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Yamaha Motor Escorts Limited (YMEL) is a joint venture company formed by the alliance of Escorts
Limited,the Flagship company of the Rs. 3600 crores Escorts Group,a major in the two-wheeler business and
Yamaha Motor Company Limited (YMCL),Japan.
Recently YMEL launched a new bike Yamaha Crux in December,2004. My Project was aimed at investigating
about the awareness level of Crux from the owners of the competitive brands.These competitive brand names
are Hero Hondas Splendor and CD 100/SS and Bajajs Caliber.My Project also aimed at determining the
primary factors which influence scooter owners to shift from scooters to motocycles.My project was restricted
to new Delhi only and sample size was 250 including 100 for scooter owners and the rest 150 divided equally
among the three competitive brands,that is,Splendor -50,Caliber -50 and Cd 100/SS -50.Questionnaries were
made and were filled by the respondents and the data collected was analyzed to get some useful results.
After analyzing the data, we discovered the primary factors influencing scooter owners to shift from scooters to
motorcycles. The prominent among these factors were that motorcycles have better fuel economy,motocycles
are more stylish and the engine power of motorcycles is more as compared to scooters. We also discovered that
the awareness level of Yamaha Crux was very low and this was primarily due to lack of advertisements and
other promotional activities.Thus, in the end some recommendations were also given to Yamaha Motor Escorts
Limited so that they could take the required preventive measures.











Declaration By The Learner


Executive Summary




Company Profile



Competitors Analysis



Yamahas Core Competencies , SWOT Analysis



Distribution Network & Strategy



Introduction of Yamaha Crux



Key Findings














The Escorts Group, with Escorts Limited as its flagship company, is among India's largest corporations
operating in the diverse fields of agri-machiner, telecommunications, information technology, healthcare, biwheeler, construction & material handling equipmen, automotive & railway ancillaries and financial services.
The Group has 19 modern manufacturing facilities & an extensive marketing network spread across the country.
The major global alliances of the Group include JCB - UK, Yamaha - Japan, Class, Mal. and Goetze Germany,
Carraro - Italy, Long CA, Vistaar & 12 - USA, First Pacific - Hong Kong, IFS - Sweden and POL-MOT

The genesis of Escorts goes back to 1944 when two brother, Mr. H. P. Nanda and Mr. Yudi Nanda, launched a
small agency house, Escorts Agents Ltd. in Lahore. The next 50 years saw Escorts surge ahead and become one
of India's largest conglomerates. Escorts gauged the need for modernising agriculture and pioneered farm
mechanisation in the country. In 1948 Mr. M.P. Nanda established Escorts Agri -Machinery Limited, to market
tractors and farm implements. It set up the first dealer network of its kind to market tractors for import purpose.
Escorts soon became the number one tractor selling company in India. 'Meanwhile, the company branched into
manufacturing piston rings in India in collaboration with GOETZE WERKE of Germany.

Present Scenario

On assuming the Chairmanship of the Group, in April 1994, Mr. Rajan Nanda, undertook a major restructuring
programme to give sharper focus to the businesses. This involved building alliances with global players and
improving market capitalization, which resulted in each business becoming an independent entity with defined
partnerships, technology, customers and business economics.
The recent past also witnessed a major shift in Escorts' business focus, when it broke away from its traditional
identity of being a purely engineering company and made its foray into the service sector of telecom and
information technology. The Group has since re-evaluated its focus with thrust on areas of high growth namely
agri machine, telecom, software and healthcare. Towards this end, the Group has recently launched a major
initiative in Internet and E-commerce. The remaining businesses are strategic investments for generating value.

Vision :

As Escorts marches into the 21st century, it does so with a clear vision, renewed commitment and ability to
perform. The ultimate objective being to create value for its shareholders.

Be market leaders in area of high growth business of Agri,Teleco,Information Technology and

In other Business generate value through strategic investments.
Provide world class quality products and services to consumers.
Thrust on developing major export markets.

Make the group investor attractive by creating value for customers which ultimately creates value for
shareholders .

Company Profile:
Yamaha Motor Escorts Limited (YMEL) is a join ( venture company formed by the alliance of Escorts Limited,
the flagship company of (he Rs. 3600 crores Escorts Group, a major in the two-wheeler business and Yamaha
Motor Company Limited (YMCL), Japan.
The global giant in two-wheelers business over 3 decades and having the distinction of putting over 25 lakh
two-wheelers on Indian roads. The company has presently
two manufacturing facilities located at Faridabad in Haryana & at Surajpar in Uttar Pradesh.
Using state-of-the-art technology for its Rajdoot, Yamaha and Escorts range of motorcycles, the company is on
the fast track to make its presence felt in all the segments of the two-wheeler industry, offering exciting
machines not only to the Indian customers, but also being a leading exporter of two-wheelers. It is his proximity
to the customers that gives YMEL the confidence of riding into the next decade with world-class technology.
Meeting the diver. needs of the customers ... millions of bikes across millions of miles.
Yamaha Over the Team
1960- Secured license. under technical collaboration with CEKOP,
Poland 1961- Obtained 23 acres of land for separate factory
1962 - Assembly and partial manufacturing started in plant 1
1964 - Machinery was installed in the new building
1965- Manufacturing activities shifted from plant 1 to (he present building
1972 - GTS - a small motorcycle was introduced
1979 - Entered in technical collaboration with Yamaha Motor Company of Japan for manufacturing 350cc
1983 - Letter of intent obtained for manufacture of 100cc motorcycle
1983 - Launched 350cc motorcycle in the market all over India 1984 on identified scale, manufacturing
facilities of various components were improved upon by the introduction of 4. generation machine, equipment
1984 - 175cc Super-D model was introduced
1985 Started manufacturing of RX-100cc motorcycle in technical collaboration with Yamaha Motor Company,
Japan 1985 - Installed "UYEMURA, automatic electroplating plant
1989 - Introduction of indicators in existing 175cc Rajdoot motorcycle
1990 - Up gradation of 175cc motorcycle by introducing newer technology and styling such as bringing in of
EXCEL-T with telescopic front forks/modern system

1993 - Electronic ignition system of Rajdoot launched

1995 - Started manufacturing 50cc moped on 31. March
1996 - ISO 9001 was achieved
1997 - Launch of Yamaha RX. and 175cc Escorts ACE 198 - YBX 4-stoke bi-wheeler was launched
2000 - YD-125 launched 2000 - Share of Yamaha Motor Company, Japan rose to 74,, so take over of Escorts
Yamaha Motor Ltd. (EYML) and conversion to Yamaha Motor Escorts Ltd."~"
2000 - Yamaha Cruz launched in December
2001 - On 14. June, Yamaha Motor Escorts Ltd. was officially taken over by Yamaha Motor Company,
Japan 2002 Libero
Recent Changes
On 14. June, 2001, Yamaha Motor Escorts Limited as official's taken over by Yamaha Motor Company
Limited, Japan.
Objectives of Yamaha Motor Company Limited :
1. Customer satisfaction strengthened by improving dealer network, the shops and making customer more
2. Strengthening research and development.
3. New motto "Speed, Quality, Yamaha's Original Design".
4. Optimizing the internal working system.
5. Yamaha the Kando Company. Kando is a unique Japanese word which means, "Touching People's Hearts".

Competitive Analysis:
Kinetic Mahindra Deal Gearless bikes: M&M, Indias largest tractor and utility vehicle maker has already
bought the business assets of loss making scooter maker Kinetic Motor Company and has 80% of the share in
JV by investing Rs 110 crore to gain an entry into the two-wheeler market. This means that though this deal
Kinetic will get the support of financial muscle of Mahindra Finance whereas, for KMC its a win-win situation
as Mahindra has global sourcing expertise and experience in building differentiated products.
- E-Bikes: There are several players in this segment which includes YO bikes, BSA Electric bikes, E-bike India,
with the increasing global prices of crude oil and gas the demand for such types of bikes is increasing slowly
but in consistent fashion.
- The NANO Effect: TATAs launch of 1 Lac car has obviously raised concerns for two wheeler automobile
industry, as consumer might want to buy a 4-wheeler which is available to them almost at comparable price.
Although the speculation was there that after the launch of TATA NANO there might be a drop of 20% in
growth of two wheelers, the decline is definitely there but not at such high extent.

- The switching costs in NANOs case would be high but they would be getting a benefit of 4-wheeler but in
case of E-Bikes and Gearless Bikes such as Kinetic Honda switching costs are not much high so in a country
like India for female drivers and teens, gearless bikes and E-bikes are preferred.
- The relative price of substitutes like E-bikes and Kinetic would be lower as compared to NANO but relative
quality such as engine, features bikes like FZ, Karizma, R15 would have an edge.
OVERALL: Low/Medium
Rationale: Indian two-wheeler premium bike industry has been able to create a niche for itself which primarily
runs on three factors namely: Mileage/Maintenance Cost, Reliability and Style. Even though E-Bikes and Nano
might be able to draw some customers away from geared bikes but they are still not capable enough to become
the ride of the youth of the country who are more looking at it as a style statement.
Suppliers of auto components are fragmented and extremely critical for this industry.
- Most of the component work is outsourced proper supply chain management is costly yet needed.
- Suppliers can influence the industry by deciding on the price at which the raw materials can be sold. This is
done in order to capture profits from the market
- The industry being capital intensive the switching costs of suppliers is high
- Suppliers product differentiation is low
- Suppliers threat of forward integration is low as the capital investment required is very high and suppliers are
small and fragmented.
Rationale: Even though the availability of high quality components is very critical for the auto
manufacturers, the parts are not highly differentiated when it comes to additional features and a huge number of
small companies have already come up who manufacture such components. The political influence of
incumbents helps them get favors from the government which makes it difficult for new entrants
to flourish .HIGHER-END BIKES: Higher end bikes such as Kawasaki Ninja (Priced at Rs 2.7 lacs, Ninja is a

250cc 4-stroke bike), BMW bikes (Priced at Rs 18 lacs upwards and models like R 1200 GS, S 1000 RR and
bigger K series bikes with 4-cylinder engines), Ducati (Priced up to Rs 10-45 lacs, with 15 different models
including, Hyper Motard, Monster, Street Fighter, Desmosedici RR, SBK and Sport Classic, which are powered
by 696- 1,198cc engines) have also entered into India. Since they have global presence and strong brand
recognition worldwide, Bikes such as Yamaha R15, R1 can face competition from these players, but the
customer base in high end market is not very significant. The barriers to entry is very high due to presence of
strong players like Yamaha, Hero Honda, TVS
- Industry growth rate(CAGR) in past decade is almost 10% which is definitely not so much lucrative after
liberalization and Indias GDP has grown up to 8%
- After the liberalization policy of 91 barriers to entry for this segment has reduced and government regulations
and taxes have been relaxed.
- Cost disadvantage would be there for the new players since existing players already benefiting from
economies of scale.
- Initial Capital Requirement for setting up production plant, marketing costs, supply chain management
would be high
- Access to Distrubution channels would be tough and capital intensive if the new competitor doesnt tie up
with any of existing player. (e.g. Kawasaki has tie up with Bajaj Motor Limited)
Rationale: Looking at the high barriers to entry due to the initial capital requirements and other
Infrastructure like access to distribution channels and also the low growth rate, the industry

Should not see many new players entering the arena.

-High per capita income makes buyers less price sensitive thereby decreasing the bargaining power
- High expectations from buyers in terms of Styling and power due to increase in number of models in all the
categories, the buyers are empowered to a large extent Dealers threat of backward integration is low as the
capital investment required is very high and buyers are small and fragmented
- Importance of the product to buyers is high due to other factors like traffic congestion, fuel prices
- Product differentiation definitely exists and whole industry is different from other industries
- The other industries are having products that can act as substitutes but then the switching costs of buyers is

The concentration of competitors is high i.e. Bajaj Auto, Hero Honda, KMC, Royal Enfield, TVS, LML etc The relative size of competitors is large and they have enough operational excellence and financial muscle.
- Product differentiation is low as any product being matched in a few months by competitor.
- Industry growth rate(CAGR) in past decade is almost 10% which is definitely not so much lucrative after
liberalization and Indias GDP has grown up to 8%
- Industry is earmarked with high profit margins
- Buyers switching costs are low as each company has its own portfolio of products and it can cater to each and
every segment
Rationale: The industry is earmarked with large and powerful competitors like Bajaj and Hero Honda, who
already have a huge market share. Due to moderate industry growth rate of 10%, the struggle to increase sales is
being reduced to a constant-sum game where everyone is trying to outsmart the competitors by innovations and
price wars.



No. of models in

(in units)


150cc+ bikes










150cc only

Big players such as Hero Honda and Bajaj (as shown in the figure above) have exercised a huge
Bargaining power over suppliers as well as buyers. As such, Yamaha receives heavy competitive
pressures especially on grounds of the cost as well as distribution leadership assumed by these players.
Currently Yamaha is providing bikes only in 150cc whereas their counterparts are have already
launched their bikes in 150-250c bikes. Also, Yamahas annual capacity is very less as compared to
other competitors. [refer Annexure A for detailed competitor analysis]

Resources Capabilities :



Potential access
to wide variety
of markets

contributed to
end product

Difficulty in



Out of the box

promotional ideas
like organizing rock





Yamaha Indias R&D is considered to be the core competency for Yamaha because they produce very
powerful engines.

The YZF R15 is the first India made motorbike to mount a liquid cooling system for a better engine
performance. Liquid cooling has the ability to keep down the temperature in a high-performance engine
that would otherwise reach very high temperatures. That's why it is used on race machines. Also, the
liquid coolant in a liquid-cooling system absorbs engine noise. That's why the engine is quieter and the
ride has a quality feeling.

DiaSil cylinder facilitates cooling performance because aluminium dissipates heat 3 times faster than

The YZF-R15 and FZ16 engines have a single-axis balancer. This reduces engine vibration, which in
turn reduces vibration felt by the riders at the front and rear of the seat, the handlebars and the footrest.

All these technologies facilitate a better engine performance, good acceleration capability, a good balance which
will provide a good riding performance. A good R&D is always a valuable for any company. The above
technologies which Yamaha develops are very rare. It is also very costly to imitate because setting new R&D
requires huge investment for the competitors


Back-up support from the parent
Highly experienced management
Good R&D set up
Premium technology
Established Brand
Prime location near raw material
Increasing urbanization leads to growing
premium segment
First mover advantage in sports premium
bikes (500cc+)

Double digit growth in two wheeler geared industry

Exports opportunities

Below industry standard production
Poor Distribution channel
No marketing aggressiveness
Internal HR issues
Operational ineffectiveness
Storage problems
Lack of diversified product portfolio
High competition in the market
Rise in raw material products
Increase in interest rates on finance
Cars available in the same price range

Distribution Network

Yamaha Motor Limited has a very systematic and well developed distribution
network. It uses a very simple, Two-way distribution system, to reach out to its
Customers which is as follows:
There are two movements involved in the above distribution system :
I. Primary Movement - From the Plant to the Depot
2. Secondary Movement - From the Depot to the Dealer
Its distribution network covers 500 dealers (which consists of 250 main dealers and
other sub-dealers and stock lists) through 22 depots spread all over the country. With
such an extensive distribution network, Yamaha Motor Limited is sure to reach
every part of the country.

Working of the Distribution Network

The working of the distribution network is quite easy to understand. Before the
Motorcycles leave the plant, they are levied with the excise, after that they are
Transported safely to the depots from where they are transported to the retailers
and then finally to the customers.
Special Cases:
There are some special cases in which the delivery of the motorcycles is to be
Hurried due to increased demand in a short span of time. Here the distribution
network, which is followed, is as follows:
Over a span of few decades, Yamaha has developed a sound and efficient distribution system by building good
and healthy relations with the depot incharges and the retailers. Yamaha also provides the necessary incentives
to the depots and the dealers when required.
Benefits from summer training at Yamaha motors limited Summer training in Yamaha Motor Limited was my
first step into the corporate world. It was a great learning experience for me and helped me to a great extent in
acquiring skills that are essential for working in an organization. This exposure also helped me in improving my
interpersonal and communication skills. I have now understood the importance of discipline in life and strongly
feel that to be successful in life, one has to be disciplined and focused.

The training proved to be very beneficial for me as it helped in,: in inculcating various skins which are as

Team Working
The work environment at Yamaha Motor Escorts Limited gave me an opportunity to explore my team working
skills and gave me a better understanding of how to work in co-ordination with my colleagues as a team which
is a pre-requisite for any successful corporate house.

Communication Skills
There was a lot of interaction with all types of people working in the organization. These people included my
colleague, my project guide and other employees. This helped in improving my interpersonal skills as 1 learnt to
put forward my ideas and suggestions using the right words and phrases.For the collection of the primary
information on motorcycle segment,I had to communicate with the dealers which improved my verbal
skills.Forgetting the questionnaires filled by the respondents, sometimes I had to interact with them in the local
After the completion of the project,I submitted a formal report to Yamaha Motor Escorts Limited,Which
Improved my writing skills.

Waste of time is money.I realized the importance of this phrase during my one and half months of summer
training. The organization environment, which I was exposed to enhanced my time sensitivity and taught me
how useful it is to manage your time and finish the work assigned in time. Regular going to workplace and
reporting on time helped me use my time in the most efficient manner.

Decision-Making Skills :
As I was given the authority to frame the questionnaires, some important decisions regarding the framework of
questionnaires had to be taken by me. This made me realize that decision-making is an integral part at every
level in the corporate hierarchy and helped me to take quicker and wiser decisions.

Personality Development:

Above all the skills that I have acquired working at Yamaha Motor Escorts Limited, the most important is the
overall development in my personality. I learnt how to be patient and tolerant towards the varied moods of the
respondents. Taking decisions and handling responsibilities boosted my self-confidence. The encouragement
and continuous support of my superiors and colleagues made me more determined and motivated towards my
work, in spite of the difficulties faced by me at every step.

1) Yamaha has shifted its focus from the lower end segments to the premium segment of bikes. It aims to
provide its customers the full range of its engineering marvels that make Yamaha the company that it is.
2) Yamaha has a very strong focus on the technical department, the result of which can be seen with Yamaha
comfortably leading the constructors championship in the Superbikes racing with Valentino Rossi and Colin
Edwards as their riders.
3) Yamaha has aimed to become the No.1 in customer satisfaction and is looking forward to providing the
customer with an experience with its products.
4) The target market of India Yamaha Motors is the young and enthusiastic 18-25 yr. Olds who are willing to try
taking the not so much treaded path of buying the sports bike rather than a utility two wheeler. These young
guns are very conscious of the style quotient and look forward to their ride being a personality statement.
5) With the increasing dispensable income in India and growing middle and upper middle class segment
Yamaha is sure to find many prospective customers.
6)For a long time till 2007-08, Yamaha has been following the cost control strategy by focusing on the low
end 100cc bikes like Crux and Alba. This kept it market share to below 5%. In lieu of the growing Indian
economy and the need for differentiator products, Yamaha revamped its strategy and shifted its focus to
premium bikes.
7) The 100cc bikes are supplied only if there is a pull, but the company has clearly indicated that it sees
its future in the mid-market and premium segments.
8) The company is not just willing to limit itself to just prestige pricing. It will provide more value to the
customer in terms of attributes like great technology, superior design, ergonomics for long distance travelling
etc. For example the company will be launching its new superbike in the 1000cc segment. Apart from this, it is
also optimistic about the FZ-16 series it has launched in the mid-market segment (150 cc) bikes. So hence, we
can see that the aim is to provide niche products for the diverse customer segments. This is its market
differentiation strategy.

Competitors Key Players

The key players in the motorcycle segment are as knows
The motorcycle majors - Hero Honda, Yamaha Motor Ltd, TVS -Suzuki 8i Kawasaki Bajaj dominate the Indust,
These players account for about 92% of the total motorcycle sales. These four players cover both categories of
motorcycles, the 2 - stroke and the 4 - stroke models. Hero Honda and Kawasaki Bajaj industries are involved
in the production of 4-stroke models only. TVS - Suzuki is providing only 2 - stroke models. Whereas Yamaha
Motor Ltd. is the only group to produce both 2 -stroke and 4 - stroke models.

In present scenario, the Hero Honda group is the market leader in motorbike industry. They are producing
models which are highly appreciated by the customers and match with the market demand and requirements.

Yamaha Crux
The Yamaha Crux is a 106 cc, single-cylinder four-stroke motorcycle made by India Yamaha Motor. The Crux
is designed for Indian markets. It was launched in 2004 replacing RX 100, as 2-Stroke engines were not able to
meet government's emission norms. Other Yamaha motorcycles such as the YBR 110, earlier known as Alba
106 and Libero (G5) share the same refined engine. Unlike YBR 110, Crux has round head lights which give it
a classic look. A different version of Crux known as Crux R and Crux S were introduced with the same
specifications but rectangular headlights. But after it could not make a considerable sales, the production was
halted. User and owner claimed mileage and top speed is 55kmpl and 95kmph respectively.


Engine type Air-cooled, 4-stroke, SOHC, 2-valve

Cylinder arrangement Single-cylinder

Fuel tank capacity 11 liters

Engine oil capacity 1.0 liters

Minimum ground clearance 160 mm

Suspension type (Front / Rear) Telescopic / Swing arm

Brake type (Front / Rear) Drum (130 mm Dia) / Drum (130 mm Dia)

Frame type Double cradle type, steel

Maximum power 7.6PS (5.59 kW) / 7,500 rpm

Maximum torque 7.85N.m / 6,000 rpm

According to Yamaha, the Crux delivers 91 kmpl fuel economy



Low sales of Yamaha crux

An ambitious target of doubling sales this year to three lakh motorcycles .
The Yamaha Crux made a very quiet and unannounced entry, without much fanfare as a first taste of Japanese
strategy after Yamaha look 100% control over the joint venture with Escorts. The bike therefore does not carry
the latter name. Obviously they felt that price alone was the sole criterion. At almost 9,000 rupees less than their

earlier offering the YBX, there is some sense in this and the Crux has crossed in 2 months the sales figure of
the YBX, even without any advertising. Yamaha YBX is Yamahas First 4 stroke Model in INDIA. It is the first
Motorcycle in 4-stroke category below 350cc to produce double digit power. Yamaha YBX is introduced in the
year 1998 & then further his newer version is launched in 2001

Conclusion (Switch Over Trends):

In the scooter market, our main objective was to find out the number of customers, who want to shift from
scooters to motorcycles.
Analyzing the market survey, we concluded that:
34% of the scooter owners plan to buy a motorcycle hit the future. Out of these 34%
33% customers want to buy within 1 year
33% customers want to buy after 1 year
19% customers want to buy within 6 months
10% customers want to buy within 3 months
5% customers want to buy within 1 month
66% of the scooter owners do not plan to buy a motorcycle in future. From these 66% customer, enquired about
the awareness of Yamaha Crux and the results were as follows:
65% customers do not know about Yamaha Crux
35% customers know about Yamaha Curx.

However the company implemented the change process effectively, but there were still some weaknesses. So, I
would recommend some ideas, which the company could have implemented for a successful change process
and I will also give some recommendations on future measure, which the company can take to bring about
effective change. These are as follows:
YMI went for the installation of new machinery to cope up with the technological changes. Instead of
installing the new machine, they could have got the old machinery upgraded. This would have saved a lot of
extra cost incurred.
YMI must respond to changes in its environment quickly. When competitors introduce new products or
services, government agencies enact new law, important sources of supply go out of business, or similar
environmental changes take place, YMI should respond quickly and should make plans to implement changes
so as to bring about an effective and a planned change process. This type of a change process will ensure less
resistance from the employees.
YMI must try to build good relations between employees in the organization, as the people working in the
organization are a mixture of Japanese and Indians, which are totally different cultures. So maximum coordination between the Indians and the Japanese employees should be forced so as to improve the overall
efficiency of the employees.
To improve the working environment within the organization, YAMAHA should organize cultural
programmers so as to get the Japanese and the Indian culture together. This would fill up the cultural gaps
between employees in the organization and they would respect each other's culture, which in turn is good for a
bright future of the company.
They should do advertising of the Yamaha crux, as when this bike was introduced there was no publicity at all
so, I recommend there should high level publicity so that it create awareness in the market. As awareness will
create demand automatically.