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OISD-STD-141

(Revised)
FOR RESTRICTED

CIRCULATION

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS


FOR
CROSS COUNTRY HYDROCARBON PIPELINES

OISD-STD-141
First Edition, April 1990
Amended Edition, September 2001
Revised Edition, September 2003

OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE


Government of India
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas

OISD-STD-141
First Edition April 1990
Amended Edition, September 2001
Revised Edition, September 2003
FOR RESTRICTED

CIRCULATION

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS


FOR
CROSS COUNTRY HYDROCARBON PIPELINES

Prepared by
COMMITTEE ON
DESIGN AND INSPECTION OF
PIPELINES

OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE

7th FLOOR, NEW DELHI HOUSE


27, BARAKHAMBA ROAD
NEW DELHI -110001

NOTE

OISD publications are prepared for use in the oil and


gas industry under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas.
These are the property of Ministry of Petroleum
&

Chemicals and shall not be reproduced or copied and


loaned or exhibited to others without written consent
from OISD.
Though every effort has been made to assure the
accuracy and reliability of the data contained in these
documents. OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability
or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from their
use.
These documents are intended to supplement rather
than replace their prevailing statutory requirements.

FOREWARD
The Oil Industry in India is 100 years old.
Due to various
collaboration agreements, a variety of international codes, standards and
practices are in vogue.
Standardisation in design philosophies and
operating and maintenance practices at a national level was hardly in
existence. This, coupled with feed back from some serious accidents that
occurred in the recent past in India and abroad, emphasised the need for
the industry to review the existing state of art in designing, operating and
maintaining oil and gas installations.
With this in view, the then Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas in
1986 constituted a Safety Council assisted by Oil Industry Safety
Directorate (OISD) staffed from within the industry in formulating and
implementing a serious of self regulatory measures aimed at removing
obsolescence, standardising and upgrading the existing standards to
ensure safer operations.
Accordingly OISD constituted a number of
Functional Committees comprising of experts nominated from the industry
to draw up standards and guidelines on various subjects.
The present standard on Design and Construction Requirements for
Cross Country Hydrocarbon Pipelines was prepared by the Functional
Committee on Design and Inspection of Pipelines. This standard is based
on the accumulated knowledge and experience of industry members and
the various national and international codes and practices. This standard is
meant to be used as a supplement and not as a replacement for existing
codes and practices. It is hoped that the provision of this standard if
implemented objectively, may go a long way to improve the safety and
reduce accidents in the Oil and Gas Industry. Users are cautioned that
no standard can be a substitute for the judgement of responsible and
experienced engineer. Suggestions are invited from the users after it is put
into practice to improve the standard further. Suggestions for amendments
to this standard should be addressed to:The Coordinator,
Committee on Inspection of Design and Inspection of Pipelines,
Oil Industry Safety Directorate,
7th Floor, New Delhi House,
27-Barakhamba Road,
New Delhi-110 001.
This standard in no way supersedes the statutory regulations of Chief
Controller of Explosive (CCE), Factory Inspectorate or any other Statutory
body which must be followed as applicable.

COMMITTEE
ON
DESIGN AND INSPECTION OF PIPELINES
( First Edition April 1990 )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Name
Organisation
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Leader
1. Sh.V.T. Karode
2. Sh.R.A. Shanbhag **

Oil India Limited


Indian Oil Corporation Limited

Members
3. Sh.Rao Rudravajala
4. Sh.S.K. Goyal

Indian Oil Corporation Limited


Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited

5. Sh.C.N. Char

Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited

6. Sh.E.M Bhumgara

Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited

7. Sh.R.K. Mulla

Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited

8. Sh.R.K. Dhadda

Engineers India Limited

9. Sh.G.V.S. Saiprasad

Gas Authority of India Limited

10. Sh.K.K. Dutta

Oil India Limited

11. Sh.R.K. Baruah

Oil India Limited

Member Coordinator
12. Sh.M. Bhandari
Oil Industry Safety Directorate
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------In addition to the above, several other experts from the industry contributed in the preparation,
review and finalisation of this document.

** (Took over as Leader w.e.f June/89 on Shri Karodes retirement from Oil India
Ltd).

COMMITTEE
ON
DESIGN AND INSPECTION OF PIPELINES
( First Revision September 2003 )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Name
Organisation

Leader
1. Sh.A. Sengupta

Indian Oil Corporation Limited

Members
2. Sh.G.S. Wankhede

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited

3. Sh.KBS Negi

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited

4. Sh.S.S.Patel

GAIL India Limited

5. Sh.P.K.Pal

Indian Oil Corporation Limited

6. Sh.C..K. Soman

Kochi Refineries Limited

Member Coordinator
7. Sh.R.N.Mittal
Oil Industry Safety Directorate
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------In addition to the above, several other experts from the industry contributed in the preparation,
review and finalisation of this document.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS


FOR

CROSS COUNTRY HYDROCARBON PIPELINES


CONTENTS
Sl.No

ITEM DESCRIPTION

PAGE NO.

PART - I
1.0

INTRODUCTION

2.0

SCOPE

3.0

DEFINITIONS

4.0

DESIGN

4.1

Dynamic Effects

4.2

Weight Effects

4.3

Corrosion

4.4

Design of Components

4.5

Valves

4.6

Threaded Joints

4.7

Stress Values

4.8

Design of Pipe supporting Elements

5.0

MATERIALS

5.1

Steel

5.2

Materials for Sour Multiphase Service

6.0

DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS

7.0

CONSTRUCTION, WELDING AND ASSEMBLY

7.1

Location

7.2

Handling, Hauling, Stringing and Storing

7.3

Ditching

7.4

Bends, Miters and Elbows

7.5

Installation of Pipe in the Ditch

7.6

Special Crossings

7.7

Pump Station, Tank Farm and Terminal


Construction

7.8

Storage and Working Tankage Storage

7.9

Pre-Operational Stresses

8.0

INSPECTION AND TESTING

8.1

Type and Extent of Examination Required

8.2

Testing

8.3

Commissioning

8.4

Record

9.0

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES

10.0

CORROSION CONTROL

10.1

Protective Coating

10.2

Cathodic Protection System

10.3

Electrical Isolation

10.4

Temporary Cathodic Protection System

PART II
11.0

DESIGN

11

12.0

PIPING SYSTEMS

11

13.0

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

11

14.0

WELDING

12

15.0

12

15.1

PIPING SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND


FABRICATION DETAILS
Valves and Pressure Reducing Devices

15.2

Expansion and Flexibility

12

15.3

Combined Stress Calculations

13

15.4

Supports and Anchorage for Exposed Piping

15

15.5

Pre-Operational Stresses

15

16.0

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND TESTING

15

16.1

General Provisions

15

16.2

Population Density Index

16

16.3

Corrosion Allowance

16

16.4

Cover Requirements for Pipelines

16

16.5

Clearance Between Pipelines or Mains and other


underground Structures

16

12

16.6

16

16.10

Casing, Requirements under Rail Roads,


Highways, Roads or Streets
Bends, Elbows and Miters in Steel Pipelines and
Mains
Miscellaneous Operations involved in the
Installation of Steel Pipelines and Mains
Water Crossings

16.11

Crossing of / or by Utilities

18

16.12

Testing after Construction

18

16.13

Control and limiting of Gas Pressure

20

16.14

Valves

20

16.15

Pipe Book

21

17.0

OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES

21

18.0

CORROSION CONTROL

21

18.1

Coating Requirements

21

18.2

Electrical Isolation

21

18.3

Electrical Connections and Monitoring Points

21

18.4

Electrical Interference

22

18.5

Existing Installations

22

18.6

Temporary Cathodic Protection System

22

18.7

Internal Corrosion Control

23

19.0

MISCELLANEOUS

23

20.0

REFERENCES

23

16.8
16.9

16
17
17

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS


FOR
CROSS COUNTRY HYDROCARBON PIPELINES

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Areas not covered by 'Offshore' as


defined in B 31.4 clause 400.2Definitions is defined as 'Onshore'.
The definitions of 'Offshore' as per B
31.4 is reproduced hereunder for easy
reference:

Safety in petroleum installations and


pipelines comes through continuous
efforts at all stages and as such it can
be ensured by observing that
installations
and
pipelines
are
designed, constructed and tested as
per recognised engineering standards
and they are periodically inspected and
maintained.

2.0

Offshore - Areas beyond the line of


ordinary high water, along that portion
of the coast that is in direct contact with
the open seas and beyond the line
marking the seaward limit of inland
coastal waters.

SCOPE

c)
ON
PIPELINES

This standard outlines the minimum


requirements for
design, materials,
construction, assembly, inspection,
testing,
commissioning,
operation,
maintenance and safety aspects of
cross country pipelines onshore, (A)
transporting liquids such as crude oil,
condensate, natural gasoline, natural
gas liquids, and liquid petroleum
products (B) transporting Natural Gas,
between producer lease facilities, tank
farms, natural gas processing plants,
refineries, stations, terminals (marine,
truck and rail) and other delivery and
receiving points.

d)

Multiphase fluids means oil, gas or


water in any combination produced
from one or more oil wells or
recombined oil well fluids that may
have been separated in passing
through treatment/processing facilities.
For the purpose of this standard,
multiphase fluids are considered to be
low vapour pressure fluids.

SHOULD

The word 'Should' is used to indicate


that the provision is recommendatory
as sound engineering practices.

MULTIPHASE FLUIDS

SHORE

SHALL

The word 'Shall' is used to indicate that


the provision is mandatory.

DEFINITIONS

b)
ON
PIPELINES

GAS

'Offshore-Areas beyond the line of


ordinary high water, along that portion
of the coast that is in direct contact with
the open seas and beyond the line
marking the seaward limit of inland
coastal waters.'

e)

a)

Areas not covered by 'Offshore' as


defined in B 31.8 clause 803.17 is
defined as 'Onshore'. The definition of
'Offshore' as per B 31.8 is reproduced
hereunder for easy reference:

For convenience 'ASME/ANSI Code B


31.4 herein after is referred' as 'B 31.4'.
and 'ASME/ANSI Code B 31.8 herein
after is referred' as 'B 31.8'.

3.0

SHORE

LIQUID

PART-I

LIQUID PETROLEUM
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
4.0

DESIGN
Design of cross country pipelines
onshore shall be as per ANSI/ASME
B31.4.

4.1

DYNAMIC EFFECTS

Other Loadings
Unusual loadings such as those caused
by scour, erosion, soil movement and
slides, installation forces, vortex
shedding and other phenomena shall
also be considered and provided for in
accordance with sound engineering
practice.
4.2

Supports, Braces and Anchors


4.8.1

Wherever non integral attachments,


such as pipe clamps and ring girders
are used, adequate precautions shall
be taken to prevent corrosion at or near
the contact points.

4.8.2

If a pipeline is designed to operate at


stress level of more than 50% of the
specified minimum yield strength of the
pipe, all connections welded to the pipe
shall be made to a separate cylindrical
member which completely encircles the
pipe, and this encircling member shall
be welded to the pipe by continuous
circumferential welds at both ends.

CORROSION

5.0

MATERIALS

Whenever
internal
or
external
corrosion is expected during the design
life of the pipeline, a suitable corrosion
allowance shall be made at the design
stage.

5.1

STEEL

5.1.1

Carbon Equivalent shall be calculated


based on the formula given below:

WEIGHT EFFECTS
Live Loads
Weight of water during hydrostatic
testing shall also be considered while
designing.

4.3

4.4 DESIGN OF COMPONENTS


4.4.1

STRAIGHT PIPE
The least nominal wall thickness (tn)
for steel pipe, as indicated in B 31.4
clause 404.1.1 shall not be less than
the dimensions indicated in the
specifications for line pipe approved by
B 31.4. Further, pipe having a D/tn
ratio greater than 150 shall not be
used, where D = outside diameter of
pipe.

4.5

5.1.2

5.1.3

Mill Hydrostatic Testing of line pipe is


recommended as 90% of SMYS
irrespective of grade of pipe material.
The pressure hold period should be 15
sec.

5.1.4

Ultrasonic testing for pipe skelp and


weld seam is 100%. Ultrasonic testing
for pipe ends is mandatory.

5.2

MATERIALS
FOR
MULTIPHASE SERVICE

5.2.1

Definition

VALVES
Valves made of cast iron or ductile iron
shall not be used.

4.6

THREADED JOINTS
Threaded joints shall not be used in
cross country pipelines.

4.7

STRESS VALUES
Consideration shall be given to the use
of lower allowable design stress if there
is
likelihood of repeated stress
changes giving rise to fatigue
conditions.

4.8

DESIGN OF PIPE SUPPORTING


ELEMENTS

CE = C + Mn + Cr+Mo+V + Ni+Cu
6
5
15
Carbon Steels having a specified
carbon content in excess of 0.32% or a
carbon equivalent in excess of 0.65%
shall be preheated. API-1104 shall be
referred for guidance.
Additional test requirements shall be as
per Appendix-A of Part-I of this
standard for steel pipes manufactured
by Electric Resistance Welding and/or
Electric Induction welding.

SOUR

NACE Standard MR-OI-75 'Sulfide


Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistant
Metallic Materials for Oil Field
Equipment
defines
limiting
concentrations on hydrogen sulphide in
the fluid transported' for it to be
considered as sour service.

Note:
While past experience has
indicated this to be the accepted
minimum concentration at which
sulphide stress corrosion cracking may
occur,
the
presence
of
other
constituents in the phases making up
the multiphase fluid, such as carbon
dioxide in the gas and salt in the water
or larger amounts of free water or gas,
may cause problems to occur at lower
concentrations of hydrogen sulphide.
5.2.2

7.0

CONSTRUCTION, WELDING
AND ASSEMBLY

7.1

LOCATION
The location of a new underground
pipeline, when running parallel to an
existing underground pipeline, should
be at a minimum clear distance of 5.0
metres from the existing underground
pipeline when heavy conventional
construction equipment is excepted to
be utilized.
This distance may be
reduced after careful assessment of
construction methodologies so that it
does not result in unsafe conditions
during construction. In any case the
minimum clear distance shall not be
less than 3.0 metres. These areas shall
be distinctly identified on ground during
construction.

General
In
addition
to
the
applicable
requirements of B31.4 and this
standard, all materials used in sour
multiphase service shall meet the
following requirements.
a) Pipe, valve, fittings, flanges bolting
and other equipment exposed to or
which are necessary to contain sour
multiphase fluids may be susceptible to
stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen
induced stepwise cracking and thus
due consideration shall be given to
material selection in design.
b)
Materials for sour multiphase
service
shall
conform
to
the
requirements of NACE Standard MR01-75, 'Sulphide Stress Corrosion
Cracking Resistant Metallic Material for
Oil Field Equipment'. Depending upon
the service and the materials involved,
the Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking
(SSCC)
and
Hydrogen
Induced
Cracking (HIC) tests should be
conducted as per NACE standards
referred in Clause 20.0
of this
standard. The acceptance criteria shall
be based on current established
industry practice.
c) Pressure containing components
(excluding pipe) intended for sour
multiphase service shall be fully
identified with a permanent marking.

5.2.3

6.0

Pipes made of cast iron, ductile iron,


bronze and other copper based
materials shall not be used in sour
multiphase service.

No pipeline should be located within


15.0 metres of any private dwelling or
any industrial building or place of public
assembly in which persons work,
congregate or assemble, unless it is
provided with at least 300 mm of cover
in addition to that provided in Table
7.3.3 of this standard.
7.2

Pipe shall not be strung along the right


of way in rocky areas where blasting
may be required, until all blasting is
complete and the area cleared of all
debris. Material other than line pipe
shall not be strung on the right of way
but shall be transported to site for use
only at the time of installation.

7.3

DITCHING

7.3.1

The width of trench shall be such that a


minimum clear distance of 200mm for
trench in normal soil and 300mm for
trench in rock is maintained between
edge of pipe and the trench wall at the
bottom of trench.

7.3.2

Pipelines shall be buried below ground


level, unless construction above
ground is found to be desirable for
exceptional technical, economic or
topographical reasons.

7.3.3

Minimum cover for Buried Pipelines

DIMENSIONAL
REQUIREMENTS
All provisions of B 31.4 Chapter IV
shall apply.

HANDLING, HAULING, STRINGING


AND STORING

The minimum cover shall be as per

table 7.3.3 given below.


TABLE 7.3.3
Minimum Cover for Buried Pipelines
________________________________
Location
Minimum
Cover in
metre
________________________________
Industrial, Commercial
1.0 (2)
and Residential Areas
Stream, Canal and other
Minor water crossings

1.5 (4)

Drainage ditches at
Roadways and railroads

1.0

Rocky Areas

1.0 (2)

Uncased/Cased Road
Crossings

1.2 (3)

Railroad Crossings

1.4 (3)

Other Areas

1.0 (2)

Pipes with longitudinal welds shall be


bent in such a way that weld lies in the
plane passing through neutral axis of
the bend which shall be installed
positioning the longitudinal weld in the
upper quadrants.

7.4.3

BENDS MADE FROM PIPE


The minimum radius of field cold bends
shall be as follows:
________________________________
Nominal Pipe
Minimum Radius of
size In
Bend in Pipe Diameter
________________________________
NPS 12 and smaller
21D
NPS 14 u/i 18
30D
NPS 20 and larger
40D
MITERED BENDS
A mitered bend is not permitted with
the exception of deflections upto 3
degrees
that
are
caused
by
misalignment.

7.5

INSTALLATION OF PIPE IN THE


DITCH

(2)
Minimum depth of cover shall
be measured from the top of pipe
coating to the top of undisturbed
surface of the soil, or top of graded
working strip, whichever is lower. Fill
material in working strip shall not be
considered to add to the depth of
cover.

Before
lowering
operations
are
commenced, particular attention shall
be paid to the suitability of the trench to
allow the pipeline to be lowered without
the coating being damaged and to give
a reasonably even support to the
pipeline.

(3)
Cover shall be measured from
the top of road or top of rail, as the
case may be.

When already coated pipes are being


lowered, a complete check of the pipe
coating and field joint coating shall be
carried out and all damages repaired.

(4)
In case of rivers/water bodies,
which are prone to scour and erosion,
adequate safe cover (minimum 1.5
metre) shall be provided below the
predicted scour profile expected during
the life time of the pipeline.
BENDS, MITERS AND ELBOWS
Bends made from pipe
7.4.1

7.4.2

7.4.4

(1)
The
above
mentioned
minimum cover requirements shall be
valid for all class locations.

7.4

section shall permit easy jointing.


Tangents approximately 1 metre in
length shall be provided on both ends
of cold bends.

The ends of each bent length shall be


straight and not involved any way in
the bending. The length of the straight

Wherever pipeline is laid under tension


as a result of an assembly error (for
example incorrect positioning of bends,
either horizontal or vertical), the trench
shall be rectified or in exceptional
cases a new assembly shall be carried
out so that it fits the excavation and the
laying bed.
Care must be taken that during laying,
the deformation caused during the
raising of the pipe from the support
does not exceed the values for the
minimum allowable radius of elastic

curvature, so as to keep the stresses


in the steel pipe and on the coating
within safe limits.

f)
Whenever
considered
desirable, the section of the pipeline
corresponding to the river crossing
should before installation be subjected
to hydrostatic pre-testing. However,
the complete pipeline corresponding to
river crossing shall be tested after
installation.

In laying parallel pipelines in the same


trench, the minimum clear distances
between the pipelines shall be 500 mm.
7.6

SPECIAL CROSSINGS

7.6.1

Water crossings

7.6.2

a) A minimum clearance of 300mm


shall be maintained at the point of
crossing and the utility or pipeline shall
be installed at a uniform depth for the
full width of the right of way. Where it
is not practicable to obtain the above
mentioned clearance, special design
and construction shall be used.

Special
considerations
shall
be
required for submerged crossings
which are characterized by their
perennial nature, meandering course,
steep and potentially erodable banks,
potentially scouring bed, large erodable
flood plain and wide water course (high
water mark to high water mark) both
during the design and installation of
such crossings.

b) A clearance sufficiently large to


avoid
electrical
fault
current
interference shall be maintained
between the pipeline and the grounding
facilities of electrical transmission lines.

For river crossings such as those


described and established above the
following additional requirements are to
be considered.

c) Interference with, or from, other


systems through the application of
cathodic protection shall be dealt by
mutual action of the parties involved.

a)
Hydrological and geotechnical
surveys to establish the river bed and
water current profiles to predict the
behaviour of the river with respect to
change of course, scour of bed and
erosion of banks and to obtain all other
parameters related to design and
installation of such crossings.

d) When laid parallel to, along or near


underground
power
and
/
or
communication cables, conductors or
conduit, underground pipes shall
maintain a vertical clearance of at
least 300 mm.
Where these
clearances cannot be maintained, extra
precaution shall be taken to ensure the
maximum possible clearance and to
prevent future contact. If pipelines and
communication and / or power utilities
share the same trench, the above
clearance shall be maintained with the
pipeline preferably at a lower level.

b)
The pipeline at such crossings
shall be installed with extra depth of
cover. The cover provided shall be
adequate to prevent exposure of the
pipeline for the entire design life of the
pipeline.
c)
To ensure the stability of the
underwater pipeline, it may be
necessary to add weight to sink and
hold the pipeline in position.

e) A minimum separation of 3.0 metre


should be maintained between pipeline
and transmission tower footings,
ground cables and counter poise.
Regardless of separation, consideration
should always be given to lightning
fault current protection of pipelines and
safety of personnel.

d)
A heavier wall thickness pipe
shall be provided for the river crossing
section.
e)
A detailed stress analysis for
the pipe section for river crossings
should be carried out, taking into
consideration the effect of all loads
during laying and it shall be ensured
that the stresses remain within
permissible limits in accordance with B
31.4.

Crossing of or by Utilities

7.6.3

All crossings shall be made in such a


manner that the angle between the
centerline of the railway, highway, river,
stream, canal or utility being crossed
and the centerline of the pipeline shall

be as close as possible to 90 degree


but in no case less than 45 degree .
7.7
7.7.1

PUMP STATION, TANK FARM AND


TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION

STORAGE
AND
TANKAGE STORAGE

Prior to design and construction of an


underground storage chamber, an
engineering
and
geological
investigation shall be carried out to
determine the feasibility of such a
system at the proposed site. Such
chambers shall be constructed and
operated in accordance with GPA
Publication
8175,
Method
for
Underground Storage of National Gas
Liquids

c)

and

8.1.2

Yard-coated pipe shall be examined


after field bending to ensure that the
quality of the coating has not been
impaired.

8.1.3

Additional precautions such as double


coating, rock shield, selected backfill,
and ditch padding shall be taken where
conditions are such that damage to the
pipe coating could occur.

8.1.4

If moisture is present on the surface of


the pipe, no coating materials shall be
applied.

8.1.5

Unless special procedures can be


taken, no coating shall be applied when
the ambient temperature might have a
detrimental effect on the coating either
during or after application.

8.2

TESTING

8.2.1

A gauging pig shall be passed through


the pipeline to prove the internal
diameter of the entire line.
The
gauging plate shall have a diameter of
95% of the internal diameter of the
pipeline.

8.2.2

All
sections which have
been
previously hydrostatically tested viz.
road/rail crossings and river crossings
shall be retested alongwith the
completed mainline sections.

Backfilling;

d)
Loads imparted by construction
traffic;
e)

Water used for testing should be dozed


with suitable corrosion inhibitor, if
required.

Field bending;

f)
hydrostatic test pressure loads
(particularly when the pipeline is
constructed as an above ground

OF

Field pipeline coating shall be applied


on a properly prepared surface and
visually inspected during application.
Any cutting or removal of the coating
shall be promptly and carefully
repaired.

a)
Transportation and stockpiling
of the pipe;
b)
Stringing,
coating
wrapping, and laying.;

TYPE
AND
EXTENT
EXAMINATION REQUIRED

8.1.1

PRE-OPERATIONAL STRESSES
It is desirable to limit stresses during
pre-operational manipulation of the
pipe so as to avoid damage that might
impair the operability of the line. The
designer shall ensure that preoperational stresses are controlled and
that they are non-injurious to the pipe.
Consideration shall be given to, but not
restricted to, the effect of the following
pre-operational loads:

INSPECTION AND TESTING

Construction

WORKING

Underground Storage

7.9

8.0
8.1

Location
Minimum distances from property lines
and road allowance limits to buildings
and equipment etc. shall meet the
requirements of OISD Standard 118
"Layouts for Oil and Gas Installations".

7.8

installation or is buried in unstable


soils).

8.2.3

Test Pressure
Hydrostatic Testing
Pressure Piping

of

Internal

possible. After drying, the pipeline


shall be filled with the liquid. Care shall
be taken to clear pockets of water from
valves and fittings.

The test pressure shall be decided as


per B31.4. The duration of hydrostatic
proof test shall be minimum 24 hours.
8.2.4

Acceptance of Test

8.4

The test is successful when the pipeline


has withstood the strength and leak
tests and during the test period there is
no observable drop in pressure that
cannot
be
accounted
for
by
temperature changes.
8.2.5

Pipe Book
A pipe and welding book shall be
maintained for all projects. The purpose
of the pipe book shall be to indicate
and maintain as a permanent record
the exact position in the pipeline of
each pipe length and each pipeline
material like valves, scraper traps,
bends, flanges, and other fittings
installed in the project. Each item shall
be recorded by its identification
number.
Location of each weld
including weld number, welder number,
type of welding and electrode, weld
treatment and details of equipment
used for radiography shall be recorded
in the pipe book.

Termination of Testing
The
pipeline
shall
be
slowly
depressurized at a moderate and
constant rate. During dewatering, care
shall be taken to properly dispose the
discharging water in order to avoid
pollution, damages to fields under
cultivation and/or existing structures
and interference with the traffic.

8.2.6

Pre- tested Pipe


Pipe used for making repairs shall be
pre-tested to a pressure equal to or
greater than the original pipeline
strength test pressure.

8.2.7

Preservation of Pipeline
If the pipeline is to be preserved for a
specified duration before it can be
commissioned, the pipeline shall be
completely filled with water with
sufficient quantities of
corrosion
inhibitors depending upon the quality of
water and the period of preservation
and at a suitable pressure.

8.3

COMMISSIONING

8.3.1

Commissioning
shall
consist
of
displacing the hydrostatic test water
from the pipeline by pumping in the
liquid to be transported. Batching pigs
or spheres shall be used not only to
minimize mixing at the interface but
also to enable the progress of the
interface to be followed.

8.3.2

RECORD

In cases where the water has to be


cleared from the pipeline before
commissioning because of possible
chemical or physical action between
the water and the liquid to be
transported, the pipeline shall be first
drained and then dried as thoroughly as

9.0

OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
All provisions of B 31.4-Chapter-VII
and OISD-STD-138 shall apply.

10.0

CORROSION CONTROL

10.1

PROTECTIVE COATING
a)
Coatings
shall
electrically
isolate the external surface of the
piping system from the environment.
b)
All joints, fittings, repairs and
tie-ins shall be coated with a material
compatible with the existing coating.

10.2 CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM


a) Existing Bare Pipelines Systems
Investigation shall be made to
determine the extent or effect, of
corrosion on existing bare pipeline
systems. When these investigations
indicate that continuing corrosion will
create a hazard, corrosion control
measures or other remedial action shall
be undertaken.
b) Cathodically Protected Pipeline
Systems Temporarily Out of service

Cathodic Protection system shall be


maintained on any pipeline that is
temporarily out of service.
10.3

below

and

Figure

B.1.

ELECTRICAL ISOLATION
Whereas such insulating devices are
installed, they shall be properly rated
for temperature, pressure, electrical
properties, and shall be resistant to the
commodity carried in the pipeline
systems.

10.4

TEMPORARY CATHODIC
PROTECTION SYSTEM
When
considered
necessary
a
temporary cathodic protection system
with sacrificial anodes shall be installed
to ensure adequate protection of
pipeline from external corrosion from
the time the pipeline is laid in the
trench till the permanent cathodic
protection system is commissioned.
The temporary CP system shall
preferably be installed simultaneously
keeping pace with the pipeline laying /
installation work and shall be monitored
periodically.

10.5

Safety appliances shall be provided


against lightning, stray current interference from foreign objects at HT
pipeline crossings.

APPENDIX - A
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR
ELECTRIC RESISTANCE/ELECTRIC
INDUCTION WELDED LINE PIPE
B.1

Reverse Bend Tests


Reverse bend tests shall be performed
on the pipe piece cut from the crop end
from the front end of the first length
and the back end of the last length
produced from each coil.
The
specimen shall be 100mm to 115mm
long and shall be reverse bend tested
in accordance with procedure given

a) Selection of Mandrel
The reverse bend test shall be carried
out with a mandrel, whose radius(R),
width(A) shall be calculated for any
combination of diameter, wall thickness
and grade with the formula.
A = 2R =

1.4 (D-t) t
------------e(D-2t)-1.4t

-t

where, D - Outside diameter of pipe


t - Wall thickness of pipe
1.4 - Peaking factor
e - Strain
Minimum values of 'e' shall be as
follows:
---------------------------------------------------Grade of Steel
Min 'e' value
---------------------------------------------------ASTM A53
B
0.1425
ASTM A 135
B
0.1425
API 5L
B
0.1425
API 5L
X-42
0.1375
API 5L
X-46
0.1325
API 5L
X-52
0.1275
API 5L
X- 56
0.1175
API 5L
X- 60
0.1125
API 5L
X- 65
0.1100
API 5L
X- 70
0.1025
API 5L
X- 80
0.0900
---------------------------------------------------b) Procedure
The mandrel is to be plugged into the
specimen, with the weld in contact with
mandrel, to such a depth that the angle
of engagement between mandrel and
specimen reaches 600 (see Fig. B1). If
the combination of diameter and wall

thickness of pipe, and radius of


mandrel is such that the angle of
engagement does not reach 600, the
mandrel shall be plugged into the
specimen until opposite walls of the
specimen meet.
c) Acceptance Criteria
A specimen which fractures completely
prior to the specified engagement of
mandrel and specimen, or which
reveals cracks and ruptures in the weld
or heat affected zone longer than 4mm,
shall be rejected. Cracks less than
6mm long at the edges of the specimen
shall not be cause for rejection.
B.2
Micrographic and Hardness
Examination

finished pipe from each lot of


maximum 50 lengths from the same
heat manufactured from the same
process.
These specimens shall be polished and
etched for micro-examinations. The
examinations shall provide evidence
that heat treatment of weld zone is
adequate and there is no untempered
martensite left.
The Manufacturer shall make hardness
measurements on each specimen as
indicated in Fig. B.2 in accordance with
ASTM E-32. The maximum difference
in hardness between base material and
any reading taken in the heat affected
zone shall be less than 80 points
Vicker's HV10.

A test specimen shall be taken across


the longitudinal weld from one length of

PART-II
GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
11.0

DESIGN

metal temperature when the hoop


stress exceeds 50 MPa (7000 psi),
having due regard to past recorded
temperature data and the minimum
gas temperature that may occur. The
minimum design temperature shall
take into account the effect of lower
air or ground temperatures in the
area.

Design of cross country pipelines


onshore shall be as per ANSI/ASME
B31.8.

12.0

PIPING SYSTEMS

12.1

The Pipe wall thickness less than 6.4


mm should not be used for cross
country pipelines in the city limits.

b)
The
maximum
design
temperature shall be taken as the
highest expected operating pipe or
metal temperature, having due regard
to past recorded temperature data and
the
possibilities
of
higher
temperatures occurring.

12.2

Pipe diameter 4 and above shall be


used for cross country pipelines.

12.3

All cross country pipelines shall be


piggable.

13.0

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

13.3

13.1

When
the
maximum
design
temperature exceeds 120 deg.C (250
deg. F), particular attention shall be
given to the tensile properties of the
material to ensure that the derating for
temperature is adequate.

13.3.1 Carbon Equivalent

13.2

OPERATING
CONDITIONS,
TEMPERATURE
AND
NOTCH
TOUGHNESS REQUIREMENTS

13.2.1 For steel pipes smaller than 2" NPS


and steel valves, fittings and flanges
smaller than 2" NPS, proven notch
toughness
properties
are
not
mandatory.
13.2.2 For steel pipes and associated steel
components of size 2" NPS and
larger, Notch toughness values shall
be determined to provide protection
against
fracture
initiation
and
propagation. Notch toughness valves
(minimum absorbed energy valves)
shall be specified based on the design
operating stress and the minimum
design temperature.
13.2.3 The minimum and maximum design
temperatures shall be determined as
follows:
a)
The
minimum
design
temperature shall be taken as the
lowest expected operating pipe or

MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS

Carbon Equivalent shall be calculated


based on the formula given below:
CE = C + Mn + Cr+Mo+V + Ni+Cu
6
5
15
Carbon Steels having a specified
carbon content in excess of 0.32% or
a carbon equivalent in excess of
0.65% shall be preheated. API-1104
shall be referred for guidance.
13.3.2 If steel pipe is intended to be heated
during fabrication and/or installation,
the effect of the time-temperature
relationship on the mechanical
properties of the pipe shall be
determined
and
taken
into
consideration.
13.3.3 Additional test requirements shall be
specified as per Standards /
Guidelines mentioned in Appendix-A,
Part-I of this standard for steel pipes
manufactured by Electric Resistance
Welding and/or Electric Induction
Welding.
13.3.4 Mill Hydrostatic Testing of line pipe is
recommended as 90% of SMYS
irrespective of grade of pipe material.
The pressure hold period should be 15
sec.

13.3.5 Ultrasonic testing for pipe skelp and


weld seam is 100%. Ultrasonic testing
for pipe ends is mandatory.
13.4

criteria shall be based on current


established industry practices.
d) Pressure containing components
(excluding pipes) intended for sour
gas service shall be fully identified
with a permanent marking.

REQUIREMENTS FOR SOUR GAS


SERVICE

13.4.1 Definition
NACE standard MR-01-75 "Sulphide
Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistant
Metallic Material for Oil Field
Equipment"
defines
specific
conditions,
which
a
gaseous
hydrocarbon shall be considered to be
sour.
Note: While the limiting conditions
defined in NACE standard MR-01-75
for considering gaseous hydrocarbons
as sour is the normally accepted
minimum concentration of hydrogen
sulphide at which material problems
occur, the presence of other
constituents in the gas stream, such
as CO2 and Salts in water, may cause
problems at lower concentrations of
hydrogen sulphide.

e) Cast iron line pipe shall not be used


to convey sour gas.

14.0

Carbon equivalent (CE) wherever


referred in this chapter, shall be
calculated based on the following
formula:
CE = C + Mn + Cr+Mo+V + Ni+Cu
6
5
15
Carbon Steels having a specified
carbon content in excess of 0.32% or
a carbon equivalent in excess of
0.65% shall be preheated. API-1104
shall be referred for guidance.

15.0

PIPING SYSTEM
COMPONENTS AND
FABRICATION DETAILS

15.1

VALVES
AND
REDUCING DEVICES

13.4.2 General
a) In addition to the applicable
requirements of B 31.8 and this
standard, all materials used in sour
gas service shall also meet the
following requirements.
b)
Pipe, valves, fittings, flanges,
bolting and other equipment exposed
to or which are necessary to contain
sour gas may be susceptible to
Sulphide Stress corrosion cracking
and hydrogen induced step-wise
cracking and thus due consideration
shall be given to material selection in
design.
c) All materials used in sour gas
service shall conform to the material
requirements of NACE standard MR01-75, "Sulphide Stress Corrosion
Cracking Resistant Metallic Material
for Oil Field Equipment". Depending
upon the service and the materials
involved,
the
Sulphide
Stress
Corrosion Cracking (SSCC) and
Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)
tests should be conducted as per
NACE standards mentioned in Clause
20.0 of this standard. The acceptance

WELDING

PRESSURE

Valves made of cast iron or ductile


iron shall not be used in gas piping
systems.
15.2

EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY

15.2.1 This section is applicable to both


above ground and buried piping and
covers all classes of materials
permitted by this standard. Formal
calculations shall be required where
reasonable doubt exists as to the
adequate flexibility of the piping.
Note : For the purpose of this
standard, 'unrestrained' means that
the pipe is able to strain along its
length, move laterally, or both. Pipe
that does not meet both of the above
requirements is referred to as
'restrained'. Typically, long straight
lengths of buried pipe and above
ground pipe on closely spaced rigid
supports are classified as restrained,
whereas buried pipelines adjacent to
bends or unanchored end caps could
be regarded as restrained or

unrestrained, depending on specific


circumstances.
15.2.2 EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY

support

(d)
Self-weight and gravity dead
loads;

a)
Expansion
calculations
are
necessary for buried lines if significant
temperature changes are expected.
Thermal expansion of buried lines
may cause movement at points where
the line terminates, changes in
direction, or changes in size. Unless
such movements are restrained by
suitable anchors, the necessary
flexibility shall be provided.
b) Means of providing Flexibility
If expansion is not absorbed by direct
axial compression of the pipe,
flexibility shall be provided by the use
of bends, loops, or offsets or provision
shall be made to absorb thermal
strains by expansion joints or
couplings of the slip joint, ball joint, or
bellows type. If expansion joints are
used, anchors or ties of sufficient
strength and rigidity shall be installed
to provide for end forces due to fluid
pressure and other causes.
15.3

(c)
Differential
movements;

COMBINED STRESS
CALCULATIONS

15.3.1 General
In
addition
to
satisfying
the
requirements of clause 841 of B 31.8,
it may be necessary to calculate the
longitudinal,
axial, and bending
stresses, the torsional stresses, the
hoop stresses, the stress interactions
and the reactions at significant points
in the system. In calculating these
stresses and reactions and the effects
of various loadings on the piping the
designer
shall
use
established
fundamental analysis methods.

(e)
Static wind loads and static
fluid loads.
ii) In addition to the requirements of
Clause 15.3.2(i) above, consideration
shall be given, where applicable, to
the service conditions to which the
pipe and support system are to be
subjected. Consideration shall also be
given to, but not necessarily limited to
the effects of the following additional
loadings:
(a)

Overburden loads;

(b)

Live loads;

(c)

Buoyancy;

(d)
Dynamic and seismic loads:
Seismic
load
consideration
for
earthquake prone areas should be
taken after proper seismic survey to
determine liquefaction factor of soil.
The pipeline cover will be decided
considering the above factor.
(e)
Cyclic and vibratory loads
including the effect of Stress
Intensification. Factors on the fatigue
life of components;
(f)

Internal pressure fluctuations;

(g)
External hydrostatic pressure
(including collapse, wave loadings and
all significant fluid loads to which a
submerged line might be submitted);
(h)
Geotechnical loads (including
slides, differential
settlement,
loss of support, and thermal effect of
the pipeline on soil properties).

15.3.2 Loading Considerations


15.3.3 Stress Values
i) Consideration shall be given to the
stresses and reactions caused by, but
not necessarily limited to the following
loadings:(a)

Internal pressure;

(b)
Thermal
contraction;

expansion

and

a) General
There are fundamental differences in
loading conditions for the buried, or
similarly restrained positions of the
piping and the above ground portions
not subject to substantial axial
restraint. Therefore, different limits on

allowable
longitudinal
stresses are necessary.

expansion
SE = Sq. Root of (Sb2 + St2 )

b) Restrained Lines

Where,

The net longitudinal compressive


stress due to the combined effects of
temperature rise and fluid pressure
shall be computed from the equation:

SE = Stress due to expansion.


Sb = Sq. Root of{( i 1 M1)2 + ( i0 M0)2}/Z
=equivalent bending stress, psi
(MPa)

SL = Ea (T2-T1) - v Sh
in which,

St = Mt/2Z = torsional stress, psi(MPa)

SL = The longitudinal compressive


stress, psi(MPa)

M1 = Bending moment in plane of


member
(for
members
having
significant orientation, such as elbows
or tees, for the latter the moments in
the header and branch portions are to
be considered separately) in.lb. (N.m)

Sh = Hoop stress due to internal fluid


pressure, psi (MPa)
T1 = Temperature at time
installation degrees F(degrees C)
T2 = Maximum
or
operating
temperature
F(degrees C)

of

minimum
degrees

E = Modulus of Elasticity of steel,


psi (MPa)
a = Linear coefficient of thermal
expansion, inch per inch per degree F
(mm per mm per degree C)
v

M0 = bending moment out of, or


transverse,to plane of member, in lb.
(N.m)
Mt = torsional moment, in lb. (N.m)
ii = stress intensification factor
under bending in plane of member (B
31.8 Appendix E)
io = stress intensification factor under
belonging out of, or transverse to,
plane of member (B 31.8 Appendix E)

Poisson's ratio = 0.30 for steel

Note that the net longitudinal stress


becomes compressive for moderate
increases of T2 and that according to
the commonly used maximum shear
theory of failure, this compressive
stress adds directly to the hoop stress
to increase the equivalent tensile
stress available to cause yielding.
This equivalent tensile stress shall not
be allowed to exceed 90 per cent of
the specified minimum yield strength
of the pipe, calculated for nominal
pipe wall thickness. Beam bending
stresses shall be included in the
longitudinal stress for those portions
of the restrained line which are
supposed above ground.
c) Unrestrained Lines
Stresses due to expansion for those
portions on the piping without
substantial axial restrain shall be
combined in accordance with the
following equation:

Z =
Section modulus
inch3(mm 3)

of pipe,

The maximum computed expansion


stress range, SE without regard for
fluid pressure stress, based on 100
per cent of the expansion, with
modulus of elasticity for the cold
condition, shall not exceed 0.72 times
the specified minimum yield strength
of the pipe.
The total of the following shall not
exceed the specified minimum yield
strength, S.
a)
the combined stress due to
expansion, SE.
b)
the
stress.

longitudinal

pressure

c)
the longitudinal bending stress
due to external loads, such as weight
of pipe and contents, wind etc.

The sum of the longitudinal stresses


due to pressure, weight, and other
sustained external loadings shall not
exceed 0.75 time the allowable stress
in the hot condition.
The sum of the longitudinal stresses
produced by pressure, live and dead
loads, and those produced by
occasional loads, such as wind or
earthquake, shall not exceed 80 per
cent of the specified minimum yield
strength of the pipe.
It is not
necessary to consider wind and
earthquake as occurring concurrently.

f) hydrostatic test pressure loads


(particularly when the pipeline is
constructed as an above grade
installation or is buried in unstable
soils).

16.0

DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND


TESTING

16.1

GENERAL PROVISIONS
The selection of design for pipeline
system shall be based on the
following evaluation of the properties
and required flow rate of the fluid to
be transported, together with the
environment in which the pipeline is to
be installed.

Stresses due to test conditions are not


subject to the above limitations. It is
not necessary to consider other
occasional loads, such as wind and
earthquake, as occurring concurrently
with the live, dead and test loads
existing at the time of test.
15.4

SUPPORTS AND ANCHORAGE FOR


EXPOSED PIPING

b)
Operating
temperatures.

Attachment
Anchors

c)
Gathering
transmission
system,
system, or service lines.

of

supports

on

Due consideration shall be given to


the effect of such attachments on
possible fatigue failures and local
stress concentrations.
15.5

a)
Sweet or sour natural gas,
single or multiphase flow conditions,
vapour phase LPG.

d)
16.2

a) Transportation and stockpiling of


the pipe;

16.3

d) Loads imparted by construction


traffic;
e) Field bending;

system,
distribution

Onshore or offshore pipeline.

POPULATION DENSITY INDEX

CORROSION ALLOWANCE
Whenever
internal
or
external
corrosion is expected during the
design life of the pipeline, a suitable
corrosion allowance shall be made at
the design stage.

16.4

COVER
REQUIREMENTS
PIPELINES
Refer
Table
requirements.

b) Stringing, coating and wrapping,


and laying;
c) Backfilling;

and

A Class 4 location ends 220 metre


from the nearest building with 4 or
more stories above ground.

PRE-OPERATIONAL STRESSES
It is desirable to limit stresses during
pre-operational manipulation of the
pipe so as to avoid damage that might
impair the operability of the line. The
designer shall ensure that preoperational stresses are controlled
and that they are non-injurious to the
pipe. Consideration shall be given to,
but not restricted to, the effect of the
following pre-operational loads:

pressures

16.5

7.3.3

for

FOR
cover

CLEARANCE BETWEEN PIPELINES


OR
MAINS
AND
OTHER
UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

16.5.1 In laying parallel pipelines in the same


trench, the minimum clear distances

between the pipelines shall be 500


mm.
16.5.2 The location of a new underground
pipeline, when running parallel to an
existing underground pipeline should
be at a minimum clear distance of 5.0
metre from the existing underground
pipeline when heavy conventional
construction equipment is expected to
be utilized. This distance may be
reduced after a careful assessment of
construction methodologies, which do
not result in unsafe conditions during
construction.
In any case the
minimum clear distance shall not be
less than 3.0 meter. These areas
shall be distinctly identified on ground
during construction.
No pipeline should be located within
15.0 metre of any private dwelling, or
any industrial building or a place of
public assembly in which persons
work, congregate or assemble, unless
it is provided with atleast 300 mm of
cover in addition to that provided in
clause 16.4 of this standard.
16.6

CASING, REQUIREMENTS UNDER


RAILROADS, HIGHWAYS, ROADS,
OR STREETS
Pipeline, casing pipe and vent pipes
shall be at least 1.2 metre away
(vertically) from aerial electrical wires
and shall be suitably insulated from
underground conduits carrying electric
wires on railway land.

16.7

16.8

Design and construction of


gas pipelines crossing Railroads,
Highways, Roads or Streets shall be
done in accordance with the
provisions of "Recommended Practice
for
Liquid
Petroleum
Pipelines
Crossing Railroads and Highways"
API RP 1102 and applicable clauses
of B31.8 and this standard.
BENDS, ELBOWS AND MITERS IN
STEEL PIPELINES AND MAINS
The minimum radius of field cold
bends shall be as follows:
_______________________________
Normal Pipe
Minimum Radius of
Size (in)
Bending in Pipe
Diameters
_______________________________
NPS 12 and smaller
21 D

NPS 14 u/i 18
30 D
NPS 20 and larger
40 D
_______________________________
16.8.1 The ends of each bent length shall be
straight and not involved anyway in
the bending.
The length of the
straight section shall permit easy
jointing. Tangents approximately 1
metre in length shall be provided on
both ends of cold bends. A field bend
shall not be made within two pipe
diameters of a field weld. Tangent
lengths should not be reduced in the
field.
16.8.2 Pipes with longitudinal welds shall be
bent in such a way lies in the plane
passing through neutral axis of the
bend which shall be installed
positioning the longitudinal weld in the
upper quadrants.
16.8.3 A mitered bend is not permitted with
the exception of deflections upto 3
degrees
that
are
caused
by
misalignment.
16.8.4 Field-cut segments of elbows NPS 12"
and larger are not recommended.
16.9

MISCELLANEOUS
OPERATIONS
INVOLVED IN THE INSTALLATION
OF STEEL PIPELINES AND MAINS

16.9.1 Handling, Hauling, and Stringing


Pipe shall not be strung on the Rightof-Way in rocky areas where blasting
may be required, until all blasting is
complete and the area cleared of all
debris. Material other than line pipe
shall not be strung on the Right-ofway but shall be transported to site for
use only at the time of installation.
16.9.2 Installation of Pipe in the Ditch
Pipelines shall be buried below ground
level, unless construction above
ground is found to be desirable for
exceptional technical, economic or
topographical reasons.
Before lowering operations are
commenced, particular attention shall
be paid to the suitability of the trench
to allow the pipeline to be lowered
without the coating being damaged

and to give a reasonably even support


to the pipeline.

(b)
The pipeline at such crossings
shall be installed with extra depth of
cover. The cover provided shall be
adequate to prevent exposure of the
pipeline for the entire design life of the
pipeline.

When already coated pipes are being


lowered, a complete check of the pipe
coating and field joint coating shall be
carried out and all damages repaired.

(c)
To ensure the stability of the
underwater pipeline, it may be
necessary to add weight to sink and
hold the pipeline in position.

Wherever pipeline is laid under


tension as a result of an assembly
error
(for
example,
incorrect
positioning of bends, either horizontal
or vertical), the trench shall be
rectified or in exceptional cases a new
assembly shall be carried out so that it
fits the excavation and the laying bed.

(d)
A heavier wall thickness pipe
shall be provided for a river crossing
section.
(e)
A detailed stress analysis for
the pipe section for river crossings
should be necessary taking into
consideration the effect of all loads
during laying and it shall be ensured
that the stresses remain within
permissible limits in accordance with
B 31.8 and this standard.

Care must be taken that the


deformation caused during the raising
of the pipe from the supports does not
exceed the valves for the minimum
allowable radius of elastic curvature,
so as to keep the stresses on the steel
pipe and on the coating within safe
limits.

(f)
Whenever
considered
desirable, the section of the pipeline
corresponding to the river crossing
should,
before
installation,
be
subjected to hydrostatic pretesting.
However, the complete pipeline
corresponding to river crossing shall
be tested after installation.

The width of trench shall be such that


a minimum clear distance of 200mm
for trench in normal soil and 300mm
for trench in rock is maintained
between edge of pipe and the trench
wall at the bottom of trench.
16.10

WATER CROSSINGS
16.11
Special considerations shall be
required for submerged crossing by
pipelines of rivers which are
characterized by their perennial
nature, meandering course, steep and
potentially erodable banks, potentially
scouring bed, large erodable flood
plain and wide water course (high
water mark to high water mark) both
during the design and installation of
such crossings:
For river crossings such as those
described and established as above,
the following requirements are to be
considered:
(a)
Hydrological and geotechnical
surveys to establish the river bed and
water current profiles, to predict the
behaviour of the river with respect to
change of course, scour of bed and
erosion of banks and to obtain all
other parameters related to design
and installation of such crossings.

CROSSING OF / OR BY UTILITIES

16.11.1 A minimum clearance of 300mm shall


be maintained at the point of crossing
and the utility or pipeline shall be
installed at a uniform depth for the full
width of the right-of-way, provided
that, where it is not practicable to
obtain
the
above
mentioned
clearance,
special
design
and
construction shall be used.
16.11.2 A clearance sufficiently large to avoid
electrical fault current interference
shall be maintained between the
pipeline and the grounding facilities of
electrical transmission lines.
16.11.3 Interference with, or from, other
systems through the application of
Cathodic Protection shall be dealt with
by mutual action of the parties
involved.
16.11.4 When laid parallel to along or near
underground
power
and/or
communication cables, conductors, or

conduit, underground pipes shall,


maintain a vertical clearance of at
least 300mm.
Where these
clearances cannot be maintained,
extra precaution shall be taken to
ensure
the
maximum
possible
clearance and to prevent future
contact.
If
pipelines
and
communication and/or power utilities
share the same trench, the above
clearance shall be maintained with the
pipeline preferably at a lower level.
16.11.5 A minimum separation of 3.0 metre
should be maintained between
pipeline and transmission tower
footings, ground cables and counter
poise.
Regardless of separation
consideration should always be given
to lightning fault current protection of
pipelines and safety of personnel.
16.11 6 All crossings shall be made in such a
manner that the angle between the
centreline of the railway, highway,
river, stream, canal or utility being
crossed and the centreline of the
pipeline shall be as close as possible
to 90 deg. but in no case less than 45
deg.
16.12

TESTING AFTER CONSTRUCTION

16.12.1 General Provisions


a) All Pipelines, mains, and service
lines shall be tested in place after
construction, except as provided for in
(b) below.
b) Tie-ins
For pipelines intended to operate at
hoop stresses of 30% or more of the
specified minimum yield strength
pretested pipe shall be used in tie-in
sections and for those sections where
in-place testing is not practicable.
16.12.2Test Required to Prove Strength of
Pipelines and Mains to Operate at
Hoop Stresses of 30% or More of
the Specified Minimum Yield
Strength of the Pipe:
a) All test assemblies used in testing
shall be fabricated and installed in
accordance with provisions of B 31.8
covering permanent assemblies and
fabrications.

For all buried and submerged piping,


the test pressure shall be maintained
for a period of 24 hours after
temperature
stabilization
and
stabilization
of
surges
from
pressurizing operations.
The test
pressure for above ground piping and
offshore platform piping shall be
maintained for a minimum period of 4
hours, during which time the piping
shall be inspected for leaks.
All sections, which have been
previously hydrostatically tested viz.
road/rail crossings and river crossings,
shall be retested along with the
completed mainline sections.
A guaging pig shall be passed through
the pipeline to prove the internal
diameter of the entire line, the
guaging plate having a diameter of
95% of the internal diameter of the
pipeline.
When water is used as the test
medium, inhibited water, i.e. water to
which suitable doses of corrosion
inhibitors are added depending upon
quality of water, shall be used.
b) Pipelines and mains located in
class 1 and class 2 location shall be
tested with air, gas or water to at least
1.25 times the maximum operating
pressure.
Testing,
wherever
practicable, shall be by means of
water rather than a gaseous medium.
Where a gaseous medium is used, the
test pressure shall not exceed 1.25
times
the
maximum
operating
pressure. Sour gas shall not be used
as a test medium.
c) Compressor station, regulator
station and measuring station gas
piping, including the piping connecting
the station to valving employed for
isolating the station from the pipeline
and designed in accordance with
Type-C construction (Design factor =
0.5) shall be tested to atleast class 3
location test requirements.
d) Where testing of offshore platform
gas piping and pipe riser cannot be
accomplished separately from the
main offshore pipeline, the piping
components shall be pretested to
atleast 1.4 times the maximum
operating pressure, provided that all

final
welds
are
inspected
in
accordance with the provisions of B
31.8 and all such piping is retested
with the main offshore pipeline to
class 1 location test requirements.

e) Test Requirements for Pipelines


and Mains to Operate at Hoop
Stresses of 30% or More of the
Specified Minimum Yield Strength of
the Pipe

GENERAL NOTES:

imposed by Table 16.12.2.5 of this


standard do not apply.

mop = Maximum operating pressure (not


necessarily the maximum allowable
operating pressure)
dp
= design pressure
tp
= test pressure
This table brings out the relationship
between test pressures and maximum
allowable
operating
pressures
subsequent to the test. If an operating
company decides that the maximum
operating pressure will be less than
the design pressure, a corresponding
reduction in prescribed test pressure
may be made as indicated in the
pressure Test Prescribed, Minimum,
column. However, if this reduced test
pressure is used, the Maximum
operating pressure cannot later be
raised to design pressure without
retesting the line to the test pressure
prescribed in the Pressure Test
Prescribed.

g) Records
The operating company shall maintain
in its file for the useful life of each
pipeline and main, records showing
the procedures used and the data
developed
in
establishing
its
maximum
allowable
operating
pressure.
The record shall contain at least the
following information:
i.

ii. Pipe Specifications of sections


under test;
iii. Elevation profile and the location
of the test section and testing points,
if applicable;
iv. Testing medium used;
v.

f) In such cases an air test to 1.25


times
the
maximum
operating
pressure shall be made and the
limitations on operating pressure

Time and data of Test;

Test pressure at lowest elevation;

vi. Test duration;


vii. Pressure
and
temperature
recording charts, if applicable;

viii. Pressure-Volume
applicable;

chart,

with automatic closing devices should


be provided for sour gas pipelines in
order to minimize the volume of
hydrogen sulphide that could be
released in the event of a pipeline
failure.

if

ix. Location of leaks or failures and


description of repair action taken.
h) Acceptance of Test

16.15

The test is successful when the


pipeline has withstood the strength
test, and during the test period there is
no observable drop in pressure that
cannot
be
accounted
for
by
temperature changes.

A pipe and welding book shall be


maintained for all projects.
The
purpose of the pipe book shall be to
indicate and maintain as a permanent
record the exact position in the
pipeline of each pipe length and each
pipeline material like valves, scraper
traps, bends, and flanges and other
fittings installed in the project. Each
item shall be recorded by its
identification number.
Location of
each weld including weld number,
welder number, type of welding and
electrode, weld treatment and the
details of used equipment for
radiography shall be recorded in the
pipe book.

16.12.3 Termination of Testing


The
pipeline
shall
be
slowly
depressurized at a moderate and
constant rate.
During dewatering,
care shall be taken to properly dispose
the discharging water in order to avoid
pollution, damages to fields under
cultivation and/or existing structures
and interference with the traffic.
16.12.4 Pre-tested Pipe
Pipe used for making repairs shall be
pre-tested to a pressure equal to or
greater than the original pipeline
strength test pressure.
16.12.5 Preservation of Pipeline
If the pipeline is to be preserved for a
specified duration before it can be
commissioned, the pipeline shall be
completely filled with water with
sufficient quantities of corrosion
inhibitors, depending upon the quality
of water and the period of
preservation,
or
with
a
nonflammable, non-toxic gas and at a
suitable pressure.
16.13

17.0

18.0

CORROSION CONTROL

18.1

COATING REQUIREMENTS
Coatings shall:
a)
Electrically
isolate
the
external surface of the pipeline
system from the environment;
b)
Have sufficient adhesion to
effectively resist underfilm migration
of moisture;

CONTROL AND LIMITING OF GAS


PRESSURE

c)

Be ductile to resist cracking;

d)
Have a strength or otherwise
be protected to resist damage due
to normal handling (including concrete
coating application,
or river weight
installation, where applicable) and soil
stress;

VALVES
Notwithstanding
the
foregoing
provisions
of
this
clause,
sectionalizing block valves equipped

OPERATING AND
MAINTENANCE
PROCEDURES

All provisions of B 31.8 Chapter V and OISDSTD-138 shall apply.

Maximum
Allowable
Operating
Pressure for Steel or Plastic Pipelines
or Mains Consistent with Table
16.12.2.5 of this standard shall be
adhered to.
16.14

PIPE BOOK

e)
Be compatible with cathodic
protection system.
18.2

ELECTRICAL ISOLATION

When a thermit welding process is


used for electrical lead installation on
pressurized pipelines, precautions
shall be taken to avoid possible failure
of the pipeline during installation due
to loss of material strength at the
elevated
welding
temperatures.
Where a thermit welding process is
not deemed suitable. Consideration
shall be given to other methods of
installation.

a)
This clause shall not take
precedence over recognized electrical
safety practices and codes.
b)
Where insulating devices are
installed to provide electrical isolation
of pipeline systems to facilitate the
application of corrosion control, they
shall
be
properly
rated
for
temperature, pressure, and electrical
properties, and shall be resistant to
the commodities carried in the
pipeline systems. These devices shall
not be installed in enclosed areas
where combustible atmospheres are
likely to be present unless precautions
are taken to prevent arcing. (Refer
Clause 18.4 of this standard)

18.4

ELECTRICAL INTERFERENCE

18.4.1 Fault Current Interference


Fault current interference shall be
taken into consideration.
NOTES:

c)
Pipeline system shall be
installed so that the belowgrade or
submerged portions are not in
electrical contact with any casing,
foreign piping systems or other
metallic structures. This shall not
preclude the use of electrical bonds
where necessary.
d)
Provision shall be made to
prevent harmful galvanic action at
below-grade
or
submerged
connections between copper and steel
piping.
Consideration should be given to:
i)
Installing
an
insulated
coupling or insulating gasket set
between the copper and steel, or
ii)
Protecting the piping with an
insulating coating material to provide
a spatial separation of not less than
0.5m between bare copper and steel.
18.3

ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS AND


MONITORING POINTS

a)
Fault current resulting from
lighting or upset conditions of
electrical facilities could result in
serious damage to coating and pipe
wall and danger to personnel. These
adverse effects may occur where a
pipeline is close to the grounding
facilities of electrical transmission line
structures, sub-stations, generating
stations or other facilities that have
high short circuit current-carrying
grounding networks.
b)
Where a buried pipeline
system is close to grounding facilities,
remedial measures may be necessary
to control the effect of these fault
currents in order to reduce the
resultant rise in potential gradient in
the earth near the pipeline system to
an acceptable level.
c)
Safety appliances shall be
provided against lightning, stray
current interference from foreign
objects at HT pipeline crossings.
18.4.2 Induced Potential Interference

18.3.1 Where a higher current carrying


capacity is required, a multistrand
conductor shall be used and the
strands shall be arranged into groups
no larger than No.6 AWG.
Each
group shall be attached to pipe with a
separate charge. Attaching test leads
directly to the pipe by other methods
of brazing is prohibited.
18.3.2 The following paragraph is added:

Pipelines
paralleling
alternating
current electrical transmission lines
are subject to induced potentials as
well as the effects mentioned in Notes
to Clause 18.4.1 above.
a)
When studies or tests show
that alternating current potentials will
be or are being induced on a buried
pipeline system, devices shall be

installed to reduce these potentials to


a tolerable level.

installed
to
ensure
adequate
protection of pipeline from external
corrosion from the time the pipeline is
laid in the trench till the permanent
Cathodic
Protection
system
is
commissioned.

b)
When such pipelines are
under construction, or when personnel
are in contact with the pipelines,
special precautions shall be taken to
nullify the possible effects of induced
alternating current potentials.

The temporary cathodic protection


system shall preferably be installed
simultaneously keeping pace with the
pipeline laying/installation work and
shall be monitored periodically.

18.4.3 Safety Requirements


Following precautions shall be taken:
18.7
a)
Employ
blowdown
connections that will direct the gas
away from the electric conductors;
b)
Install bonding across points
where the pipeline is to be separated
and maintain this connection while the
pipeline is separated;
c)
Make a study in collaboration
with the electric company on the
common problems of personnel
safety,
corrosion,
electrical
interference and lighting problems.
18.5

EXISTING INSTALLATIONS

18.5.1 Existing Coated Pipeline Systems


Cathodic Protection shall be applied
and maintained on all existing coated
pipeline systems.
18.5.2 Existing Bare Pipeline Systems
Investigations shall be made to
determine the extent or effect of
corrosion on existing bare pipeline
systems. Where these investigations
indicate that continuing corrosion will
create a hazard, corrosion control
measures or other remedial action
shall be undertaken.
18.5.3 Cathodically Protected Pipeline
Systems Temporarily out of Service
Cathodic Protection systems shall be
maintained on any pipeline system
temporarily out of service.
18.6

18.7.1 Any gas whose water dew point is at all


times below the minimum pipeline
operating temperature is considered
to be non-corrosive, unless tests or
experience indicate otherwise.
18.7.2 Any gas whose water dew point
exceeds the minimum
pipeline
operating temperature is considered
to be corrosive, unless tests or
experience indicate otherwise.
18.7.3 Any gas containing hydrogen sulphide
or carbon dioxide whose water dew
point exceeds the minimum pipeline
operating temperature is considered
to be corrosive, unless tests or
experience indicate otherwise.
18.7.4 Any gas containing hydrogen sulphide
or carbon dioxide whose water dew
point is maintained below the
minimum
pipeline
operating
temperature by dehydration, or is
suitably inhibited, is considered to be
non-corrosive,
unless
tests
or
experience indicate otherwise.

19.0

MISCELLANEOUS
All provisions of B 31.8 Chapter VII
shall apply.

20.0

REFERENCES
DIN

30670

Polyethylene Sheathing of Steel


Tubes and of Steel Shapes and
Fittings.

30672

Corrosion Protection Tapes and Heat


Shrinkable Sleeves- Coatings made
from Corrosion Protection Tapes and

TEMPORARY CATHODIC
PROTECTION SYSTEM
When considered necessary, a
temporary Cathodic Protection system
with sacrificial anodes shall be

INTERNAL CORROSION CONTROL

Heat Shrinkable
Sleeves
Underground Pipelines.

for

AWWA
C203-86 Standard for Coal-Tar Protective
Coatings and Linings for Steel Water
Pipelines-Enamel
and
Tap-Hot
Applied.

TM-02-84 Testing of Metals for Resistance to


Stepwise Cracking.
MR-01-75 Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking
(SSCC) Resistant Metallic Material
for Oil Field Equipment
Name
and
address
of
the
organisation whose standards and
specifications appear above.

BSI
DIN:

Deutsches Institute for Normung


Obtainable from:
Foreign Standards Distribution
Beuth Verlag GmbH
Burggrafen Strasse 4-10
D-1000 BERLIN 30

BSI

British Standards Institution


2, Park Street,
London : WIA 2BS
Telephone : 01-6299000
Telex : 266933

BS 4146 Specifications for Coal-Tar Based


Hot
1987

Applied Coating Materials for


protecting iron and Steel, including
suitable Primers where required.

NACE
TM-01-77 Testing of Metals for Resistance to
Sulphide Stress Cracking at
Ambient Temperatures.

AWWA American Water Works Association


6666 West Quincy Avenue,
Denver, Colorado 80235