Anda di halaman 1dari 5

Location and Climate of Pakistan

Pakistan is situated in continent of Asia between 23.30 degree and 36.45 degree
latitude (North) and 61 degree and 75.45 degree longitude (East).India is
situated on Pakistan's Eastern border,China lies to the Nort-East while
Afghanistan is situated in North-West.In North only a narrow belt of 15 miles in
Afghanistan ,called "Wakhan"separates Pakistan from Russia to the West lies Iran
and in the South is the Arabian Sea.
The total area of Pakistan is 796096 and its population is about 130
million according to 1998 census.
Pakistan comprises of four provinces ,viz,Sindh,Baluchistan,the Punjab and the
N.W.F.P.Islamabad is the Capital of Pakistan.
Importance of Pakistans Geographic Location
Strategically, Pakistan is situated at a very important place. Pakistan is situated
in a region, which has a great political, economic and military importance.
Pakistan is in the neighborhood of two big powers i.e. China and the Russian
Federation. Similarly, Pakistan has an access to the six Muslim Central Asian
States through Afghanistan. These states are land locked states and Pakistan can
provide an inter link between the Gulf States, African, European and Central
Asian countries. Our sea route remains open throughout the year due to
moderate temperature. There is a series of Muslim countries from the Middle
East to the African continent, which are easily accessible from Pakistan. Pakistan,
thus, connects almost all the Muslim countries of the world from Atlantic Ocean
to the Arabian Sea.
Pakistan is an agricultural country. Eighty percent of its agricultural output comes
from the Indus Basin. Pakistan has one of the world's largest canal systems built
much before Independence by the British. After Independence, problems
between the two countries arose over the distribution of water. Rivers flow into
Pakistan territory from across India. In 1947, when Punjab was divided between
the two countries, many of the canal head-works remained with India. The
division of Punjab thus created major problems for irrigation in Pakistan.
On April 1, 1948, India stopped the supply of water to Pakistan from every canal
flowing from India to Pakistan. Pakistan protested and India finally agreed on an
interim agreement on May 4, 1948. This agreement was not a permanent
solution; therefore, Pakistan approached the World Bank in 1952 to help settle
the problem permanently. Negotiations were carried out between the two
countries through the offices of the World Bank. It was finally in Ayub Khan's
regime that an agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in September
1960. This agreement is known as the Indus Water Treaty.

This treaty divided the use of rivers and canals between the two countries.
Pakistan obtained exclusive rights for the three western rivers, namely Indus,
Jehlum and Chenab. And India retained rights to the three eastern rivers, namely
Ravi, Beas and Sutluj. The treaty also guaranteed ten years of uninterrupted
water supply. During this period Pakistan was to build huge dams, financed partly
by long-term World Bank loans and compensation money from India. Three
multipurpose dams, Warsak, Mangla and Tarbela were built. A system of eight
link canals was also built, and the remodeling of existing canals was carried out.
Five barrages and a gated siphon were also constructed under this treaty. - See
more at:

The following discussions throws light on the importance of Pakistan's location;

Pakistan is situated in a region of great economic,political and military
importance.Among its neighbouring countries are China and Russia which are
reckoned to be among the countries recognized as super powers.
2.Karachi as an Important Port
The industrial progress of the Western countries depends upon the oil of the Gulf
States.This oil is carried through Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.Karachi is an
important port of the Arabian Sea.The foreign policy of Pakistan
can,therefore,affect and movement.
3.As a center of the Muslim World
Pakistan is situated in the center of Muslim world.To the west of Pakistan,starting
from Afghanistan and Iran lies a chain of Muslim countries passing through Asia
and terminating at the Eastern coast of the Atlantic Ocean i.e the Middle
East,Gulf and Africa.To the East of Pakistan,starting from Bangladesh lies another
chain of Muslim countries while to the North there are six Muslim countries which
gained independence from Russia in 1991.
4.Control Over Warm Water
The seas of Russia are mostly snow capped and are not fit for navigation for the
larger part of the year.To take active part in international trade,Russia dreams to
have control over the warm water of the Indian sea.But Pakistan is a hurdle in its
way and thus enjoys an important position in the scene of international trade.
Position in Third World Countries
Pakistan is a great supporter of the unity of the third World countries.
Climate is an average or general conditions of
temperature,humidity,atmospheric pressure,rainfall of a place.The climate of
Pakistan,on the whole is dry and extreme.It means that the summers are
extrmely hot and winters are extrmely cold and there is a little rainfall during the

There are the following four seasons in Pakistan:

1.Summer-May to mid September.
2.Winter-November to February
3.Autumn-September to November
4.Spring-March and April
In Pakistan climate varies from place to place.Pakistan may be divided into the
following four regions according to climate:
The North and North Western Mountainous Area
This region consists of the North and the North-Western Mountianous areas.This
region has a very severe winter and the temperature falls bellow the freezing
point.In this area the winter seasons remains from six to eight months.On the
other hand ,summers of this region are very pleasant.
The Upper Indus Plain
Below the Northern Mountainous Area is the upper Indus plain.In this area the
summer is very hot.The Months of May,June and first week of July are very hot
because in this period there is no rainfall.However,the climate here becomes
pleasant when rain falls in July.The Winter season of the upper Indus Plains is
very pleasant but it does not last long.
The Coastal Areas and the Lower Indus Valley
The temperature of the coastal areas and the lower indus valley does not rise
due to sea land breez.In this region rain does not fall,however due to blowing of
sea breez humidity is found in the air.Sea breez keeps the climate pleasant.There
is not much difference in the temperature of different months in this region.
The Plateau of baluchistan and the Thar Desert
In Summer,the temperature of the plateau of Baluchistan and the Thar desert
rises.Most of the Mountainous regions of Baluchistan are dry and hot.The Winter
season is very severe in Baluchistan and sometimes snow falls in certain parts
Geostrategic importance of a country implies the significance with respect to its location and the
advantages it incurs because of its geography and it can help exercise a worthwhile influence on
international level due to this. Pakistan has a determinate location. It is the 6th most populous
country in the world. Its geography has been its greatest benefits.
It is a link with the Persian Gulf and a gateway to China and the rest of South Asia. Pakistan
provides access to the warm waters of Indian ocean for land-locked Central Asian states and the
Arabian Sea. It has common border with India. It is located close to the oil-rich Persian Gulf.
Strait of Hormuz is in close propinquity to Pakistan. It is a bridge between South Asia and South
West Asia. Access to Afghanistan is given by the Khyber Pass and the Karakoram Highway
provides access to China. Karachi is a port which provides refueling stop for ships.
China is interested in making Gwader port more functional because it has great strategic
benefits. Gwadar project has a very significant role not only for Pakistan but also for the whole
region. If China has to obtain oil, it has to adopt a very long route through the strait of Malacca

which is under US sway. Afterwards it has to take thousands of miles to take it to the west of
China. But Gwader port will not only reduce the distance but would also provide security.
Moreover through the naval base in Gwader it will be easier for China to trade with the Mid East.
Pakistan should cash this opportunity to the maximum which is bestowed on her because of its
exclusive location and other political factors.
Pakistan has three of the biggest mountains of the world. It is said that that these mountain
ranges serve us safe from Siberian winds. The huge glaciers supply water in the rivers. Our huge
market makes it an avid hub for export of the commodities by our neighbours. A three billion
dollar investment can be made through Khokhrapar-Rajhistan border. It can generate
employment for millions of people. Similarly we can have five times raise in trade with
Kazakistan, Iran and Kirghizstan through the border of Sost. If Torkham and Chaman are used
for transit trade, they can lend us 500 million dollars raise in our transit fees.
Pakistan has served as a frontline state in fight against the forces of violence and extremism with
America and US has time and again stressed on the fact that without the support of Pakistan,
war against terrorism in the aftermath of Al-Qaeda attacks could never have been won. A.Z.Hilali
(author on US Pakistan relations) writes, the country emerged as a front line state, the major
player in the game and the principal channel through which assistance was provided to the
Afghan Mujahidin.
China and US both wish to increase their influence in Pakistan. The important geographical
contiguity factor will enable Pakistan extract maximum gains and it should cash this opportunity
to the core.
It is believed that the most vital factor which can be helpful for any country is the human resource
and Pakistan is the fifth most populous country in the world with a very large share of young
people. It has the fifth largest gold mine and second largest salt mine in the world.
The famous American scholar Stephen Cohen while remonstrating on the thought pattern of
most of the Pakistanis points out that, The establishment is prone to thinking that someone will
always come to Pakistans rescue because of its location. This kind of thinking must be shed
away and we have to learn to rely on our own resources which proliferate in Pakistan. We have to
build abiding relations with the rest of the world countries. If we improve our road network, we
can save billions of dollars. We have to bring it at par to the international level.
It is time that along with maintaining cordial relations with the neighbours and the superpower, we
must make them understand that Pakistan has faced losses amounting to more than 67 billion
dollars in operations against the militants and has provided impetus in destroying core assets of
Al-qaeda. We have rendered every possible collaboration in this regard. Therefore our territorial
sovereignty must be safeguarded. Pakistan is a land which is a hub of the union of different
cultures and we witness a variegated ethno religious diversity.

It promises enormous trade potential and offers buoyant prospects for generating revenue worth
millions of dollars. That is the very reason why since long different countries and nations have
shown an intense interest in it starting from Alexander in 326 BC up till the present day. It is the
time that our leadership must send this message to the doorstep of the modern world that we
have successfully given protection to our religious minorities.
There is reasonably a high rate of political participation of women and they are amply
empowered. Today we are a resilient, modern and forward looking nation and it is undoubtedly
no exaggeration that our educated and fervent and zealous youth possesses the most fertile
mind in the world. What is needed is to just channelize their energies and provide them
opportunities to outshine themselves thereby bringing a miraculous change to the fortune of
Pakistan. May Allah protect our dear homeland.
Pakistan has access of warm waters so Pakistan can trade throughout the year. Arabian Sea is the
heaven of trading. Pakistan has two major coasts Gawadar and Karachi.
Pakistan is the gateway to trade in Far East areas, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Sirilanka and
Australia. Pakistan is separating India from Iran and Afghanistan, and Iran has huge natural resources
like natural oil and gas. India wants to trade with Iran for natural gas with a pipe line. But the pipeline
project still not completed.
Pakistan is very important trade way for china to approach the trade markets of Middle Eastern and
Arabian countries. Chinas own coastal areas are far away and the shortest approach for China to
trade is Pakistan. Pakistan and China has friendly relations with each other. Both of the countries
trade on the bases of Barter trading. Gawadar coast is also functioning in Pakistan with the help of
China. It is located between three major and important regions Central Asia, South Asia and Oil rich
areas of Middle East.
Shahrahe Karakuram is the way from which Pak-China trade. Some Middle Eastern countries also
dont have their own coasts so they are using Karachi coast to trade by sea.
Pakistan is very important country in the world with respect to its geographic location. Its importance
is as a gateway to Islamic countries. Thats way Pakistan is known as the door of Islam/Fort of Islam.