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12.

Spur Gear Design and Standard proportions


selection
Objectives • American Standard Association (ASA)
• Apply principles learned in Chapter 11 to actual design and selection of spur


gear systems.
Calculate forces on teeth of spur gears, including impact forces associated with
• American Gear Manufacturers Association
velocity and clearances. (AGMA)
• Determine allowable force on gear teeth, including the factors necessary due to


angle of involute of tooth shape and materials selected for gears.
Design actual gear systems, including specifying materials, manufacturing
• Brown and Sharp

accuracy, and other factors necessary for complete spur gear design.
Understand and determine necessary surface hardness of gears to minimize or
• 14 ½ deg; 20 deg; 25 deg pressure angle
prevent surface wear.
• Understand how lubrication can cushion the impact on gearing systems and cool • Full depth and stub tooth systems
them.
• Select standard gears available from stocking manufacturers or distributors.

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Specifications for standard gear


teeth
Forces on spur gear teeth
Item Full depth & pitches Full depth & 14½° full • Ft = Transmitted force
coarser than 20 pitches finer depth
than 20 • Fn = Normal force or separating
Pressure 20° 25° 20° 14½° force
angle
• Fr = Resultant force
Addendum 1.0/P 1.0/P 1.0/P 1/P • θ = pressure angle
(in.)
• Fn = Ft tan θ
Dedendum 1.250/P 1.250/P 1.2/P + 0.002 1.157/P
F
(in.) Fr = t
cos θ
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Example Problem 12-1: Forces on Spur Gear Teeth


Forces on spur gear teeth
• Power, P; P = Tn or T = 63,000 P • 20-tooth, 8 pitch, 1-inch-wide, 20° pinion
63,000 n transmits 5 hp at 1725 rpm to a 60-tooth gear.

• Torque, T = Ft r and r = Dp /2 • Determine driving force, separating force, and


• Combining the above we can write maximum force that would act on mounting
shafts.
2T
Ft =
Dp

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Example Problem 12-1: Forces on Spur Gear Teeth Example Problem 12-1: Forces on Spur Gear Teeth (cont’d.)
− Find transmitted force:
• 20-tooth, 8 pitch, 1-inch-wide, 20° pinion transmits 5 hp at 1725 rpm to a 60-tooth gear. (12-3)
2T
• Determine driving force, separating force, and maximum force that would act on Ft =
Dp
mounting shafts.
(2-6) (2)183 in-lb
Tn Ft = = 146 lb
P = 2.5 in
63,000
− Find separating force:
63,000P (12-1)
T =
n
Fn = Ft tan θ
(63,000)5
T = = 183 in-lb
1725 Fn = 146 lb tan 20°

Fn = 53 lb

− Find pitch circle: − Find maximum force:


(12-2)
(11-4) Ft
Fr =
Dp =
Np cos θ
Pd
146 lb
20 teeth Fr =
Dp = = 2.5 in cos 20°
8 teeth/in diameter
Fr = 155 lb
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Example Problem 12-2: Surface Speed


Surface Speed
• In previous problem, determine the surface speed:

• Surface speed (Vm) is often referred to as


(12-7)
pitch-line speed Vm = π D n

or
π Dp n
• Vm = ft/min (12-5)

12 Vm =
π Dp n
12
π Dp n
• Vm = m/min -- Metric units Vm = π 2.5 in 1725 rpm
ft
12 in
1000 Vm = 1129 ft/min

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Forces on Gear Tooth


Strength of Gear Teeth
• Lewis form factor method

Figure 14.20 Forces acting


on individual gear tooth.

©1998 McGraw-Hill, Hamrock,


Jacobson and Schmid
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Lewis equation Table 12.1 Lewis form factors (Y)

Sn Y b
Fs =
Pd
• Fs = Allowable dynamic bending force (lb)
• Sn = Allowable stress (lb/in2). Use
endurance limit and account for the fillet as
the stress concentration factor
• b = Face width (in.)
• Y = Lewis form factor (Table 12.1)
• Pd = Diametral pitch
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Example Problem 12-3: Strength of Gear Teeth Example Problem 12-3: Strength of Gear Teeth (cont’d.)
• In Example Problem 12-1, determine the force allowable (Fs) on these teeth if the
− Gear:
pinion is made from an AISI 4140 annealed steel, the mating gear is made from AISI
1137 hot-rolled steel, and long life is desired. Sn = .5 (88 ksi) = 44 ksi
− Pinion:
(Table 12-1)
Sn = .5 Su = .5 (95 ksi) = 47.5 ksi
Y = .421
(12-9)
44,000 (1) .421
Sn b Y Fs =
Fs = 8
Pd
Fs = 2316 lb
− Find Lewis form factor (Y) from Table 12-1, assuming full-depth teeth:

Y = .320

47,500 (1) .320 − Use Fs = 1900 lb for design purposes.


Fs =
8

Fs = 1900 lb

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Classes of Gears Force Transmitted


• Transmitted load depends on the accuracy of the • Transmitted load depends on the accuracy of the
gears gears
• Gear Manufacture • A dynamic load factor is added to take care of
– Casting this.
– Machining
• Forming • Ft = Transmitted force
• Hobbing • Fd = Dynamic force
• Shaping and Planing
– Forming • Commercial 600 + Vm
Fd = Ft
– stamping 600
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Classes of Gears Design Methods
1200 + Vm
• Carefully cut Fd = Ft • Strength of gear tooth should be greater
1200 than the dynamic force; Fs ≥ Fd
• Precision 78 + Vm0.5 • You should also include the factor of safety,
Fd = Ft
78 Nsf
Fs
≥ Fd
50 + Vm0.5 N sf
• Hobbed or shaved Fd = Ft
50
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Table 12.2 Service Factors Face width of Gears


• Relation between the width of gears and the
1 < Nsf < 1.25 Uniform load without shock diametral pitch
1.25 < Nsf < 1.5 Medium shock, frequent starts 8 12.5
<b<
1.5 < Nsf < 1.75 Moderately heavy shock Pd Pd

1.75 < Nsf < 2 Heavy shock

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Example Problem 12-4: Design Methods Example Problem 12-5: Design Methods
• If, in Example Problem 12-1, the gears are commercial grade, determine dynamic load
and, based on force allowable from Example Problem 12-3, would this be an acceptable • Spur gears from the catalog page shown in Figure 12-3 are made from a .2% carbon
design if a factor of safety of 2 were desired? steel with no special heat treatment.
• Use surface speed and force transmitted from Example Problems 12-2 and 12-3. • What factor of safety do they appear to use in this catalog?
– Dynamic load: • Try a 24-tooth at 1800 rpm gear for example purposes.
600 + Vm
Fd = Ft (12-10) • From Appendix 4, an AISI 1020 hot-rolled steel would have .2% carbon with an Sy = 30
600 ksi and Su = 55 ksi.
600 + 1129 − Therefore:
Fd = (146 lb)
600
Fd = 421 lb Sn = .5 Su

Sn = .5 (55 ksi) = 27.5 ksi


– Comparing to force allowable:
− Find Dp :
Fs
≥ Fd (11-4)
N sf
1900 lb Np
≥ 421 Dp =
Pd
2
950 lb > 421 lb Dp =
24
= 2 in
• This design meets the criteria. 12
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Example Problem 12-5: Design Methods (cont’d) Example Problem 12-5: Design Methods (cont’d)
− Find Vm : − Set Fs = Fd and solve for Ft :

(12-5) ⎛ 600 + Vm ⎞
Fd = Fs = ⎜ ⎟ Ft
π Dp n ⎝ 600 ⎠
Vm =
12
⎛ 600 + 942 ⎞
519 lb = ⎜ ⎟ Ft
⎝ 600 ⎠
ft
Vm = π 2 in (1800 rpm)
12 in Ft = 202 lb
(12-3)
Vm = 942 ft/min
⎛ Dp ⎞
− Find Fs : T = F ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠
(12-9)
⎛ 2 in ⎞
T = 202 lb ⎜ ⎟
Sn b Y ⎝ 2 ⎠
Fs =
Pd
T = 202 in-lb
(from Table 12-1)
(2-6)

Tn 202 (1800)
Y = .302 P = = = 5.8 hp
63,000 63,000

27,500 (¾) .302 or


Fs =
12
(12-6)

Fs = 519 lb Ft Vm 202 (942)


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33,000 33,000

Example Problem 12-5: Design Methods (cont’d) Example Problem 12-6: Design Methods

• Pair of commercial-grade spur gears is to transmit 2 hp at a speed of 900 rpm of the


− Compared to catalog:
pinion and 300 rpm for gear.
• If class 30 cast iron is to be used, specify a possible design for this problem.
• The following variables are unknown: Pd, Dp, b, Nt, Nsf, θ.
hp - calculated
Nsf = • As it is impossible to solve for all simultaneously, try the following:
hp - catalog
– Pd = 12, Nt = 48, θ = 14½°, Nsf = 2
– Solve for face width b.
5.8
Nsf = = 1.4
4.14
− Miscellaneous properties:

(11-4)
• Appears to be reasonable value.
Np 48
• Manufacturer may also have reduced its rating for wear purposes as these Dp = = = 4 in
Pd 12
are not hardened gears.
Ng = Np Vr = 48(3) = 144 teeth

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Example Problem 12-6: Design Methods (cont’d.) Example Problem 12-6: Design Methods (cont’d.)
⎛ 600 + Vm ⎞
– Dynamic force Fd = ⎜ ⎟ Ft (12-10)
⎝ 600 ⎠
− Surface speed: ⎛ 600 + 943 ⎞
Fd = ⎜ ⎟ 70
(12-5) ⎝ 600 ⎠
π Dp n Fd = 180 lb
Vm = – Since width b is the unkown:
12
Fs
Vm = π
4 in 900 rpm ≥ Fd
12 in/ft N sf
and
Vm = 943 ft/min
Sn b Y
− Finding force on teeth:
Fs =
Pd (12-8)
(12-6) Sn b Y
= Fd
33,000 hp N sf Pd
Ft =
Vm

33,000 (2) –Class 30 CI; Su = 30 ksi; Sn = .4 Su (.4 is used because cast iron):
Ft =
943 –Sn = 12 ksi

Ft = 70 lb –Y = .344 (Table 12-1)

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Example Problem 12-6: Design Methods (cont’d.)
− Substituting: • To increase the dynamic beam strength of
(12-9) the gear
Sn b Y
Nsf Pd
= Fd – Increase tooth size by decreasing the
12,000 b .344 diametral pitch
= 180
2 (12)
– Increase face width upto the pitch diameter
b = 1.0 inches
of the pinion
− Check ratio of width to pitch:
(12-14)
– Select material of greater endurance limit
8
< b <
12.5 – Machine tooth profiles more precisely
Pd Pd

8 12.5
– Mount gears more precisely
< 1 <
12 12
– Use proper lubricant and reduce
.66 < 1 < 1.04
contamination
• This is an acceptable design.
• Many other designs are also possible.
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Buckingham Method of Gear Design Fig. 12.4 Expected error in tooth profiles

• It offers greater flexibility


• Expected error is based on different-pitch
teeth
• More conservative design

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Table 12.3 Values of C for e = 0.001 inch Buckingham Method of Gear Design

Material 14 ½ deg 20 deg


Gray iron and Gray iron 800 830 0.05 Vm (b C + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
Gray iron and steel 1,100 1,140 0.05 Vm + (b C + Ft )0.5
Steel and steel 1,600 1,660

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Example Problem 12-7: Buckingham Method of Gear
Fig. 12.5 Recommended maximum error in gear teeth Design and Expected Error

• A pair of steel gears is made from annealed AISI 3140.


• Each gear has a surface hardness of BHN = 350.
• The pinion is a precision, 16 pitch, 20° involute, with 24 teeth 1 inch wide.
• The gear has 42 teeth.
• To transmit 3 hp at a speed of 3450 rpm for a safety factor of 1.4, is this a
suitable design?
(Appendix 4)

Su = 95 ksi

Sn = .5 Su = .5(95 ksi) = 47.5 ksi

(11-4)

Np 24
Dp = = = 1.5 in
Pd 16

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Example Problem 12-7: Buckingham Method of Gear Example Problem 12-7: Buckingham Method of Gear
Design and Expected Error (cont’d.) Design and Expected Error (cont’d.)
− Find torque: − Find surface speed:

(2-6) (12-5)

Tn π Dp n
P = Vm =
63,000 12

P (63,000) π 1.5 in 3450 rpm


T = Vm =
n 12 ft/in

3 (63,000) Vm = 1355 ft/min


T =
3450
− Find force allowable (Fs):
T = 55 in-lb
(12-9)

− Find force transmitted: Sn b Y


Fs =
Pd
(12-3)
(from Table 12-1)
2T
Ft =
Dp Y = .337
2(55 in-lb) 47,500 (1) .337
Ft = Fs =
1.5 in 16

Ft = 73 lb Fs = 1000
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Example Problem 12-7: Buckingham Method of Gear


Design and Expected Error (cont’d.) Wear strength (Buckingham)
• Expected error from Figure 12-4:
e = .0005
• The value of C from Table 12-3 for steel and steel and 20° involute angle gears is 1660:
C = .0005 (1000) 1660
⎛ 2 Dg ⎞
C = 830
FW = D P b K g ⎜ ⎟
• Solve for dynamic load using Buckingham’s equation: ⎜D + D ⎟
.05Vm (bC + Ft ) ⎝ p g ⎠
Fd = Ft + (12-15)
.05 Vm + (bC + Ft )1/ 2
.05 (1355) (1 • 830 + 73) Fw = tooth wear strength (lb)
Fd = 73 + 1/ 2
.05 (1355) + (1 • 830 + 73)
Fd = 699 lb
Dp = diametral pitch of pinion (in.)
Fs Dg = diametral pitch of gear (in.)
≥ Fd
N sf
1000 b = face width (in.)
≥ 699
1.4
714 > 699 Kg = load stress factor (Appendix 13)

• This meets the criteria.


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Example Problem 12-8: Wear of Gears Example Problem 12-8: Wear of Gears (cont’d.)
• In prior example problem, verify the surface is suitable for wear considerations. – Substituting into equation 12-16:
For wear use Nss = 1.2
Fw = 1.5 (1) 1.27 (270)
− Wear formula:
(12-16) Fw = 514
Fw = Dp b Q Kg

• This would not be suitable. Try if surfaces each had a BHN = 450.
− Find Q : K g = 470
(from Appendix 13)
(12-17)
Fw = 1.5 (1) (1.27) ( 470)
2 Ng
Q =
Ng + Np
Fw = 895
Fw
2 (42) ≥ Fd
Q =
42 + 24 N sf
895
Q = 1.27 > 699
1 .2
Kg = 270
(from Appendix 13)
746 > 699
• This would now be acceptable if the gear teeth were hardened to a BHN of 450.
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