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2201 2201 1325_06_2000_c1 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 1 1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.
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Introduction to MPLS and Introduction to MPLS and Traffic Engineering Traffic Engineering Session Session 2201 2201
Introduction to MPLS and
Introduction to MPLS and
Traffic Engineering
Traffic Engineering
Session
Session 2201
2201
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© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.
2
Topics Topics
Topics
Topics

Motivations for MPLS MPLS Overview Applications Roadmap

2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 3 Why Why MPLS? MPLS?
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Why
Why MPLS?
MPLS?

Integrate best of Layer 2 and Layer 3

Keep up with growth Reduce operations costs Increase reliability

Create new revenue from advanced IP services

Standards based

Topics Topics • Motivations for MPLS • MPLS Overview • Applications • Roadmap 2201 1325_06_2000_c1 ©

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Topics Topics • Motivations for MPLS • MPLS Overview • Applications • Roadmap 2201 1325_06_2000_c1 ©

4

Key Key Cisco Cisco MPLS MPLS Solutions Solutions
Key
Key Cisco
Cisco MPLS
MPLS Solutions
Solutions
RSVP IP CoS IP Multicast
RSVP
IP CoS
IP Multicast

IP/ATM Integration

Key Key Cisco Cisco MPLS MPLS Solutions Solutions RSVP IP CoS IP Multicast IP/ATM Integration Traffic

Traffic Engineering

Key Key Cisco Cisco MPLS MPLS Solutions Solutions RSVP IP CoS IP Multicast IP/ATM Integration Traffic

Internet Scale VPN/CoS

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MPLS: Routing MPLS: Routing Scalability for IP over ATM Scalability for IP over ATM
MPLS: Routing
MPLS: Routing
Scalability for IP over ATM
Scalability for IP over ATM

Internal routing scalability

Internal routing scalability
 
 

Limited adjacencies

External routing scalability

Full BGP4 support, with all the extras

VC merge for very

External routing scalability Full BGP4 support, with all the extras VC merge for very

large networks

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MPLS: End-to-End MPLS: End-to-End IP Services over ATM IP Services over ATM
MPLS: End-to-End
MPLS: End-to-End
IP Services over ATM
IP Services over ATM

IP services directly on ATM switches

ATM switches support IP protocols directly

Avoids complex translation

Full support for IP CoS, RSVP, IP multicast, future IP services

RSVP IP Multicast IP CoS
RSVP
IP Multicast
IP CoS

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Benefits of MPLS Benefits of MPLS Class of Service with ATM Class of Service with ATM
Benefits of MPLS
Benefits of MPLS
Class of Service with ATM
Class of Service with ATM
 
2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 7 Benefits of MPLS Benefits of MPLS Class of
 
2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 7 Benefits of MPLS Benefits of MPLS Class of

IP CoS over Standard ATM

IP CoS with MPLS

Allocate resources:

 

Allocate resources:

 

Per individual, edge-to-edge VCs By kbps bandwidth

Per class, per link By % bandwidth

 

Mesh of VCs to configure

 

No VCs to configure Simpler to provision and engineer Even simpler with ABR

 

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MPLS: MPLS: Traffic Traffic Engineering Engineering
MPLS:
MPLS: Traffic
Traffic Engineering
Engineering

Characteristics

High performance Low overhead End-to-end connectivity

Applications

Constraint-based routing Fast reroute Guaranteed bandwidth Frame/ATM transport

Control plane for ATM and OXCs

MPLS: MPLS: Traffic Traffic Engineering Engineering Characteristics High performance Low overhead End-to-end connectivity Applications Constraint-based routing

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MPLS: MPLS: Traffic Traffic Engineering Engineering Characteristics High performance Low overhead End-to-end connectivity Applications Constraint-based routing

9

Motivations for Motivations for Traffic Engineering Traffic Engineering
Motivations for
Motivations for
Traffic Engineering
Traffic Engineering

New Release of Netscape Software

Link Failure
Link Failure

155 Mbps Fiber Link

No Physical Link

Links not available Economics Failure scenarios Unanticipated

traffic

300 Mbps

Traffic Flow

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MPLS: MPLS: Traffic Traffic Engineering Engineering Characteristics High performance Low overhead End-to-end connectivity Applications Constraint-based routing

10

MPLS: Bringing MPLS: Bringing Layer 2 Benefits to Layer 3 Layer 2 Benefits to Layer 3
MPLS: Bringing
MPLS: Bringing
Layer 2 Benefits to Layer 3
Layer 2 Benefits to Layer 3

Traffic engineering

Aligning traffic flows to resources

Optimize link utilization

Fast re-route

Fast, local, link and node protection

Guaranteed bandwidth

Hard end-to-end bandwidth and delay guarantees

Route Chosen By IP Routing Protocol

Route Specified By Traffic Engineering

MPLS: Bringing MPLS: Bringing Layer 2 Benefits to Layer 3 Layer 2 Benefits to Layer 3

Legacy FR Edge Node

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11

IPIP VPN VPN Taxonomy Taxonomy
IPIP VPN
VPN Taxonomy
Taxonomy
 

IP VPNs

 
2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 11 IPIP VPN VPN Taxonomy Taxonomy IP VPNs DIAL
2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 11 IPIP VPN VPN Taxonomy Taxonomy IP VPNs DIAL
 

DIAL

 
DEDICATED
DEDICATED

DEDICATED

 

Client-

NAS-

IP Tunnel Virtual VPN Aware VPN Aware

IP Tunnel

Virtual

VPN Aware

VPN Aware

Initiated

Initiated

 
 
Circuit Networks Networks
 

Circuit

Networks

Networks

2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 11 IPIP VPN VPN Taxonomy Taxonomy IP VPNs DIAL
2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 11 IPIP VPN VPN Taxonomy Taxonomy IP VPNs DIAL
2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 11 IPIP VPN VPN Taxonomy Taxonomy IP VPNs DIAL

Security

Router

FR

ATM

MPLS/BGP

MPLS/BGP

Appliance

VPNs

VPNs

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12

Cisco Cisco MPLS/BGP MPLS/BGP VPNs VPNs Connectionless Connectionless IP VPNs IP VPNs Corp A Corp B
Cisco
Cisco MPLS/BGP
MPLS/BGP VPNs
VPNs
Connectionless
Connectionless
IP VPNs
IP VPNs
Corp A
Corp B
Corp B
Site 3
Site 1
Site 1
Corp A
VPN Management
VPN Management
Site 2
by Membership List
by Membership List
Intranet A
Intranet B
Intranet B
VPNID 4
VPNID 12
Corp A
VPNID 12
Site 1
Corp B
Corp B
Service Provider
Site 2
Site 2
Privacy without
Privacy without
VPN Aware Network
Tunnels
Tunnels
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Benefits Benefits of of MPLS/BGP MPLS/BGP VPNs VPNs
Benefits
Benefits of
of MPLS/BGP
MPLS/BGP VPNs
VPNs

Connection-Oriented

Private, connectionless

IP VPNs

Outstanding scalability

Customer IP

addressing freedom

Multiple QoS classes

Secure support for

intranets and extranets

Simplified VPN

Provisioning

Support over any

access or backbone

technology

VPN Topology VPN A VPN B VPN C VPN C VPN B VPN A VPN A
VPN Topology
VPN A
VPN B
VPN C
VPN C
VPN B
VPN A
VPN A
VPN B
VPN C
VPN C

Connectionless

VPN Topology

VPN B VPN A VPN A VPN B VPN C VPN C VPN B VPN A
VPN B
VPN A
VPN A
VPN B
VPN C
VPN C
VPN B
VPN A
VPN A
VPN B
VPN C
VPN C
VPN B
VPN A

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Cisco Cisco MPLS/BGP MPLS/BGP VPNs VPNs Connectionless Connectionless IP VPNs IP VPNs Corp A Corp B

14

MPLS MPLS Benefits Benefits
MPLS
MPLS Benefits
Benefits
Benefits Benefits of of MPLS MPLS Shared Backbone for Economies of Scale Shared Backbone for Economies
Benefits
Benefits of
of MPLS
MPLS
Shared Backbone for Economies of Scale
Shared Backbone for Economies of Scale
IP/ATM
IP/ATM
Reduced Complexity for Lower Operational Cost
Reduced Complexity for Lower Operational Cost
Integration
Integration
Faster Time to Market for IP Services => More Revenue
Faster Time to Market for IP Services => More Revenue
Use Best Technology => Lower Costs
Use Best Technology => Lower Costs
Traffic Eng. for Lower Trunk Costs and Higher Reliability
Traffic Eng. for Lower Trunk Costs and Higher Reliability
Traffic
Traffic
Fast Reroute for Protection and Resiliency
Fast Reroute for Protection and Resiliency
Engineering
Engineering
Guaranteed Bandwidth for Hard QoS Guarantees
Guaranteed Bandwidth for Hard QoS Guarantees
MPLS
New Revenue Opportunity for SPs
MPLS
New Revenue Opportunity for SPs
BGP
BGP
Scalability for Lower Operational Costs and Faster Rollout
Scalability for Lower Operational Costs and Faster Rollout
VPNs
VPNs
L2 Privacy and Performance for IP
L2 Privacy and Performance for IP

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Topics Topics
Topics
Topics
 

Motivations for MPLS MPLS Overview Applications Roadmap

2201

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MPLS MPLS Concept Concept
MPLS
MPLS Concept
Concept
At Edge (Edge LSR): Classify Packets In Core (LSR): Label Them Forward Using Labels As Opposed
At Edge (Edge LSR):
Classify Packets
In Core (LSR):
Label Them
Forward Using Labels
As Opposed to IP Addr

Enable ATM switches to act as routers

Create new IP capabilities via flexible classification

2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 17 Router Example: Router Example: Distributing Routing Information Distributing
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Router Example:
Router Example:
Distributing Routing Information
Distributing Routing Information
Address
Address
I/FI/F
Prefix
Prefix
Address
Address
I/FI/F
Address
Address
128.89
128.89
00
Prefix
Prefix
I/FI/F
Prefix
Prefix
128.89
128.89
11
128.89
128.89
00
171.69
11
171.69
……
171.69
11
171.69
...
...
……
128.89
0
0
1
You Can Reach 128.89 thru Me
You Can Reach 128.89
1
and 171.69 thru Me
171.69
Routing Updates
(OSPF, EIGRP…)
You Can Reach 171.69 thru Me
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Router Example: Router Example: Forwarding Packets Forwarding Packets Address Address I/FI/F Prefix Prefix Address Address I/FI/F
Router Example:
Router Example:
Forwarding Packets
Forwarding Packets
Address
Address
I/FI/F
Prefix
Prefix
Address
Address
I/FI/F
Address
Address
128.89
128.89
00
Prefix
Prefix
I/FI/F
Prefix
Prefix
128.89
128.89
11
128.89
128.89
00
171.69
11
171.69
……
171.69
11
171.69
...
...
……
128.89
0
0
128.89.25.4
128.89.25.4
Data
1
128.89.25.4
128.89.25.4
Data
1
128.89.25.4
128.89.25.4
Data
128.89.25.4
128.89.25.4
Data
171.69
Packets Forwarded
Based on IP Address
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MPLS Example:
MPLS Example:
Routing Information
Routing Information
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
128.89
128.89
11
128.89
128.89
00
128.89
128.89
00
171.69
11
171.69
11
171.69
171.69
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
0
128.89
0
1
You Can Reach 128.89 thru Me
You Can Reach 128.89
1
and 171.69 thru Me
Routing Updates
You Can Reach 171.69 thru Me
(OSPF, EIGRP…)
171.69
2201
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MPLS Example: MPLS Example: Assigning Labels Assigning Labels In In Address Address Out Out Out Out
MPLS Example:
MPLS Example:
Assigning Labels
Assigning Labels
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
--
128.89
128.89
11
44
44
128.89
128.89
00
99
99
128.89
128.89
00
--
--
171.69
11
55
55
171.69
11
77
171.69
171.69
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
0
128.89
0
1
Use Label 9 for 128.89
Use Label 4 for 128.89
1
and Use Label 5 for 171.69
Routing Updates
Use Label 7 for 171.69
(OSPF, EIGRP…)
171.69
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MPLS Example:
MPLS Example:
Forwarding Packets
Forwarding Packets
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
--
128.89
128.89
11
44
44
128.89
128.89
00
99
99
128.89
128.89
00
--
--
171.69
171.69
11
55
55
171.69
171.69
11
77
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
0
128.89
0
128.89.25.4
128.89.25.4
Data
1
99
128.89.25.4
Data
128.89.25.4
128.89.25.4
Data
44
128.89.25.4
Data
1
LSR Forwards
Based on Label
171.69
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MPLS Example: MPLS Example: More Details More Details In In Address Address Out Out Out Out
MPLS Example:
MPLS Example:
More Details
More Details
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
77
128.89
128.89
11
44
44
128.89
128.89
00
XX
XX
128.89.25
128.89.25
00
--
22
171.69
11
55
55
XX
171.69
171.69
11
77
117.59
171.69
117.59
11
--
77
117.59
117.59
11
44
44
117.59
117.59
00
XX
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
0
128.89.25
0
1
128.89.25.4
Data
1
128.89.25.4
128.89.25.4
Data
77
128.89.25.4
Data
44
128.89.25.4
Data
Prefixes That Share a
Remove Tag One
De-Aggregation
Path Can Share Label
Hop Prior to De-
Point Does L3
117.59

Aggregation Point

lookup

2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 23 Encapsulations Encapsulations ATM Cell Header GFC GFC VPI
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Encapsulations
Encapsulations
ATM Cell Header
GFC
GFC
VPI
VPI
VCI
VCI
PTI
PTI
CLP
CLP
HEC
HEC
DATA
DATA
Label
Label
PPP Header
(Packet over SONET/SDH)
PPP
PPP Header
Header
Label
Label Header
Header
Layer
Layer 33 Header
Header
LAN MAC Label Header
MAC
MAC Header
Header
Label
Label Header
Header
Layer
Layer 33 Header
Header
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Label Label Header Header for for Packet Packet Media Media 0 1 2 3 0 1
Label
Label Header
Header for
for Packet
Packet Media
Media
0
1
2
3
0
1 2
3 4
5
6 7
8 9
0 1
2
3 4
5 6
7
8 9
0 1
2 3
4
5 6
7 8
9
0 1
Label
COS S
TTL

Label = 20 bits

COS = Class of Service, 3 Bits

S = Bottom of Stack, 1 Bit

TTL = Time to Live, 8 Bits

Can be used over Ethernet, 802.3, or PPP links Uses two new ether types/PPP PIDs Contains everything needed at forwarding time One word per label

2201

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Label Label Header Header for for Packet Packet Media Media 0 1 2 3 0 1

25

ATM MPLS Example: ATM MPLS Example: Routing Information Routing Information In In Address Address Out Out
ATM MPLS Example:
ATM MPLS Example:
Routing Information
Routing Information
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
I/F
I/F
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
I/F
I/F
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
128.89
128.89
11
128.89
128.89
00
128.89
128.89
00
171.69
11
11
171.69
171.69
171.69
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
128.89
1
0
0
1
2
You Can Reach 128.89 thru Me
You Can Reach 128.89
1
and 171.69 thru Me
Label Label Header Header for for Packet Packet Media Media 0 1 2 3 0 1

Routing Updates

(OSPF, EIGRP…)

You Can Reach 171.69 thru Me 171.69
You Can Reach 171.69 thru Me
171.69

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Label Label Header Header for for Packet Packet Media Media 0 1 2 3 0 1

26

ATM MPLS Example: ATM MPLS Example: Requesting Labels Requesting Labels In In Address Address Out Out
ATM MPLS Example:
ATM MPLS Example:
Requesting Labels
Requesting Labels
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
I/F
I/F
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
I/F
I/F
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
128.89
128.89
11
128.89
128.89
00
128.89
128.89
00
171.69
11
171.69
171.69
11
171.69
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
128.89
1
0
0
1
2
Need a Label for 128.89
Need Another Label for 128.89
Need a Label for 128.89
1
Need a Label for 128.89
Need a Label for 171.69
Need a Label for 128.89
Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
171.69
(Downstream Allocation on Demand)
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ATM MPLS Example:
ATM MPLS Example:
Assigning Labels
Assigning Labels
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
I/F
I/F
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
I/F
I/F
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
--
128.89
128.89
11
44
44
22
128.89
128.89
00
99
99
11
128.89
128.89
00
--
--
171.69
11
55
88
33
128.89
00
1010
1010
11
00
--
171.69
128.89
...
...
...
...
55
22
171.69
171.69
11
77
...
...
...
...
128.89
1
0
0
1
2
Use Label 9 for 128.89
3
Use Label 10 for 128.89
Use Label 4 for 128.89
1
Use Label 7 for 171.69
Use Label 5 for 171.69
Use Label 8 for 128.89
171.69
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ATM MPLS Example: ATM MPLS Example: Packet Forwarding Packet Forwarding In In Address Address Out Out
ATM MPLS Example:
ATM MPLS Example:
Packet Forwarding
Packet Forwarding
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
In
In
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
I/F
I/F
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
Label
Label
I/F
I/F
Prefix
Prefix
I'face
I'face Label
Label
--
128.89
128.89
11
44
44
22
128.89
128.89
00
99
99
11
128.89
128.89
00
--
--
171.69
11
55
88
171.69
33
00
1010
1010
11
00
--
128.89
128.89
...
...
...
...
55
22
171.69
171.69
11
77
...
...
...
...
128.89
1
0
0
1
2
128.89.25.4
Data
99
128.89.25.4
Data
1
128.89.25.4
128.89.25.4
Data
44
128.89.25.4
Data
LSR Forwards
Based on Label
171.69

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Why Why Multiple Multiple Labels Labels with with ATM? ATM?
Why
Why Multiple
Multiple Labels
Labels with
with ATM?
ATM?
 

Cells

In

In

I/F

I/F

11

22

In

In

Label

Label

Address

Address

Prefix

Prefix

Out

Out

I/F

I/F

Out

Out

Label

Label

  • 55 00

    • 128.89 128.89 33

  • 88 00

    • 128.89 128.89 33

…… …… …… …… …… 55 1 0 88 2 33 33 33 33
……
……
……
……
……
55
1
0
88
2
33
33
33
33
55
55
Packet Packet 55 55 33 33 Packet Packet 88 88 88
Packet
Packet
55 55
33
33
Packet
Packet
88 88
88
Help! Help!
Help!
Help!

If didn’t allocate multiple labels

128.89

 

Cells of different packets would have same label (VPI/VCI)

 

Egress router can’t reassemble packets

2201

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30

Multiple Multiple Labels Labels
Multiple
Multiple Labels
Labels
 

Cells

In In In In Address Address Out Out Out Out I/F I/F Label Label Prefix Prefix
In
In
In
In
Address
Address
Out
Out
Out
Out
I/F
I/F
Label
Label
Prefix
Prefix
I/F
I/F
Label
Label
11
55
128.89
128.89
00
33
22
88
128.89
128.89
00
77
Packet Packet Packet Packet 88
Packet
Packet
Packet
Packet
88

……

……

……

……

……

55 55 55 55 1 0 88 2 77 33 77 33 77 33 88 88
55
55 55
55
1
0
88
2
77
33
77
33
77
33
88 88
Help! Help!
Help!
Help!

128.89

Multiple labels enable edge router to reassemble packets correctly

 

2201

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VCVC Merge Merge
VCVC Merge
Merge
 

Cells

In

In

I/F

I/F

11

22

In

In

Label

Label

Address

Address

Prefix

Prefix

55

88

128.89

128.89

128.89

128.89

Out

Out

I/F

I/F

Out

Out

Label

Label

00

00

33

33

…… …… …… …… …… 55 1 0 88 2 33 33 33 33
……
……
……
……
……
55
1
0
88
2
33
33
33
33
55
55
Packet Packet 55 55 33 33 Packet Packet 88 88 88
Packet
Packet
55 55
33
33
Packet
Packet
88 88
88

128.89

 
 

With ATM switch that can merge VCs

Can reuse outgoing label

Hardware prevents cell interleave

Fewer labels required

For very large networks

2201

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32

Advanced Advanced MPLS MPLS
Advanced
Advanced MPLS
MPLS

Basic MPLS: destination-based unicast Many additional options for assigning labels The key: separation of routing and forwarding

Resource Resource Multicast Multicast Explicit and Explicit and Virtual Virtual Destination-Based Destination-Based IP Class IP Class
Resource
Resource
Multicast
Multicast
Explicit and
Explicit and
Virtual
Virtual
Destination-Based
Destination-Based
IP Class
IP Class
Reservation
Reservation
Routing
Routing
Static
Static
Private
Private
Unicast Routing
Unicast Routing
of Service
of Service
(eg RSVP)
(eg RSVP)
(PIM v2)
(PIM v2)
Routes
Routes
Networks
Networks
Label
Label Information
Information Base
Base (LIB)
(LIB)
Per-Label
Per-Label Forwarding,
Forwarding, Queuing,
Queuing, and
and Multicast
Multicast Mechanisms
Mechanisms

2201

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Building Building VPNs VPNs with with MPLS MPLS
Building
Building VPNs
VPNs with
with MPLS
MPLS
 

Constrained distribution of routing information

Routes are only communicated to routers

that are members of a VPN

 

VPN-IP addresses

Supports overlapping address spaces

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

Labels used to define VPNs

 

Labels used to represent VPN-IP addresses

Peer model

Simplifies routing for end customers

2201

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MPLS MPLS VPN VPN Example Example 12.1/16 VPN B/Site 1 VPN C/Site 2 11.2/16 CE 1
MPLS
MPLS VPN
VPN Example
Example
12.1/16
VPN B/Site 1
VPN C/Site 2
11.2/16
CE 1
CE A2
Static
B1
RIP
11.1/16
RIP
CE B2
VPN B/Site 2
PE
RIP
P 1
2
CE 2
BGP
B1
PE 1
P 2
Step
Step 33
Step
Step 44
Step
Step 11
Step
Step 22
Step
Step 55
CE A1
Static
P 3
PE 3
RIP
16.2/16
CE B3
CE A3
BGP
16.1/16
VPN A/Site 2
VPN A/Site 1
12.2/16
VPN C/Site 1

2201

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Routing Routing Information Information Distribution Distribution
Routing
Routing Information
Information Distribution
Distribution

Step 1: From site (CE) to service provider (PE)

 

E.g. via RIP, OSPF, static routing, or BGP

Step 2: Export to provider’s BGP at ingress PE

Step 3: Within/across service provider(s) (among PEs):

 

E.g. via BGP

Step 4: Import from provider’s BGP at egress PE

Step 5: From service provider (PE) to site (CE)

 

E.g. via RIP, or static routing, or BGP

2201

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Packet Packet Forwarding Forwarding
Packet
Packet Forwarding
Forwarding

IP packet received on sub-interface

Sub-interfaced configured with VPN ID

BGP binds labels to VPN-IP routes

LDP binds labels to IGP routes and defines CoS

IP PKT
IP PKT

Provider Edge LSR

Label Label IP PKT
Label
Label
IP PKT
1. Identify VPN FIB Table 3. Apply Labels and Select Egress Port VPN LDP/CoS
1. Identify VPN
FIB Table
3. Apply
Labels
and Select
Egress Port
VPN
LDP/CoS
• Logically separate forwarding information base (FIB) for each VPN 2. Select FIB for this VPN
• Logically separate
forwarding information
base (FIB) for each VPN
2. Select FIB
for this VPN
2201
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37
MPLS
MPLS VPN
VPN Example
Example
12.1/16
VPN B/Site 1
VPN C/Site 2
11.2/16
CE 1
CE A2
Static
B1
RIP
11.1/16
RIP
CE B2
VPN B/Site 2
PE
RIP
P 1
2
CE 2
BGP
B1
PE 1
P 2
Step
Step 33
Step
Step 44
Step
Step 11
Step
Step 22
Step
Step 55
CE A1
Static
P 3
PE 3
RIP
16.2/16
CE B3
CE A3
BGP
16.1/16
VPN A/Site 2
VPN A/Site 1
12.2/16
VPN C/Site 1
2201
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38
Explicit Explicit Routing Routing
Explicit
Explicit Routing
Routing

Traffic engineering requires the

capability to specify a path

Voice networks, Frame Relay,

ATM are explicitly routed at

connection setup

But IP uses hop-by-hop

destination-based routing

2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 39 The The “Fish” “Fish” Problem Problem R3 R4
2201
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39
The
The “Fish”
“Fish” Problem
Problem
R3
R4
R8
R5
R2
R1
R6
R7
IP Uses Shortest Path Destination-Based Routing IP Uses Shortest Path Destination-Based Routing Shortest Path May Not
IP Uses Shortest Path Destination-Based Routing
IP Uses Shortest Path Destination-Based Routing
Shortest Path May Not Be the only path
Shortest Path May Not Be the only path
Alternate Paths May Be under-Utilized while the
Alternate Paths May Be under-Utilized while the
Shortest Path Is over-Utilized
Shortest Path Is over-Utilized
2201
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40

An An LSP LSP Tunnel Tunnel R3 R4 R8 R5 R2 R1 R6 R7 Labels, Labels,
An
An LSP
LSP Tunnel
Tunnel
R3
R4
R8
R5
R2
R1
R6
R7
Labels,
Labels, Like
Like VCIs
VCIs Can
Can Be
Be Used
Used toto Establish
Establish Virtual
Virtual Circuits
Circuits
Normal Route R1->R2->R3->R4->R5
Normal Route R1->R2->R3->R4->R5
Tunnel: R1->R2->R6->R7->R4
Tunnel: R1->R2->R6->R7->R4

2201

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41

Traffic Traffic Engineering Engineering
Traffic
Traffic Engineering
Engineering
 

Provides

Constraint-based routing Similar to PNNI routing Control of traffic engineering Path selection Tunnel setup

2201

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42

Basic Basic Traffic Traffic Engineering Engineering
Basic
Basic Traffic
Traffic Engineering
Engineering

LSP tunnels used to steer traffic

(Termed traffic engineering or TE tunnels)

Represent inter-POP traffic as flows

in bits/sec

Determine bandwidth requirements

for tunnels between POP pairs

Automated procedures route and

setup the inter-POP TE tunnels

2201

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43

TETE Components Components
TETE Components
Components

(1) Information distribution

 

Distributes constraints pertaining to links

Available bandwidth is just one type of constraint

(2) Path selection algorithm

 

Selects paths that obey the constraints

2201

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44

TETE Components Components (Cont.) (Cont.)
TETE Components
Components (Cont.)
(Cont.)

(3) Route setup

Uses RSVP for signaling LSPs

(4) Link admission control

Decides which tunnels may have resources

(5) Traffic engineering control

Establishes and maintains tunnels

(6) Forwarding data

2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 45 System System Block Block Diagram Diagram
2201
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45
System
System Block
Block Diagram
Diagram
Traffic Engineering Control Path RSVP Selection TE Topology TE Link Database Adm Ctl IS-IS/OSPF Routing Flooding
Traffic
Engineering
Control
Path
RSVP
Selection
TE Topology
TE Link
Database
Adm Ctl
IS-IS/OSPF
Routing
Flooding
Forwarding Engine
2201
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© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.
46
LSP LSP Tunnel Tunnel Setup Setup R8 R9
LSP
LSP Tunnel
Tunnel Setup
Setup
R8
R9
 
R3 R4 R2 Pop R5 R1 32 49 R7 17 R6

R3

R3 R4 R2 Pop R5 R1 32 49 R7 17 R6
R4 R2 Pop R5 R1 32 49 R7 17 R6
R4
R2
Pop
R5
R1
32
49
R7
17 R6
 
 

22

Setup: Setup: Path Path (R1->R2->R6->R7->R4->R9) (R1->R2->R6->R7->R4->R9) Tunnel Tunnel IDID 5, 5, Path Path IDID 11 Reply:
Setup:
Setup: Path
Path (R1->R2->R6->R7->R4->R9)
(R1->R2->R6->R7->R4->R9) Tunnel
Tunnel IDID 5,
5, Path
Path IDID 11
Reply: Communicates Labels and Label Operations
Reply: Communicates Labels and Label Operations
Reserves Bandwidth on Each Link
Reserves Bandwidth on Each Link
 

2201

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47

Rerouting Rerouting toto anan Alternate Alternate Path Path
Rerouting
Rerouting toto anan Alternate
Alternate Path
Path
 

R8

R9

R3 R4 X R2 Pop R5 R1 32 49 R7 17 R6
R3
R4
X
R2
Pop
R5
R1
32
49
R7
17 R6
 
 

22

Setup: Path (R1->R2->R3->R4->R9) Tunnel ID 5, Path ID 2 Setup: Path (R1->R2->R3->R4->R9) Tunnel ID 5, Path
Setup: Path (R1->R2->R3->R4->R9) Tunnel ID 5, Path ID 2
Setup: Path (R1->R2->R3->R4->R9) Tunnel ID 5, Path ID 2
Until R9 Gets New Path Message, Current Resv Is Refreshed
Until R9 Gets New Path Message, Current Resv Is Refreshed
 

2201

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48

Bridge Bridge and and Roll Roll
Bridge
Bridge and
and Roll
Roll
R8 R9 R3 R4 R2 Pop Pop 2626 Pop Pop 8989 R5 R1 3232 38 38
R8
R9
R3
R4
R2
Pop
Pop
2626
Pop
Pop
8989
R5
R1
3232
38
38
R6
R7
1717
49
49
2222 Resv: Resv: Allocates Labels for Both Paths Allocates Labels for Both Paths Reserves Bandwidth Once
2222
Resv:
Resv:
Allocates Labels for Both Paths
Allocates Labels for Both Paths
Reserves Bandwidth Once Per Link
Reserves Bandwidth Once Per Link
PathTear Can then Be Sent to Remove Old Path
PathTear Can then Be Sent to Remove Old Path
and Release Resources
and Release Resources

2201

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49

Assigning Assigning Traffic Traffic toto Tunnels Tunnels
Assigning
Assigning Traffic
Traffic toto Tunnels
Tunnels

Automatic assignment based on IGP

Modified SPF calculation

 
 

When the endpoint of a tunnel is reached, the next hop to that node is set to the tunnel interface

Nodes downstream of the tunnel inherit the tunnel interface as their next hop

(Encountering a node with its own tunnel replaces the next hop)

2201

2201
 

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50

Topology Topology with with Tunnel Tunnel
Topology
Topology with
with Tunnel
Tunnel
R8 R3 R4 R2 R1 R5 R7 R6
R8
R3
R4
R2
R1
R5
R7
R6
Tunnel1: Path (R1->R2->R6->R7->R4) Tunnel1: Path (R1->R2->R6->R7->R4) Tunnel2: Path (R1->R2->R3->R4->R5) Tunnel2: Path (R1->R2->R3->R4->R5) Normal Dijkstra, Except Tunnel
Tunnel1: Path (R1->R2->R6->R7->R4)
Tunnel1: Path (R1->R2->R6->R7->R4)
Tunnel2: Path (R1->R2->R3->R4->R5)
Tunnel2: Path (R1->R2->R3->R4->R5)
Normal Dijkstra, Except Tunnel Interfaces Used when
Normal Dijkstra, Except Tunnel Interfaces Used when
Tunnel Tail Is Encountered
Tunnel Tail Is Encountered
2201
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51

Forwarding Forwarding Tree Tree R8
Forwarding
Forwarding Tree
Tree
R8
R3 R4 R2 R1 R5 R7 R6
R3
R4
R2
R1
R5
R7
R6
Tunnel1 Tunnel1 Tunnel2 Tunnel2 R4 and R8 Have Tunnel1 Interface as Next Hop; R5 Has R4
Tunnel1
Tunnel1
Tunnel2
Tunnel2
R4 and R8 Have Tunnel1 Interface as Next Hop; R5 Has
R4 and R8 Have Tunnel1 Interface as Next Hop; R5 Has
Tunnel2
Tunnel2
2201
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52

Fast Fast Reroute Reroute
Fast
Fast Reroute
Reroute

Goal—match Sonet restoral

times—50 ms

Locally patch around lost facilities

Strategies

Alternate tunnel (1->1 mapping) Tunnel within tunnel (n->1 mapping)

2201

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53

Fast Fast Reroute Reroute
Fast
Fast Reroute
Reroute

Labels are carried in a stack, making

 

it possible to nest tunnels

RSVP has a notion of PHOP, allowing

 

the protocol to be independent of the

back channel

A tunnel can use another tunnel as a

 

tunnel hop to enable fast reroute

2201

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Nested Nested Tunnels—Outer Tunnels—Outer
Nested
Nested Tunnels—Outer
Tunnels—Outer
R8 R9 R3 R2 R5 R1 Pop R6 R7 17
R8
R9
R3
R2
R5
R1
Pop
R6
R7
17

22

Setup: Path (R2->R3->R4) Session 5, ID 2 Setup: Path (R2->R3->R4) Session 5, ID 2 Labels Established
Setup: Path (R2->R3->R4) Session 5, ID 2
Setup: Path (R2->R3->R4) Session 5, ID 2
Labels Established on Resv Message
Labels Established on Resv Message
2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 55 Nested Nested Tunnels—Inner Tunnels—Inner
2201
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55
Nested
Nested Tunnels—Inner
Tunnels—Inner
R8 R9 R3 14 R2 POP R5 R1 37 R7 R6
R8
R9
R3
14
R2
POP
R5
R1
37
R7
R6
Setup: Path (R1->R2->R4->R9) Path Message Travels on Setup: Path (R1->R2->R4->R9) Path Message Travels on Tunnel from
Setup: Path (R1->R2->R4->R9) Path Message Travels on
Setup: Path (R1->R2->R4->R9) Path Message Travels on
Tunnel from R2 to R4
Tunnel from R2 to R4
R4 Send Resv Message Directly to R2
R4 Send Resv Message Directly to R2
2201
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56

Nested Nested Tunnels—Operation Tunnels—Operation
Nested
Nested Tunnels—Operation
Tunnels—Operation
R8 R9 Pop 14 Swap 37->14 Push 17 R3 R2 Push 37 R5 R1 R7 R6
R8
R9
Pop 14
Swap 37->14
Push 17
R3
R2
Push 37
R5
R1
R7
R6
Swap 17->22
Pop 22
IP 37 1417 22 17 2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 57 Nested Nested Tunnels—Fast
IP
37
1417
22
17
2201
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57
Nested
Nested Tunnels—Fast
Tunnels—Fast Reroute
Reroute
R8
R9
Pop
Pop 14
Pop 14
Swap 37->14
Push 17
R3
R2
X
Push 37
Push
Push 37
R5
R1
R7
R6
Swap 17->22
Pop 22
On Failure of Link from R2 -> R3, R2 Simply
On Failure of Link from R2 -> R3, R2 Simply
IP
37
37
1417
22
17
Changes the Outgoing Interface and Pushes
Changes the Outgoing Interface and Pushes
on the Label for the Tunnel to R3
on the Label for the Tunnel to R3
2201
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58
Conclusions: Conclusions: MPLS Fundamentals MPLS Fundamentals
Conclusions:
Conclusions:
MPLS Fundamentals
MPLS Fundamentals

Based on the label-swapping

forwarding paradigm

As a packet enters an MPLS network,

it is assigned a label based on its

Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC)

As determined at the edge of the MPLS network

FECs are groups of packets

forwarded over the same Label

Switched Path (LSP)

2201

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59

Conclusions: Conclusions: MPLS Main Ideas MPLS Main Ideas
Conclusions:
Conclusions:
MPLS Main Ideas
MPLS Main Ideas

Separate forwarding information (label) from the content of IP header Single forwarding paradigm (label swapping)—multiple routing paradigms Multiple link-specific realizations of the label swapping forwarding paradigm Flexibility of forming Forwarding Equivalence Classes (FECs) Forwarding hierarchy via label stacking

2201

2201
 

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60

Topics Topics
Topics
Topics

Motivations for MPLS

MPLS Overview

Applications

Roadmap

2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 61 Application: Multiservice Application: Multiservice ATM Backbone with IP
2201
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61
Application: Multiservice
Application: Multiservice
ATM Backbone with IP
ATM Backbone with IP

MPLS provides

ATM IP FR
ATM
IP
FR

Scalable IP routing

Advanced IP services

Internet scale VPNs

Benefits

Lower operations costs

Keep up with Internet growth

New revenue services

Multiservice backbone

Faster time to market

2201

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Topics Topics • Motivations for MPLS • MPLS Overview • Applications • Roadmap 2201 1325_06_2000_c1 ©

62

Application: Packet over Application: Packet over SONET/SDH IP Backbone SONET/SDH IP Backbone
Application: Packet over
Application: Packet over
SONET/SDH IP Backbone
SONET/SDH IP Backbone

MPLS provides

Isolation of backbone

from BGP

Traffic engineering

Guaranteed bandwidth

Internet scale VPNs

FR/ATM over MPLS

Benefits

Improved line utilization

Increased reliability

Convergence

New revenue services

Application: Packet over Application: Packet over SONET/SDH IP Backbone SONET/SDH IP Backbone MPLS provides Isolation of

2201

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63

Application: Application: Mixed POS/ATM Backbone Mixed POS/ATM Backbone
Application:
Application:
Mixed POS/ATM Backbone
Mixed POS/ATM Backbone

MPLS provides

 
 

Tight integration of routers

and ATM switches

End-to-end IP services

Internet scale VPNs

Internet scale VPNs

Benefits

 

Network design flexibility

 

Transition to IP router

 

backbone

 

Faster time to market

2201

64

64

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Applications: Applications: Enterprise Backbone Enterprise Backbone
Applications:
Applications:
Enterprise Backbone
Enterprise Backbone
Other FR, Campuses Voice MPLS Branches Internet Si Si
Other
FR,
Campuses
Voice
MPLS
Branches
Internet
Si
Si

MPLS provides

Scalability IP services Traffic engineering

Enterprise Backbone

Benefits

Enterprise LAN

Flexibility

Reduced complexity for lower cost

2201

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65

Topics Topics
Topics
Topics
 

Motivations for MPLS

MPLS Overview

 

Applications

Roadmap

2201

2201

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66

Leadership Leadership MPLS MPLS Solutions Solutions
Leadership
Leadership MPLS
MPLS Solutions
Solutions
Available Available Today! Today! Available Available Today! Today! Available Available Today! Today!
Available
Available
Today!
Today!
Available
Available
Today!
Today!
Available
Available
Today!
Today!

IP and ATM

integration

MPLS traffic

engineering

MPLS VPNs with

integrated QoS

2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 67 Leadership Leadership MPLS MPLS Solutions Solutions
2201
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67
Leadership
Leadership MPLS
MPLS Solutions
Solutions
Available Available Today! Today! In Field In Field Trial! Trial!
Available
Available
Today!
Today!
In Field
In Field
Trial!
Trial!

MPLS VPN

management

MPLS connection

services

2201

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Leadership Leadership MPLS MPLS Solutions Solutions Available Available Today! Today! Available Available Today! Today! Available Available

68

MPLS MPLS Platform Platform Support Support All All Available Available BPX Catalyst Today! Today! 8650 8540
MPLS
MPLS Platform
Platform Support
Support
All
All
Available
Available
BPX
Catalyst
Today!
Today!
8650
8540
Cisco
3600, 2600
Cisco
4500, 4700
MGX
8850
BPX
Cisco
8680
7200
GSR
LS1010
12000
Cisco
7500
2201
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Building Building onon Open Open Standards Standards IPIP Services Services Traffic Traffic VPNs QoS QoS Engineering
Building
Building onon Open
Open Standards
Standards
IPIP Services
Services
Traffic
Traffic
VPNs
QoS
QoS
Engineering
Engineering
Tag
Tag Switching
Switching
MPLS
MPLS

MPLS is based on Cisco’s tag switching

Cisco is using MPLS as the basis for developing

support for new value-added IP services

Expect IETF ratification of the 12 MPLS RFCs in

summer 2000

2201

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© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

MPLS MPLS Platform Platform Support Support All All Available Available BPX Catalyst Today! Today! 8650 8540

70

MPLS: MPLS: The The Cisco Cisco Advantage Advantage
MPLS:
MPLS: The
The Cisco
Cisco Advantage
Advantage

Industry IP leadership

Most advanced MPLS

solutions

Broadest range of

platforms supported in

the industry today

MPLS solutions deployed

in real world production

networks

Standards-based

solutions

MPLS: MPLS: The The Cisco Cisco Advantage Advantage Industry IP leadership Most advanced MPLS solutions Broadest
2201 1325_06_2000_c1 © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 71 Introduction to MPLS and Introduction to MPLS and
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Introduction to MPLS and
Introduction to MPLS and
Traffic Engineering
Traffic Engineering
Session
Session 2201
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© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.
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72
Please Complete Your Please Complete Your Evaluation Form Evaluation Form Session Session 2201 2201 2201 2201
Please Complete Your
Please Complete Your
Evaluation Form
Evaluation Form
Session
Session 2201
2201
2201
2201
1325_06_2000_c1
1325_06_2000_c1
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.
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Please Complete Your Please Complete Your Evaluation Form Evaluation Form Session Session 2201 2201 2201 2201

2201

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© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Please Complete Your Please Complete Your Evaluation Form Evaluation Form Session Session 2201 2201 2201 2201

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