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1. In acquire the technology there are several ways to gain it.

State 3 ways to acquire


the technology. Explain each of way that you state.
i. Technology transfer
Technology transfer refers to a process in which technology or knowledge developed
in one place or for one purpose is applied and exploited in other place for other
purpose. Existing knowledge, facilities or capabilities developed under federal
research and development (R&D) funding are utilized to fulfill public and private
needs.
ii. Reverse technology
Reverse technology is taking apart an object to see how it works in order to duplicate
or enhance the object.
iii. Industrial espionage
Industrial espionage is the covert and sometime illegal practice of investigating
competitors to gain technological or commercial research data, blueprints, plans and
et cetera.
2. What is Globalizations? Explain the definition of it
Globalization is defined as a process of interaction among people, companies and
government of different nations that is driven by international trade aided by information
technology. It has a tremendous impact on the industry as technological advances occur
rapidly in many parts of the world.

3. In your opinion, explain 5 (five) benefits of Globalization

In my opinion, globalization through global mass media may connect all the people in the
world and create more communication between the individuals and corporations in the
world. This can help in reducing cultural barriers and promote international travel and
tourism in a country. Besides, globalization enhance the creation of new technology.
Thus, environmental protection in developed countries will increase through the
development of green construction by emerging technology. Globalization also increases
the economic prosperity and opportunity in the developing world through these
technologies. In addition to that, the flexibility of corporations to operate across borders
will increase as globalization induce a broad access to a range of goods for consumers
and companies through the emerging worldwide production. The free circulation of
people of different nations can also lead to social benefits. Moreover, globalization may
improve the human health through technology and idea sharing in finding cures for a
particular disease.
4. Explain on each item
i.
Importance of R&D
Research and Development (R&D) is important as the basic research for both
experimental or theoretical work that is undertaken primarily to acquire new
knowledge without a specific application or use in mind. Besides, R&D is also
important as it contributes in introducing research grant, innovating product that is
environmental friendly and investing in new technology and product.
ii.

Production cycle
Production cycle refers to an illustration of integrated processes that together
constitute a system. In order to develop an idea, there is the need to create the
phases in a series of stages from the seed of an idea to the essential science and
engineering phase associated with creating a prototype and then to marketing and
sales.

iii.

Achievement of R&D in Malaysia


In Malaysia, the achievement of R&D can be seen through a Malaysian-owned oil
and gas company, Petronas which is the short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad.
Petronas has developed a new mult-fibre membrane separation technology for

more efficient and cost-effective removal of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from natural
gas. Petronas has also develop novel pipeline repair system that used composite
material consisting of a fibreglass reinforcement saturated in a resin matrix.
Besides that, IJM Construction Berhad, a leading construction company,
has introduced in the production of first lightweight oil palm fibre reinforced
cement composite panels.
iv.

Effect of Globalization in Malaysia


In the sector of economy, the telecommunications and the information economy
continue to advance as the time flows. This has caused an evolution in
communication with the introduction of latest technology and gadgets that are
affordable to the consumers. However, in education sector, the effect of
globalization can clearly be seen through the use of English as the main language
in Science and Mathematics subjects instead of the national language of Malay.
Besides, globalization does not only modernize but also westernize to an extend
that it caused a cultural pollution to the locals as they tend to follow the current
trends from the West, forgetting about their own culture.

5. Briefly explain :
i.

Negligence
Negligence is defined as the failure to exercise the degree of care considered
reasonably warranted by the circumstances, resulting in an unintended injury to
another party. It is committed when there has been a failure to take proper care,
resulting in losses.

ii.

Conflict Of Interest
Conflict of interest occurs when a person private interest is interfered or appeared
to be interfered in a way with the interest of an organization. Examples of conflict
of interest are diverting from the organization for personal benefit and using the
organizations asset for personal benefit.

iii.

Collusion

Collusion is defined as a secret or illegal cooperation that exists to cheat and


deceive others. Collusive practice can be seen when a participating firm is
guaranteed a subcontracting work for submitting false bids to clients. When the
identified firm wins the tender, participating firm is rewarded with subcontracting
works.
iv.

Fraud
Fraudulent activity is abundant from the government project as such in the
construction industry. In many cases, the companies lose money to fraud because
of the employees, contractor, subcontractors or venture partners. These frauds
include diverted fund, materials misuse and padded bills.

v.

Bribery
Bribery is the act of giving money, goods or other form of recompense to a
recipient in exchange of alteration of their behavior as a benefit to the giver. Bribe
is a challenge in sectors as it leads to corruption to an industry and nation.