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PLANT LAYOUT

1. Equipment Arrangement
4.1

Pumps

4.1.1

Suction pompa harus diletakkan sedekat mungkin dengan


Vessel, dengan posisi suction pompa yang dekat dengan Vessel
dapat mengurangi kerugian akibat friction dan pressure drop
sehingga NPSH pompa tetap mencukupi.
Rumus NPSH :
NPSHa = Ha + Hs Hvp Hfs
Hfs = ( fs x Ls x Vs2 ) / ( 2 x g x di )
P=xgxh
NSPHa > NPSHr
Ha = Atmospheric Head
Hs = Suction Head Static (level fluida,positif atau negative)
Hvp = Vapor Head fluida (head = pressure)
Hfs = Friction Head Losses dalam suction piping dan konektorkonektornya (Hfs panjang pipa, jumlah fitting, 1/ Pipe
)
Fs = Friction factor ( pipe roughness )
Ls = Total panjang pipa
Vs = Velocity (kecepatan aliran fluida)
di = Inside Diameter
NPSHa = Absolute pressure available at Suctiom Pump
NPSHr

= Minimum required absolute pressure at Suction Pump


to prevent Cavitation.

Cavitation =

Formation of vapour cavities in a liquid. It is

happen when the liquid pressure drop below vapour


pressure.

Ha

Hs

NPSHa

Hfs

4.1.2 Pompa yang berbahaya (hazard pump) yang mengalirkan cairan


mudah terbakar (liquefied flammable gas) yang dapat terbakar
sendiri (autoignition) diatas temperature 260 C atau bertekanan
diatas 34.5 bar tidak diperbolehkan dipasang di bawah piperack
(lihat Gb.1).
Sedangkan untuk pompa jenis lain (non-hazard pump) harus
diletakkan tepat dibawah piperack untuk menghemat tempat
(lihat Gb.2).
Piperack

Gb1. Hazard Pump

Piperack

Gb 2. Other Pump

Not OK

Liquid :
- Liquified Flammable gas
- Flammable&Combustible
liquid
(autoignition temperature > 260C
or operated above 34.5 bar).

OK

Liquid :
- Other Liquid (Non-Flammable)

4.1.3 Pompa harus disusun secara parallel dengan piperack agar

penempatannya seragam dan rapi.

Piperack

PLANT ROAD

4.1.4 Untuk maintenance pompa yang terletak dibawah piperack atau


steel structure, pemasangan maintenance beam atau hook
diatas pompa harus sudah direncanakan, kecuali :
(1) Tersedia akses jalan untuk maintenance vehicle (cth. forklift
dll.)
(2) Akses untuk mobil crane memungkinkan.
Maintenance beam or hook

(1) Tersedia akses jalan untuk


maintenance
vehicle

Piperack

Maintenance
vehicle
Maintenance
beam

(2) Tersedia akses mobil crane

PLANT ROAD

Mobil Crane

4.2

Compressor

4.2.1

Compressor harus diletakkan di ground ( tanah ) beserta dengan


pipa dan pendukungnya (oil unit) dan didesain agar akses dan
maintenance senyaman mungkin.

A
Oil unit = auxiliaries

M
C
A

Maintenance
access

( Plan View )

Slope requirement for return


line (see vendor print)

Oil unit = auxiliaries

C
GL. El. 00

L = Close Distance

( Section A- A )
Namun ada beberapa kondisi yang tidak memungkinkan untuk
meletakkan Compressor di ground yaitu untuk Compressor
dengan arrangement sebagai berikut :
(1) Jika pipa yang terkoneksi ke nozzle Compressor terletak di
bagian

bawah

Compressor,

maka

Compressor

harus

dinaikkan (diletakkan di atas) dengan mempertimbangkan

jarak yang cukup untuk memasang pipa dan pendukungnya


di bawah platform.

RC Deck ( Reinforced Concrete)

C
C
#Suct

H3

Elevated (Platform)

#Disch

BOC

L= Close distance

H1

H
H1+H2+H3
Oil Unit

H2

GL. El. 00

Note :

H1 = Min. straight length ( min 6D or as per vendor

confirmation)
H2 = Height of pipe support + CL pipe + elbow + reducer
H3 = Nozzle projection length
Desain Compressor yang diletakkan di atas (elevated), yang
paling

penting

bagi

menentukan/mengoptimasi

Disiplin
elevasi

Piping

(H)

BOC

adalah

(Bottom

of

Concrete) yang harus sudah dilakukan di awal ( P&ID AFP) dan


sebisa mungkin data yang diberikan sudah akurat, karena data
tersebut

sangat

dibutuhkan

Disiplin

Civil

Structure

untuk

mendesain size dan dimensi RC Deck.


Untuk itu agar dalam optimasi bisa mendapatkan angka yang
akurat hal-hal berikut harus dilakukan oleh Piping Design :
1. Collect correct info (data) / Mengumpulkan informasi atau
data yang benar, misalnya :

Mechanical : Dibutuhkan data Vendor untuk


kebutuhan minimum Straight Length

2. Jika Vendor Print belum ada, maka Piping harus meminta


advice dari Mechanical.
(2) Jika Compressor menggunakan penggerak Steam Turbine

dengan

Steam

Condenser,

maka

kompressor

harus

diletakkan di atas (elevated) dengan mempertimbangkan


jarak yang cukup untuk memasang Steam Condenser di
bawah Steam Turbine dan juga perpipaannya.

Steam
Turbine

Comp

BOC

H3

Condenser

Hc
H1+H2+H3
H1

HST = A+B+C

Hmin (1)

(2)

H2

GL. El. 00

Note : (1) Hmin = Nilai terbesar dari Hc dan HST


(2) Ketinggian A karena mempertimbangkan NPSHa Suction Pompa.

4.2.2

Untuk perawatan compressor dan pendukungnya, pada saat


mendesain Plant Layout harus sudah direncanakan akses untuk
mobile

crane

atau

memindahkan

overhead

traveling

komponen-komponen

crane

agar

dapat

compressor

dan

pendukungnya (oil unit) dengan mudah.


For maintenance of compressor and their auxiliaries, overhead
traveling crane or unobstructed access for a mobile crane shall
be planned to easy removal of each components of the
compressors and auxiliariey unit (oil unit)

Shelter

Oil unit = auxiliaries

Maintenance
access

M
C

Overhead
traveling crane

Drop Area

Access for Mobile Crane

Mobile Crane

Plant Road

( Shelter Plan View )

Shelter

Overhead crane

Oil unit = auxiliaries


M

( Section A- A )
4.2.3

Menghadapi kondisi perubahan cuaca/iklim (hujan-kemarau),


maka

harus

dipertimbangkan

kebutuhan

shelter

untuk

melindungi equipment dan operator. Kebutuhan akan shelter ini


tergantung dari ITB (Invitation to Bid) atau permintaan klien. Jika
tidak dinyatakan dalam ITB maka kontraktor hanya perlu
menyiapkan akses mobil crane untuk maintenance, hal ini
dilakukan untuk menghemat biaya.
Based on climatic condition, necessity of shelter shall be
considered to protect equipment and operator. The requirement
to provide shelter depend on ITB or owner request. Otherwise
just provide mobile crane access for maintenance for cost down.

Shelter

Overhead crane
Access
for
maintenance &
operation

Oil unit = auxiliaries


M

( Section A- A )
4.3

Tower and Vessel

4.3.1

Tower dan vessel vertical termasuk tangki-tangki kecil umumnya


harus diletakkan secara parallel dengan piperack, dan jika
memungkinkan center line nya harus segaris.
Vertical tower & vessel including small tanks shall generally be
placed in parallel with the piperack. Where practical, the center
lines shall be lined up.

Tower/Vessel

Centerline Lined Up
Paralel with piperack

60m

50m

Not practical, too


far away

Tower/Vessel

Centerline Lined Up
Paralel with piperack

10m
50m

OK

4.3.2.

Horizontal

vessel

harus

diletakkan

dengan

meminimalkan

panjang pipa dan jika memungkinkan sejajar antara tangent line


atau saddle center dengan sisi piperack.
Horizontal vessel shall be located in order to minimize piping
runs and where practical be lined up with their tangent line or
saddle center line of vessel on piperack side.

Pipe Run
Minimum Pipe Run

Lined up with
Tangent Line

25m
10m

Lined up with saddle CL

4.3.3

Dibutuhkan tempat/area yang cukup di bagian access side


(manhole) untuk loading/unloading internal atau katalis.
Adequate space on the access side for loading/unloading
catalyst and internal.

Manhole = Access Side


Free space
For maintenance
Mobile Crane

Vessel/Column

Plant Road

4.3.4.

Plant Road

Vessel harus diletakkan di ground (tanah) kecuali jika ada


kebutuhan

proses

atau

alasan

teknikal

lainnya

(contoh

kebutuhan slope berdasarkan P&ID).


Vessel to be located on ground unless there is process
requirements or other technical reason (ex. indicated in P&ID
slope requirement).
Vessel on Ground

GR El. 0
Elevated Vessel

Slope Requirement

GR El. 0

Example II : Highly elevated vessel due to high pressure pump


suction head requirement.

El.35000

35000

High
Pump

Pressure

GR El. 0

4.3.4.

Tower dengan ketinggian lebih dari 30 meter harus diletakkan


sedekat mungkin dengan jalan ( Plant Road) untuk kemudahan
konstruksi dan maintenance.
Tower taller than 30m should be placed near the plant road from
the point of view of construction and maintenance.

Plant Road

V-101
(H=50m)

L= min

Plant Road

4.4

Heat Exchanger
Type of Heat Exchanger :
A. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Tube outlet

Shell inlet
T=50C

T=100C

Baffle plate
Shell cover

Channel cover

T=80C

T=30C

Tube inlet

Shell

Shell outlet

Tube bundle

How Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Works :

The hot fluid entering the shell from shell inlet nozzle, at the same
time the cold fluid entering thetube from the tube inlet nozzle. The
heat exchange happen when the cold fluid at inside tube meet with
hot fluid inside the shell, so the temperature at each outlet nozzle
will be change due to the heat transfer ( see the illustration above).

B. Plate Heat Exchanger

How Plate Heat Exchanger Works :

The hot fluid entering the PHE from hot stream in nozzle at the top,
the hot fluid will go down through the plate. At the same time the
cold fluid entering the PHE from the cold stream in nozzle at bottom
side and will go up through the plate that can only be passed by cold
fluid. The heat exchange happen when the plate with hot fluid and
cold fluid touch each other, so that the temperature at each outlet
nozzle will be change due to the heat transfer ( see the illustration
above).

4.4.1

Heat Exchanger shall generally be placed on the ground


HE on Ground
Elevated HE due
ACES21 Design

to

GR El. 0

GR El. 0

4.4.2 Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger shall be located with channel
nozzle away from piperack due to tube bundle removal works.

Shell cover

Shell

Piperack

Channel

Maintenance Space for Tube


Bundle Take Out

Tube Bundle Extractor


M

4.4.3 For

Heat

Exchanger

located

under

structure

or

piperack,

overhead clearance should be provided for maintenance by


mobile crane, but if not feasible maintenance beam or lifting
hook shall be provided upward of the Heat Exchanger

Structure
Overhead clearance for
Mobile Crane Access
Structure

Mobile
Crane

H
H

If Mobile Crane Access


Not Feasible

Lifting Hook

4.4.4 Tube Bundle shall be removed with a mobile crane. But if it


impractical, the permanent monorail with enough length to
permit pull the tube bundle can be provided.

Remove
the
Tube Bundle
Mobile
Crane

Permanent Monorail shall be provide if


the mobile crane impractical to used.

4.4.5.

Heat Exchanger can be Stacked


H.E. can be stacked with maximum 2 stages if the shell
Diameter is 600mm and over (see drawing A).
If the Diameter less than 600mm, you may stages with more
than 2 stage (see drawing B).

(Drawing A)

600mm

600mm

(Drawing B)

500mm

500mm

500mm

4.5 Air Cooler


Air coolers shall generally be located on top of piperacks
Air flow T=40C

Induce
Type

Draught

Nozzle Inlet
T=60C

Fan

Top of Piperack
Air flow

T=27C
Nozzle Outlet
T=40C

How does Air Cooler Works :

The hot fluid entering the header from inlet nozzle than will flow
through the tube bundle, at the same time the fresh air will enter the
cooler because it sucked /forced by the fan. The heat exchange
happen when the Tube Bundle contact to the Fin with the airflow, so
the temperature at outlet nozzle will be change (decrease) due to
the heat transfer ( see the illustration above).

The other type of Air Cooler is Force Draught Fan Type as


described bellow :

And the assemlby of header, tubes and frame as described bellow :

Why the Air Cooler should be located at the top of piperack ?


T= 40C

Hot Surface

Gr. El. +0
Dust

From the illustration above, this is an example for the Air Cooler that placed on
the ground. There are several matters of this arrangement :
1. With this arrangement the Air Cooler performance will be drop because the
inlet air already has a high temperature due to hot surface. Automatically
the heat transfer cant work as expected.
2. By placing Air Cooler on the ground, it is feared there would be a lot of dust
that will be inhealed into the Cooler and attached to the Fin. In this

situation, the Air Cooler performance will also drop.


Concern of locating Air Cooler on top of Piperack :
WIND

L (to be consider)

Hot Line

1. Hot pipe under Air Fin Cooler ( AFC Performacne)


2. Air Fin Cooler Weight (Seismic)
3. Wind Speed

Civil matters to design


Piperack

4. Piperack Column Span


4.6 Direct Fired Equipment
4.6.1

Direct Fired Equipments shall be placed on the windward side of


other equipment and shall be grouped in one area as much as
possible.

Leakage Gas
Fired Heater

Reactor
with
Flammable Gas

WIND
WIND

Leakage Gas
Fired Heater Shall be Grouped

Reactor
with
Flammable Gas
WIND

4.6.2

Direct Fired Equipment shall be located near plant road for easy
access and shall have secure enough space for maintenance.

Fired Heater

Plant Road
Reactor
with
Flammable Gas

4.7

Storage Tank

4.7.1 Storage Tank should be grouped, separate from process unit

Tank grouped in this area


Tank Yard
Utility Area

Process
Unit

Building

Process
Unit

Tanks should be surrounded by dike


Inner Area

Dike

Inside
Length (L)

Inside Width (W)


Inside W or L

Note :

Inside

or

Inside

by

Piping

considering

layout

availability/space
-

: by Piping calculated from the volume of spillage

: by Civil from strength calculation

Work Flow of Civil Information of Dike


1. Calculate capacity/volume of spillage
2. Decide

total

inner

area

of

dike

(considering

available

space/layout) Inside L & Inside W


3. Calculate required dike height H
4. Inform Civil dimension of inside L, Inside W, and H. Than Civil will
calculate thickness dike -- t
5. After receive information t from Civil, Piping inform final/fixed
dike information to Civil, include all dimension.
4.7.2 Storage Tank shall be arranged in an orderly manner

Tank Area

Orderly Manner

5.

Tank Area

Not Orderly Manner

PIPEWAYS AND ROADS

5.1 Pipeways
5.1.1Pipeways shall generally be overhead in process main unit (on-site)
and at grade (on the sleeper) in off-site
Pipe

Piperack

Main Beam/Girder
Intermediate Beam

Spandrel/Longitudinal
Beam

Column

Piperack On Site

Sleeper

Embeded Plate
H = 300mm
H = 3m (max)

Or Mention on ITB

M- Posh Sleeper
Concrete Sleeper

5.1.2 Pipeways width determined based on present needs plus


contingency of 10% at the outset job.

10% L = 600mm

L = 6000 mm

Present

needs

during

preliminary
P&ID/preliminary Plot Plan.
At preliminary P&ID the
main pipe size shall be
fixed.
10% x L is
job/contigency

outset

of

the

Total L = 6600 mm

Future needs required by ITB (ex. 20%)

20% L

10% L

L = 6000 mm

L = L + 10%L
= 1.1 L
= 6.600 mm
L = 20% x L
= 1.320 mm
L total = 6.600+1.320 = 7.920 mm

L total = 7920 mm

Additional Space if Required

If in P&ID AFD Process team


change the main pipe size
that
space

required
of

cantilever

additional

piperack,
beam

can

the
be

added.
The pile are already driven at
P&ID (90% 3D review) so
there is no change to change
the piperack width
Pile

Piping can claim to Process if


the information given late
( main pipe size shall be
fixed during P&ID AFD).

5.1.3 Height of lowest piperack stage shall be determined to satisfy the


following condition :
1. To keep overhead clearance for hanging equipment (pumps,
channel cover of HE, etc.) to removed for the maintenance.

H = TOS of lowest
beam

Electric Chain Hoist


TOS Elevation

h = overhead clearence
H
Manual
Chain Block

Removed Channel Cover to


maintenance internal tube

2. To keep space for piping to be connected to vessel and heat


exchangers installed under the piperack.
TOS Elevation
Clearence to install
pipe connected to
equipment

3. To keep access space for maintenance vehicle under the


piperack.
TOS Elevation

H = 6m

H = 3.5m
OARH

OARH = Over All Raised Height

Contractor

shall

request

information

the

height

of

maintenance vehicle to the owner

Correct information of equipment height.

4. To keep access space of automobile (mobile crane) over plant


roads.

TOS Elevation

Add clearance space

Plant Road

Automobile
ex. Mobile Crane

Request

to

the

owner

of

information

the

highest

maintenance Automobile/Mobile Crane.


5.2 Roads
5.2.1 Roads in the plant area shall be planned to realize pass through
of truck, truck crane, emergency vehicle, etc.

Truck Crane

8m

PLANT AREA

Truck
8m

Emergency Vehicle

5.2.2 Plant Road width shall generally be as follows :


1. Primary roads which handle large moving equipment

: Min

8m
2. Plant main road within the plant complex

: Min. 6m

3. Plant roads or branch road within the plant complex


4m

Primary Road

AMMONIA
AREA
(Plant Complex)

UREA AREA (Plant


Complex)

: Min.

8m
Plant Main Road

Plant Main Road


6m

6m
4m

8m

Primary Road
Branch/Plant
Road
UTILITY
AREA
(Plant Complex)

5.2.3 For both side of plant road, free space of 1 m from road edges
shall be provided for fire fighting equipments.

1m

Plant
Road

Fire Hydrant

5.2.4 Turning radius for roads shall allow adequate space for mobile
equipment to clear pipe support.

R = Turning Radius
of the Road

R2>R
R2

Notes:

Civil will decide the turning radius of the road


based on information of the longest distance
of vehicle with equipment
Piping to conform to Civil about the turning
radius of the road before applied it in plot plan.
R2>R - Depend on the length of the vehicle
with equipment that pass through the bend of
the road.
6.

ACCESSABILITY

6.1 Overhead Clearence


1.

Over public roads and rail roads

: min. 6.7 m

2.

Over plant roads in the process plant (on-site)

: min.

4.5 m
3.

Over plant roads outside the process plant boundary : min.


: min. 3.5 m
5.5 m

4. Over access ways for maintenance vehicle at


pump row piperack, etc.
5. Over access ways and platforms (except at dead end)

: min.

2.1 m

Primary Road

AMMONIA
AREA
(Plant Complex)

8m

UREA AREA (Plant


Complex)

Plant Main Road

Plant Main Road


6m

8m

4m

6m

Primary Road
Branch/Plant
Road
UTILITY
AREA
(Plant Complex)

Public Road

( Drawing above for describe No 1,2 and 3)

- Over access ways for maintenance vehicle at pump under


piperack shall be minimum 3.5 m.
Piperack

BOS El. +3500

Maintenance Vehicle
H = 3.5m

H = 2.5m
OARH

OARH = Over All Raised Height

- Over access ways and platform shall be minimum 2.1 m

Piperack/Platform

BOS El. +2100

H = 2.1m

6.2 Access Clearence


6.2.1 Operator access width shall be minimum 750 mm , but for
operators daily access route shall be 900 mm

Plant Road

Daily Operator access

Process Area

SGSG

900mm

Operator access

750mm

Control room

6.2.2 For maintenance vehicle such as forklifts, the access way width
shall be minimum 3 m.

Maintenance Vehicle

Lmin = 3m
Access way

7. STAIRS AND LADDERS


7.1

Stairs Access to Platform


Stairs shall be provided for :
1. The top of platforms of the structure is located 10m and over
and has an area of 50m2 and larger.
A 50m2

H 10m

2. The platform on which equipment or instrument requiring


operation at emergency.

Equipment requiring operation


at emergency :
- Furnace

Furnace
15m

Valve on platform for fuel gas


inlet to furnace

1.8m
Gr.El. +0

3. Platform for equipment which require frequent opening and/or


closing of some part once or more per day.
4. The elevated platform more than 1.5m height on which a
sample nozzle requiring sampling once or more per day.

Operator
TANK

Sample
connection
(required
frequent
operation/daily
Cl El.+2900
1300

1600

Gr.El. +0

Platform Height 1500mm*


Note :
*If the platform height is less than 1500mm, we can provide
ladder.

SC

12500

Gr.El. +0

Stairs to be provided by Mechanical

If the Sample Connection (SC) located on the Tank in high


elevation, stairs shall be provided (see picture above).

TOWER

SC

Ladder

25000

Gr.El. +0

For Vessel/Tower shall be provided by ladder to reach


Sample Connection (SC) at high elevation. Except for
Carbamate Condenser that still use stairs.

Lift

Stairs

(Prilling Tower)

7.2 Ladder Access to Platform


Ladder access shall be provided for following cases :
1. Platform other than par. 7.1
2. Platform with stair which requires one escape way
15 m

8m

P/F El. +3000

Stair

Position of ladder for


escape way

3. Platform height is 1.5m and lower even though frequent


operation is required

Operator
TANK

Sample
connection
(required
frequent
operation/daily
Cl El.+2700
1300

Gr.El. +0

1400

Platform Height < 1500mm

4. Platform attach directly to equipment

P/F El. +18000

TOWER

P/F El. +12000

P/F El. +6000

7.3 Dual Access Requirements


For following cases, two way access shall be provided :
1. When the platform has more than 20 m travel from a main
access ladder or stair, an escape ladder shall be provided.

P/F El. +4000

Note :
If L 20 m - No need two way access
L = Travel from main access ladder or stairs.

P/F El. +4000

Note :
If L > 20 m - Need two way access ( main access stair + one
escape ladder)
L = Travel from main access ladder or stairs.

Note :
If travel from main access stair or ladder more than 20m, then
add one escape ladder.

2. Access ladder for walk way on the piperack shall be required at


intervals of a maximum of 60 m in process plant area (on-site)
and maximum of 100 m in off site.
300m
60m (max)

60m (max)

60m (max)

60m (max)

60m (max)

Ladder

10m

P/R Process Plant Area (on-site)


300m
100m

100m

100m

Ladder

P/R Process Plant Area (off-site)

3. Crossover access way to another platform or floor may be


planned in place of a leader or stair.

10m

8.

SAFETY DISTANCE
(1) Pumps and compressor handling flammable material shall be
located a minimum 15 m far away from fired equipment.

Fired Heater

Min. 15 m

If pumps and compressor handling non-flammable material the


distance may be reduce to a minimum 8 m

Min. 8 m

(2).

Tower, vessel taller than the end points of the flare

stack should not be located within 50 m radius of such


discharge end.

Discharge End

R=More than 50 m
Tower

50 m
30 m

(3).

Equipment and piping handling flammable materials

shall not be placed within 15m of building such as control room,


switch room, etc.

Piping handling flammable gas

Equipment handling flammable gas

>15 m

>15 m

Control Room /
Switch Room

(4).

Oxygen manufacturing unit shall be away 10 m or more

from equipment handling flammable material.

Oxygen manufacturing unit

Equipment handling flammable gas

>10 m

(5).

Large Electrical equipment such as Switch Gear, should

not be placed in hazardous area.

Hazardous Area
Switch Gear

Not OK

Hazardous Area
Switch Gear

OK

Code of Hazardous Area :


NFPA : National Fire Protection Association