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MAKALAH BASIC SCIENCE

BIOGENESIS

DISUSUN OLEH :

1. Amiratul Ratna Putri

(11315244009)

2. Syarifudin Rosyid

(11315244014)
3. Diyah Paramita Dewi
(11315244024)
4. Rita Kurniasih
(11315244026)
5. Fetika Cahyaning S.
(11315244030)

PRODI PENDIDIKAN IPA INTERNASIONAL


UNIVERSITAS NEGERI YOGYAKARTA

2011
KATA PENGANTAR

Puji dan syukur penulis panjatan kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa yang telah
memberikan kesempatan dan kesehatan kepada penulis sehingga penulis dapat
menyelesaikan makalah yang berjudul BIOGENESIS.
Penyusunan makalah ini dimaksudkan untuk memenuhi tugas mata kuliah Basic
Science, dari Bp.Sabar Nurrohman M.Pd selaku dosen pengampu.
Kepada semua pihak yang telah membantu dalam penyusunan makalah ini kami
mengucapkan terimakasih . Penulis menyadari sepenuhnya bahwa masih banyak kekurangan
dalam makalah ini. Seandainya makalah ini mengandung suatu manfaat kami memohon
untuk dapat dikembangkan. Tetapi sebaliknya apabila ada sesuatu kesalahan dan kekurangan
semoga dapat diperbaiki dan disempurnakan di waktu mendatang .

Yogyakarta, 14 November 2011


Penulis

Basic science BIOGENESIS

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DAFTAR ISI

Halaman Judul ...............................................................................i


Kata Pengantar ..............................................................................ii
Daftar Isi ......................................................................................iii
I.

PENDAHULUAN ........................................................................1
I.1. Latar Belakang ........................................................................1
1.2.Rumusan Masalah ...................................................................1

II.

ISI ..................................................................................................2
II.1Pembahasan .............................................................................2

III.

PENUTUP .....................................................................................9
III.1..............................................................................Kesimpulan 9
Daftar Pustaka ............................................................................12

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BIOGENESIS
BAB I
PENDAHULUAN

1.1 LATAR BELAKANG


Dalam sebuah penemuan baru dalam bidang science yang menjadi dasar
sebuah ide, gagasan, hukum bahkan teori. Dibalik itu terdapat sebuah cara atau proses
bagi seorang penemu untuk menciptakan atau merumuskan idenya. Dan langkah
dalam proses tersebut tidak lain ada beberapa ilmuwan dan para pemikir yang
menyimpulkannya dalam scientist checklist. Dan tujuan garis besar scientist checklist
itu sebenarnya adalah untuk membuktikan bahwa ide yang dia ingin kemukakan
adalah benar. Dan berhubungan dengan hal tersebut salah satu hal yang menarik
perhatian kami adalah apakah benar semua peneliti harus menempuh proses dalam
scientist checklist untuk menemukan sekaligus membuktikan ide yang ia miliki, dan
untuk itu kamia memfokuskan object kami yaitu penemu salah satu teori dalam
bidang biologi yaitu louis pateur yang mendukung teori biogenesis, dan juga
membuktikannya dengan teori.
1.2 RUMUSAN MASALAH

1. Who is louis pasteur?


2. How about the experiment of louis pasteur?
3. How the science checklist of Louis pasteur Experiment?

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BAB II
ISI
3.1 PEMBAHASAN
Louis Pasteur was born in 1822 in Dole, France. His discovery that most
infectious diseases are caused by germs, also known as the "germ theory of
disease," is one of the most important in medical history. His work became the
foundation for the science of microbiology, and a cornerstone of modern
medicine.
As Pasteur was growing up, his teachers thought that Louis was not fit for
advanced studies, and felt he should carry on the work of his father as a tanner of
leather. However, one teacher realized that Pasteur was bright and found he was
slow, yet methodical and persistent.
Eventually Pasteur was schooled in Paris by some of the best teachers. He soon
became a professor at different schools and took on various projects. Throughout
his life, one major discovery led to the next discovery in a natural progression of
research.
Pasteur discovered that weakened forms of microbes could be used as an
immunization against more virulent forms of microbes. As a pioneer of
immunology, Pasteur lived at a time when thousands of people died each year of
rabies. He spent years working on a vaccine. Just as he was about to experiment
on himself, a nine-year-old boy, Joseph Meister, was bitten by a rabid dog. The
boy's mother begged Pasteur to experiment on her son. Pasteur injected the boy
for 10 days -- and the boy lived. Decades later, of all things Pasteur could have
etched on his tombstone, he asked for 3 words, "Joseph Meister lived." Pasteur
believed our greatest legacy to be those who live eternally because of our effort.

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Louis Pasteur was first to describe the scientific basis of fermentation. Shunned
by doctors and fellow scientists, Pasteur documented in great detail the method
that allowed sugar to turn into alcohol, by way of yeast. Pasteur showed the yeast
to be an organism which did not require oxygen for fermentation to occur. This
showed Justus Von Liebig who had maintained the fermentation was purely
chemical, to have been mistaken. Pasteur demonstrated that mild heating applied
after fermentation would kill the microorganisms and prevent souring.
Even though controversial, Louis took on the question of whether spontaneous
generation (life from non-life) or biogenesis (life from life) was true. He decided
to repeat the experiments of Redi and Spellanzani and create his own to answer
objections of critics. With a specially constructed bent flask, Pasteur
demonstrated conclusively that decay was produced by air-borne microorganisms.
This refuted the doctrine of spontaneous generation. When he was asked if he
believed in evolution, he said, "no." His studies showed that life only comes from
life and that life comes from parents similar to themselves. Pasteur questioned the
theory of evolution, because Darwin did not base his ideas on experimental proof.
Louis said, "Do not put forward anything that you cannot prove by
experimentation."
Rather than destroying his belief in God, Pasteur's brilliant discoveries made him
humble as he contemplated the marvels of divine creation. He argued that the
notion of spontaneous generation (like materialism) threatens the very concept of
God the Creator.
Pasteur also discovered the parasite responsible for killing silkworms, and saved
the French silk industry by recommending that all infected worms and mulberries
be destroyed. Pasteur's work with silkworm parasites and air-borne germs led him
to propose the germ theory of disease. He pressed doctors to disinfect their
instruments by boiling and steaming. He found that septicemia was caused by an
anaerobic bacterium. He urged surgeons to use clean instruments, wash their
hands, and disinfect their gauze and bandages.
Louis Pasteur may be most well known for the invention of pasteurization, a
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process by which harmful microbes in perishable food products are destroyed


using heat, but leaving the original product unharmed.
Pada makalah ini, kami memfokuskan untuk membahas penemuan Louis
Pasteour mengenai Biogenesis.
BIOGENESIS
This concept claims that living cells can arise only from preexisting
living cells. Virchow defended this concept to the scientific community but he did
not come up with a convincing experiment to back up his idea. In 1861, the
French scientist Louis Pasteur resolved the issue on the origin of microbes
(animalcules) through a series of ingenious and persuasive experiments.

Pasteur showed that microorganisms exist in the air and can contaminate sterile
solutions, but he emphasized that air itself does not produce microbes. He filled a
number of short-necked flasks with beef broth and then boiled their contents. He
immediately sealed the mouths of some of the flasks while he left the others open
and allowed to cool. After few days, the contents of the unsealed flasks were
found to be contaminated with microorganisms. No evidences of growing
microorganisms were found on the sealed flasks. Pasteur concluded that the
microorganisms in the air were responsible in contaminating non-living matter
like the broths in John Needhams flask.
Pasteur performed another experiment but this time he put beef broth in openended long-necked flasks. He bent the necks of the flasks into S-shaped curves
and boiled the contents of the flasks. Amazingly, the contents of the flasks were
not contaminated even after several months. The unique S-shaped design of
Pasteurs flasks allowed air to pass but trap microorganisms that may contaminate
the broths. Do you know that some of the original vessels used by Pasteur in his
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experiments are still displayed in the Pasteur Institute, Paris today? A few of the
flasks contain broths that remain uncontaminated for more than 100 years!

Model Of Louis Pasteur Experiment


Pasteur demonstrated the presence of microbes in non-living materials whether
they are solid, liquid, or air. In addition, he laid the foundation of aseptic
techniques, techniques that prevent contamination by unwanted microbes. These
techniques are based on Pasteurs idea that microbes can be killed by heat and
that procedures can be designed to inhibit the access of airborne microbes to
nutrient environment. Application of aseptic techniques is now the standard
practice in medical and laboratory procedures.
Disproving the idea that microorganisms spontaneously generated from nonliving matter through mystical forces is one of the greatest contributions of
Pasteur in science. He provided the evidence that any appearance of
spontaneous life in nonliving solutions can be attributed to microbes that
already exist in the air or in the fluids themselves.

Pasteur was a thorough, highly intuitive researcher who always considered the
wider ramifications to his work. While he revered science, Pasteur always
believed that there were spiritual values that transcend it. Pasteur died in 1895,
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but his phenomenal contributions to microbiology and medicine can still be


witnessed today.

A Science Checklist of Louis Pateur Experiment


1. Focuse on The Natural world
The living things from living thing (living thing = microorganism)
Louis Pasteur is the 19th-century biologist and chemist whose work with germs
and micro-organisms opened up new fields of scientific inquiry, he want prove
the theory of Biogenesis so he began observation about the microorganism.
Omne vivum ex ovo, omne ovum ex vivo
2. Aims to explain The Natural World
To prove and understanding that living thing from living thing (microorganism
form air that contamited the beef broth).
Louis Pasteurs investigations were aimed at understanding the natural world: the
microorganism. He investigated this world using observation, with beef broth and
the air.
Louis Pasteur had found that microorganisms exist in the air and can contaminate
sterile solutions, but he emphasized that air itself does not produce microbes.
3. Use Testable ideas
In 1861, the French scientist Louis Pasteur resolved the issue on the origin of
microbes (animalcules) through a series of ingenious and persuasive
experiments.

Pasteur showed that microorganisms exist in the air and can contaminate sterile
solutions, but he emphasized that air itself does not produce microbes. He filled a
number of short-necked flasks with beef broth and then boiled their contents. He
immediately sealed the mouths of some of the flasks while he left the others open
and allowed to cool.

Basic science BIOGENESIS

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Pasteur performed another he put beef broth in open-ended long-necked flasks.


He bent the necks of the flasks into S-shaped curves and boiled the contents of
the flasks and still around it for few day.

4. Relies On Evidence
Louis Pasteurs observation with flasks have neck S-shaped curves result that the
contents of the flasks were not contaminated even after several months. The
unique S-shaped design of Pasteurs flasks allowed air to pass but trap
microorganisms that may contaminate the broths.
Pasteur concluded that the microorganisms in the air were responsible
in contaminating non-living matter. From this statement we know that living
thing from living thing (Biogenesisi idea) is proved.
5. Involve the scientific community
Before the Louis Pasteur make their Experimant to prove the Biogenesis, Rudolf
Virchow, who in 1858 challenged the spontaneous generation with his concept
of biogenesis. This concept claims that living cells can arise only from preexisting
living cells. Virchow defended this concept to the scientific community but he did
not come up with a convincing experiment to back up his idea.

Basic science BIOGENESIS

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6. Leads to Ongoing Research


After the louis pasteur idea :
There is many think of new invention appear because of theory Biogenesis and
experiment held by Louis Pasteur, Include:
1. Immunology
2. Microbiology
3. Pasteurization
4. Fermentation
5. Modern medicine
7. Benefit from scientific behavior
Louis said, "Do not put forward anything that you cannot prove by
experimentation.
From this statement we know that :
1. Science use testitable idea
2. Objectivity and Open-Mindedness
3. Reasoning
4. Self-Examination and Skepticism
And the other is so much include in science as way of thingking and the way
of investigating with their way to react the result of understanding the natural
worl.

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BAB III
PENUTUP
3.1 KESIMPULAN
1. Louis Pasteur merupakan ahli biologi abad ke-19 dan ahli kimia yang bekerja
dengan kuman dan mikro-organisme membuka bidang baru dari penyelidikan ilmiah,
ia ingin membuktikan teori biogenesis sehingga ia mulai pengamatan tentang
mikroorganisme.

2. Louis Pasteur membuktikan paham biogenesis menggunakan percobaan dengan labu


berbentuk leher angsa sebagai berikut :
a.

Air kaldu dimasukkan ke labu berleher angsa. Labu ini digunakan dengan tujuan
untuk menjaga adanya hubungan antara labu dengan udara luar. Selanjutnya, labu
dipanaskan untuk mensterilkan air kaldu dari mikroorganisme.

b. Setelah dingin, labu ditempatkan pada tempat yang aman. Karena bentuk pipa
seperti angsa, udara dari luar dapat masuk ke dalam labu dan menempel di dasar
lehernya.
Sehingga udara yang masuk ke dalam labu adalah udara yang steril. Jadi, dalam
percobaan ini masih ada daya hidup seperti yang dipersoalkan penganut paham
Abiogenesis. Setelah dibiarkan beberapa hari, air kaldu tetap jernih dan tidak
mengandung mikroorganisme.

c. Labu yang berisi air kaldu jernih, kemudian dipecahkan lehernya sehingga air
kaldu bersentuhan dengan udara luar secara langsung. Setelah beberapa hari
dibiarkan, air kaldu menjadi busuk dan banyak mengandung mikroorganisme.

Basic science BIOGENESIS

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3. A Science Checklist of Experiment Louis Pateur


1) Focuse on The Natural world
The living things from living thing (living thing = microorganism)
2) Aims to explain The Natural World
To prove and understanding that living thing from living thing (microorganism
form air that contamited the beef broth).
3) Use Testable ideas
In 1861, the French scientist Louis Pasteur resolved the issue on the origin of
microbes (animalcules) through a series of ingenious and persuasive
experiments.
4) Relies On Evidence
Louis Pasteurs observation with flasks have neck S-shaped curves result that
the contents of the flasks were not contaminated even after several months.
The unique S-shaped design of Pasteurs flasks allowed air to pass but trap
microorganisms that may contaminate the broths.
5) Involve the scientific community
Before the Louis Pasteur make their Experimant to prove the Biogenesis,
Rudolf Virchow, who in 1858 challenged the spontaneous generation with his
concept of biogenesis. This concept claims that living cells can arise only from
preexisting living cells. Virchow defended this concept to the scientific
Basic science BIOGENESIS

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community but he did not come up with a convincing experiment to back up


his idea.
6) Leads to Ongoing Research
After the louis pasteur idea :
There is many think of new invention appear because of theory Biogenesis
and experiment held by Louis Pasteur, Include:
1. Immunology
2. Microbiology
3. Pasteurization
4. Fermentation
5. Modern medicine
7) Benefit from scientific behavior
Louis said, "Do not put forward anything that you cannot prove by
experimentation.
Jadi science checklist dalam objek kami (Pasteur) terdapat dalam semua proses
bagi idenya.

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DAFTAR PUSTAKA

http://biokristi.sabda.org/louis_pasteur_1822_1895_ilmuwan_terkemuka_dan_p
enentang_teori_evolusi

http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/Louis_Pasteur.php

http://id.shvoong.com/exact-sciences/1974419-teori-biogenesis/

http://www.ehow.com/about_5419233_theory-biogenesis.html
http://www.ehow.com/about_5285455_law-biogenesis.html

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