Ormsby.
friend
Barrie
Mr.
mentor;
to
and
a
much;
in
Durham
a
gave
timely
Carrithers
whose
arrival
Michael
to
the
work;
the
input
to
present
quality
of
significant
has
for
years
Brooks,
several
David
who
my supervisor,
Mr.
ideas
who,
highly
and
original
been
of
a
source
0849,
many
long.
hot
spent
in
the
of
summer
particularly
the
work;
discussing
drafts
present
of
hours
and
reading
Russell
Pauline
Mrs.
to
did
the
Smith
Mike
plates;
to
who
this
typed
has
Jill
Foley
to
who
diagrams;
who
the
did
has
given
Joanna,
to
who
tome;
my
wife,
cumbersome
be
of
one
throughout
love
must
what
support
and
unfailing
imaginable.
namely
forms
of
spectator
activity
the
worst
in
form
the
of
a
to
fruition
of
research
piece
bringing
a
to
MY
all
deepest
goes
but
finally
my
gratitude
thesis;
generous
me
gave
friends,
who
unnamed,
and
named
Berav
albeit
lives
shared,
to
their
and
and
work,
access
joy.
their
their
of
sorrow
and
something
briefly#

CONTENTS
Acknowledgements
Abstract
List
Plates
of
List
Figures
of
List
Tables
of

Preface

Chapter
1.1
1.2
1.3

The
Berav.
1:
Caste
Sinhalese
The
Berave.
in,
The

1.3.1
1.3.11

Status

Occupation

Caste
System
Sinhalese
Society

Commensality
Etiquette

1.4

iii
1.3.
Naming
and
iv
1.3.
Endogamy
1.3.
Wider
Forms
v
Caste
Occupation:
and

1.5

Occupation

1.6

Dos:

Chapter
2.1
2.2
2.3

and

An

and

Reference
Exclusion
of
The
Berav

38
42
47
51
70

Hazard

80
80
83
88

2:
Category
Community
and
The
Village
Beragoda
of
Beragoda
The
History
of
Present
Day
Occupations

93

Drumming

2.4

Drummers

2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11

2.4.1
Public
Ceremonial
Ceremonial
2.4.11
Private
Exorcism
Exorcists
and
Astrology
Artists
Temple
Art
and
Building
Work
Masons
and
Carpentry
Carpenters
and
Other
Occupations
Conclusion

and

31
35
36

66

Identity,

Occupational

21
21
24

Drumming
Drumming

96
101
102
110
111
116
119
120
121

Chapter
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Teachers
Apprenticeship
'traditions'

3.5

3.5.1

3.5.11

3.5"iii

3.6
3.7
Chapter
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
Chapter

'traditions'

3:
The
Transmission
of
'traditions'
Tradition
and
Traditioniand
Knowledge
'traditions'
Property
as

Marriage
'traditions'.
Conclusion:

and

Pupils:

Ritual

Tradition

and

167

175

187
200

Secrecy

4:

The
Application
Organisation
and
A Devilish
Business
Introduction
Ritual
Specialisation:
Domain
the
Berav
the
of
Rituals
Exorcism
Healing
of
and
Performed
by
the
Berava
Diagnosis
Augury
and
The
Pragmatics
Ritual:
Size
of
Efficacy
and
'The
Management
the
Performers
of
4.6.1
Diary
of
an Exorcist
The
Structure
Troupes
of

of

5:

Against

The
Bali
Malevolence

Tovil:

Ritual

Defense

Introduction

5.2

Mythical
Origins
Legends
and
Tovil
Bali
the
of
Rituals
Planetary
the
Cosmos
Astrology
and
The
Man
5.4.1
Destined
Die
to
Bali
the
Tovil
Astrology
and
Tovil:
Bali
The
The
Alleviation
Misfortune
of
i
5.6.
The
Cleansing
dos
and
of
Nullification
Evil
the
of
5.6.11
The Specificity
Bali
the
of
Tovil

5.5
5.6

155
158

in
Beragoda
Kinship
and
A. S.
The
the
of
strategies
The
patriline:
maintenance
C elite
performers
The
the
strategies
of
B. S. G.
the
patriline:
traditions
consolidation
of
The
M. A.
patriline:
Strategic
the
and
alliance
breakup
of
an elite
the
Continuity
and
of

5.1

5.3
5.4

125
125
127
134
142

208

Ritual:

208
209
218
221
227
240
243
253
262
262
265
281
287
291
299
303

304
311

Chapter
6.1
6.2

6:

Chapter

7:

Tovil:
Sequence
Event

Bali
Ritual
Ritual

The

Staging
Structure
and

Performance

7.1

Introduction

7.2

An

Appeal

7.3

An

Act

7.3.1

Chapter

An
8:

Act

Event

320
320
328
375

375
to

378

Tradition

394

Expression

of

of

significance

ritual

stage

Making

offerings:

nourishing
7.4

an

Persuasion

and

The

7.3.11

of

of

Tourism

397

the

405

existence
413

Performance
and

the

Commoditisation

of

421

'traditions'
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5

Introduction
Tourism
in
Sri
Local
Attitudes
Berava
The
and
Devil
Dancing:

Lanka
Tourists
to
the
Tourist
from
Healing

Market
to
-

421
424
427
429
433

Entertainment
8.6
8.7
8.8

Masks
and
The
Gamunu
Sedaran's

8.9

Masking

Masking
Mask
House

Factory
Warming

Relations

of

Ceremony

Dominance

Conclusion

440
446
451

459
470

Appendices

I
II
III
IV

Bibliography

The
The
'Astr
The
Bali

Rituals
of
Raw Material
ology
Images
Tovil

Berav
Ritual
of
the
Sinhalese
and
Assembled
for

488

the

515
a

Horoscope
Hat

522

534

549

PLATES
PLATE

PLATE

II

PLATE

III

The
Maru
Sanniya.
Death,
his
imakes
Drummers
the
at
long
ceremony
A nine
year
old

in
PLATE

IV

PLATE

PLATE

VI

PLATE

VII

PLATE

VIII

PLATE

IX

PLATE

a Suniyam

PLATE
PLATE

XIII
XIV

PLATE

XV

PLATE
PLATE
PLATE

XVI
XVII
XVIII

PLATE

XIX

PLATE

XX

PLATE

XXI

the

(from

Tovil

Cyril

Recitations
Babris

XII

boy

the

His

ceremony.

of

Dingris,

PLATE

of

nightfloor

being
to

dancers

left
and

during

to

20
124

father

behind.
on from
the
of
exorcists
assemble
at
Samayama.
Sohna
of
a Mah
(rethe
of
nine
planets
from
Upham
1829).
produced
Babris
Leeson
and
construct
offering
trays
decorations.
and
Bali
(from
Images:
left
Das'
to
right)
Bandi.
Viskam
Baliya
Sriyavamsa
and
Baliya.
The
Asu-ek
GLba
Mal
Baliya
shortly
before
its
completion.
Bali
Images:
(from
left
to
right)
Chandra
Baliya.
Dass
Kroda
Rksa
Baliya
E Rstaka
and
Baliya
Drummers
following
the
closely

Bali
XI

entrance
beginning
takes

Frontispiece

of

watches
A troupe
beginning
Drawings

movements

PLATE

Demon

the

207
261

333
336

337

338

344

right,

Pedris).

delivered

by

347

the

first
in
the
patient
the
Bali
Tovil.
phase
of
Dancers
the
to
assemble
commence
(from
the
Bali
Tovil
second
phase
of
left
to
Cyril.
Madupuray.
right.
Mutta,
Alson,
Babris.
Odiris,
Wadu
Dingris
Pedris).
and
Wadu
Mutta
takes
the
floor.
Wadu
the
Alson
Mutta
before
dance
and
Baliya.
Mal
(from
the
The
the
Kalas
Pliya
of
mask
the
Demons).
Sanni
of
eighteen
parade
Pint
Mandapam.
Sedaran's
Demon
Mah
The
Sohna.
Maha
An exorcist
the
demon
summons
Sohna.
is
Cotton
from
extracted
an imitation
kapok
Ktima
tree
during
the
Kapu
the
Rata
Yakkuma.
episode
of
(Pandam
bearing
The
torch
apparition
the
Pliya)
his
during
makes
entrance
Daha-ata
Sanniya.
flicks
An exorcist
tumeric
onto
water
his
during
patient
ceremony.
a Suniyam

352

355
356
420
461
U89
492
502

506

510

FIGURES
The
occupational
Berav.
Genealogical

64

the

Fig.

Fig.
&3

Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.

4
5
6
7

diagram
showing
key
between
the
relationships
inhabitants
Beragoda.
of
knowledge.
The
Suniyam
acquisition
of
The
heritage
Tedaris
of
Jinris's
foremost
pupils.
The
Janis.
marriage
of

Fig.

Janis's

Fig.
Fig.

9
10

Fig.
Fig.

11
12
13

family
of
inter-marriages
lines.
daughters
inter-marriages
lines.
forma
tion

of

Fig.

The
The
A. S.
The
The
U. G.
The

Fig.

14

The

formation

of

15
16
17

performance.
Spatial
movements
A Sinhalese
birth
The
Asu
eK g4ba

Fig.
Fig.
Fig.

of

structure

strategy.

and

160
162
164
169
171
173
177

and

180
182

major

255
258

diris.
M. A.

the

of
Hinibabun.

of

M. A.

the

of
'local'

troupe.
for

troupe

in

the

Bali

156

Tovil.

chart.
baliya.
mal

403
524
539

TABLES
Table

Table

II

Occupations
Patrilocal
Beragoda.

carried
marriage

in
out
frequency

Beragoda.
in

93
190

PREFACE

The

feeling

humility
gratitude
and
that
every
member
of
can
and
a given
culture
feel
toward
must
be based
all
others
can
only
it
is
on one
conviction:
that
cultures
other
different
from
his
are
in
the
varied
own
most
this
the
final
way;
if
remains
the
case
even
these
differences
if
nature
him
of
or
escapes
despite
in
all,
one
only
succeeds
penetrating
it
imperfectly.
of

Claude

The

present

of

work

island
The

Buddhism

which,

interlaced

strands

the

provide
caste.
are

(1]
engaged

deep

of

thought

backdrop

textured

focus
Nominally
in

this

for

for

and
in

system

its

my

they
hereditary

rooted

my
study
are

society

-particular

distinct

religious
with

in

and
its

with

identity.

richly

Lanka.

and

society

The

and

are
drummers
caste

that

of

the

South

of

is

history

of

various
a

provides

The

occupation.

that

and

belief,

but

within

cultural

question

members

is

vibrant

account.

and

within

operating

stratified

system.

lives

the

with

specialists

highly

and

Sri

contemporary
that

ritual

religious

major

itself

concerns

of

group

literate

complex,
a

work

Levi-Strauss

people
of

the

relatively

who
Berava
few

Nowadays

r
k

the

Berav

in

engage
they

activities:
artists

occupations

locate

characterised

as

and
of

spirits,
the

bodies
way

to

and

and

carpenters.

masons,

doctrines

clients

The

face

the

of

the

which

the

felt

human

need

to
bring

which
into

disorder

psychological

mortal
in

adversity;

occurrences

and

to

services

deeply

upon

little

but

offer

answer

in

order

events
and

can

and

called

are
suffering

relief.

or

seek

bring

to

demons

of

services

world

domain

wherewithal

effects

Their

this

of

the

have

variously

apotropaic

or

malign

deity.

associated
been

has

what
animist

the

and

their

meaningful,
physical

temple

caste

They

consolation
offer

act

magical.

abstract

Berava

in

them

combat

problems

of

as

well

action.

man

and

non-ritual

and

astrologers,

ritual,

the

and

identify

when

as

traditional,

belief

ritual

of

the'like.

and

Their

of

range

exorcists,

are

diviners,

and

labourers

wide

social,

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ascriptive

caste

own

great
at

groups

enable

system
is

so

more

do

its

it

not

back-drop

against

system

it

attribution
and

thus

embody

arrangements

conceptually

Sinhalese

hand,

one

impurity

given

the

distinguish

association,

and

system.

the

structural

to

serve

they

powers

and

System

historically

which

features

normal

Caste

Prejudice

result.

all

the

and

the

restrictions,

Berava

Sinhalese

caste

On

the

as

and

outside

Although
Indian

feared

are

and

to

greatly

ameliorated.

it

In

the

as
words

product
of

Buddha.

condones
of

fluid

more

hierarchisation

rigid

neither

which

Buddhism

seeing

less

and

interaction
by

towards

tendency

The

man
"No

is
nor

rather
man

is

by

of

system
reinforced

denounces
than

vice

birth

an

caste.
versa.
outcaste

. r,
.

and

by

been

1966

Das

and

India

the

central

(see,

organisation

to

our

for

example,

was

the

of

The

link

essential
religion

and

status
expression

of

recruitment

to

king
As

caste.

The

the
than

led

understand

to

(Yalman

1963).

Kendrick.

who
ritual

King'
However.

the

one,
of

the

in

of

analysis
the

that

concludes
status

(Kendrick
despite

latter

or

is

tenure

21).

the

confusion

is

the

in

case

control

much

of

in

pollution
by
to

not
with

rather

under

to

critique

caste
but

caste

attempt

and

run

social

system.

'Sinhalese

1982:

now

Sinhalese

recent

in

crucial

of

purity

ritual

system

time

evidence.

Indian

of

Sinhalese

in

the

purity's

the

providing

commentators

subject

in

between

religion

as

of

India

one

orientation

terms

46)

in

and

former

confusion

service

traditional

as

abuse

Yalman's

is

at
caste

secular

it

absent

Although

and

1976:

existed

priesthood,

markedly

often

maintained
Authority

of
priestly
caste
legitimation
and
was
a secular
the
political
of

no

virtually

caste.

where

conscience

which

was

rather

parallel

was

consolidation
in
Ceylon,
therefore,
in
the
hands
mainly
'
the
king.
of
(Malalgoda

authority

divine

so

33).

development

it

The

existed.
caste
of
function

with

the

caste
system
by
the
priestly
in
Ceylon,

consolidated
Brahmins;
the

point

its

Traditionally,

for

1953:

writes:
'In

has

Ryan

and

system

1977).

responsible

Malalgoda

latterly

Indian

the

in

system

caste.

of

was

who

Sinhalese

the

understanding

(quoted

Brahmin"

Brahmin

the

Dumont

one

from

Absent
has

is

deeds

of

Yalman's

do
'a
the

fact

the

analysis.
castes
identifiedwith

ideas

do

the

higher

has

engrained

aspects

concealed

in

by

the

the

Lankan

Sri

institution
is

caste

it

general

governments

has

to

reluctant

it

responsibility

them.
unifying

ideological

sweeping

to

parentage,

pedigree.

of

marriage

doubt

deeply

to

say,

1979:

was

to

caste

colonial

that
yet

presidential

7).

The
law

status
of

primary

kings
long

are
who

be

the

one

whose
since

displaced

identified

as

from

street

Questions
and

are
as

society',

intrudes

caste

In

people

which

politics.

mutual
are

could

that

however,

administrators

little

the

to

place

society.

Victorian

uphold

independence

Sinhalese
about

in

sex

force,

partners

not

least

at

contemporary

since
public

more

egalitarianism

of

no

in

the
or

and

given

(Jiggins

is

there

Today

"Don't

of

caste

it

the

are

as

passed

negative

dirty:

repressed

affair

'like

put

no

and

force

private

talk.

commentator

being

ideology

is

This

powerful

is

the

many

been

The
colonisers

of

members

as

are

between

conflict

caste.

not

uncleanness:

communication)

cited

these

British

of

are

amongst

for

have

democracy.

by

espoused

and

psychology

caste

of

towards

being

as

Sinhalese

explicit

hierarchy

(personal

censured

such

in

drives

are

ideas

Whilst

horror

even

and

Berav".

the

like

dirty

be

and

Berav

the

of

children

when

impurity

Berav

the

the

personal

Carrithers

castes.
spoken

example

of

distaste

evoke

even

in

positioned

similarly

they

that

remains

still

of

appropriateness

importance

for

most

Z
i
...

Sinhalese
interaction
'A

where

'see'

soon

society

Sri

but

caste

boundaries

any

firmly

drawn

the

and

of

for

immersion

for

firm

lines

and

the

which

is

This
those

with
whom

boundaries

Sinhalese

influence.

oneself

to

failing

in

but
and

aligns

social

component.

excused

gentle

hierarchy,

the

of

be

prolonged

one

areas

potential

demarcation

if

so

particularly

might

the

caste

few

are

not

Lanka

reveals

of

bottom

is

caste

to

visitor

there

such

as

and

lines

separate

the

at
are

most
firmly

most

asserted.

institution
work

Most

anthropologists

some

point

by

the

village

study.

(1]

produced

by

Bryce

Ryan

found

it

have
this

its

in

caste
to

particular

the

Sinhalese

which
list

complete
of

of

many

of

the,

1950's.
at

comment

but
the

to

with

marriage,

and

of

unit

main
the

empirical
incidental

apparently
to

features

two

castes

comes
listed

and

of

number

small
Ryan

castes

total

the

early

peripheral

relatively

system.

contemporary

rank:

the

institutions,

attributed

the
the

comprise

is

system.

is

there

Firstly,

be

can

that

to

provide
the

the

necessry

the

but

caste

of

the

kinship

these

of

in

of

as

Obviously,

interest

Furthermore,

tenure,.

study
and

remained

microcosm

blocks

order

has

land

major

pervasive

most

study
of

building

castes

Lanka

Sri

concerns

major

one

in

upon

large

and

only

caste

of

extensive

is

there

Surprisingly.

(1953:

93)

their

approximate

to
are

twenty
numerically

gives

five.
so

:. ?

small

as

are

only

to

be

of

to

be

found

number

of

castes

(1967)

in

his

four

only

caste.

the

the

like

communities
and

simple
The
question

of

caste

relates

to

the

in

status.

into

Terutenne,

typical

other

The

community.
data

caste,

on
the

island

(census

Jiggins

(1979:

sees
suggests

that

35)

by

in

62)

for

clearly

figures
Goyigama

of

numbers

tells

us

estimates

were
supremacy

last

and
Roberts
of

caste

largest

the

and
they

54.3%

as
West

numerical

terms

of

status,

the

Goyigama

are

the

the

of

1982:

301).

size

still
but

caste

over-estimated,
on

include

to

making
grounds

alone.
In

probably

one,

Goyigama

South
in

Cultivator

agricultural

the

reproduced

as

to

the

of

the

of

or

terms

four

the

own

is

anthropologists

Goyigama

one

figure

her

institution

traditional

census.

earlier

Justifiable

less

castes

tables

Goyigama

the

(ibid:

of

In

assimilation

in

Yalman

provinces

maritime

the

of

the

that,

us

of

both

1824
gives

of

writings

for

proportion

Goyigama

or

the

ease

society,

the

outnumber

the

the

and

58).

ascendancy

Sinhalese
In

Terutenne

for

reason

second

Washermen

tells

(ibid:

uncomplicated'

mentions

Cultivator

Yalman

Yalman

example,

Potters,

predominant

a'small

Terutenne

of

village

Blacksmiths,

the

that

For

encountered.

in

Thus

likely

than

and

castes,

as

localities.

more

surprisingly.

traditional

in

be
of

besides
Not

is

will
study

significance

particular

it

castes.

Drummers,

caste

in

locality

one

any

questionable

traditional

29

landholding
position

in

Sinhala

Buddhist

possible

and

farming

the

status

(Salgam)

traditional

these

of

extremely

powerful
of

only

numerically

The

total

the

The

(Hena

Washermen

various
purely

as

well
return

for

tenure

system
Whilst

castes,

these

between

the

today

than

its

of

own
still

follows:

as

are

(Hunu),
(BadahAlla),
(Vahumpura),

these

of

state

lands

and
supplied

castes
had

which
to

cultivable

(rjak3riya).

overall

less

Lime-burners

Each

aspects.

as

ceremonial
and

under

in

society
feudal

(2)

differences

differences

also

castes

Jaggery-makers

practical

status

but

had

Potters

many

to

are

classified

service

"

services,

access

for

which

Lanka

(Beravy).

Drummer

finally

of

main

Sri

Rade),

or

an

who

them

conveniently

(Batgama),

Palanquin-bearers

their

each

(Navandann),

Metal-workers

be

can

castes,

of

in

stand
castes

to

the

population.

remain

south

their
With

accounting

caste

which

other

status

who

through

Goyigama

the

comparision,

occupation.
in

found

the

service

hereditary

to

(Durva)

1982).

the

the

(Karava),

power

Roberts

in

with

Toddy-tappers

inferior

by

total,

Fisherman

castes.

position

small

castes

the

three

greatly

of

quarter

as

(see

prime

hegemony

almost

economic

occupations

exception

been

and

increasing

gained

Their

the

of

exception

have

has

the

occupying

hierarchy.

society

Cinnamon-peelers

not

caste,

between

exist
are

category

small
of

in

the

comparison

service

castes

service
to
and

those
the

Goyigama

caste.

hierarchy.

the

unchecked.

Rooted
ascendancy

The

areas,

small

the
the

of

service

remain

core,

in

castes,

village

Goyigama

has

remained
in

particularly

to

satellites

feudal

traditional

clusters

the

central

dotted

in

rural

Goyigama
Goyigama

landscape.
is

It

interesting
Salagama

Karava,

in

shift

vis

status

their

did

by

the

land-owners

many
such

of
as

profession
services

Categories

and

provided

,
and

the

ills
wholly

no

the
in

in

which

have

been
new

with
Indeed.

longer

exist.

changes

they

are
of

acquired.

and

of

nature

transposed
ones

or
been.

have

castes,
the

to

members

nominal.

both

ways

have

relationship

independently,

persisted

have

traditional

place

taken

have

'naturals

since

supplied

Within

They
structure

Many

long

once

neither

castes

complex.

entirely

Palanquin-bearing.

adaptations
services

they

and

their

many

the

being

type

48).

by

cultivators,

and

the

1982:

and

the

feudal

the

which

are.

dimension.

identified

is

the

involved

not

castes

of

(Roberts

castes

service

effected

of

ceremonial

outside

professions

hereditary

hereditary

relationship

the

occupations.
their

have

frequently

Although

have

were

service

cultivation

paddy

on

that

relationships

large,

and

respect
who

Goyigama

traditional

the

this

castes
the

vie

occupations

remained,
based

Durava

service
with

associated

in

note

and

inter-caste

in

contexts

to

the

provided.
content

into

as
modern
In

the

31

Low-Country,

between
of

something

considered
follow

they

link

the

in

identification
still

system

wider

most

patterns

changes

the

their

however.

and

at

is

land-tenure

and

where

services,
all,

for

done

are

kind.

and

cash

Whatever

relic.

associated

caste

in

payment

services

the
discrete

as

remains

themselves,

castes
units
As

strong.

the

within
(ibid:

Ryan

341)

it:

puts

'If

transition
is
the
towards
modern
the
the
disorganisation
hierarchy,
it
of
caste
towards
is
the
disorganisation
so clearly
not
in
as
structural
castes
entities
of
society.

divisions

The

Ryan's

after

Caste,

transition.

important

an

provides

into

universe
remain
other.

In

closely

Berav

the

undifferentiated
their

1.3

Members
throughout
concentrated

it

within

position

The

in

category

Berav

in

of

the

Berav

'structural
the

social

to

respect
like

to

more
and

an

system,

caste

towards

each

look

entity'

Sinhalese

can

part

most

them.

societ
caste

Buddhist
the

would

attitudes

Sinhalese

Sinhala
in

and

still

areas,

the

in

system

the

with

as

as

rural

for

which

section,

next

Lanka

years

classifying

undifferentiated

the
at

of

caste

twenty-five

in

means

categories,

otherwise

Sri

particularly

the

which

over
in

caste

of

account

differences

prevail

still

expresses

system

the

and

'

Southern

are

to

society.
Province

be

found

scattered

They

are

around

most
Mtara,

1.

Tangalle

Mtara

incorporated
figure

This

in
figures

these

Maritime

and

data

the

estimate,

that

Southern

Provinces,

districts,

is

from

release
form

More

in

of

of

In

when
recent

of

the

both

the

kuppRyama

to

referring
years,

the

used

families

very

on
local
from

Hambantota

the

day.

present
Berav

have
seeking

they

still
Their

order.

but

households

six

throughout
are

settlements
their

high

is

given

terms

for

term

'mulla',

caste

conceptual
their

places
meaning

'Subbyama'

term

meaning

Berav

settlement
by

occasion

many

rough

and

the

55).

in

the

such
of

certain

and
word

or

and

people

social

not
those

example,

were

outcastes),

informants

use

boundary,

or

corruption

the

sporadically

separation

for

residence,

corner

from

Spatial

reinforcement
of

than

often

Using

Census

labour.

wage

five
found

Berava

settings,

rural

as
are

separated

neighbours.

the

few

fifty,

exceeding

spatially

in

of

as

maybe

South.

urban

strictures

component

in
castes,

of

anonymity

caste

communities.

the

the

low

the

of

is

Mtara

50,000

3.49.

(1974:

Lanka
this

Galle,
of

then

time.
of

Berav

of

region

many

crucial

rarely

population

the

into

drawn

been

in

Sri

that

is

that

at

of

emphasise

that

like

Whilst,

and

estimate,

would

which

total

Department

the

301)

at

the

of

Provinces
from

ibid:

districts,

48.29

Government

the

of

Statistics

district,

Hambantota'
for

the

(Roberts

census

Tangalle

and

accounts

population

1824
in

frequency

their

puts

The

Galle.

and

Goyigama

communities.
of

the

numerically

(a

.y
.3

small.

low

castes

through

name

changing,

many

cases

Berav,

in

play

have

retained

are

in

the

higher

the

That

castes.
in

reflected

the

adopted

them

Whilst

members

of

was

often

euch

"we

as

attributed
displaced

onto

individuals

of

in

the

the

the

that

the

of

and

'dirty'

interaction.
and
this
terms

The
not

qualities

surprisingly,

and

ultimately
None

caste.

of

my

impure*

themselves'

traditional

the

avoidance

quantifiable

the

acknowledged

sense

most

hierarchy

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are,

within

of

acknowledged

families,

status

are

members

and

duppat).

caste,

to

considered

of

easily

groups*
lower

are

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caste

(api-

without

personally

informants

more

poor"

are
from

dirty

into

and

areas

in

position

translated

klaya)

distancing

Berava

role

identity.

by

are

certain

the

lowly

their

accepted

in

the
appear

include

of

The

caste

They

they

319).

and

(kilutu)

attitudes

towards

(adu

caste

incidentally

who

castes,

their

ever

dirty

in

hierarchy,

hierarchy.

status
and

service

other

low

(apirisidu)

impure

numbers

caste
than

1953:

caste

like,

the

(Ryan

their

of

their

slip

and

status

virtue

firmly

more

low

ranked

migration.

traditional

the

to

able

Goyigama
by

Berav

The

been

urban

adopting

however,

they

is

have

decrees

order

or
they

are.
the

Traditionally
has

castes
code
more.

of

been

avoidance
Public

discrepancy

expressed
and

strictures

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in
asserted

placed

in

Nowadays

separation.
on

castes

between

status
an

elaborate

many
like

the

of

the

Berav

f. _X

have

been
A

times.

lifted

or

else

Berav

man

or

the

covering

top

not

which

from

sanctions
breach

of

(konde),

live

in

palm

fronds.

houses

In
as

went

which

an

greatly

the

below

only

order
long

suffered

into

for

only

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negative

of
of

for

have

who
its

feudal

ever

greater
becomes

caste
but

this

that

those

from

commentators

into

signs
by

question

erupts

passage

are

periods

the

kept

acceptance

social

there

is

mostly

various

Uncoupled

drifting
change.

socio-economic

safe

plaited
indignity

passive

challenged
it.

under
and

not

but

castes,

increasingly

being

underpinnings

problem

"a

can

membership
is

its

with

they

and

to

than

occasionally

ensured

lower

the

forbidden

low-caste

general,

can

traditional

conflict

In

has

is

also

a
the

for

themselves.

Sinhalese

the

Despite

are

still

in

dilution
of

rejection

growing
there

of

and

men

rather

part

order

discriminations
members

roofs

such

Nowadays,

integral

surface

of

beards.

Inter-caste

violent
with

time

bitterness

action

provoked

one

the

on

an

dignified

the

traditional

the

of

at
of

confrontation.

violent

the

practice

about

Berav

general

diluted.

public,

confronted

in

tiles

with

in

Similarly.

wearing

enlightened

nowadays

have

people

hair

the

with

along

body

(3]

more

qualms

would

caste

their

top-knot

no

his

of

restrictions.
wear

has

ago

high

nowadays

them

boy

half

long

so

in

atrophied

many

the
areas

rigidity

of

consequences
where

caste

and

restrictions
of
remains

ignoble
strong.

birth

J5

1.3.1

Commensality
The

is

example,

rigorously

observed.

that

in

areas,

most

clearly

certain

(Ryan

The

provide

is

home

not

of

In

the

be

allowed

the

offered
unfold

on

between

hosts

who

wishing

to

appear

guests

providing
brought
intrusion
by

such

numerous

being

inadequate.

food.
on
by
pointing

will
by

out

eat

that

they

ritual
the

will

during
During

from

the

have

the

seen

conflict
actually
hand,

other
duty

are

be

to

performers

to

bound

patron,

whilst
discomfort

obvious

from
serve

occasion
is

low

legitimate

separately
must

also

one

which

on

his

person

without

apparently

them

in

man

ceremonies.

but

minimise

an

such

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and

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often

waived

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hospitality

as

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stems

hospitable,
the

table

drama

petty
occasions

are

accept

it

reject

The

meal.

rice

Berava

the

be

can

[4]

for

customary

in

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and
guest.

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food

the

and

equality

partially

and

is

it

who

are

exorcism

ceremonies,

such

caste

commensality

long

events,

be

permissible

with

and

state
can

of

hospitality

host

high

to

loaded

together

of

still

as

table

and

of

course

far

patterns

household

rice

for

home.

hierarchy

status

the

between

near
of

night

eat

equality

so

status

gesture

normal

rules

where

To

goes

the

commensality

symbolically

about

once

at

statement

and

made.

powerfully

1953:

159).

of

caste

from

statements

which

Ryan

determined

it

upon

ranged

rules

'the

in

dining

the

remote,

still

being

eating'

inter-caste

of

possibility

other

themselves

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guests
in

the

IL

of

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with

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may

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fear

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occult

revenge

table,

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for

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abundantly

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possible

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refusal

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at

be

them

to
it

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castigation
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in

caste

inversion

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result
pay

extract

criticising,

must

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must
who

the

expected

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mark

had

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performers

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and

they

too,

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better.

the

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orders

giving

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treatment

or

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it

as

shoddy

date.

will

performers

fine

performance

later

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'upsetting'

of

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at

line.

downright

and

crossed

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them,

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wait

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to

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which
caste

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people.

the

high

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eat

from

the

is

only

exceptionally

people
course

they

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will

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seen

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caste

in

households
rare

have

we

of
accept

table

frequently'

"

or

anything

high

of

true.
Berava

visit

business

on

occasions

are

it

pleasure,

light

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is

refreshment.

Etiquette

1.3.11
In
still

the

realm

the

prejudice

inter-caste
of

subject
ideasof

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surprised

of

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and

the

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number

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the

etiquette

and
of

the

actions

caste

who
system

are
more

expressing

separation.

people

Berava

was

often

would

disclaim

as

obsolete

an

in

yet

antiquity,

would

people

the

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still

produced,

enters

a
head

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at

presence

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In
to

all

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expectations

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insisted

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is

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of

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threat

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of

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I

tell.

house,

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otherwise.

the

example,

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visited

do

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to

In

to

violation

place.
far

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in

result

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as

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is

complicity

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is

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to

it

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with

offender.

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the

verandah.

and

person

requested

cup

visitor

comply

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through

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Berav

a
_.

examples

above

extent
and

people.

in

tray.

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to

passed

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house

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specifically

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standing,

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be

status

a
A

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usually
main

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he

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hands.

the

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or

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served

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beverage
with

all

is

high-caste

house

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door

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served

or

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it

Berav

everybody

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tea

front

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and

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bgaya)

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when

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(ptuva

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to

resort

differentiation.

left

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people

knew
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in

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they

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to

him.

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other

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in

to

enough

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and

itself.

terms

embodying
are
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of

to
which

name

title
caste

or

Kuliya'

(N&kat

caste

avoid

else

usages

such

caste
caste,

traditional
very

them

profession

of

outsiders
but

neutral
',

the

with
astrology

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Boll;

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the

associates

'e

the

prefer

Minissu',

to
as

Berava

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stick

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considered

'Nkati

honourable

themselves

their

activity

purely

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of

hierarchy.

with

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and

reference

differentiating

on
the

beyond

the

themselves,

asterism).

means

were

humility

quiet

Kuliya',

an

title

and

elevated

more

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response

address

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them

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a

who

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language

very

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Berava

people,

men

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demeaning.
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associates
of

occupation

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separation
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known

take

birth.

Discrimination
physical

Berava

acknowledge

their

of

consequences

1.3.111.

to

was

occasions

be

to

seemed

disgracing

publically

unfortunate
such

businessman

local

one

simply

less

no

'those

people'.
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an

important

indicators
it

interaction,

everyday

most

level,

are

address

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high

their
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title,
men

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status.
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profession.
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persons
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as

e,
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mahattay.

to

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the

step

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suffix
form

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by

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mahattay

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occasion

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policewomen

and

mudalli

as

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gentleman;

rlahmi;

as

shopkeepers

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sir

meaning

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parties.

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There

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same

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to

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as

Wilbat,

more

Babris,
direct
Wilman,

adopt
often
common

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names

as

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Supiris,

Sinhalese

attach

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is

the

Jmis,

not
to

of

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Jayaneris,
names

tendency
sources

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beginnings

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of

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for

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derivation.

fit

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terms
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specialised

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[5]

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relations

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birth

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names*

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day

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uncle'.

public

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serve

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iv.

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1.3.

them

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in

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expressed

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to

months

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jocular.

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loose

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between

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provides

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themselves.

endogamy

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caste

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of

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as

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acquire

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observed

to

or

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precisely

mutual

children

the

groupings

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of

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keenly

precise,

_of

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kinship

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is

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of

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Sinhalese
in

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To

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of

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family

distinct

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a

attribute
the

caste;

let

14

to

alone

Yalman's

caste

whole.

as

to

identify

of

Sinhalese

attempts

the

endogamous

cf.

Tambiah

unit
1965

who

outlines

for

one

are

ideally

of

the

end

result

might

the

kindreds,

tendency

due

the

to

marriages
Chapter

3,

endogamy

and

In

general

the

institution

of,

endogamy

of

conceptualised

(1963:
terms

the
27

1967:

and

such

equality

in

apparent

from

less

of

purity

in

as

'substance'

protection

as
or

else

(tatvaya)
(cf.

inter-caste
where

in

illustrated

in
for

of

has

society

the
ritual

purely

and

the

that

'caste

(le)
Yalman

sociological
importance
it

20),

people

be

blood

does

in

attitudes
other

as

example

1982:

-terms

some

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Kendrick

in

'substance'

this

for

the

on

been

of

terms

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alliance

is

preferential

placed

caste

biological

status

within
at

preservation

Whether

58),

the

with

strategy

interpretation

or

in

an

caste.

other.

or

substance'

and

the

perpetuation

the

the

and

of

arrived

be

one

while

place

of.

will

provides

within

elites

take

result
As

property

of

place

is

kin

1977)

taking

this

occur

close

appearance

to

cumulative

with

the

marriage

[6]

alliance.

concentration

marriage

for

to

Stirrat

as

whereby

and

craft

is.

process

part

construed

that

the

with

(cf.

status

be

group,

endogamous

large

equal

is

552,
system

tend

that

as

1962:

classificatory

marriages

before,

occurred

who

caste

and

kindred

(Yalman

caste

did

as

or

pavula

The

marry

may

marriages

where

the

critique).

fail,

to

bound

are

the

is
Berav
have

of
readily
have
more.

Cross-caste

marriage

categories
a

that

The

respect.
'pollution'

of

The

defilement

relations

nature

and

can
for

uncommon

or

concubine
a

low

be

"

the

high

in

by

No

to

terms

The

inverse

abhorrence

and

was

'...
And
deluded,
beneath

one

at

aspect

of

why.

in

town
that

effect

of

time

of

temporary
not

low-caste

ideology

caste

Akuressa,

of

is

in

interest
be

their

by

punishable

with

explained
women!
with

viewed
death:

if

females
any
be so
should
to
folly
as
commit
with
one
herself,
if
ever
she
should
to
the
her
friends,
sight
appear
of
kill
they
her,
would
certainly
there
being
to
the
no other
way
wipe
off
dishonour
hatte
done
family,
the
she
'
her
blood.
but
by
own
(Knox
1681:
195-6
in
Pieris
1956:
cited

A
caste
'polluted'.

high
man

would
as

having

woman

caste

would

of

thus
a

my

however,

above,

result

to

was

exploitation

the

of

relations

this

the

as

have

the

concern.

is

sexual

communities

sexual

of

to

casual

explain

Berava

is

the

and

primary

It

man

doubt

to

this
which

caste

washing.

into

circulated

through

woman

caste

enter

local

various

solely

else

used
often

rumours

removed

avoid.
in

crucial

incurs

man

low-caste

be

woman.

caste

could

with

to

pains

the
thus

of

substance':

gateway

is

which

at
as

enter

sexuality

confusion

'caste

are

the

might

female

protection

sexual

is

41)

it
purity

female

the

of

have

female

(ibid:

sexual

dilution

who

sees

in

result

or

those

(1963)

Yalman

lose

the

and

situation

would

result
be

in
the

sexual
the

woman

children

relations
becoming
arising

179)
a

with

low

internally
from

such

46

Not

union.
high

caste

women

dangerous.

and

seduce

women.

gypsy

men

in

own

low,

women

our
and

course

patient

of

will

is

it

although

the

in

viewed

men

between

undergo

seen

to

have

which

high

and

highly

as

reversal

where

herself

submit

to

fashion

between

ceremonies

to

power

fascinating

vague

the

similar

and

highly

as
by

with

somewhat

minimised

exorcism

exchanges

are

Contact

does

publically

exorcist

mythology.

men,

contact

amplified

Berav
in

of

men

further

attributes

charm

in

points

caste

is

danger

which

irregular,

low

and

This

mythology

the

surprisingly,

the

female

a
power

of

the

sexual

markedly

undertones.
Whilst
the

most

earlier

parts

match

was

The

idea

of

for

Berav

they

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too

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in

communities
with

marry

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of

felt

in

than

wishing

and

I
from

also

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caste

is

likely

the
man.
to

to

relation

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to

avoid

lose

worked
the

ws

Washerman

the

status

themselves

to

beneath

marrying
I

marriage
a
or

integrity

assert

believe

cross-caste

which
man

part

nevertheless

deplore
case

only

to

more

'inter-caste

Particularly,

wished

their
not

endogamy,

purity

condoned.

that

unlikely

by

waived

matches.

cross-caste

through

be

keenly

more

nowhere

The

is

idea

the

which

is

it

who

be

can

in

outlined

caste

of

section

ever

daughter

horror,

arouse

eloped

this

of

would

marriage

The

manifestations

individuals,

liberal

They

the

of

came
Berav
Henay

and
have.

themselves.
across
girl
caste.,

in
who

the
had
The

t
Z

family

girl's

in

residence
the

girl

into

thse
that

note

do

question

most

of

as

point

more

at

this

than

that

forms

to
view

of

become

exogamy

caste

and

religion.

economics

areas

little

consequence.

[]

their
Most

communist,
personal

charisma

largely
of

politics,

almost

are

in

small
is

affiliation
informants

my
in
Dr.

response
S. A.

the

from

and

they

political
of

them

small

as

do

fundamental

society:

taken
they

practice

excludes

are

in

if

more

Sinhales

Scattered

wide

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in

Berav

minority.

voted

in

of

power

over

such

Berava

the

significance

which

pockets

caste

arises.

to

together

added

the

Politicallyt
insignificant

little

of

marginalisation
of

with

being

strictures

relates

indicators

triangle

along
took

rarely

it

as
be

would

explicit

I,

on

exclusion

However,

structural
crucial

of

point

otherwise.
and

caste

of

society

isolation.

and

attitudes
of

aspects

Sinhalese

energy

absorbed

interesting

the

other

Berav

given,

Wider

anything

endogamy

question

Many

say

informants.

my

the

to

wish
of

endogamy

Akuressa

is

from

that

differences

status

hypergamous

was

be

it

up

likely

ultimately

small

are

taken

appeared

Although

castes

union

not

the

in

would

caste.

two

the

It

children

had

couple

village.

man's
her

the

and

Berav.

the

1.3.

poor

Henaya

the

that

the
and

between

of

were

of

around
to

Wickremasingha

the

48

who

held

1936
be

Akuressa

the

In

1977.

until

other

apprarently

because

Bandaranayake

who

and
small

numbers

their

influence

level,

in

to

of
of

throughout

S. W. R. D.
common

the

relatively

alone

man

island

the

let

still.

the

However,

level,

at

or
the

cannot

make

national

it,

kinsmen

had

who
who

majority,
identity

or

possibility
productive

resources
business

as

case

Berav
Buddhist

the

entering

with
which

land.

the
is'

oldest
limited

of

remain

Berav
the

For

rural
of

pool

anonymous

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towhs*
may

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community.

remote.
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This

priesthood.
largest

solely

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bl)

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urban

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(e

remain

tp

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power

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Exceptions

stoop'

put

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material
power.

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economic

position
lost

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Nik9ya

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memory

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as

credibility

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the

case

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Similarly.

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appeared

Feedom

nationalism.

at

informants

my

championed

Berav

of

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Communist

Lanka
of

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Sinhala

the

areas

(Sri

S. L. F. P.

solidly

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traditionally
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fraternity.
to

people

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excluded

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Siyam

Goyigama

,.

The

caste.
Nikya,

although

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fieldwork,

fraternity,

the
to

thought

be

most

background

provided

motivation.

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devout

the

priesthood.

by

heard

never

back-up

of

influence,

and
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its

significance

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those

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possibilities

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professed

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Nikya

this

even

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of
my

family

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is

religious

boy

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groups

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denied
education
for

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for

access

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provides

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mobility.

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Lanka.

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in

of
the
in

on

Access

Berava.

often

achievement

assumption

based

education

about

universal

participate
is

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like

whatever

can

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word

ethos

possibilities,
all

almost

the

and

fanatical.

the

still

of

for

high

whereby

democracy.

is

like

education
is

rejection

networks

would

educational

means

it

1864,

males.

on

the

in

were

or

the

of

throughout

man

of

recent

sufficient

across

single

possibility

Finally.

borders

came

established

Competition

to

of

Berav

formal

informants

Nikya

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for

remote

Berava

area

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in

have

the

members

founded

they

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Rmnnya

the

my

the

The

castes.

undiscriminating

Buddhists

yet

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by

Nikya

to

castes

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dominated

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the

non-Goyigama

Durava

and

Amarapura

the

priesthood,

totally

Salagama

most

the

almost

Karva,

by

response
on

monopoly

fraternity,

oldest

second

is_a

reality,

the

process

and

power

domains
few

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and

ability,

merit

the

access

common

outlined
realistic

i+

:6
J

In

the

the

past

education

or

school.

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best

at

traditional

upon
priest

channels

tuition

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literacy

school

is

not

kept

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the

the

past,

within

the

taking

up

at

aspirations
were

their

caste
their

school

by

caste

is

school
be.

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old
had

who

traffic

was

lack
completed

were

of

to

pressure
objective
places

might
achieve

hailed

as

resonsibility

to

parental
I

whom

discrimination

the

past.
they

were
The

them.

upon

and

often
Despite

where

one

who
of

examples

was
what

hold.
at

school

possibilities
the

boys

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impressed

strongly

in

as

with,

too

of

resources

unrealistic

succeed

who

children

on

not

formal

cases,
on

the

at

result

generation

the

both

fathers.

remember

for

as

children

their

schoolteacher

achievement

Whilst

to

well

of

with

the

of

local
for

any

education,

however

the

in

these

pressure

should
was

policeman

educational

the

as

back

attendance

back.

of

in

suffered

excluded

kinsman

falling

their

enough

children

previously

In

fall

as

as

parents

to

responsible

number

their

strong,

in

status

of

these,

as

groups

caste

children.

for

other

also

the

caste

were

to

Nowadays

specialisations

may

worked

know

children

such

achieve

by

did

high

the

to

access

such

were

numeracy.

affected

community

instances

latter

denied

tendency

education

particular

off

harassment

That

The

from
was

of

and

although

sense.
were

there

knowledge

formally

were

segregated

kinsmen.

and

imparting

Berav

once
for

the

is

strong,
education

absorption

the
is
and

J1

employment
possible,

family

this

until

the

as
of

range
through

determined

networks

like

between

caste

to

caste

Caste

and

Nowadays

ritual

occupations.

known

may

be

people

Traditional

link

terms

of

by

which

potentially

day.

drums

role
disordering

forces

the

service

within

occupations,

such

been

and

demons.

the

minority

caste's
has

by

charm

familial

Berav

their

with

remain.

by

are

castes

many

and

practised

or

traditional

their

Berav

have

who

castes

have

with

Their

position.
and

the

the

describing

to

few

the

the

practice
of

source

section

relationship

they

but

direct

important

negative

only

are

next

present

of

identification

the

yet
through

social

names

occupations

caste

either

The

who

the

about

Berav

one

beat

the

prelude

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in

occupation
the

large.

the
are

the

In

in

identity

strong

traditional

Berav

Berav

said

socio-historical
as

occupation:

the
a

retained

the

the

been

occupation.

occupation

of

occupations

1.4

and

examine
and

has

little

point

between

would

an

in

assimilated

occupational

and

relation

the

are

far

As

kinsmen.

with

ties.
Up

the

back

men

people

young

occupations

young

of

is

association.
lowly
to

and

status
deal

at

the

with

work

in

the

cosmos.
In
believed
'Great

oral
to
Elect'.

mythology
have

been
the

created
first

ritual
by
contractual

King

castes
Mahasammata.
king

who

were
the
brought

to

order
amongst

the

men,

Hocart

by

world
allotting

creating

division

a
tasks

certain

to

certain

reports:

labour

of

As

groups.

'The

Sinhalese
villagers
function
the
drummers
of
king
Mahasammata
mythical
only
demon

described
the
who
it
the
say
was
decreed
that
who
to
the
carry
were
out

certain
persons
'
ceremones.

(Hocart
Historically,
the

upholding

him,

or

it
of

rather

duty

and

perform

to

cultivable

access

the

caste

his

local

that

ratemahatmaya,

'The

specific
lands

From

the

various

service

of

responsibility

to

addition

the

entirely

basis

hereditary
The

vdana.

name
meaning

Berava
literally

to
is

duties
burdens.

otherwise

the

state.

'

44)
to
feudal

the
it

was
duties
and

periodically

became

of

agriculture

identified

by

they

which

supplied

the
to
in

the
on

'
form

shortened
'the

of

general

pursuits

or

from

rajakariya

secular

ceremonial

occupations

on

as

In

services

Castes

which.

workers

duty",

called.

ritual

pay

land

in

carrying
1956:

performing

and

cultivation.

and

was

for

recruited

'king's

those

ceremonial

provide

an

system

or

to

return

presentation
laborious

and
(Pieria
were

or

tenure

annual
to

soil

castes

disvg

given.

the
leaves,

the

rjakriya

provide

in

to

was

required

conception
of
property
that
title
was
contingent
"service",
of
ranging

tilling

as

the
were

was

It

society.

services,

for

responsible

representative,

always
assumed
the
performance
formal
homage,
eg.,
betel
a bundle
of
such

in

populace

51)

was

who

regime

the

Sinhalese

king

the

was

1950:

sound

of
of

the
the

term
drum',

berg
a

53

title

indicates

which

occupation
the

past

the

art

drum

as

into
that

conjectures

No

musicians.

Buddhist

doubt

at

which

in

point

some

brought

them

with

were

subsequently

and

religion

Berava

the

recognised

India

from
drumming

of

skills

integrated

traditionally

specialists

migrant
and

their

Ryan

polity.

caste:

'...

its
retains
whatever
origin,
specific
the
the
degraded
of
status
something
of
Hindu
Paraiyan,
the
name
caste
with
whom
'
is
in
derivation...
shared
(1953:
13)
Janavamsa,

The
Sinhalese

people,

weavers

and

fifteenth

important

weaving.

in

the

Berava

have

astrology

and

occupations
south

at

least,

'musicians,

as
in

(quoted

astrologers'

often

present

the

Ariyapala
up

remained
Berava,

of

the

has

disappeared

the

of

chronicle

century

described

Drumming

291).

1956:

the

to

the

whilst
without

trace.
It

in

is

the
that

suggests,
Coomaraswamy

sphere
the

describes

of
Berav
their

drumming,
are
services

as
most
as

their

caste
widely

title
known.

follows:

tenants
by
held
The
tenement
Panguva.
In
(Beravy).
beater
tom-tom
caste
the
of
kind
called
a
under
their
came
temples
service
the
At
(out-door
kattale
service).
the
pits
tevva
(musical
at
art
daily
service),
the
journeys
of
on
fetivals,
and
at
pinkam
(tom-tom).
hevisi
the
beat
they
incumbent,
had
to
they
in
duty
turn
a temple,
On their
of
to
its
sweep
temple
the
property,
and
watch
for
flowers
to
the
gather
premises,
clean
and
(water
for
bolpAn
to
fetch
and
offering,
the
The
musician
of
temple
servicee
use).
by
lay
(hevisi-kriy)
required
were
for
weddings,
occasionally,
only
proprietors
bali
funerals,
ceremonies
and
on
yak
and
This
class
of
persons
was
occasions.
state

'Davul

in

their
weaving
cloth,
and
consisted
of
a taduppu-cloth
The
ball
a kerchief.
performance
of
the
was
one
ceremonies
of
principal
beater
the
tenants
the
tom-tom
of
of
(1908:
employed
(tribute)

In

the

kingdom

Kandyan

department

the

called
from

provided

drummers

the

services
caste.
25)

the

'

their

occupied

beravbadde.

departments

such

penuma
or

they

services

described

are

own

Davy

by

(1821):
'They

had
to
by
weavers
trade,
pay
and
in
tax
for
their
the
lands,
money
supply
in
royal
stores
monthly
provide
vegetables*
in
the
wooden
gutters
kitul-gaha,
of
and
districts
furnish
some
of
quantity
a certain
their
families
cloth
Particular
of
own
making.
have
lands
for
beating
dancing
the
tom-tom,
are

and
piping
have
portions
in
temples.

etc.

festivals;
lands
for

at
great
of
church

'
(quoted

An

important

link
then,

designated
is

exponents,

names.

contain

information

extinct
meaning
drummers
soldiers
literally
court
possibly

bestowed

some

The
is

soldier,
were
into
'Lion

Others,

battle.
Musicians'.

passed

on

meaning
from

time

the

from

an

the

time

when

when

leading

Vardiasingha,
role

earlier

'Pearl

now

example.

service
as

such

suggest

Mutuheva,

for

King's

the

or

and

ancient

survival
in

found

early

occupation

heva-,

prefix

were

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to

point

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'surnames'

origin,

or

186)

vasagama

titles.

possible

be

to

musicians;
been

villages

1956:

those

of

transmitted

names

occupations.

as

contemporary

honorific

vsagama

Pieria

occupations

patrilineally
about

specially

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in

found

be

the

in

descendants

the

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family

and

between

and

to

others
performing

Soldiers'
they

practised

as
had

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the

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costumes.
in

found

and

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astrology.
one

four

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occupation.

where

imposed

from

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are

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by

outside

administrator,

or
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caste.

the

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times

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the

the

of

pursuit
types

of

categories*
the

services
contributions

role

public

temple

still

in

provided
following

Yalman

(1967:

'
larger

private.
performed
celebrations

to

to

to

addition

67),

I
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by

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private

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menial
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medieval

specialist

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royal

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state

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shall
public
as
and

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religion.
was

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range

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services

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in

services
part
hierarchy
Lanka

the

and

centered

on

momentum

of

lapse

of

kingdom,
areas

has

continued

150

years

the

temples

and

service

tenure
Referring
'In

at

public

granting

of

kind

very
into

and,

the
the

an

integral
feudal

Highlands

of

of

of
in

society

Kandyan

the

highland

many

services

arrangements.
particularly

Migala
temple
as
itary
right
in
temple
hereditary

these
feudal
to

to
drummers

the

Berav,
are

Gombrich

attached
have
they
villeins;
tenure
lands
of
owned
for
they
return
which
must
'
services.
(1971:
125)

to
an
by

says:
the
heredthe

perform

to
by

underpinned

still

Sri

Despite

day.

present

specialist
is

with

drumming

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end

the

ceremonials

along

vision

prevails
of

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income.

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land.

articulated

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still

state

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subsistence.

and

since

provision

caste.

Berav

kingship.

rjakriya
and

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ordered

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rituals

hereditary

of

sphere,

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cosmology

the

public

in

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healing

on

of

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services,

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of

source

received

their

the

basis.

relied

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main

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of

the

by

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of

within

reward

both

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solely

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astrology.

in

castes.

performed
on

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occasions

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and

transmitted

skills

services

were

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of

ritual

of

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included

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hand

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drumming.

primarily

services

individual

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ceremonial

with

services

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services

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further

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on:
however,

is
perform
a service
which
for
Buddha,
the
principally
is
required
and
in
therefore
demand.
Any
continued
temple
of
fifty
some
age
years
almost
- say
- is
certain
to
hold
land.
this
land
is
and
of
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probably
(sic
leased
in
drummers
to
given)
for
return
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Although
professional
drumming
services.
is
the
bound
not
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only
it
profession...
caste
the
in
least
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only
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at
I
area
where
is
worked
which
regularly
associated
with
service
tenures,
this
to
that
and
the
term
an extent
such
literally
'workers'
r9jak9riy6,
for
the
king,
to
designate
which
used
feudal
is
villeins.
all
taken
now widely
to
living
drummers
to
refer
temple
lands.
'
off

(ibid)(8]
In

the

Highlands

between

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highly

significant.

appear,

in

services

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is

of

provide

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means

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for

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has

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doubt

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operate

would

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Berav

remains,

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ritual

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association

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are

known

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was.

tenures

public

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then,

Berav

service

at

what

island
tenure

The

receipt

but

land

and

drumming

place

the

of

ADDENDA.
Service
tenures
were not in fact
abolished
this
under
act
in 1832 but
the
persisted
'
under
'
name
despite
riakriy
basic
in the structure
alterations
of the tenure
system.

Buddhism
temples

and
were

the

protection

progressively

of

its

outmanouevered

institutions,
and

zne!
their

claims

`y

on

service

tenants

the

reversion

and

(Seneviratne
the

gradually

leading

temple

of

1979:
day

present

whittled

with
to

directions
Kandyan
ritual

of
of

superordinations

the

form

can

of

influence,
wield

as
both

and
This

South

have

of

without

of

structure
the

impact

of

the

Is

but,

scant

fate

of

centre

Buddhism

in

the

patronage

and

was

measures

(Malalgoda

strategy

propagation
to

of

weaken

1505

this

that

Kandy

remained

28).
European

Kandyan

its

lost

culture
control

state

repressive

severely

C6nversion

period

influence,

political

of

and

Information
during

provinces

feudal

onwards

tenures

subject

central

the

considerably

suffered

and

the

virtually.

and

from

fact

Maritime

of

temples

from

(1685-1795).

religious

1976:

and

sunk

system
part

service
the

have

to

Dutch

the

power

different

Portuguese

the

of

the

that

quite

tenure
was

the

tenures

past.
is

it

One

enormous

political,

the

service

despite

powerful

the

appears

under

concerning

and

in

which

subsequently

the

and

in

rjakriya

service

of

or

affairs

The

reforms,

persists.

still

persistence

rjakriya

trace.

land

and

temples

religious

state

into

continued
and

complete

result

wielded

where

under

acts

crown

towards
are
change
stripping
'feudal'
its
of
expressions
'
and
subordinations.
(ibid:
167)

the

the

the

that:

from

to

that

is

type

far

service

assume

only

this

is

process

commutation

to

process

other

conclude

'The

the

The

various

Seneviratne

But,

lands

153-155).

by

away

Christianity

to

was
and

used
accentuate

as

'l

ti

divisions

political
A

key

between
in

element

conversion
Buddhism

the

and

and

cosmology'

the

Kandyan

even

before

nobility

to

Portuguese

arrival
decline
Dutch,

and

in

into
we

can

coercion

vision
in

the

South

37).
and

to

served

above

of
the

split

society

long

disrupted

which

Buddhism

infer

that

went
Berava,

the

of

ceremonial,
However,

public

were

also

century
temples

the

which

twentieth

century

niche

there
their

between

existed
temples

in

the

was

no

Highland

for

the

for
a

feudal
course
local

and
cases

the
early

of

families
most

In

whom

still

land

support

place

secure

the

of

and

nineteenth

in

was

in

259).

1976:

Relationships

exchange

changes.

their

found

Berava

state

endowments

brethren

particular

the

but

they

and

resurgence

royal

(Malalgoda

persisted.

still

no

the

as

broader

these
a

instead

emerged

unlike

by

were

patrons

structure

Berava.

affected

there

temple

at

underwent

and

local

amongst

services

Buddhism

when

nineteenth
to

their

the

under

1
providers

of

context

(9]

British.

the

of

the

further

referred
was

(ibid:

'ordered

The

which

Up-Country
was

which

Highlands,

the

and

strategy

state.

the

Given

this

the

of

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entirely

contractual.
The
reliance

from

shift
for

support

de-centralised
dependent
fundamentally

and
the

on
the

on
hichly

political

authority

segmented

laity
Berav

Buddhism

Sinhalese

classical

for
and

the

monastic
its
services

its

with
to
structure

support,
they

affected
supplied.

The

from

shift
to

refers
the

at

as

recent

Temple
norm

organising

temple

in

the

to

anything

hand,

was

mentioned

above,

state

in

and

was

caste
land

that

Drumming
ceremonial
in

this

services
Nowadays

particular

with

certain

the

history

is

essential

of

However,

area.
is

no

longer

neither

the

drummers

particularly

specialists
locality.

The

Beragoda

in

performance
of

their

who

often

the

2).

hold

Buddhist
a

monopoly
drumming

public

activities.
take

patrons

employment
in

bound

longer

caste

several

temple
of

in

severed

also

all

Each

work

feudal
service

Chapter

of

their

the

no

still

the

and

lost

virtually

seriously.

This

between

was
were

point

offer

services

of

link

Berav

on

to

public

services

nor

regarding

South,

commutation

link

focal

by

symbolic

the

and

the

such

services.

passage

at

at

in

up

effectively

material

VihZra

position

occasional

the
the

The
and

arrangements

other

and

currently

Mahl;

in

drumming,

as

lost.

in

Crown.

such

occasions

enterprise
own

the

the

century

long

rjakriya

sprang

compounded

South,

tenure
(cf.

together

nineteenth

to

the

which

for

is

traditional
is

rarely.

34),
temple

only

informants,

drummers

of

(1978:

The

temples

Seneviratne

which
employment

along

payment

lands

patronage

hierarchy

South.

further

also
of

Kandy

were
than

reversion

in

the

other

process

Tooth

my

The

other

the

the

throughout

numbers

in

services

according

Tissamahrma.

contract

change
the

of

established

lines,

to

service

the
its

makes
drummers
temples

and
in

The
historical

is

Berav

the
in

drumming

in

became

services

remained

private,

in

(see

Chapter

the

3,

Section

identified,

with

such
such

activities

by

_the-

basis

contractual

with

to

fields
the

as
had

long

healing,

other

decoration,
as

themselves

These

were

ocupations

on

patrons

private

increasing

an

that

and

caste.

Berav

century

caste

and

sculpture

the

equal

well

established

by

performed

As
the

exorcism

temple

as

).

which

house-building

and

occupations

as

of

diverse

more
iv.

the

living.

nineteenth
in

traditions

of

performed

in

public
than

became

earning

(paramparva)

consolidation

private

is

provided

Highlands

the

they

to

state

services

importance

greater

came
it

traditions

carpentry

far

it

Significantly,

commence

in

local

at

of

as

such

with,

number

of

services

public

and

Low-Country

when

the

identified

Whereas

of
the

significance

many

one

speculative

rather

processions

basis.

contractual

this

that

been

had

temples,

etc.

occasions

been

from

made

reconstruction

which

on

be

to

point

main

the

of

exploitation

sector.
The

into

move

specialised

own

transformative

dynamic

emergence

their
of

performance
to

ritual

their,

body

of

bread

daily
exorcism

the

and

development

beliefs
of

and

rituals
expansion.

its

had
underlay

which

specialists

ritual

almost

healing

something

inevitably

performance,
on

in

even

situation,

effects

The

deriving

a
as

as

them.

'market'

the

from

solely
added
For

an

inner

example,

62

one

man

tales

recalled

greatgrandfather
156)

(A.
take

would

in

eye-holes
line

the

imagery

the

belief

of

its

bear

sector

Highlands,

compared

counterparts.

Gombrich

devil-dancing
ceremonies

little

unknown

rare

event;

his

these

matters

experience
Thus,

the

Highlands

who

came
a

to

the

and

the

their

ply

of
have

their

to

changes
in

Low-County

of

services

in

against
and

Bali

of

had

and
the

ceremonies,

island.

society

For

South,

the

in

directions

the

knowledge

place

area.

musicians

court

of

of

1505.

his

198).

different

rather

and

obviously

religious

stock

staid

in

(1971:
as

of

Low-Country

informants

state

state

rather

performance

diversification

taken

Portuguese

the

roles

in

progressive

enrichment

historical

at

traditions

that

and

earliest

developed

have

changes

their

drummers

Berav

been

of

from

ceremonial

of

was

forms

their

says

the

of

traditional

are

with

and

cultural

ritual

hand,

the

symbolism
orders

of

individual

prolific

The

other

conservative

rich

vitality

in

possessed

and

pantheon.

the

on

for

Powerful
the

of

fall

lower

the

it

through

would

the'

on

pp

pointing

Competition

gaze.

his

genealogy

smoke

someone

makes

and

and,

bad,

was

B4

charmed

characterises

combination

1850,
mask

that

cosmos,

this

born

Sohna

to

business

when

blow

which

Sinhalese

the

Pino,

Mah

brought

creativity

in

S.

direction,

certain

in

his

how,

of

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has

there

occupation

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and

skills.

backdrop

of

since

and

the

momentous
arrival

;, ..

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'developments
however,

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retain

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something

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limited

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housebuilding,

the

identity

their
numbers

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field

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in

the

temple
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population

labour,

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home

in

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oppositions

(see
to

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in

Figure
an
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of
In

such

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The

overleaf).

accurate
a

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rules,

ordered

of

sculpture,

activities,

is

concept

into

ritual

Mistakes.

always
dos.

create,

also

there

of

the

with

ritual

at

House-building,

also.

producing

creation

solely

analysis

technical

order

attract

our

and

of

looked
Staying.

extend

carpentry

painting,

work

Berav.

activities

non-ritual

have

we

illustrate

and
this

temple

art

temple

attempts

work

and

respectively.
of

images

in

to

F,
1v

his

reproduce
teacher

craft

and

technical

to

according

Coomaraswamy
for

tradition

demons

gods,

'

unlucky

it
'life'

to

negative

job

the

in

small

and

the

its

image

creator.
bring

to

sculptor

the

the

called

ritual

of

the

make

to

of

(see

attentions

may

misfortune

is

ancient

workmanship

which

critics

bring

and

Significantly,
image

human

and

the

in

Sariputraya

Poor

attract

his

of

out

the

as

150-163).

1908:

disregard

laid

rules

such

manuals

instructions

the

to

according

Netra

In

Pinkama.
its

by

construction

to

blindfolded
pot

is

ritual
the

a
is

water

of

the

painting

in

the

pot

of

absorb

water

is

dos

The

onto

neutral

the

accumulated
its

about

(see

objects.

The
of

aim

bring

to

away

gazes.

have

and

shoulder
led

he

might

image

the

of

which

his

then

which

onto

completes

over

eyes

smashed.

any

transfer

creator

He

subsequently

to

image's

guidance.

construction

dangerous

ceremony

for

mirror

using

in

this

Gombrich

1966).
in

Similarly,
the

follow
building
1908:

120-128

and

inhabitants.

process

of

the

house

carried
construction.

and

to
out

at

ensure
various
The

to

perform
can

properly
for

the

house

explicit

and
this

against
stages

most

ancient

Coomaraswamy

Failure
bIdIma)

da

craftsman

Attempts
are

eventuality

(p

in

out
(see

1976).

should

mason

laid

Mayamataya

procedures
for

misfortune

the

Liyanaratne

and

the

construction
prescriptions

as

such

manuals

its

and

rules

calculations
mean

house

in

the
action

intended
a

to

house

is

to

craftsman

tools

The

himself
the

in

impure

and

to

Notes

in
of
on
[2)
the
II
{3)
the

the

threshold

with

dos

currently

One

of

'without

For

exchanges
contends
who
philosophical
structural

(1953:

time

cock-bird,
with

the

course

not

to
the

the
do

in

to

note

be

'apirisidu'

various

this

respect
that

of

of

associate

its

in

opposites

range

is,

term

this

is

dos'.

the
of
provided

293)

gives
famous

now
a
confrontation
the
community
of
further

rjakriya
Pieris
by

mind
the
village
Obeyesekere

system
(1956:

the
of
an account
in
incident
which
between
Berav
and
to
their
over
right

discussion

to

of
see

during
Chapters

'Battle
there
high
wear

the
meaning
(1973:
Yalman
society,
-in-Sinhalese
'domestic
that
like
arrangements
in
concepts,
the
carry
microcosm
principles
of
a culture'.
a

the

_1

A
account
useful
is
Kandyan
period
III).
and
Ryan
Banian'

partially

of

engage
dos

believed

is

but

Berava,

interesting

are

unclean.

Chapter

immediately
The
three
which
examples
spring
(1961)
those
Leach
this
are
of
on
respect
(1967)
Yalman
Eliya.
Pul
on Terutenne
and
(1967).
Low-Country
Midagama
the
village
of

violent
sections
[$]

is

literally,

nirdosa,

which

auspicious

casts

with

Berav

an

formulae.

deal

the

they

which

It

the

that

[1]

to
to

manifestations.

of

in

dos.

fundamentally

them

ceremony

At

across

of

construction

thresholds

magical

restricted

activities

small

the

responsibility

solely

the

the

pinima).

recites

absorbing

of

in

seen
across

finally

and

from

arising

(uluvaha

house

completed

aim

be

jumps

craftsman

the

dos

absorb

of
a
was
caste
vests.

food
of
269-298)
certain
primary

(5)

It

is

difficult

between
found

detailed
more
endogamy
and
(1973),
in
Kaplan

discussion

know

these
is

patterns
It
possible
of
naming
of
styles
came
exactly.
identity
it
that
linked
was
simply
a tradition
caste
with
to
interesting
However,
is
note
families.
it
and
certain
in
born
that
more
the
1950's
children
were
given
have
Sinhalese
This
would
coincided
conventional
names.
of
the
first
Sinhalese
Nationalist
government
with
low
Bandaranayake,
the
S. W. R. D.
castes
many
of
under
whom
benefitted
considerably.
[6]

to
from

where

the
of
relationship
be
kinship
systems
can
by
three
suggesting

classificatory
concludes
who
for
categories
endogamy:
analytical
'group'
I)
to
the
an
marry
within
endogamy:
obligation
defined
group;
objectively
'genealogical'
ii)
to
the
choose
obligation
endogamy:
individual
in
is
to
some
ego
spouse
an
who
a
related
as
way.
particular
'alliance'
(or
iii)
the
marriage
endogamy
positive
is
It
former
which
re-affirms
marriage
alliance.
a
rule):
is
in
third
understanding
the
category
which
of
most
use
in
hand.
the
case
(1979:
63-64),
it
Jiggins
be pointed
out,
must
districts
Balangoda
Rakwana
the
examples
and
of
give
is
heterogeneity
high
the
low
vote
and
caste
caste
is
in
factor
candidate
returned.
which
a decisive
[7]

Further
accounts
Highlands
Kandyan
can
Temple
the
the
for
of
Lankatilaka.
temple
the
at
(9]
Dutch)
sacred,
Ciilavamsa
history

around

(the
they
armies
yakkhas
of
cruel
the
destroyed
into
town
their
the
and
way
the
from
(quoted
everything
else'
and
Buddhist
1976:
108).
As
throughout
Malalgoda
been
have
religious
adversaries
mythology,
the
link
is
One
to
demons.
tempted
as
in
insecurity
a
this
period,
moral
of
and
the
fashion,
the
Durkheimian
of
with
growth
florescence
belief
to
in
which
came
popular
time.
(demons),

forced
books
in
and

conceptualised
destablisation
rather
demon

where
be
may

in
the
drummers
the
role
of
of
26-37)
(1978:
in
found
Seneviratne
be
for
(1972:
74-97)
in
Evers
Tooth
and

[8]

'Like

does

crudely
cults
that

45-46)
(1972:
with
similar
asks
a
question
low
their
tenants
and
status
vihra
proximity
respect
to
The
he provides
back
a
holy
to
relates
places.
answer
temple
brought
and
time
were
as
when
servants
slaves
'serfs'
have
these
that
He
early
suggests
might
workmen.
low
their
their
to
transmitted
status
connotations
later
in
descendants
migrants
who
the
temple.
worked
and
[10]

[ill

Evers
to

Needham

(1967)

in

thought-provoking

article

has

79

suggested
universal
the
with

the

possibility
means
of
marking
supernatural.

[12)
Seneviratne
to Kandyan
religious
'The

that

drums
transition

makes
a similar
processions:

percussion
and
making
and

observation

with

are
contact

respect

the
the
achievement
of
of
objectives
be
designed
ritual
so meticulously
could
jeopardised
if
taken
to
not
steps
were
the
that
dangers
negate
possible
might
from
the
the
arise
performance
of
'
parahara.
(1978:
102)
dangers
he refers
The
inadvertent
to
to
the
offences
are
the
These
dangers
the
and
evil
eye
gods
of
onlookers.
are
by a series
known
Valiyak
the
dances
of
averted
as
special
before
dance,
the
the
performed
procession.
start
of

If

CHAPTER
CATEGORY

The

2.1

In

Village

previous

the

Berava

chapter,

to

turn

who

category,

and

the

as

about
it

individuals

who
village
in

communities
in

the
contact.

us

is

particular
to

those

together

Although

on

body

far

the

based

group

on
some

provide

Berav

communityo

society

wider

ritual

of
from

away

to

my

and

the

services.
[1]

Akuressa
It

as

social

same
work

necessary

the

present
Berav

the
the

localised

it

Beragoda

of

the

share

be

will

provides
provide

In

basis.

takes

*kinship,

services

The

thesis

fact

introduction

inter-marrye

day-to-day

an

of

who

together,

information

general

category.

people

community

residence

provided

examination

of

in

of

regularly

an

which--in

specialists

the

to

on

focus

notion

social

reside

co-operate

eventual

body

chapter,

as

community*

and

Beragoda

of

the

COMMUNITY

AND

was
area

was

the

one

of
with

second

several
which
community

Berava
I

was
with

8!

which

spent

most
As

my

activities

Situated

lie

in

the

hillside..

are

owned

coconut

narrow

strip
The

Beragoda
and

abut

overlook

The

houses

by

hillside

the

levelled

largest

sturdy

stone

and

plaster

tiny

mud

and

having

in

size,
five.

dwellings

with

Goyigama

and

their

making
of

of

people
compounds
job

the

of
and

ascents

compounds.
having

most
The

houses

constructions
thatch

an

of

the

series

which

absence

of

levels,

of

contours
fields

disputes

the

houses

of

lower

the

houses

on

and

overrice
In

of

modest

the

to

out

one

surrounded

majority

the

the

comprise

wet-rice
The

the

population

land

of

of

different

rooms,

down

sea

fields,

village

are

over

market

which

piece

look

into

has

dwellings

The

interspersed

descents

social

work,

provincial

Beragoda

farmers.

the

at

the

the

me

extended

small

follows

which

houses

dug

raised
a

common.

are

in

plantation.

across

traversing

by

Goyigama

are

neighbours

32

The
on

sides

road

access

for

provide

which

road,

scattered

by

came

from

mile

180.

by

fourth

to

and

ritual

villages.

three

almost

inhabitants

both

co-operation

Galle-Akuressa

lie

its

and

area

alliance,

approximately

village

of

marital

about

the

on

Beragoda

Berav

other

the

specialists,

network

and

several

on

in

one

ties.

closest

of

be

to

came

with

variety

of

town

had

and

living

nucleus

and

familiarity

non-ritual,

of

contact

time

the

grew,

into

came

where

the

with
in

which

only
range
tile
the

two
from
roofs
poorer

live.

residents
On

the

agricultural
By

it

day

jak-trees.
and

their

men.

there

however.
One

work.

are

garden

number

the

plots
the

Consequently,

and

organised

daily

their

of

appearances,

with

land

at

are

for

the

stand.

the

community

its

livelihood

agricultural

an

of

two

or
than

other

which

that

one

houses

depends

from

of

ones,

their
from

it

which

canopy

old

that,
own

base

economic

different

somewhat

is

which

the

differences.

critical

residents

of

South

about

level

the

typical

shady

the

of

of

upon

upon

go

exception

fundamental

of

women

for
the

of

part

Below

most

none

exceptions,
small

of

the

of

the

taken

under

play,

with

places

any

easily

Children

tasks

is

rests

be

could

from

community

island.

Is

Beragoda

surface,

community.
A
the

difference,

second

existence
within

skills

and

specific

dynasty

and

traditions

the

community

a
has

of
to

relating

Beragoda

their

had

knowledge

and
caste

occupations,

range

strong
(daksa
village
and

influence

Province.
of

to
for

reputation

specialisations,

the

People
it

as

the

surrounding

having

minissu).
seeing

was

Nowadays

services

of

something

produced

whose

Southern

wide

people
in

tradition

specialists

the

clever
pride

ritual

throughout
provides

thriving

of

past,

of

related

is

first

the

otherwise.

the

In

closely

to

produced
of

Beragoda

vehicle
paralleling

for

a
felt

village
area
many
take
ancient
it

C)

significantly
'clever

like.

the

the

services

travel

all

over
the

in

but

history

Beragoda

genealogical
to

migrated
settle

in

Jimise

being
land

The

diagram

pp

drumming

services

at

Mtara.

from

day
his

received
drummed

at

force

that

noise.

thus
Jimise

the

tiles

area

came
a

this

of

were

both

the

impetus

lay

was

said

shattered
the

official

the

court

in

in
and

of
land.

of

provision

then

existed

Mtara

mile

about

that

Jimise

because

dislodged

and

to

result

the

which

court

king

family

for

the

on

his

(rjakgriya)

tenure

court

(Al

piece

court

It

eighteenth

about-as

cultivable

royal

the

of

The

exchange

Beragoda.

impressing
served

Beragoda.

with

coast.

of

service
the

brief

Jimiae

along

in

sub-section

present

end

the

received
to

to

rights
be

of

them
chapter,

give

of

the

156

particular

to

next

to

Maduraccrige

from

area

offered

was

towards

named

this

like

later

Beragoda

man

the

turn

underlie

the

development

in

of

which
of

would

and

founded

was

when

century

of

subject

skills

out

seek

services.

the

subject
I

section

history

the

of

The

2.2

next

the

to
they

and

be

and

broadcasters

wide

their

will

knowledge
be

and

providing
are

will

the

account

island

the

transmitted

are

the

far

of

producer

radio

Beragoda,

of

services

how

section,

men

the

monks,

from

come

the

itself

famous

as

People
of

What

such

people'

and

Kodaoda.

nearby

with

he
such

with
by

the

charge.
the

local

temple

for

64

many

years

existence
village

names

instances

cakes

was

and

ramba
for

responsible
Likewise,
temple
having

Mah

Rgja

of

vestiges
The

was

arrangements
both

of

land

received

said

to

badly

irrigated

lands

upon

lands

paddy
and
the

which

land

higher

was

point
are

the

'original

acres

and

consisted

and

higher

for

plots*
higher

The

and

wild

were

brought

used

lands

small

built

were

eventually

however.

of

Once

has
some

(deniya).

houses

considerable-clearing.

needed

six

quality

first

at

under

consisted

poor

court.

passed.

(liyLdda)

lands

The

(gouda).

is.

since

been

have

the
today

These,

long

once

was

to

that

status.

as

meaning

p-u

there

patronage.

an

paddy

of

food

some

such

provided,

and

exists

order

of

piece

which

Vingra

royal

received

merely

town

in

and

from

of

Many

area.

bananas,

provision

small

once

derived

meaning
the

the

be

to

the

existence

they

services

said

its

to

point
the

which

in

the

to

testify

to

remains

sub-section

still

suggest

Porambe,

this

court

of

little

today

but

control.

under

tea'and

growing

cinnamon.

The
lived

and

Divelagoda.
Alternatively,
as

the

MaduracCari
the

plot

first

of

land

upon

known

worked

was

meaning

garden

the

plot

Maduraccarige
people,
inhabitant.

vatta,,
after
Today,

the
this

as

it

the

family

his

Divelavatta

received

ground

known,

and

the

as

or
was

Jimise

which

still

or
in

wages.

is

todaye

Garden

vsagama

name

section

of

of
of
the

Jimise.
village

the

is

recognised
The

distinct.

as
fate

the

of

is

nineteenth-century
informants'

back

1832
original

by

Goyigama

Berav

deception

though

Even

important
in

to

pull

Doyigama

or

else

sold

kindly

too

by

to

migrants

settled

Maduraccarige
the

onto

subsequently

these

small
the

garden

the

crystallising
identifying

During

surrounding

able

to

plots

under

land

of

caste

the

nineteenth

the

an

activity

proper.

The
plot

was

an

important
the

of

and

implemented
The

1870.

of

new

to

rights'
ent5

Ordinance

rights

original

original

arran&

The

village

'squatters'

claim

development
with

of

Beragoda

lands

Tenures

the

the

which

Beragoda.

outside
focus

became

Service

legitimation

plots

who

and

patterns
In

Jimise

the

shifting
which

area

kinship

of
on

plot.

occupied

settlers

arrival

Those

kinsmen

close

to

provided

coast.

were

according
the

the

divided

it

century

from

Jimise

of

became

vatta

nineteenth

migrants

footsteps

the

prior

new

the

developed

existed

in

either

to

none

large

A
was

encroachment

Maduraccrige

during

community

were

the

diminished

came

of

commuted.

lost

remembered

from

abolition

however

acres

early

generations.

present

an

the

were

or

the
appears

following

landlords,

and

It

clear.

six

predecessors

in

vatta

portions

the

through

neighbours
by

from
that,

in

of

proportion
taken

far

statements
tenures

service

Maduraccrige

step

in
by

community

residence.

century

there

emerged

six

key

66

family

identifiable

grouping

names

to

and

gedara)

around

clusters

certain

The

have

(A.

once

chose

to

leave

(U.

Ganitage

Uruvitiya

to

came

be

as

Ahangama
(M. A.,

but

S. G. );
this

shortly
Maduraccri

Nkatige

Mragoda

and

caste

(B.

-original

G. )

this
family

its

of

revealed

the

(K.

Ganitage

the

Ganitagg
be

by

vsagama

follows:

as

account

on

will

adopted

Kurumbera

people);

the

of

Singrakkra

G.,

residential

ntkatig

out

Baddevatta

each

(mula

houses

Adderavattage

word

initial

this

family

are

Mirissa
the

contained

connotations);

title

names

S. );

vsagama

patrilineal

with

vsagama

six

their

six

grown

associated

Singrakkrage
title

by

extent

which

closely

names.

through

(M. N. ).
The

relationships

family

groupings

indicate

the

M. A.
of

to-

Mirissa

and

Panikkale

arrived

in

century.
the

example,

the

village

came

to

(A2),

the

Beragoda
Likewise.
find

village

co-operation

and

ensured

that

villages

up

their

close
to

the

high

M. A.

Disiyame

Beragoda

present

to

first
the
the

of

genesis

have
day.

of

persisted
'

town

daughter

the

the

of

Disiyame
the

nineteenth
families

coast.

inter-relatedness

of,

first

coastal

migrant.

along

each

original

established

other

the

the

the

marry

middle

in

the

(B6),

A. S.

six

names

which

in

born

was

these

part

vsagama

from

degree
ties

The

area

around
most

in

156.

page
or

For

migrant

A. S.

in

village

came.

migrant

on

between

illustrated

are

diagram

genealogical

developed

which

Close
have

with

coastal

67

families

The
them

with

that

new

skills

descendants

to

later

came

drummers

the

to

Despite
back

fall

the

to

grandfather

of

the

Maduraccri

people

(mti

houses
their

support

Even

services.

today

change

of

vsagama

houses

on

the

thatch

and

their

which.

with

the

carried

an

the
name,

the

within

community.

examination
out

within

of
the

the
village.

of

despite

The

still

activities

of

those

who

have

temple,

various

the

are
next

occupations

section

and

mud

out

In

status.

carry

local

the

lower
are

to

provision

Jimise,

in

fished

and
the

as

lived

still

exception
with

the
and

They

vatta

occupants

'Veddahs',

hunted

retain

via

Lanka,

of

on

informants

my

as

descendants

looked

via
of

from

Maduraccgrige

ties

occupational

income

base

later

came

Sri

and

artists

agricultural

people'.

geval)
meagre

any

who

astrologers
and

one

of

'bad-smelling

the

Those

and

status

The

'gandakray',

to

low

as

provision

temple.

who

hunter-gatherers

aboriginal

marginal

of

families

settlers

themselves.

mud

absence

the

upon.

original

referred

the

the

(tovilkarayo)

dancers

(sitare).

musicians.

in

(Xdur)

his

and

temple

local

the

and

brought

area

Jimise

and

exorcists

(naksstrakriy),

the

engaged

court

were

to

activities.

hevisikray.

and

services

Jimise

and

were

davulkray
of

followed

kept

considered
I

turn

currently

88

2.3

Present
In

of

day

Beragoda

specialists,

with

together

descent

and

caste

and

types

of

is

village

are

In

other

most

that

that

over

of

which

the

to
by

community

case

of

affiliation

underscored

of

men

the

engage,
traditional

where

in

38

the

ritual

area
For

in

ward

Mtara,

households,

specialists;

in

is

in

example,

his

(1981:

in

an

survey
found

32)

three

ony

were

drummer,

the

involved

number

Hodge

in

men

activities.

ritual
the

little

so

or

there
a

traditional

perhaps

sixty

traditional

less.

much

Beravg

the

of

with

villages

involved

Beragoda
third

associated

is

of

full-time

an

numbers

Gabardavidiya
out

the

concerned,

activities
the

men

ties

of

powerfully

the

all

involved.

is
in

inter-weaving

which

the

as

unusual

complex

by

side

labourers,

manual

identity

dancers,

live

exorcists
and

is

array

Drummers,

masons

The

impressive

an

otherwise.

particularly

are

far

the

found

and

brings
in

be

to

artists

alliance.

occupations

of

and

by

work

occupations

such

ritual

kindred

this

As

are

carpenters,

brought

and

today

temple

mask-makers,
side

occupations

and

astrologer

exorcist.
Within

Beragoda
is

categorisation
undertaken
regular

on
or

occupations

the

'one

Furthermore,

question

from

straightforward.

basis

of
basis,

off'
it

to

far

the

is

dovetail

in

or
or

corporately

a single

occupation

for

several

individual

be

may

contract,
by

its

and
Work

wage-labour

unusual

not

of

on

individuals.
and

skills

to

form

an

.;

Integrated
The

very

employment

were
in

'waiting

'Job'

is

invariably

takes

factories
eleven

about

family

men

from

crisis

who

local

economy

claim

to
the

unemployed.

low

social

response

to

stable

and

interspersed
A

the

parents
the

the
(see

periods
periods

in

diverse

which

placed

on

many

of

Their

labour

fact.

several

4).

combat

other
kin

of

the

mostly

their
is

related
in

networks

Patronage

is

activity

forc4qd

to

be,

acknowledgement

intense

strategy

in

an

activation

of

of

financial.

more

and

of

times

participate
may

of

Chapter

the

from

and
and

work,

fact

is

Beragoda

such

away

Year

were

in

they

statement

periods

kinsmen.

villaze

busy

in

work

New

which

There

gifts

and

evaluation

demand

way

who

at

innav).

lone

engaged

he

that

cities.

occasions

in

the

village

such

within

possible
in

the

for

village

in

This

than

with

the

of

busiest

labour

wage

stable

home

through

communities

mean

however

and

from

ntuva

outlets

by

be

recruited

(raksvak

out

remain

rather

pursuits

job'

return

expected

Those

complain

Those

on

the

of

frequently

met.

never

and

are

support

seen

labour

typically

village

of

men

and

whom

of

some

to

claim

would

would
a

taken

one

in

living

men

occupations

even

village
without

here

their

about

their

about

Most

unemployed:

the

men

questionint
difficult.

asked

they

was

of
proved

when

exorcists

to

act

often

Berazoda
that

complex.

economic

from

far

often

are

redundancy.
such
skills

uncertainty
are

often

can
found

be
in

90

individual*

a single
possibility
was

of

in

sitting
considerable

exchanged

if

there
top

work

exorcist

was
It

brief

undergone

going

later

respective

up

his

There

as

temple

he

that

transpired

his

with

and

uncle.

working

apprenticeship

tovil

with

karadarayak)

with

suddenly

temple

greetings

their

(mah

was
of

warm

fed

was

friend

after
in

trouble

assistant.

artist's

and

he

flexibility

uncle,

business

great
any

exorcist
His

claimed

young

shop

about

was

my

and

was,

the

exorcist

was

which

the

men

whilst

occasion

renown.

enter

chat

The

fields.

asked

with

Such

one

on

and
to

chanced

artist,

work

home

skill

some

flexibility.

tea-shop

for

providing

occupational

brought

clearly

they

thus

in

uncle

had

his

youth.
Not

all

lay

to

feel

the

Berav

to

from

off

they

be

the
of

back

into
The
part

supply,

periodic

it.
has
(or

regular.

move

is

-are

Varying

supply

always

for
it

made

the

way,

is,

that
it

services

is

there
between

flow

and

very

which

for

necessary

it

having

when

services

instances

many

able

another

up

irregular)'ebb
In

traditional

take

be

to

enough

and
demand

rather

one

fortunate

occupation

services.

arena

in

one

like

different
that

however.

men.

appear

would

of

out

moved
difficult

to

the
move

it.
movement

between

different

in

nature

of

the

which

and

are*

in

seasonal

the

as

ritual

with

the

types

sphere,

on

ritual,

is

occupation
Berav

the

which

gervices

temple

of

the

and

one

on

hand

the

c-

other.

spontaneous

the

community

most,

work
The

is

some

of

source

placed

on

the

could

which

maintenance

amounts

source

of

it.

traditional

towards

their

high

are

within
visiting

lowly

is

uncertainty
those

amongst
is

which

is

premium

spent

same

Resentment

activities

both

of

source

time

bitterness

experience

regularly

people

most

relationships

this

great

for
A

of

for

work,

erratic.
work

social

Alternatively

socialising.
the

of

vast

and

was

mobility.

and

of

supply

surrounds

freedom

of

community

also

income

specialists

prominent

steady

healing

with

as

more
a

consequently

and

the

the

ensure

uncertainty

and

unpredictablet

Although

rituals.
in

and

expressed

often

economic

and

status

the

as

seen

are

who

precariousness.
Ambivalence

towards

impression

The

Men

must

the

often

are

however

our

of

the

traditions

in

place
that
then

we

we

know

is
and

society.,
power
have

an
might

no

place

be

be:
and

no

in

we

are

what

do

and

this

and
if

menial

engaged

we

identity

exploit

lowly,

clear:
what

between.

and

Berav

most

paradox

far

and

may

In

arose.

upon

they

all

be

would

alternative
few

them.

with

occupations

back

For

what

ambiguous

an

fall

activities
because

of

are

for

involved

such

alternatives

stigmatised.

us

gives

chance

occupations

traditional

our

if

is

occupations

closely

that

necessarily

traditional
and

most

was

however,

reality*

those

given

forsaken

gladly

we

by

even

expressed

traditional

we
power,

power,

relinquish
we

must

take

our

chances

For

one

of

He

made.
threatened
drum.

The

might

become,
For

had

refused

to

scold

logic
he

if

was

clear:

would

not

difficult.

most

of

classification

men

make

they

associate

one

another

what

they

spend

in

identity

are
In

of
in

below

the

occupational
Beragoda:

the

men

is

given

so

doing.

life

his

son

definitive

and

occupation

in

much

on

what

but

on

the

profession
best

and

like

rather

short,
are

table

do

they

men

Beragoda

of

what

another,

In

father's

professions

not

what

for.

general,

the
by

pigeon-holed
and

social

inter-related.

closely
table

based

one

his

certain

time

association,

occupational

of

with,

in

above

with

of

near

had

and

drummer.

are

drum

else

cited

their

trained

are

system

caste

become

associated
figures

people

went

whatever

However.

theeumbers

village.

he

been

already

to

son

occupations

These

the

his

ever

reasons
the

had

choice

teach

him

of

showing

the
to

various

be

rest.

friends

my

classification
would

the

with

below

are

specialisation

given

the

five

amongst

major
the

categories

Berav

living

93

Table

1.

Occupations

carried

in

out

Numbers

Occupations
1.

Berasroda

(berakray

Drummers

associated
5

and

hevisikray)
2.

(Adur

Exorcists/dancers

mantrakray)

ntumkray,
3.

Temple

11

(sitare

artists

and

citrakray)
(mesonkrayo)

4.

Masons

5.

Carpenters

6.

Others

12

(vaduve)
-

resident

10

non-resident

11

60

Total

In

following

the

from

specialisation

Drummer

2.4

The
J. P.
in

the

and

premier

Gomez
village

services

(E9),

brief

give

entail

representatives

of

sketches

section

these

of

each

what

brief

and
these

of

of

outline.
character

of

categories

Beragoda.

drumming
drummer
a
since

in

veritable
his

Beraggda

at

workhorse
birth

in

1927.

the
of

a
For

present

is

man,

resident

many

years

one

he

has

worked

related
considerable
as

His

father

and

town

coastal
leaving

him

and

reliability

with

performing

after

his

land

from

earned

consistency

man
He

i, t

was

discovered

to

the

incorrect

and

thus

solving

house

the

in

drummer
at

and

mm.

Hinniye,

until

three

of

as

second
a

his

if

it

three

an

astrologer

until

years

built

on
in

lived

according
kinsman.

literally

he

of

fortune

the
On

point.
pulled

the

'fire
the
house

different-orientation

slightly

of

and

been

astrologer

in

1958

years
Plot

small
his

seek

had

katura,

gini

for

upset

inauspicious

as

of

Beragoda

bought
to

house

the

problem

looks

skills

accomplished
in

he

house
and

it

rebuilt

an

Hinniye

Beragoda

highly
of

brought

and
the

M. N.

education.

his

when

the

on

him

figures

prescriptions

recommendation
down

was

his

that

cross'.

Gomez

1955

-built

lay

house

general

old,

year

(mm).

Gomez

teaching

his

disruption

total

one

the

to

village.

left

who

Beragoda

was

of

charge

with

in

marriage

of

His

the

from

brother

displaced

resident

coast.

state

he

in

He remained

Gomez

major

fifteen

drummer

best

the

ten.
all'the

of

age

when

son.
for

of

age

away

took

providing

the

moved

mother's

adoptive

an

and

At

the

Hinniye

as

drummer

his

with

(D14).
up

mother

Mirissa

of

Gomez

Hinniye

The

his

for

respect

has

and

capacities,

various

and

drummer.

the

in

villages

Beragoda

from

performers

of

groups

with

domestic

never

strife.

quite

recovered

from

95
0

this

rebuilding,

cadjan

roof

and

shares

the

house*

G. S.

with
Gomez.

The

exorcism

that

as

gets

the

little

can

slice

when

wife

and

precarious

the

reason

why

eventually

persuaded

to

give

one

betel

leaves.
For
forty

His

hands

of

pounding

to

returned

Gomez,

now

years
are.

taxi

stunted
the

leather.

and

into

beating
and

now

dram

from

calloused
His

are

legs,

explain

but
by
in

were
their
Mtara

seller

of

signs

of

the

and

up

grown

other

beginning
the

meagre

may

home

natal

fifties,

his

in
in

vocation

the

one

11.50

Beragoda.

this

mother's

driver

well

of

the

on

such

attitude

up

as

often

involvement

offer

in

always

payment,

rupees

sons,

dancers

out

points

(about

latter

Gomez's

She

Although

yet

and
her

as-he

his

demanding

dark

work.

deeply

as

became

where

50

earn

This

both

to

comes

trained

Both

mother.

so

at

expresses

development

nights

did

the

drummer.

no

it

income.

were

married.

are

of

working

often

be

resents

which

activities

of

as

there

his

1979)

effectively

outside

lot

drummer

Gomez

quite
nights

house,

for

friend

and

the

his

recently

occasion

seen

with

rupees

wife,

like.

the

rarely

his

lifelong

works

days

Gomez

walls.

rumoured,
and

trois

decaying

and

stick

widower

for

of

ten

and

mockingly

and

smallest
as

away

wife,

displeasure

over

often

interior

smokey

is

menage

ceremonies

Gomez's

it

and.

gentle

dilapidated

mud

(D4),

is

half

uncertain

Pelts

Gomez

as

its

with

endless

disproportionately

to

tell.
hours

96

thin

his

against

rheumatism
hours
beat.

He

Lately,

he

using

mantra

so

however,

has

demanding

essential

into

i.

Public

In

the

various

drums

(panca

instruments

otherwise
a

long

at
yet

Following

the

divide

the

spheres.

offering

services

of

known

be
as
drum

as

hevisikrayo

the
the

temple.
'Five

the

play

The
Musical

South

these

five

two-eyed

drum

(dek&s

the
the

(poya)

who

at

its

accompany

full-moon

musicians

In

ndiya).

cylindrical

on

to

in

drummers

when

referred

to

an

is

heading

as

of

essential

an

drumming

instruments

are

taken

is
this

the

wind

play

are

rituals

can

private

offerings.

band

triya
are

beraya)
beraya,

and

far

that

Under

as

their

small

they

instruments
Forms'

of

occasions

required,

income

ritual.

pjva),

such

we

drumming

sphere

making
On

1,
the

healing

drummin

performance

worshippers

remunerated?

and

labour.
of

drummer

Sinhalese

Chapter

to

drumming.

of

all

Buddhist

most

that

his

of

source

virtually

public

(sabda

right

the

public

the

included

vada)

and

order

works

small

of

in

the

in

services

ceremonial

at

out

and

outlined

requisite

are

at

carry

than

recognised

poorly

days.

the

in

floor

the

continues

to

beating

and

standing

from

painful

are

chest,

on

(durukam

are

activities

own

begun

and

of

still,

convention

2.4.

hours

cross-legged

what

so

once

back

sitting

physically
So

by

caused
of

less

broad

the
played

devil-drum
with

yak

or
both

hands;

D7

beraya,

davul

the

hand

one

drums

separate

the

finally,

and

to

used

cymbals

beat
the

exception

of

maintained

by

members
(D14]

him).

for

beraya

of

They

Buddhafttained

when

at

required
keeping

In

in

Chapter

at

weddings

openings

and

investitures.

in,

temples
deva

and

both
the

pj),

further

objects

(dhtu)

are

temple

(prahra).

music

Along
regularly

with

services

chanting

of

to

were

the

as
local

organised

drumzer

temples.

as

about

dos

requested

to

formal

offerings
pinkama

(pirit)
relics

sacred
of

the

Gomez

has

in

the

provision

At

one

time

service

and

and
out

kinsmen,

as

such

(a,

procession

his

of

davasa).

of

gods

when

played

consequently

be

scriptures

in

several

been

ideas
also

as

davul

miniature

making

required
taken

how,

celebrations

the
and

participated

these/services

public

the
and

(magul

may

brass

with

are

the

and

Buddha

two

of

have

and

accompany

is

their

a
to

drummers
and

musicians
to

constructed

idea

with

recalled

celebration

It

perform

Nevisi

had

believed

this

with

developed

caste

auspicious

two

constructed

(Gomez

the

are

pair

all

are

enlightenment

any

instruments,

These

cymbals,

Hinniye

child,

[2]

time.

of

instrument

wind

Cana,

or

beaten

shrill

talam

the

other:

and

side

horanKva,
kai

the

with

consistin

by

side

played

the

instrument

tied

sticks;

curled

in

held

stick

peculiar

drum

cylindrical

short

and

tammttama,

tenure

of
these

system

)b

as

described

this

aspect

in

Chapter

1,

of

the

drummer's

increasingly

informal

Beragoda's
had

been

organisation
which,

on

fifteen

drummers.

temple

against

expenditure

drums

behest

the

at

people,

often

actions,

complained
but

tradition.

The

been

the

that

to

sound
As

in

as

who

then

instructed

led

to

demise

of

Such
a

loss

drumming

the
for

example

in

and
a

used
in

used

ones

cymbals

are

white

cloth,

given

the

to

journey

its

on

also

are

musician

instruments

the

bera

yak

the

temple,

absent
thus

this

on

and

the

muffling

solemnity.
expected,

of

which

were
made

only

procession
The

same

be

amongst

popular

personally

ear'.

hevisi

funeral

maintain

(kills)

era

sabh)

had

to

up

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of

(pada)

the

wrapped

might

the

rhythms

the
is

tammttama

for

'by

not

heralded

temples,

them

play

drummer,

ground.

are

priests
to

of

cremation

except

lowest

local

local

(dyaka
He

the

for

years

passing

his

of

most

responsible
the

of

lost.

lead

to

occasion

nature

of

also

services

required

the

drummers.

Certain
already

the

on

the

for

committees

children,

business

have

lay

Another

several

was

laments

now

through

earlier
to

meanthe
He

that

his

services

days

poya

claiming

of

temple

of

organised

drummer
in

responsible

however,

patronage.

of

temple

Nowadays,
is

work

networks

drummers,

life,

A.

Section

the

drummers
they

this

corpse,
and
might

is
engage.

highly

polluting

activity

is

considered

one
One

not
of

informant

the

(
s
WJ

sidestepped

the

by

that

saying

as

(sangha)

who

mark

role

drumming

their

solely

provided

their

of

quetion

be

is

occasions

such
for

respect

of

should

on

drummers

funerary

as

the

priesthood

in

represented

funeral

the

procession.
Finally,

dedicated

rituals

to

these

of

categories
a

drumming

public

Bge.

to

intended

protect

by

pestilence

to

appeal

Maduva

etc.

the
all

the

community

the

gods

behalf

Gam

of

Maduva,

which

are

famine

and

of
from

and

numerous

on

include

in

upon

are

performed

rituals

Devol

called

There

gods.
mostly

These

Devol

Vhalla.

the

rituals,

village.

whole

are

services

the

particularly

Pattini.

goddess
These

rituals
of

category
from

the

with

the

the

becomes

to

provide

occasion

At

performance.
in

relationships

of

provide

confined

some

the

their

drummers

drummers

to

drumming

although

dancers

to

augment

the

the

propitiation

of

areas,

drummers

with

to

solely

however,

particular

it

responsibility

such

time*

called.

are

In

no

Kapu

the

they

whose

of

group

dealings

for
rituals

as

drawn

are

who

responsible

are

Mahattay.

Pattini

requirements.
is

In

and

by

organised

and

kapurgla

as

organising

services

organiser's

directly

castes

gods.

over

known

In

or

request

presided

specialists
higher

Mahattay

Berav

are

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rituals

do

the

meet
role

do

they
scale

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of

of

on
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participate

gods.
have
kapurla,

long-standing
with

ties

: 0

extending

back
from

associations
in

that

over

field.

skills

in

traditions

specialisation
of

becoming

as

their

the
few

the

form
fee

overall

organisers'

the

between

all

rupees

can

but

for

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rituals

can

be

in

services
which

can

who

such
the

play

are

pada)

gahanna

kapurla

for

services

of

cut

is

shared

fee

which

participants.

be

major

know

the

context

for

expected

occasions

such

follow,

which

an
as

two

or

taken

ten

ordinary

to

Dondra

three

rank

fifteen

or

ceremony

village

the

the

of

out

according
of

such

at

rendered

and

prahra

times

this

amount

earned.

Whilst
degree

there

are

of

or

drummers

most

the

patron
are

of

requirements

drummers

in

of
processions

this

have

fixed
return

for
in

point
(prah1ra)

to
can

maintain

to

response

held

seen

in

in

the

Colombo

the
the

larger

recruited.
be

perks,

and

the

be

with

payment

occasions,
likely

to

managed
relationships

recruited

particular
kinsmen

more

who

in

stability

temple

certain

religious

rituals
who

of

one

specialised
such

(deviyanta

those

as

provide

Those

exercised.

received

takes

illustration

the

are

as

gods

payment

rituals

event

be

is

to

is

given

rituals
able

communities'

application.

The

fewer.

can

rhythms

impression

those

excelled

the

of

aspects

village

with
and

many

such

particularly

never

the
at

itself
fewer

getting

of

so

Drumming

field

but

Like

and

demise.

generations.

Hinniye

'inherited'

Gomez

good
major
and

101

Kandy

by

from

drummers

these

their

occasions,

most

of

beg,

recruit

Galle

from

two

to

up

On

area.
would

provide

in

involved

generally
borrow

or

steal

was

who
of

informants

not

this

South

surrounding

main

others

would

activities,

the

organisation
the

my

often
In

man

the

from

whilst

services.

such

for

kinsmen

of

by

co-ordinated

responsible

festivals

island.

the

over

his

hundred

to

be

to

These

temples.

all
was

recruitment
said

big

the

in

drums

order

participate.

2.4.

Private

ii.

Turning

to

now

in

healing

contexts

the

same

ceremony.

the

drummer's

main

source

other

occasions

is

exorcism
these

continues

which

the

given

above

is

provide

almost

drummer

are

his

services

in

be

to

one

(berakray)

example,

they

from
the

at
works

regularly

should

from

exorcism

the

likely

quite

derived

kinsmen
to

provides

-services

of

realm
of

drummer
for

income

with

is

Gomez

roles
of

who

above
as

the

SErvices

drummer

of

sphere

into

move

the

outlined
person

exorcism

private

we

which
The

indispensable.
the

the

drumming

with

connected
and

drumming

ritual

the

arise

His

thunderous

throughout

the

an
in
his
of

performance

village.

the

but

and

role

on

accompaniment
'entire

night's

performance.
In
powerful
South.

the

ceremonies

such
yak

Throughout

beraya.

the
the

ritual

%t.

Lnstrument

only
demon
it

used

drum,
is

the

peculiar
job

of

between

is

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to

the
one

four

and
Each

drummers
is

ritual

and

it

his

mastery

is

the

often
of

which

beat

which

In

for

example

in

of

in

rhythm

the

different

the

role

of

of
their

role
to

are
are

to

have

a
that
and

wit

the

doubt

to

to

the

of

their
No

fine

as

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their

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included

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by

practisef

co-operation
ritual

by

'gurunnnse'

serves
a

and

guise

entertainers-E31

their

drummer

'teacher'

for

drummers

(see

the

the
as

as

exorcism

which

The

role

many

actors,

reverently

or
in

the

episode

addressed

dancer

humour

heading

the

masked

episodes,

reputations

general

and

activities

t4]

hours

eighteen

sanniya

these

their

deprivations

this

without
castes.

as

Exorcists
Under

in

develop

and

perceptions

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between

is

ata

is

parcel

and

the

changes

the

Ogurunngnse'

usually
It

and
and

through

direct.
of

with

man',

as
is

drummers

hardship

2.5

'straight

of

who

audacity

part

Dah

the

demon.

crazed

to

in

dialogue

comic

mockingly
guy'

rhythms

to

it

In

role

somewhat

particular

twelve

shifts

ritual

II).

plays

many

of

in

engage

the

'fall

bring

the

kinds

to

Appendix

from

dancers.

rituals.

certain

drummer

the

development

take

drummers

own

drummer

the

signal

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its

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of

may

The

of

phases

role

for

rhythms

by

rhythm.

complete.

and

the

provide

characterised

performance,
to

to

of
services

the
the

specialists
of

exorcism

wide

Berav
from
and

range
alone
other
healing,

h.

C",

103

The

arise.

the

the

agents

lower

of

(yaksa),
The

beings,

these

illness

to

exorcist
intrusions

as

various

in

successful

of

man

the

of

effects
in

themselves
by

adopted

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supernatural
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by

cheek
As

nightmares.
bring
image

if

in

Suniyam
the

month

He

on

be
with

his

brothers,

his

right

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himself

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as

his

wall.
a

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-is

short

god

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hair

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has

he.

a
In

confidence-

from

lifetime

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standardised
worlds

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performances

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Suniyam
and

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of

on

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society's

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expected

Leeson

M. A.

length

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of

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together
of

half

each

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with

exhibits-many
which

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category

village.

head

tiger's

cunning

spends

demons

(kumbhnda).

devils

agents

1945

the

Like

teeth.

character

must

in

scrawny

crumpled

in

Beragoda

exceedingly

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the

populate

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this

of

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tattoo

primarily

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strategies

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as

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manifest

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born

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Our
(Ell)

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The

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Sinhalese

the

of

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His

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(D2)

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would

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as

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and

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on

eat

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cast

Leeson

were
off

very

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father

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bicycle

father

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was

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K. G.

to

he

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his

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ceremonies.

night

tobacco

with

not

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of

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earlier

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take

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caught

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by

the

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he

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Leeson

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as

rituals

work.

father

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to

of

with

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sorcery.

has

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goes

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village
character

fiShter

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in

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, t J

lead

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Wiltin's

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bgri

ekken).

first

class

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Leeson

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as

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father

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from

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of

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alcohol
both

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of

ahead

In

exorcist

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1971

nobody
him

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(hadanna
into

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Bandu,
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following

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him

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the

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without

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characters

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local

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one-legged

much

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artful

invariably

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the

insurgency,

from

and

with
to

both

still

Indian

whom

to

thirteen

of

age
handbag

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performer

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less

charming

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man

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full-time

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teacher's

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kinsmen
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by

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teacher.

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he

eventually
old

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ostracised

outbursts

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respect

outspoken
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being

violent

apprenticeship.
and

him

to

step

106

posed

threat

serious

performers

because

atherines.

Leeson

in

room

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in

business

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treatment

by

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horoscopes,
he

says

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up

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Gedera

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etc.

could

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After

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years

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Prom

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Beragoda

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parents

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end
marriage

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to

village
Leeson

still

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gedera),

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money

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In

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cards.

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[dur]

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the

as

business

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livelihood

Colombo.

conditions.

supernatural
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in

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at

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the

village
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house

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basic
A

versatility.

of

these

and

are

often

and

construction
with

often
if

does

he

the

needs

all

cement

the

and

such

are

lime,

artist,

himself,

skills

house

etc.

sand,

the

as

even

materials,

temple

and

meeting
and

temples

of

these

employ

impressive

medium

and

walls

toilets

and

question

such

(pansal)

kitchens

the

maintenance

priest's

residences

the

buildings

raduva).

as

out

carried
brick.

their

in

decorative

temple

(bana

hall

example.

largely

The

(dg&ba);

Berav

the

stages

is

etc.

due

part

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skills.

stupas

for

final

the

stupas

building

in

occupations.

from

apart

work,

have

works

their

of

is

respect

building

other

art

latter

this

which

overlap

temple

of

in

importance

not

of

services
from

recruited

amongst

kinsmen.
Masonry
is

contexts,
of

Many

masons

houses
Paths'.
little

within

the

This
known

particular
or

little

Pda

religious
to

another

the

and

that

caste

knowledge
of

of,

Bdima
branch
used

in

and
'The

or

important
is

astrology.

or

at'least

astrology

location

domestic

and

connected

branch

design,
as

the

that

auspicious
known

have

to

claim
with,

familiarity

both

furthermore

interest

area

with

in

work,

a
deals

which
construction

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of
the

of

I
of
other

astrology
parts

of

seems

to

the

island

be

but

is

still

quite

housebuildin
where

in
failure

bIdTma

different

South.

to

follow

the

in

position

Our

or

the

elder
in

Beragoda

10

between

brother

of

M. A.

1934

and

Simon

should

father,

but,

brains

for

second

to

on

20

Rs.

slightly

of

the

own

Today

he

working

contracts

craft

admission,

happily

of

exorcism

he

never

from

role

(Ell)

Leeson

the

had

acknowledges

brother

younger

the

brother.

youngest

small

born

was

around

works
his

Simon

day.

his

M. A.

Simon

Leeson.

with

learned

on

his

pulling
a

is

category

variety

have

it.

in

them

currently

village

and

later

orientation.
this

take

they

Together

pada

of

people

build

of

the

of

vicinity

cases

several

of

to

comes

prescriptions
in

to

order

knew

even

resulted

representative

(E1O),

his

the

had

houses

their

for

common

initially

down

in

it

when

consideration

described

above.
in

Even

the

achieve
bas

of

one

with

work

following

was

content
stay
Simon's

Pormin

that
house

another

Simon

a
lot

simple
and

to

house
was

artisan,
desirous

to
title

the

This

lack
in

advantage

repair

unable

by

signified

turned
as

his

he

artisan'.

invariably

with

claims

craftsman,

'venerable

himself

of

projection

in

apprenticeship

uncles,
of

or

achievement

should

his

status

unhl

labour,

an

of

Simon's

happy

in

that

things

his

way.
-stands
element

adjacent
in

the

to
Mirissa

the

family
Adderavattae

house

119

patrilineal

He

cluster.

lives

his

with

wife

two

and

children.

2.9

Carpenters

and

Although

Navandann

For

castes.

the

all

teacher,

other

an

those

have

achieved

Tedaris

(E6)

who

skills

its

involves

recognition

to

given

able

as

acceptance

and

various
is

Vaduve

appellation

right.

through

ascent

and

own

carpentry

the

and
The

ability.

of

stages

apprenticeship

important

an

in

all

of

building

discussed,

skills

people

provides

occupation

and

carpentry

by

other

specialist

sub-caste

particular

Vaduvg,

it

complementing

practised

Berav

the

as

practised

of
the

nowadays

skill

subsidiary

preserve
called

is

wood-working

Like

the

once

the

of

carpentry

carpenters.
A. S.
of

Beragoda"s

the

five
in

village
(see

dancer
the

161

By

as
He

Colombo.
wage

was

75

they

he
engage

after

embarked

in

the

of
to

apprenticeship

24

he

had

construction

good

of

his

sons,
Working

well.
of

that

pence

door-posts,

of

suburb

incredulity
2

his
years

marry
a

a
at

completed

Piliyandala,

one
very

in

as

career

an

spend

out
born

was

on

certain

with

-works

He

abortive

(approximately

day

works

claims
in

on

with
a

an

age'

carpenter

cents
he

he

went

recalled

Nowadays
which

and.

finest

the

carpenters.

the

and

apprenticeship
working

1920

be

to

acknowledged

professional

page

age-of'=19.

is

in

his

1979).

relationship
from

Beragoda
windows.

11
.

tables,

beds

etc.

Despite

his

manifestly
and

his

is

difficult

seven
to

is

home

children

imagine

who

ever

never

of

Other

and

the

and

one

son,

four,

other

three

elsewhere.
was

was

of

doubt

consequence'no

and

up

so'difficult

up

Tedarl$

of

toil

not

work

direct

the

under
to

are

man
a

of

hardship.

personal

all

those

natureAmongst

or

the

specific

men

who
who

are
these

for

in
do

not

derive

the

occupations

most

can

I
in

participate

may
part

requests

category

their

which

between

to
this

some

at

in

response

is

It

have

fill

However,

occupations,

but

in

of

range

above.

village
to

else

but

occupations

non-caste

in

kinsmen.

to

primarily

to

'other

of

wide

referred

men

work

from

the

occupations,

plentiful

assistance

those

heading

vague

included

be

'other'-

in

of

rather

than
that

traditional

manual.

home,

brought

wife

crown

all

natal

live

relentless

engaged

refer

the

smiled,

possible

periods

now

all

other

quite

have

It

hut.

cadjan

perhaps,

faded

and

occupations

activities

skilled--

in

died.

and

his

and

but,

them

worn

mud

he

how

house

of

always

roomed

recollection

occupations'

from

the

over-riding

Finally,

for

in

a daughter

lifetime

time

imagine

remains

and

2.10

to

children

carpenter

My

one

is

Tedaris

carpenter.

are

clothes

tiny

two

why

Tedaris"

sons

His

poor.

as

recognition

1\elihood
be

and

unskilled
be

of

included

lei

labouring

for

irrigation
as

items

small

of

is

partially

in

staff

and

rest-houses.
for

traditional

arena
labour

wage

seeking

become
in

earning

the

the

problem

bigger

cities
kitchen

and

it

to

living

a
the'

down,

such
growing

This

Suffice

diverse

coconut
in

to

waiters

as

such
of

and

villages.

narrowed

goods

engaged

to

and

manufacture

add

drift

the

employment

possibilities

not

and

seeking

hotels

the-

as

by

cheap

(bids)

category
towns

solved

men

young

of

in

unemployed

numbers

When

this

councils

based

cheroots

etc.
in

workers

occupations

only

native

handiya)

of

home

and
as

such

(pol

spoons

trinkets,

and

as

vending

pavement

schemes,

sweets

such

agencies,

government

say

that

in

the
of

number

men

occupations

non-traditional

grows.

Conclusion

2.11

first

The-

two

introduction

to

the

have

the

Berav

examined

of

Sinhalese

by

of

historye
together

community
of

this

the
But

community
as

well

the

dense
and
carry
as

of

networks
thirdly

the

social

by

as

of

kinship

the

by

also

community,

work

I
their

of

and

have

general

particularly

category

,I

Berav

More

perspective

social

perception.
of

--

the

and-some

description

its

from

provided

-.caste.

as

society

underpinnings
general

Beravg

perception

classificatory

have

chapters

the

rest

historical
provided

oriented

which

tie

the

which

members

out.
providing

general

introduction,

the

first

two

specific

areas

the

of

chapters

focus

the

in

who,

but

more

ritual

sphere.

specialists

are

they
of

sphere

be

recite

their

their

is

identity

is

It

activities,

services

ritual

those

the

of

traditional
it

is

specialists

when

my

contention

and

the

core

-or
in

of

an

about

understanding

no

with

the

Beravs

as

considerable

to

operate

they
-identity

interplay

wider
a

outside

the

behaviour,

are
and
or

social
for

traditional

provide

of

ambiguity

inter-caste

the

these

persistence

for

now

the

though

connected
and

the

and

Even

way

the

come

the

caste

BeravZ.

that

caste

afflicted,

is

services

or

the

who
it

drum,

cure

of

arena-

beats

to

accounts

caste

activity

or

which

Berav

least

and

exorcism,

the

there

the

an

performance

Inevitably,

category.

in

in

the

perception

classificatory

but

masks

in

are

Chapter

is

occupational
man

made
of

caste

majority--of-the

and

formulae

secret

occupational

Crucial

costumes

It

clearest

and

the

caste,

for

the

Beravg

in
the

minority;

caste

in

indicated
within

that

skills

operate

minority

the

within

transmissible

was

crucial

time

statement

explicit

source

between

Every

seen.
don

chapters

those

who

As

performance

nexus

group

but

are

ritual

ambiguous
can

those

ritual

nevertheless

have

more

remainder

subsequent
onto

place,

particularly

traditional,

In

up.

the

which

considerably

first

the

with

taken

down

narrows

caste

1,

be

will

the

contextualise

investigation

of

thesis

to

serve

ritual
a

generative

identification.
negotiation

of

123

identity

caste

its

Traditions

the

nature,

transmitted.

and

the

this

that

question

(1]

Chapter

to

Notes

The
I

which
a

village

of

[3]
in

[4]

Whilst
this

castes
instances

'an

estate

such
high

to

Berav

do

is

by

the

oil

as
caste

it

to

as

notion
by

originally

men,

Sinhalese

of
(1967:

has

been

Kapferer

in

things.

other
and

musical

170-184).

role

by

humour

of

it

in

village

Obeyesekere's

owned

drummers'

forthcoming

the

the
referred

to

Raghavan

amongst

and

field,

is

it

put;

is

13).

fashion

role

105-110

conforms

the

of

aspect

which,

1977:

is

informants

it

in

given

therapeutic

it

which

for

account

interesting

most

it

which

pseudonym
My

complete
is

This

(1967:

more

articles

in

is.

that

instruments

is

and

ancestor'

(2]

by

of

turn.

now

worked.

(game)

founding

to

concept

actually

gama,

the

mechanisms

uses

Beragoda

name

is

identification

and

examined

series

of

at

the

look
(1975:

comedy

32-38;

publication).

exercise
no
or
also

something

of

means

complete.

Potter

caste,

participate

Other
and

in

monopoly

this

in

low
some

field.

.. -

Plate

III.

A nine
the floor
boy takes
year
old
in a Suniyam
His father
ceremony.
behind.
on from
watches

..

CHAPTER
THE

TRANSMISSION

3
"traditions"

OF

"tubu

tnaka

Bora
saturan
mna
e snda
vat
vaturen
kopavuvat
raja
mItindun
ugata
mang
silpaya
mayi

Only
In
it
nor

learning

and

From

down

sense

with

the

as

with

they

society;

of

the

Berav

services"

knowledge

of

within
the

specialist

certain

types

Berav

the

perspective.

Tradition

provides
rest

in

"traditions"

certain

with

this

nohene
riken

that

external

an

identified
d
p,
pasS,

noheng,
no yang

has
been
carefullY
life.
acquired
throughout
remains
ones
by
it
no place
be deprived
can
one
of
thieves
or
enemies,
be washed
will
by water,
not
away
kings
it.
can
or
rulers
confiscate
(extract
Pota'
'Vadan
Kavi
from
the
Godakumbure
1955:
215)[11

Tradition

3.1

gata
vala
Bata
matu

caste.
a

and

action,
in

Tradition

crucial

social
to

are

called

upon

in

return

receive

and

are

nexus
provide
payment

I
of
the

some

kind.

control

To
of

the

large
Berav

extent
as

the_

Tradition
identification

lies

outside
of

the

- If

126

Berav

with

Tradition

is

imposed

perceptions

from

by

underpinned

other

sections

caste

and

Sinhalese

of

society.
From
to

sense

internal

an
talk

apparent

coherence

Tradition

turns

fragments

which

be

the

highly

described

an

Berav
specialised

traditions,

as

different

controlling

given

outside.

of

series

better

are

traditions

Such
individuals
knowledge

the

external

the

caste

and

with

aspects

they

are
in

the

of

of

social

relationships

traditions

access

be

can

arise.

traditions.
fabric

or

are

transmissible

can

we

of

everyday

shall

to

order

operate,

those

and
the

within
knowledge

as

means

to

example,
conflicts

the

provide
gain

to

access

skills.

traditions
for

important

which

over

kudos.

an

For

caste.

in

within
and

often

alternatively,

and

entities

skill

resources

alliance

these

some

pride

the

as

marital

short,

dynamic

have

seen

inferior.

as

and

to

-Contrary

great

and

within

knowledge

additional

skills

differentiation

can

for

impetus

knowledge

and
through

acquired.

of

source

families
identified

are

have

such

of
a

social

source

and

they

skills

in

embedded

with,

evaluation

Differentials

In

are
identify

who

the

the

to

out

Although
from

no

makes

Tradition.

overall

as

Tradition.

'imposed

Berav

particular

of

Berav

of

it

however.

perspective.

see,
life

are

or
intricately

figuring

are

operated,

Berav

caste

who

Berav

skill.
woven
prominently

into
in

idiom

the

political

and

economic

kinship

of

These

traditions

present

paid

to

as

they

differentiated,

or

together

bring
the

of

production

rituals,
knowledge

and

skill

the

from
the

Tradition

3.2

caste

throughout

the

assumptions

implicit

The

different
different

to
in

times.

exchange

identified

from

and

the

of

to

concepts

explicit

more

be

used
the

of

some

often

in
mean

different
are

Traditional

the

and

frequency

They

to

introduction.

the

great
They

people

of

away

turn

to

make

Tradition

of

culture.

types

community.

some

chapter;

with

even

various

gravitate
as

appropriate
of

notions
used

concepts

at

now

perhaps
investigation

detailed

and

or

the
and

all

in

knowledge

and

It_, - is

skills
Tradition,

of

of

competition

and

to

need

expertise

performance
of

finally

notion
with

outside,

the

to

community.
the

and

differentiation

knowledge

reified

knowledge

and

and

traditional

from

and
means

the

arising

of

artefacts

within

status,

types

extensive

transformed
identity,

labour

of

an

in

of

is.

that

perspective,

to

the

detailed

more

continually

means

certain

which

internal

component

division

complex

in,

in

illustrated

fully

chapter

are

in

expressed

community.

more

the

as

livelihood

be

will

the
is

attention

the

within

points
of

course

often

relationships

the

study

different

things
encompassing

to

are
of

society
to

things
the

same

concepts

people
which

I ')

certain

take

notion

transmission

(1971:

129)

beliefs

ideas,

(ibid)
the

and

necessity
The

present.

to

dimension

the

nature

having

However,
the

which

Tradition;

term

the

in

Traditional
designate

to,

tend
and

whole
to

the

former

societies

idea-of

the

two

ground
I

stretched

of
meanings

term

the

uses

and

construct-

Tradition.

of

sense

models

be

theoretical

change

contemporary
of.

temporal

present.

usages

which

of

the

can

passive
view

legitimate

reproduction

general

outlines
the

indigenous

active,

in

distinct

(1981)

Shanklin

Tradition.

two

and

sacred

critical

Tradition

of

to

turn

the

relationship
a

community

given

concept

to

like

the

of

past
in

with

adds'

present

the

of

valise

its

is

persistence'

re-incarnation

and

the

the

recur

This

of

embellished

properties,

continuity

and

continual

often

with

on

of

and

unchanging.

concensus

Shils

Patterns

reproduced

'mechanisms

is

source

present.

are

ideally

its

of

past,

transcendant

would

the

the

of

past
as

is

actions

various

generate

which

The

'pastness',

in

power

form

through

achieved

and

and
in

time

through

of

and

idea

the

kind.

connection,

legitimacy

authority,

over

this

calls

form

such

primarily

and

present

as

about

sciences.

social

some

of

the

with'

connected

and

invokes

Tradition

of

of

chain

the

of

factors

of

beliefs.

and

franca

number

granted

systems

lingua

the

of
The

of

for

societies,

part

to

us

enable

is

patterns

to

slowly

relatively
action

and

used

often.

by

reference
passed

on

,1
J
...
.:;

from
as

time

a
a

before

static

opposite

the

entity,

Weber

the

between

in

notably
1955

and

in

component

Tradition

was

interacting

used
levels

Traditions.

an

social

became

an

change

and

the

society,

'great'

for

critique

approach

reinforced'the.
force

inhibiting
emotional

to

development
irrational

first

usage,

levels.

these

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369

as

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Marriot

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137)

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268-269).

traditions,

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1 32

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134

"traditions"

3.3

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anthropologists,

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and

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(1967),

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of

Pul

all

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primary

mode
has

to

mean

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(1967)

of

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used-

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in
in

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marriage.

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configuration

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an

(1958

Tambiah

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rights

type

speaking

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term

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structures.

the

context

persons

abstract

agriculture

Sinhalese

and
relations,

society

the

general.

social
to

Sinhalese

land,

1965).

in

content

material

inherited,

view

'reality'
have
at
relations
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in
to
land
except
relation
property.
and
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the
kinship
social
anthropologist
calla
is
just
talking
structure
another
way
of
'
about
property
relations.
(Leach
305)
1961:
owned,

of
imply

kinship

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Lanka:

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of

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170-171)

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..
:1

126

greater

antiquity
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44)

(1958:

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288-290).

between

conveyance

stresses

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1977:

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133

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163

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16 5

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Fig.8 Jani s's Strategy

172

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Fig.9 The Family of Odiris

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KG.Pedris

174

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with

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in

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four

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relationship,

chapter

female

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of

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strategic

A. S.

Pino.

descent.

genealogical
town

of

M. A.

Mirissa

around

Disiyame
Disiyame
1825

and

176

Beragoda

to

migrated
the

sister
he

the

performance

In

time,

her

one

of

of

AS.

A. S.

the

Beragoda.
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present

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Mallina.

the

time

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this

occasion

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A. S.

B. S. G.
(B4),

Pino

networks
embodied

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were

in
In

response

ceremonial

event

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traditions

are

grandsons.

and

drawn
community

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to

of

to

together
for

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with

him

realise
Berava.

the
on
(C7)
the

co-operation
their

requirements
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today,

turn

Babundris

of

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King

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Illustrating

performances

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danced
M. A.

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how

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patterns

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configuration

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who

by

maker

puppet

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to

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recalled

(C4),

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men

traditions

of

had

Ceylon

visited

marriages

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between

generations

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10).

later

house

daughter,

he

when

(C6),

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built

father

baliya.

Hinnibabun

cross-cousin

the

in

Blincho,

Figure

in

seen

skilled

Significantly,

century.

audience

his

Mallina,

mal

(see

Disiyam`

also

called

and

day

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was

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of

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So.

is

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balikriy

of

lines

house

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Br.

in

residence

M. A.

co-operation

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dancer.

had

sons,

reproduction
on

centred

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(Mo.

M. A.

and

the,

in

daughters,

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wife's

rituals

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up

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consolidated

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of

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)Pino.

of

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after

various
Tradition

sons
of

threads
for

and
major
of
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177

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8

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Fig-10 The Inter Marriages of

Lines.

178

Of
Jnis

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sisters

and
the

sister

married

village

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farmer.
by

living

to

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for

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temple

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Colombo

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of

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society.

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marriage.
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example

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island

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to

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wife

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(D16).

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uxorilocal

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),

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India

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recently

11).

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181

the

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(D17).

mason

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work

(E13)

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[6)

descendants

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(E12),

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suicide

Sirisena

brother,

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),

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and

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to

no

two

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elder

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parents

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Figure*12).

protestations,

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mental

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had

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Saradias

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in

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fatal

Sirisena's
forced

to

182

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3

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B7
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C7

D16

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the
Fig.12 The Inter-Marriages of
Lines.

183

to

consent

the

relationships

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ancestral
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task
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pdabdIma):
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at

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astrology

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intelligent

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recitation,
Tovil

far

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a
mason

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fully
and

184

carpenter
as

motor

own

had

and

and

he

learned

magical

purposes

Buddhist

priest

(set
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(sarpaya

magic
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lines,

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examples
I

which

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(B6)

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in

occurred

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down.

physician.

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Ayurvedic

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between
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affirmed
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185

marriage

of
line

M. N.
being

the

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son

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example

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of

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illustration
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into

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line

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example

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of,

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(C6)

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in

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provides

patriline

intended

an
to

choose

perceived

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as

186

waste

of

(arranged)

strategic

for

partnership
being

wife

spiral

Berav

together
in

actively

Out

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to

able

organise
teaching

services

traditions

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and

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process

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position

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attained,

inevitability

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of

examples

(3.5.11)

patriline
process

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provides

us

However,
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more

more
vulnerable

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The

disposal.
)

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and

and

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this

of

(E2)

Odiris

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of

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traditions
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(D1O)

Their
historical,

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(3.5.1.
us

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with

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their

patriline

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at

provide

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of

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critical

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epitomise

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skilled

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the

request

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kinsmen.

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men

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women.

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kinsmen,

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time.

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is

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down

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M. A.

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hence

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to

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Traditions
the

Sirisena"s

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of

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accumulated

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too

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been

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by
of
fission

on

virtue

178)

or

illusion

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along

continuing

fiction

of

land
agnates

of
is

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by

by

hand
d1ga

ancestral
is

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caste,

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an

'amalgam

1965:

pavula
as

The

168).

and

marriage

for

to

tied

(ibid).

property'
to

fictions
(gedara).

household

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from

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Sinhalese

Tambiah

impossible

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page

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of
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see

nature

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refers

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examined

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concept
two

the

and

marriage-circle
This

section

creating

Marriage

3.6

his

lines.

next

traditions

in

fashion

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traditions

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be

threat

son,

erode

the

easily

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rapidly

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potential

Hinnibabun.

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patrilineal
In

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is

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in

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of

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where
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organised

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patrilocal

and

112)

circumstances

brought

close

(1961:

Leach

ends

fluid

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political

be

that

appropriate
increasingly

as

Alternatively,

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for

concept'

strategically

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impossibility

identity

in

the

(ibid).

village'

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locality.

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is,

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Beragoda

gedara)

patrilineal

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gedara,

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role

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kinsmen

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explication

apparent.

patrifiliation.
homes

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identity

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concept

to

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both

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is

gedara

ineffective.

and
The

of

of

table

upheld
in

patrilocal/virilocal

community

is

given.

which

190

II.

Table

Patrilocal/Virilocal
in
Beragoda

ing
1.

Marriage
adult

present

Frequency
in
first
ascend-

and

generations

(diga)
FEMALES
MARRYING
VIRILOCALLY
(Of
24 women,
these
10 married
virilocally
Beragoda
the
within
whilst
remainder
12 different
into
Berav
communities,

lying

a twelve

within

BRINGING

mile

FEMALES

3.

MARRYING
PATRILOCALLY
MALES
(Of
these
30 males,
10 took

the

village

MALES

wives

from

4.

MALES

MARRYING

5.

NEOLOCAL

(binna)

IN

the

whilst

(diga)

30
from

wives

in

communities.

UXORILOCALLY

within

brought

remainder

10-different

married
mostly

radius.

2.

24

(binna)

MARRIAGES

3
68

TOTAL

is

What

immediately
is

above

presented

their

even

who

not
to

Beragoda
pattern

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women

between
data

only

clearly

the

their

one

tends

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groupings

of

a
be

alone

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Tambiah.

that

the

movements

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this

this
could

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substantial
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be

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The

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arises:
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with

along

between

place

backing.

of

movement

nature.

agnatic

taking

difference

the

towards

were

of

(14/24).

spouses

to

women

perhaps

but

tempted

material

important
said

marked

is

higher

relatively
virilocally

with

27

of

out

What

marriage.

married

reside

24

with

at

is

significance

more

women

homes

natal

of

frequency

high

marriage,

patrilocal/virilocal
leaving

the

figures

the

from

apparent

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the

is
Berav
material

at

I J1

but

property,

knowledge

transmissible
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strong
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to

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his

family.

the
own

-However,

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readily

One

son

and

father
position

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as

gedara,
163

for

the

in

example

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possible.
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in

activities

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within
(E6),

Tedaris

A. S.

of

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competition
case

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effected

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same

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page

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primarily

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esoteric

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gravitatasaway

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traditional
do

women
in

and

not
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nor

do

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arenas.
assimilate
affairs
are

of
they

193

discouraged
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is

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Women,

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).

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/Si.

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.

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ideology

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and

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rather

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(7]

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women's

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sought

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in

acquired

legitimate
men's

The

participation--

such

his

mother's
kinsmen.
transmissible

of
mother's
natal
The

the

agnatic
brother,
village,

movement
skills

of
can

194

form

the

basis

of

families.

As

location

of

an

here

at

movement

of

concept

is

is

further

women

initiate

point

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in

in

discussed
Before
father
and

and
in

165).

the

husband

takes

brothers

by

brothers

(cf.

her

the

help

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and
the

will

reltionship
(to

be

wife's

is

commonly
of

husband's

G. S.

Saronelis

unit,
(Tambiah

unit
an

seen

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assumption
Such

people.

provision

of

household

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with

closely

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and

egalitarian

performance

forming

the

contexts

above

presented

father

unmarried

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man

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brothers-in-law

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to

chapter).

marriage

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1965:

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among

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of

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exchange-

ongoing--

assistance
in

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data

teaching

to

brothers

or

husband's

pp.

159

woman's

and

M. S.

195

).

178-

Albertknowledge

Here1

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in

joint

of

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The

sons

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given

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of

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in

orientations

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expected

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further

Yalman!

of

lateral

co-operation

production

one

families,

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of fect

women-

statement

Informants:

is

is
he
married
mine
no longer
finished
He belongs
to
the
- no respect!
daughter-in-law.
He goes
in
direction;
her
daughter
like
that;
love,
not
cares
who
much
if
the
is
the
have
You
son-in-law
angry?
respect
"
daughter,
father!
she
the
will
(Yalman
270)
1967:
my

the

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it

duties

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ideally

centre

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sisters

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B. S.

Alson

be

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9,

pull
in

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173)

pp.
performers

skilled

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(E1),

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ritual.

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a

brother-in-law
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196

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B. S.

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of
page

197

190),

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alliance

brothers
section

and
by

198

some

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political

Usually

occupied

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the

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2)

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ties:

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(see

Figure

gedara.
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).

exchange

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86

page

generations

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key

six

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3.

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199

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CHAPTER
THE

AND

APPLICATION
A

4.1

the

BUSINESS

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DEVILISH

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In

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explain

various

addressing

Berav

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of

chaos.

examined

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of

to

analysed.

structures
the

organisation

be

to

attempt

examining

final

the

organisation
will

in

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order

performance

formal

most

forces

reduce

the

Berava

an

the

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their

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between
.

threaten

the

of

followed

malign

chapter

performed
purpose

manifold

other
in

types

of

cure,

specialists.
the

anomalous

sickness

and

210

disorder.
Faced
the
an

with

explanations

conventional
and

extensive

and

recommendations.

(see

poetry

Hodge

of

and

possible

one

'early

action

'he

put

it:

his

body'

the

latter

one

locate

questions

of

they

the
the

priesthood,

broadly

has

been

on

Sinhalese

his

upheld

This
by

of

the

many

religion

(Ames

Yalman

19641119)

the

but

a
of

courses

Sinhalese,

7).

the

to

and

to

spiritual

Buddhism

proper

supervision

and

1966;
it

and
the

of
is

recent

offer
wider

with

or

opposition

1962

They

body.

do

salvation

into

fall

and

little

more

broadly

and

above
of

of

for

and'another

suffering

and

sangha.

by

name
of

soul,

of

preserve

protection

the

cures

array

to

have

the

of

problems.

rebirth,
is

use
undivulged

to

religions

causes
they

which

who

referred
are

potions

mantra,

1865,66:

action

merit,

development,

19631151-152;

of

immediate

solutions;

under

for

each

with

and

speaking

Gooneratne

types

immediate

thus

to

religion

Silva

men

bewildering

commentator,

category:

to

seek

the

engage

magical

sastra),

solutions

has
(De

speaking
the

to

contribute

all

As

sound

the

Akuressa

(sabda

of

(anjanamkray),

by

yantra
of

can

techniques,

the

of

'philologist'

manipulation
few,

use

none

of-specialists

cure

305-318).

which

person

seers

who

1981:

the

self-styled

range
methods,

specialists

in

skills

Gem-diviners.

kavi

seth

bizarre

individual

their

for

suffice,

often

highly

with

the

disorder

non-ordinary

one

which

commentators
Obeyesekere
points

to

211

division

fundamental

Berav

The

in

are

division

this

labour

and

supernatural

for

this-wordly

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traditions

of

command

in

are

(Yalman

Sinhalese'
the

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the

opposed

to

ideally

revolve

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healing

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in

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of

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of

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Berava

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ideas

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exemplify

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Tambiah
in

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(cf.
clad

diammetrically

ultimate

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intractable

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priesthood

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than
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to

Buddha.

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affliction.

the

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directed

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appeasement

orientations

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should

of

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through

priest#

have

exorcism

They

consolation

suffering.

The

117).

disorder

of

and

Buddhist

They

saw

we

control

for

propitiation,

agents

relief

1964:

of

energies

identification,
the

the

as
historically

people

with

how

culture.

variegated
The

and

understand
for,

supernatural

give

which

the

responsible

generators

beliefs

practice,

ends.

the

of

in

of

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proliferation

are

are

identified

associated

and

religion

to

we

works
Berav

the

one.

if

crucial

of

chapter

such

Sinhalese

'

ritual.

in

labour

of

his

mindfulness

the

of
nowhere

more

between

the

1970
orange
laid

: 322).
robes,
out

in

212

the

The

scriptures.

is

idiom

his

often

one

dissolution

The
his

through

control

ecstasy

and

through

when,

self,

(1962:

speaking

79)

mindfulness
The

the

ultimate

insights

of

and

movement

and

re-centres

it

and

idea

this

catches

healing

of

of

'mindlessness'..

life

the

Ames

and

analytical

expresses

affirms

costumes

towards

the

hand

other

in

dances

moves

and

exorcist

whole.

succinctly

of

self

rituals

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of

meditation.

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death

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priest

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on

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flowing

black.

and

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red,

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has

typically

(dur)

exorcist

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he

rituals,

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that:

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by wordly
(ones
who

interdependence

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that

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clear

with

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action

Buddha

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priest

the

of

priest

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interdependent,

in

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Ames
disrobing

they

contexts
(ibid:

78)
in

maintenance

is

practice

order

kept

are

The

logic.

structural
logic

where

instances

exception.

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powerful

underlying

this

when

of

realms

lives.

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a

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centrality

realms

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worldly

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Buddhists',

of

teachings

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'healthy

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of

discourse

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Buddhists

'

interests).

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(ones

Buddhists
sick
into
desires)
transcend
can

turn

seen

in

the

overlap,

as

when

provides

us

with

to

undergo

an

213

exorcism

One

order.

of

Hambantota
from

in

performed

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have

irregular

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any

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far

temple

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clandestinely
business

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regularly
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to

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possessed

grounds.

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temple

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temple

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/Si.

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A

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l%%). The
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52n).

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invoke

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1931.
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1976:

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resorts

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similarity
power

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(page

chapter

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transmission

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relationships

position

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Malalgoda

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Tamiah

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)

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Buddha,

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identity

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relate
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maintained

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Sangha.

they

in

Each

classic

233).

a; broadly

society.

relationships

invested

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1974:

in

potency

have

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7.

Chapter

the

exhibit

(Turner

their

specialists

with

expel
words,

Language

achieve

of

and

Tambiah's

322).

in

up

bodies

way

'outsiderhood'

to

come

relationship

similar

(1970:

monk'

hybrid

and

subjugate
in

is,

He

words

to

chants

and

spirits.

'mock

a
of

question

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Sanskrit

uses

vein

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for
the

social

the

Berav
exclusion

is
and

created
discrimination

and

215

the

which

caste

internal

as

Containment

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further

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set

Berav

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Berav

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traditions,

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of

result

individuals

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exercise

of

dynamic

over

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engenders,

system

with
of

disorder
the

wider

216

breakdown

nowhere

more

illness

and

be

to

the

suffering,

As

cure.

is

greatest

To

where
considered
between
the

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in

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situations

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than

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"'Private'

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a change
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themselves
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objectivity
"
discourse.
already
constituted
(Bourdieu
1977:
170)

is

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the

the

traditions

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practical
of

'already

origination
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activation

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1974:
book
G. H.

the

and

Mead

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rituals
psychological

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Kapferer

School

Manchester

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Berav

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objectifying
132).

and

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exorcism
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to

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in

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to

form

illustrated

fascinating

(cf.

giving

disorders

and

feelings

has

on

problems

an

provides

ritual

and
social

217

removal

and

to

of

crystallise
In

the

source

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heal

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Outsiderhood

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Muchona

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'
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The

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146)

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4.3

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orientations,

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workers

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song,

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219

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size

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skills

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clustered.

community
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attempt

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to

an

organiser

assert

and
themselves

many
by

241

their

organising

harsh

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Melanesian

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energy

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Leeson

the
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to

242

which

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gave

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called

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anthropologist)

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following

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matava).

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planets
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santiya.

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dosa)

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demons,

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ntiya).

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In

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clay

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santiya,
and

to

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personnel

1979)

Akuressa

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planets

hand-held

(August

Walavvavatta.

at

mother

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how

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illustrates

exorcist

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'major'

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together

example

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kinsmen

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size

substantial
recruited

brought

one

third

for

what

of

drawing

and

notice

at

formation

the

illustrates

return

the
home

244

2nd

August
A

_
man

young

Ganegoda

parents

asked

(Ipa

gained

patient

(E3).

Udenis

pa

offerings
samgame

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to

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society

Later

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Sinhalese

hours

dimen).

when

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demon

August

offered

promised
for

the
On

suvayak).

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of

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great

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morning

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to

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to

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yantraya

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hands

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roga).

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of

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(kustha

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Beragoda

was

eczema

had

(daivajnaVa)

near

there

where

eaten

were

house

householder.

the

thread

4th

August

the

226

patient's

conditional

ordinary

we

left

we

happiness

twelve

(pratiphala)

results

tie

drumming

pidavili

yakunta

to

several

The

all.

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to

the

or

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by

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the

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recovery

page

above

was

27th

July

on

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me

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3rd.

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rgayak).

doctors

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near

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Santiya.

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when

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home

returned

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patient

yantra

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age

living

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40

years

to

the

day.

5th

August
A

of

person

Panugalgoda

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pain

patient's
largely

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decoction

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on

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to

Mahsohona

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the

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tatvaya)

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give

August

had
a

patient

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-6th

stomach

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promised

and

us

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condition

away.

gone

of
a

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with

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Samayama,

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seized

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accordance_

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deadly

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okkraya)

Udenis.

Iramudun

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perform
Mahsohona

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house

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rujvak).

tied

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(adika

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of

Dikkumbara

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school
attack

severe

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returned

home.

6th

August
An

12

about

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follower

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to

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the
the
On

6th
of

until
the

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the

Demon

and

as

went
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Society,

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that

day

following

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of

at
things

of

sort

boy

of

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from

accepted
giyg).

demons

horoscope

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August

of

yamaye)

Udenis

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be

the

studied
about

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junction

to

(sIndl
gave

living

years

Vanavaha
had

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astrologer

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we

we
came

home.
7th

August

the

On
(the
lunar

lunar
quarter

full-moon
month

of
(pods).

day
July-August),
before

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pasalosvaka)
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the

first
rising

Nikini

of
day
of

of
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the
moon.

z-Q
s

from

early

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to

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on
having

astrologer

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at

the

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to

near

his

twelve

past

living

man

looked
to

offerings

make

fifteen

until

morning

horoscope

Beragoda.

had

told

Afterwards

me

returned

home.
8th

August

out
on

An

astrologer

on

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of

Iramudum

home

sunrise

accepted

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there

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the

demon

sorcery

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8th

at

to

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different

three
On

all.

9th
tied

and

eczema

(bra

kala)
stayed

performing
along

an

with

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6.00

from

and

yma)
hoards

about

seven

within

the

On
nla

days.

an

old
An

kurumbera.
and

Samaya

seven

daY
at

night.

but

other
I

kApima).

a. m.

had

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had

not

to

the

house,

with

the

led

was

an

Opa

nula

Samayama

After
day,

same

on

who

man

Iramudum

an

performing

a
places

August

patient

seven

to

after

years

to

9h

August

at

the

cutting

and

pideniya

18

of

morning

pideniya

things

certain

August

following

the

came

girl

On

responsibility.
until

ordered

below

legs

her

both

had

and

tying
in

the

the

had

Mahsohna

Samayama

on

the

thread

told

woman

her

to

at
the

studied
intention

tied

home.

came

Apa

another
at

have

an

returned

of
Samayama

by

performed.
and

relief

any

I
I

doctors

by

Mahsohna

close

astrologer

thread

found

evening,

living

lady

treated

Maramba
Iramudum
I

home

put
about

Z7

11th

August
As

t
to

sequel

for

ritual

the

11th

August

his

to

went
Sgntiya

in

the

living

Graha
home

returned

by

man

This

fifty

over
done

was

years
the

after

old
disease

me.

15th

he

had

received

we

did

an

house,

our
the

tied

had

whom

from

tar

Not

relief

great

on

the

tying

home

man

the

on
As

9th.

of

thread

Baliya

the

on

the

August

Mahsohna

returned

and

thread
after

Samayama,

Samayama

lived

Uduvatta,

at

conditional

Iramudun

Mahsohna

and

16th.

16th

August

About

is

Santha
period
the

the

chief
The

Judiciary.
(aphala

kalaya).

evening

and

home

returned
t ua

Sntiya

Graha

also

1'jth

at

Imaduva

from

miles

performed

who

We

yantraya.

Beragoda.

to

diagnosed

for

ritual

close

August

in

follower,

as

evening.

Performed

On

12th

August

was

the

was

important.

more

tied.

was

another

the

performed

intoned

he

and

six

at

house.

with

along

3rd

Sntiya)

yantraya

It

sunrise,

August

on

(Navagraha

planets

N'ilamandalaya

at

performed

ritual

nine

and

performed

the

about

to

the

priest
priest

of

Graha

finished

the
a. m.

Rja

the

Santiya
following

Priest.

Lanka

Sri

Southern

entering

Vihra

Mahl
High

temple's

was
The

8.00

Kananke

at

bad
was

planetary
started

morning.

248

An

elderly

Dikkumbara,

was
time.

time

to

they

might

the

father

durg

be

to

off

the

Iramudun

Samayama

recovered,

leaving

near

unconsciousness

from

find

only,

and

the

and

a
and

another
he

saying
Mahsohna

performed

patient

happy.

very

nla

there

went

and

Rpa

an

Samayama
I

that

order

When

home

at

tied

and

in

me
difficulty.

not

was

August

all

to

Panugalgoda,

great

me

Iramudun

18th

of

this

him

an

On

Samayama.

find

with

fits

came

from

released

perform

would

father

came

went

to

subject

Her

in

living

woman

an

completely
in

home

returned

the

evening.
18th

August
Also

on

living

day

to

the

near
from

sufferinc
by

this

the
kpa)

tied

and

Maha

gained

and

in

taken

was

(dehi

limes

cut

bnda)

was

treatment

I
I

girl

who

despite

relief.

(nla

thread

Kodagoda

at
and

girl

young

examine

Vihra

no

the

examine
a

to

headaches

and
had

to

evening

invited

was
Rja

fever

doctors

several

later

she

and

recovered.
19th

August

8.00

From

performed
living
had

Graha
to

near
looked

dispel

the

August

21st

In

the

at

P. M.

at

night

Sntiya
the

to

school

her

horoscope

effects

of

evening

bad

examined

an
at

in

2.00

until
elderly

planetary

a sick

told

An
her

morning
woman

sick

and

Jamburegoda.
and

the

astrologer

what

to

do

to

period.

young

man

living

near

249

Beragoda.

to
then

performed

house

small

rite

which

(9durukamak)

and

home.

came
22nd

August

the

Close

to

the

young

man

yesterday.

diagnosis

another

in
I

and

returned

small

the

performed

today

again
(durukamak)

work

to

rite

do

to
for"a

sick

woman.
24th

August

looked

I
laksana

the

at

kote)

pariks

house
performed

Iramudun

Ymaya.

to

Hikkaduva

to

(r5ga

patient
living

lady

old
Digoda,

at

an

the

of

sick

"town

Imaduva

near

symptoms

in

and

After

this

sorcery

and

afterwards
the

patient

recovered.

26th

August
Went
to

demon

the

behalf

(pen

assistance

nosed

of

after

sick

performed

evening

of

young

kiyann)

what

others

sunrise'the

went

to

ought

in

the

next

day.

near

Beragoda

had

who

man

be

evenin--

living

person
a

small

(Rdurukamak)

rite

in

and
her.

to

29th

August
About
road

living

told

by

Santiya

on

p7dgniya

offer

27th

Dia

JJ*

soothsayer

home

returned

August

the

a
the

With

done.
and

by

told

been

community

cut

two
at
an

performed

miles

from

Imaduva

Mayakaduva

was
that

astrologer

and

Visnu

town
sick

they

Mandalaya

on
person

should

Makumbara

the
who,
have

yantraya

had
a

tied.

been
araha

At

250

the

request

the

of

did

and

assistant,
talisman

we

and

Not

far

Graha

with

another

Santiya.

He

following

the

returned

from

Imaduva,

Kananke.

from

road

to

was

as

intoned

the

day.

(asu-ek
6)
three

been

and

two

bali

in
as

appointed

8.30

image

The
pedalling
bicycle,

which

had

the

frame.

long

time.

In

in

figure

known

His
some

through
rapidity
Alternatively

work

comes

victim
the

the

or

is
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to

to

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other

receives

around

in

five

finished

at

dress.

his

Raleigh

black
images

coloured

of

spirals

he

Beragoda

me

with

remain

will

the

of

is

well

landscape.

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form
him

seeking
which
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national

and
which

had

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his

one

Odiris

and

9.30

to
dekak)

among

evening

at

social

him

was

81

the

bali

cerem9ny

in

area

local

the
he

the

home

communications
through

handle-bars

around
a

in

the

ritual

Appendix

see

by

told
The

(mji

do

and

plastic

the

been

Weligama

with

bali
To

for

had

performed.

baliya

all.

the

offering

clay

off

adorning

tape

mal

Leeson

of

gracefully

deities

gba

along

who

baliya
floral

off

mile

woman

started

setting

a. m.,

sick

organizer

We

participants.

the

of

receptacles

making

have

to

consist

Chapter

about

was

astrologer

an

of

the

went,

31st

August

for

household

street
'referrals'.

of
out
move
of

relatives

anxious
in

home

his

with
the
diagnoses

or

astonishing
local

town.
made

by

251

lacking

who,

is

surprising

the

ILdur's

is

diary,
one

certain

out
in

task

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"advance.
it

for

respect
her
in

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pointing

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waking

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pieces

weeks
this

is

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diary

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ha$, y; the

high

important

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literally

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is

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soothsayers,
refer

mobility

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mother

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wife

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adura.
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be

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Mah
performed.

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a

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performs

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misfortune.

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grandfather's

invocations

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own

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had

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and

and
outraged

an
an
at

259

having

his

business

after

his

own

only,

thus

diary

provides

into

translated

family
the

with
their

in

wider

social

the

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task

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ritual

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tdur

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dur

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chapter,

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regularly

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larger

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part

splendid

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problems,
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skills

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concrete

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Iramudun

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out

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diagnosis

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of

sought

away,

dispensing

originally

how

taken

diary

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healing

rites
it

basis,
now

is
like

the
to

253

These

turn.

his

consolidate
powerful
vis

vis

4.7

bring

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sense

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structure

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[8]

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and

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ascent

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for

activation
will

some
of

know

the

254

kinsmen

upon
be

likely

to

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troupes

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is

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at

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258

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).

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257

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164).

carried

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259

Mutta.

Leeson,

dancing,

Alson

to

the

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drums.

was

the

the

of

course
task

to

bulk

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kinship

ties

in

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Bali

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both

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sons,

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grandson

the

daughter

from

both

[1]

to

General

demonology
century.
a
literature

his
the

'in

(C4).

this

Odiris'
images

of

sculptor
this

had

skill

in

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but

can

men
in
Jayris

Jayris

and

sons
on

Jnis's

case.

(D5),

as
their

acquired

well

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three

these

knowledge

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to

single

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Babris,

of

passed

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back

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by
/

carried

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of

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for

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grandfather

taught

(C4).

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the

the

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predominantly.

individual,

image

Jnis

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with

the

reknowned

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skills

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appropriateness
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to

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singing

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of

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of

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as

skills
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knowledge

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to
who

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their

own

married
and

skill

Babris.

introductions
to
the
Sinhalese
nature
of
be found
in
literature
can
a rich
over
spanning
The
important
this
to
most
contributions
(1829),
Callaway
Dandris
Silva
Da
are

260

(1865-66).

index
provides
who
an invaluable
(1956),
Nevill
by
Hugh
to
the
Pertold
poems
collected
(1954).
(1930)
More
Wirz
the
recent
accounts
and
of
the
belief
particularly
of
overall
system
place
and
(1962)
in
it
be found
healing
Ames
and
can
exorcism
within
(1964).
Yalman
and
[2]

Barnetti(1917)

and
Accounts
in
found
forthcoming
(3]

For

Wirz

description
be
can

complete
origin
the
of
(1969)
Egan

more
his

actual
and

demon
Soh3n
Mah
(1954:
Wirz
28-30).
be
the
can
of
ritual
(1975:
in
16-63)
a
and

the

of
in

found

performance
Kapferer

publication.
of
myths
(1954:
35-36)

of
account
Saraccandra
and

origin

actual
(1966:

of

the
Rata
Raghavan

and
performances
38-42
and

Yakkuma
(1967:

see
ceremony
For
262-263).
64-69)
(op
cit:

Wirz
see
145-152).

[4]
(1969:

(op
Wirz
Obeyesekere
See
42-u7)
and
cit:
Yakka,
181-197)
for
Sanni
'and
the
myths
of
origin
of
(47-64)
(op
Saraccandra
Wirz
33-38)'for
and
accounts
cit:
(op
189)
the
cit:
ritual's
Obeyesekere
performance.
of
to
list
the
on
demons
Sanni
goes
of
and
a
eighteen
gives
titles.
the
their
discuss
etymology
and
significance
of
(5]

Myths

Suniyam
(6)

of
origin
provided

are
Callaway's
Kapua'

a
of
captures
exchanges

and
accounts
(op
by Wirz

translation
(1829),

some
between

of

although
the
of
dur
an

of
cit:
the

over
underlying
his
and

the
30-34
'On

poem
150

of

performance
69-83).
and
Practices

the

years
ambivalence
clients.

still

old.
in

the

leaf
coconut
young
ubiquitous
example,
(gok-kola)
from
coconut
decorations
unfurled
are
made
damage
the
leaves,
seriously
collection
of
can
which
is
used,
trees.
The
to
healthy
gok-kola
extent
which
decoration,
festivals
major
at
as a street
particularly
introducing
the
to
has
government
prompted
consider
is
its
production.
such
restrictions.
effect
on coconut
(7)

For

[8)

Once

occasional
taught
occasions,

by

the

I
again
exceptions
from
a man
work
with

must
emphasise
to
this
such
Beragoda.
This
troupes
operating

that

there
Doyigama

a
as
man would,
the
from

were
Adura,

on certain
village.

V.

Dra4in?
r rom

s
Uph,

of

the

nine

F tanonts

(reproduced

262

CHAPTER
TOVIL:

BALI

THE

RITUAL

DEFENCE

MALEVOLENCE

AGAINST

life,
whole
thinking
striving
and
taken
always
preup by
constant
defences,
cautions.
and
compensations.
by a constant
fight
invisible
against
forces
foes
'
and
kinds...
of
all
(Wirz
1)
1954:
Introduction
-'Their
is,...

5.1

the

previous

context

in

In
social

four
which

and
turn

to

detailed

that

namely
are

healing

investigation.

the

personal

Bali

the

of

Tovil
in

in

the

the

however,

the

sing.

broadest
and

as

reveals

of
a

the

complex,
).

These
to
are
in

rituals
planets

are
Closer

offerings.
complex

chapters

They

affliction.

literature[1]

making

tradition

performed

sense,

of

the

to

ritual

single

influences

malevolent
through

(tovilaya

misfortune

described

generally

exorcised

examination

rituals

alleviate

which

of

three

Berav

the

community.

following

the

examined

drawn

caste,
the

have
among

was

In

knowledge.

we

production

between

inter-relationships
ritual

ritual

Attention

place.

takes

chapters

amalgam

of

263

beliefs,

ideas

immediate

means

The
than
Berav.

in

presented
the

to

for

first

the

four
a

it

Chapters

on.

healing

rituals

in

by

ethnographers,

many

have

rituals

received

despite

astrology

from

either
its

or

the

social

personal

misfortune

Theravada

Buddhist

the

illustrate

to

It

in

is

in

Chapter

forms

artistic

persuasive

powerfully
outside

Dance.

manifest.
of

achieve

of

ordinary

that

music.

costume

all

contribute
ritual

time

the

to

space

be

brought

knowledge

and

together

and

the

and

capable

time
of

made

of

elaboration
a

skill

inter-play

subtle

the

to

performance.

effective

context,
and

of

means

useful
must

brought

are

of

question

society.
a

and

Bali

the

framework

which

coherent

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269

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293),

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285

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286

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288

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289

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292

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295

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appropriate

out

the

through

the

of

offerings,

three

to

behest

the

biggest

the

the

kind

insisted,

had

of

in

its

of

thirty-five

on

(lokdipati).

world'

himself,

was

because

performance

the
taking

and

Doubt

perform.
a

involving

performed,

tale

back

at

are

ordinary

performers

man
that

organiser,

the

last

together

business

they

legendary

performed

drew

rituals

that

MZragoda

the

purely

larger

in

now

at

was

and
The

the

the

ritual,

South,

man

(4.5)

status

in

seen

in

in

and

performed

the

business

local

be

mammoth

individuality

role

ballya

This

twenties.
be

to

furthermore,

Chapter

of

linked

tis

pan

in

saw

expressions

This

world.

we

as

indexically

but

suffered,

the

story
to

testimony

the

occasion.
over-reached
great

and

314

have

to

came

the

demonstrate

hand

one

Greater
the

and

the

the

the

and

status

on

the

of
patient

other.

created

around

terms

size,

of

it

with

it.

a
the

hence

and

audience,

perceives

the

increases

carries

necessarily

on

cosmos

ritual

in

ritual

the

and

the

space

does

tale

size

the

social
of

the

within

of

size

the

of

elaboration

as

or

to

wishes

it.

perceive
For

the

performers.

deities
the

out

cancel

demons

and

during

patient

for

From

one

Tovilayak

and

offerings

to

be

13.200

propitiation

will

help

which

might

beset

period

(see

Appendix

the

ball&dura

(simvak

limit'
Bali

planetary
of

range

with

to
the
IV
in

made

considerations

images).

what

without

bad

illustration

an

the

selecting

whose

patient's

circumstances

influences

negative

the

of

life

and

difficult

the

brings

ritual

particularities

condition

astrological

large

a
the

matching

of

to

be

images
poems

dedications.

Not
i
saktiys)

described
n9ti

must

descriptive

(dharana

ritual
place

elaboration

community

between

position

on

and

concomitant

task

However,

Augmentation

ritual.

complexity

of

social

duration

and

effect.

individual's

an

expenditure
size

of

adverse

connection

of

elaboration
the

an

in

given
(rpaya)
and

the

the

There

ritual.
each

recognised

are
their

with

accompanying
the

organiser
recitations

appropriate

alone,

surprisingly,
is

as

sastrayak),
select

'science

own
and

prayers
power
quality

of

said

retention
amongst

315

balidurg
days

for
deities

is
each

gives

it

its

the

repertoire

of

cosmos

of

each

dedicate

and

the

with

and

sacred

and

accent

on

and
to

particular
it

the

in

ganja,
presence

rituals

performance,

and

to

if

which,

the

render

This

powerless.

utter

in

is

tovil

yak

take

profound
in

which
such

stimulants,

heighten

content

states

ecstatic

Buddhist

it

Bali

the

of
in

example,
for

teeth

might

application
For

circumstances.

perform

and

for

each

demons.

of

style

before

often

order

bathe

should

for
will

observers

They

morality

preparations

Performers

body.

betel,

and

the

life,

Buddhists,

mouth

they

purity

appropriate

these

the

chewing

involved

the

body

words

bodily

or

The

or

magical

specialists

attract

the
to

smoking

in

pure

his

relevant.

good

Buddha:

the

to

from

highly

Berav

considerations.

relate

be

to

attention

to

distinction

alcohol

is

that
of

repertoire

stories

skill

and
entails

moral

recitations

Precepts

by

the

important

expected

special

in

also

knowledge

Tovilayak

position

sandalwood

apply

polluted,

to

of

of

Bali

performers

are
Five

paying

clay

breadth

of

of

the

themselves

social

the

are

many

of

the

in

literally

quite

has

sections

construct

salutations

attitude

makes

to

elevated

that

praises,

and

all

simply

there

Given

balidurg

performance

rituals,

the

how

not

which

as

from

recite

recitations.

appropriate

and

demons

knows

he

It

Each

can

cases

some

end.

on
and

which

of

in

who

a
is

wide
quite

priest.

Tovilaya
variety

of

acceptable
This

is

316

in

to

contrast

stark

they

when

occasions

in

performed

local

all

the

in

view

its

of

the

ritual

realisation

the

purely

temporal
and

status

ritual

But,

action.

the

as

to

on

more
I

hope
does

practical
ritual

concerning

decline

as

and

appropriate
between
hand,

one
in

patrons

and

terms
from

arise

of
such

be

upon

which

put

into

expedient

and

still

provide

operation
action

and

a
of

its

most

good

pupils.

this

most

elegant

cheaper
in

this

'made'

action

illustrate

to

in

specialists

Tovil

Bali

of

having

without

can

Tovilaya

Bali

into

the

of

modes
next-chapter.
insight

fascinating
beliefs

being

are

and

ideas

efficacy.

Chapter

For
example.
ball
as
gives
influences;
planetary
ceremony'.
[1]

the

by

the

which

Tovil,

links

performances

opportunities

transplanted

their

of

major

technology

most

on

of

other.

pass

the

Similarly,

Notes

the

on

field

difficult

cosmos

position

however.
be

the

Out

augmented

indexical

interests

on

Sadly,
appear

demonstrating
of

easily
the

possibly

government

Bali

the

be

can

criticism.

and

rare
are

Tovil

high

Berav,

the

content

social

performances,

to

by

is
for

or

the

on
priests,

Bali
and

comment

elevated

have

they

ritual

the

of

structure,

elaborated

Similarly.

performed

rituals

for

dignitaries

fear

without

officials

which,

performed

are

secrecy.

great
for

performed

proper

exorcisms

(1971:
Gombrich
340)
in
his
glossary
'a
follows:
for
evil
ceremony
exorcising
in
an image
such
of
a planet
used

317

(2)
is

devoted
to
the
Baliya
The
specifically
article
only
(1911)
in
he gives
Silva
Da
by
which
a description
of
features
Wirz
the
the
of
ritual.
salient
more
of
some
brief
the
but
(1954:
1O5-128)
provides
accounts
of
subject
his
the
topic
renders
accounts
unsystematic
the
of
scope
(1964:
Yalman
122-123)
brief
ill-explained.
gives
a
and
in
ball
tovil
the
of
performed
a
village
of
account
Teripehe.
[3]

Kemper
in

exceptions
social
provides
concerning

(1979)
this

aspects
interesting
astrology

(1981:
Hodge
228: 274)
and
are
data.
field.
Both
useful
provide
Sinhalese
Fuller
of
astrology.
in
information
a technical
in
South
India.

(1959:
Elffade
79-80)
example,
'time
fire
as
altar
materialised',
the
baliya
description
mal
of
used
In
Tovil.
both
Bali
its
form
in
the
is
to
baliya
a degree
cognate
with
mal
[u]

(5]
of
(ibid:

For

Malalasekera
this
once
940)
as

[6)

In

confusing
the
to
be taken
originator

(1960
powerful
in
found

vol.
the

11:
dynasty
Pali

as
and
the

kala

gives
their
and
commentaries.

diyana
mule
sada
sirs
Pura
veta
palamu

munidu
visal
at-bali

with
our

the
on
peace
blessed
most

went

to

and

taught

article

Vedic

the

excellent
an
the
centre-piece
function
its
Vedic
altar.

779)

instances
thgsages
some
are
title
of
munidu.
an
appelation
The
Buddha.
below
verse
given
(or
to
that
the
Buddha
mean
the
ritual!
of
seta
ape
veda
desu

to

refers

notable
the
on
(1980)

given

full
city

the

normally
quite
could
a Buddha)

the

account
Vesali
of

somewhat
given
easily
the
was

mata
mesirita.

first

day

sage

VisalPura,
the

first

at

ball.

Bali
(1954:
107)
the
recounts
of
an origin
myth
the
Sammata
to
a
back
Maha
king
affliction
of
goes
which
Lanka.
Sri
Interestingly,
these
myths
king
of
mythical
Suniyam
the
the
with
myths
of
origin
of
overlap
also
Itaha
is
it
Sammata"s
Menikpgla
in
Queen.
which
ceremony
the
As
in
of
the
of
a
sorcery.
the
victim
is
story
who
Liccavi
Prince.
it
Mrya
is
the
Vasavti
who
of
affliction
deed.
the
with
is
attributed
(7)

Wirz

A. S.
Pino
example.
'the
'Golu
Yakdesa'.
nicknamed
the
occasion
on
name
this
[81

For

(B4.
dumb
when

156
see
page
He
exorcist'.
he
was
caught

was
earned
by
a

318

(9]

mute

down

cutting
the

official
before

government
hauled
When
like
a deaf

and

in

trees

a private
local
government
he
agent
subsequently
released.

was

wood.
acted

that
tentatively
the
in
suggest
paradox
in
in
dramatised
the
Suniyam
an
episode
question
(cf.
Vadiga
the
Patunaya
Wirz
73.
1954:
called
ceremony
45-46
1966:
Raghavan
1967:
107-114).
Saraccandra
The
and
Brahmins
the
from
drama
the
arrival
of
seven
enacts
port
in
North
India.
The'
tells
Vadiga
book
story
of
of
a
(patunaya
into
the
or
collection)
which
came
- index
Vadiga
day
Gautama
the
hands
ascetics
of
on the
attained
On
that
day
the
ascetics
a
enlightenment.
performed
(ygaya)
to
Prince
the
Malsara.
cure
ritual
afflicted
drama
the
Vadiga
in
The
Suniyam
Patunaya
the
of
enacts
Brahmins
the
in
Brahmin
Pull
the
of
arrival
attire.
they
However,
to
those
they
are
unable
communicate
with
because
the
be
lingua
franca
ritual
at
a
cannot
meet
After
found.
drama
the
Brahmins
much
punning
and
comic
(using
drummer
to
the
a dancer
as mediator),
communicate
They
have
they
in
the
they
who
ritual
are
come.
and
why
to
their
to
the
then
able
employ
patient.
cure
skills
are
[10]

would
is

In

is
bali
(especially

given

Dictionary.
oblation

Dictionary.

Sanskrit-English
offering
food
such
beings,

or

offerings
of
semi-divine*
gods,
birds.
men.
other
animals
lifeless
'
even
objects.
Davis
the
Stede
and
ball
is
given
simply
to
particularly
subordinate

certain
spirits.
including
In
or

Monier-Williams
'any
as:

the

oblation
etc.
rice
divinities,

propitiatory
grain,
as
household

creatures,

all

and

T. S. )
'religious

(P.
as

to

Pali-English
offering
'

divinities.

(pan
tis
thirty-five
types
Although
of
offering
is
frequently
list
the
now
mentioned,
ball)
are
entire
those
lost
currently
obscure.
given
and
are
somewhat
(1955
III:
294)
the
following:
creeper
Nevill
vol.
gives
(at).
(mal).
(kada),
flower
hand
(vel).
cloth
(kulu),
(bat),
(mti)
planets
rice
clay'
winnow
MY
(yuga
?
himi).
(graha)
age
and
and
vayasata
(vli),
(mansaya)
dough
flour
sand
informants
added
or
(madulu)
to
this
list.
pulp
and
[11)

is
Suniyam
to
also
referred
Sntiya
(also
the
Hat
called
Adi
employs
which
techniques
many
the
Bali.
those
to
of

(12)

The

Sntiya
Santiya)
similar
[131
god.

Barnett,
DeviV3
Iru

(14

Beals

with
interesting

respect

for
example.
(1910:
32).

(1976)
to
data

Qives

investigates
native
on

curers
the

the

the

as

or
and

mythology

decision
in
South
appropriateness

making
India,

Suniyam
Menikpla
episodes

of

the

strategy
presenting
certain
of

sun

319

to

practitioners
(15]
the

Although
Berav

associated

tackle
the

in
with

1
Bali

much
of
Oli
the

certain
Tovil
the
or

is
island,
Potter

disorders.
dominated
by
completely
the
is
ritual
also
in
caste
certain
areas.

320

CHAPTER
BALI

6.1

Ritual

TOVIL:

sequence

Whatever

the

general

procedure

located

in

might

made

to

movement
patient
limen/transition

the

an
back

moved
terms

in

into

all

undergoes

is

charging

corresponds
1974:

13).

space

and
space.
follow

Tovil
to

is

patient

and

Bali

(dos)

blemishes

time

time

of

of

blessing

The

ordinary

(Turner
periods

and

any

positive

sizes

and

positive

attentions.

which

space-time'

and

of

intensely

deities

of

the

removal

by

magically.

connection

with

is

patient

surrounded

space.

protection

negative

structure

three-fold

of

Concurrent
goes

The

same.

into

the

performed.

representatives

power

experience

general

the

brought
with

flow.

EVENT

AN

Tovil

charged

thread.

attract

being

Bali

a
always

and

the

OF

structure

positively

patient

which

STAGING

of
is

whom
to

the

In

from

requested

before

size

of

means

demons

of

and

symbols

auspicious
by

THE

'tri-partite

a
In

the

which

separation/secregation,

re-aggregation/incorporation

as

in

221

the

classical

anthropological

Gennep'in

the

Bali

the

of
identified

clearly

from

as

well
temporal

more

not

which

so

much

th

ought

and

objects

and

the

to

the

touch,

feel,

hear
the

Simultaneously,
Both

invoked.

into

transformed
the

In
and

demons

onto

the

are

made

second
represented

of

phase

the

Requests

patient.
and

state

in

the

patient

is

progressive

to

be

the

the

by

both

ritual

through

certain

things.

is

see.

and

activated

activated

power
images

all

so

to

preparedness.

has

is

sequential

gradually

are

for

He

instructed

maximum

made

be

and

patient

are

is

patient

to

verse

various

the

of

arena.

images

the

the

ritual.

in

is

in

one.

and

smell

the

phases

through

seen

used

patient

the

and

purely

three

ritual

of

the

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