Gate Questions

© All Rights Reserved

40 tayangan

Gate Questions

© All Rights Reserved

- Fluent-Intro 14.5 L08 HeatTransfer
- Heat Transfer Lecture Notes
- Nusselt Number Calculation in Fluent -- CFD Online Discussion Forums
- Laminar and Turbulent Natural Convection Combined With Surface Thermal
- Turbulent Heat Transfer from a Flat Plate Placed Downstream of a Fence
- Lecture 9 Energy Transport
- ME302 Heat and Mass Transfer
- Analogy Heat Mass Transfer Turbulent Flow
- Heat Transfer (Corrected)
- Thermo Training Handout Public
- Geankoplis answer 14
- MEC551 Test 1 Solution(Sept2011-Feb2012) Student
- hmt_lab_manual.doc
- Heat Transfer
- CEP 220_exp No 01_thermal Conductivity
- Mmm
- introduction.pdf
- 1.Int. JOURNAL IJTAM.pdf
- Thermal sterilisation of liquid foods in a sealed container.pdf
- lec03-130312015416-phpapp01

Anda di halaman 1dari 39

Heat Transfer

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

YEAR 2013

Q. 1

Heat Transfer

ONE MARK

a plane wall, with boundary conditions as shown in figure below. The conductivity

of the wall is given by k = k 0 + bT where k 0 and b are positive constants and T

is temperature.

(A) remain constant

(B) be zero

(C) increase

(D) decrease

Q. 2

through a plane wall with the boundary surfaces ^x = 0 and x = L h maintained

at temperatures of 0cC and 100cC . Heat is generated uniformly throughout the

wall. Choose the Correct statement.

(A) The direction of heat transfer will be from the surface at 100cC to the

surface at 0cC .

(B) The maximum temperature inside the wall must be greater than 100cC .

(C) The temperature distribution is linear within the wall.

(D) The temperature distribution is symmetric about the mid-plane of the wall.

YEAR 2013 two MARKs

Q. 3

a furnace. It is suddenly removed from the furnace and cooled in ambient air at

30cC, with convective heat transfer cofficient h = 20 W/m2 K . The thermo-physical

properties of steel are: density r = 7800 kg/m2 , conductivity k = 40 W/m2 K and

specific heat c = 600 J/kg K . The time required in seconds to cool the steel ball

in air from 1030cC to 430cC is

(A) 519

(B) 931

(C) 1195

(D) 2144

Q. 4

Two large diffuse gray parallel plates, separated by a small distance, have surface

temperatures of 400 K and 300 K. If the emissivities of the surface are 0.8 and

the Stefan-Boltzmann constant is 5.67 # 10-8 W/m2 K 4 , the net radiation heat

exchanges rate in kW/m2 between the two plates is

(A) 0.66

(B) 0.79

(C) 0.99

(D) 3.96

Common

Data For

Q 5 and 6

Water (specific heat, c p = 4.18 kJ/kgK ) enters a pipe at a rate of 0.01 kg/s and

a temperature of 20cC . The pipe of diameter 50 mm and length 3 m, is subjected

to a wall heat flux qwll in W/m2

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

Q. 5

If qwll= 5000 and the convection heat transfer coefficient at the pipe outlet is

1000 W/m2 K , the temperature in cC at the inner surface of the pipe at the outlet is

(A) 71

(B) 76

(C) 79

(D) 81

Q. 6

the bulk mean temperature of the water leaving the pipe in cC is

(A) 42

(B) 62

(C) 74

(D) 104

YEAR 2012

ONE MARK

Q. 7

For an opaque surface, the absorptivity (a), transmissivity (t) and reflectivity (r)

are related by the equation :

(A) + = (B) + + = 0

(C) + = 1 (D) + = 0

Q. 8

Which one of the following configurations has the highest fin effectiveness ?

(A) Thin, closely spaced fins

(B) Thin, widely spaced fins

(C) Thick, widely spaced fins

(D) Thick, closely spaced fins

YEAR 2012

Q. 9

TWO MARKS

Consider two infinitely long thin concentric tubes of circular cross section as

shown in the figure. If D1 and D2 are the diameters of the inner and outer tubes

respectively, then the view factor F22 is give by

(A) b D2 l - 1

(B) zero

D1

(C) b D1 l (D) 1 - b D1 l

D2

D2

Q. 10

Water (c p = 4.18 kJ/kgK) at 80cC enters a counter flow heat exchanger with a

mass flow rate of 0.5 kg/s. Air (c p = 1 kJ/kgK) enters at 30cC with a mass flow

rate of 2.09 kg/s. If the effectiveness of the heat exchanger is 0.8, the LMTD

(in cC) is

(A) 40

(B) 20

(C) 10

(D) 5

YEAR 2011

Q. 11

ONE MARK

. The cooling water enters at 30c C and leaves at 45c C . The logarithmic mean

temperature difference (LMTD) of the condenser is

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

(C) 30c C (D) 37.5c C

Q. 12

between the cylinder and surroundings is 5 W/m2 K . It is proposed to reduce the

heat loss from the pipe by adding insulation having a thermal conductivity of

0.05 W/m K. Which one of the following statements is TRUE ?

(A) The outer radius of the pipe is equal to the critical radius.

(B) The outer radius of the pipe is less than the critical radius.

(C) Adding the insulation will reduce the heat loss.

(D) Adding the insulation will increases the heat loss.

YEAR 2011

TWO MARKS

Q. 13

in surrounding of 300 K. The heat transfer coefficient between the steel ball and

the surrounding is 5 W/m2 K . The thermal conductivity of steel is 20 W/mK.

The temperature difference between the centre and the surface of the steel ball is

(A) large because conduction resistance is far higher than the convective

resistance.

(B) large because conduction resistance is far less than the convective

resistance.

(C) small because conduction resistance is far higher than the convective

resistance.

(D) small because conduction resistance is far less than the convective

resistance.

Q. 14

boundary layer thickness of flows of two fluids P and Q on a flat plate are 1/2

and 2 respectively. The Reynolds number based on the plate length for both the

flows is 10 4 . The Prandtl and Nusselt numbers for P are 1/8 and 35 respectively.

The Prandtl and Nusselt numbers for Q are respectively

(A) 8 and 140

(B) 8 and 70

(C) 4 and 40

(D) 4 and 35

YEAR 2010

Q. 15

A fin has 5 mm diameter and 100 mm length. The thermal conductivity of fin

material is 400 Wm-1 K-1 . One end of the fin is maintained at 130c C and its

remaining surface is exposed to ambient air at 30c C. If the convective heat

transfer coefficient is 40 Wm-2 K-1 , the heat loss (in W) from the fin is

(A) 0.08

(B) 5.0

(C) 7.0

(D) 7.8

YEAR 2009

Q. 16

TWO MARKS

ONE MARK

A coolant fluid at 30cC flows over a heated flat plate maintained at constant

temperature of 100cC . The boundary layer temperature distribution at a given

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

m) is the distance normal to the plate and T is in c C . If thermal conductivity of

the fluid is 1.0 W/mK, the local convective heat transfer coefficient (in W/m2 K

) at that location will be

(A) 0.2

(B) 1

(C) 5

(D) 10

YEAR 2009

TWO MARKS

Q. 17

In a parallel flow heat exchanger operating under steady state, the heat capacity

rates (product of specific heat at constant pressure and mass flow rate) of the

hot and cold fluid are equal. The hot fluid, flowing at 1 kg/s with c p = 4 kJ/kg K ,

enters the heat exchanger at 102c C while the cold fluid has an inlet temperature

of 15c C . The overall heat transfer coefficient for the heat exchanger is estimated

to be 1 kW/m2 K and the corresponding heat transfer surface area is 5 m2 . Neglect

heat transfer between the heat exchanger and the ambient. The heat exchanger

is characterized by the following relations:

2e = exp ( 2 NTU)

The exit temperature (in c C ) for the cold fluid is

(A) 45

(B) 55

(C) 65

(D) 75

Q. 18

(as shown in the figure) exposed to convection conditions on both sides.

k1 = 20 W/mK ; k2 = 50 W/mK ; L1 = 0.30 m and L2 = 0.15 m .

Assuming negligible contact resistance between the wall surfaces, the interface

temperature, T (in c C ), of the two walls will be

(A) - 0.50

(B) 2.75

(C) 3.75

(D) 4.50

Common

Data For

Q 19 and 20

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

Radiative heat transfer is intended between the inner surfaces of two very large

isothermal parallel metal plates. While the upper plate (designated as plate 1)

is a black surface and is the warmer one being maintained at 727cC , the lower

plate (plate 2) is a diffuse and gray surface with an emissivity of 0.7 and is kept

at 227cC . Assume that the surfaces are sufficiently large to form a two-surface

enclosure and steady-state conditions to exits. Stefan-Boltzmann constant is

given as 5.67 # 10-8 W/m2 K 4

Q. 19

(A) 2.5

(B) 3.6

(C) 17.0

(D) 19.5

Q. 20

If plate 1 is also diffuse and gray surface with an emissivity value of 0.8, the net

radiation heat exchange (in kW/m2 ) between plate 1 and plate 2 is

(A) 17.0

(B) 19.5

(C) 23.0

(D) 31.7

YEAR 2008

Q. 21

ONE MARK

For flow of fluid over a heated plate, the following fluid properties are known

Viscosity

= 0.001Pa-s;

Specific heat at constant pressure = 1 kJ/kg.K ;

Thermal conductivity = 1W/m K

The hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness at a specified location on the plate

is 1 mm. The thermal boundary layer thickness at the same location is

(A) 0.001 mm

(B) 0.01 mm

(C) 1 mm

(D) 1000 mm

YEAR 2008

TWO MARKS

Q. 22

exchanger is 20c C . The cold fluid enters at 20c C and the hot fluid enters at

100c C . Mass flow rate of the cold fluid is twice that of the hot fluid. Specific

heat at constant pressure of the hot fluid is twice that of the cold fluid. The exit

temperature of the cold fluid

(A) is 40c C

(B) is 60c C

(C) is 80c C

(D) cannot be determined

Q. 23

For the three-dimensional object shown in the figure below, five faces are insulated.

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

The sixth face (PQRS), which is not insulated, interacts thermally with the

ambient, with a convective heat transfer coefficient of 10 W/m2 K . The ambient

temperature is 30c C . Heat is uniformly generated inside the object at the rate

of 100 W/m3 . Assuming the face PQRS to be at uniform temperature, its steady

state temperature is

(A) 10c C

(B) 20c C

(C) 30c C

(D) 40c C

Q. 24

radii 1 m and 2 m, respectively. Radiative heat exchange takes place between the

inner surface of the larger cylinder (surface-2) and the outer surface of the smaller

cylinder (surface-1). The radiating surfaces are diffuse and the medium in the

enclosure is non-participating. The fraction of the thermal radiation leaving the

larger surface and striking itself is

(A) 0.25

(B) 0.5

(C) 0.75

(D) 1

Q. 25

Steady two-dimensional heat conduction takes place in the body shown in the

figure below. The normal temperature gradients over surfaces P and Q can be

considered to be uniform. The temperature gradient 2T/2x at surface Q is equal

to 10 K/m. Surfaces P and Q are maintained at constant temperature as shown

in the figure, while the remaining part of the boundary is insulated. The body

has a constant thermal conductivity of 0.1 W/mK. The values of 2T and 2T at

2x

2y

surface P are

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

2x

2x

2y

2y

(C) 2T = 10 K/m, 2T = 10 K/m (D) 2T = 0 K/m, 2T = 20 K/m

2x

2x

2y

2y

Q. 26

The temperature distribution within the thermal boundary layer over a heated

isothermal flat plate is given by

T Tw = 3 y 1 y 3 ,

T3 Tw 2 b dt l 2 b dt l

where Tw and T3 are the temperature of plate and free stream respectively, and y

is the normal distance measured from the plate. The local Nusselt number based

on the thermal boundary layer thickness dt is given by

(A) 1.33

(B) 1.50

(C) 2.0

(D) 4.64

Q. 27

In a counter flow heat exchanger, hot fluid enters at 60c C and cold fluid leaves

at 30c C . Mass flow rate of the fluid is 1 kg/s and that of the cold fluid is 2 kg/s.

Specific heat of the hot fluid is 10 kJ/kgK and that of the cold fluid is 5 kJ/kgK.

The Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) for the heat exchanger in cC is

(A) 15

(B) 30

(C) 35

(D) 45

Q. 28

The average heat transfer co-efficient on a thin hot vertical plate suspended in still

air can be determined from observations of the change in plate temperature with

time as it cools. Assume the plate temperature to be uniform at any instant of

time and radiation heat exchange with the surroundings negligible. The ambient

temperature is 25c C , the plat has a total surface area of 0.1 m2 and a mass of

4 kg. The specific heat of the plate material is 2.5 kJ/kgK. The convective heat

transfer co-efficient in W/m2 K , at the instant when the plate temperature is

225c C and the change in plate temperature with time dT/dt = 0.02 K/s , is

(A) 200

(B) 20

(C) 15

(D) 10

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Common

Data For

Heat Transfer

Q 29 and 30

a uniform heat generation of 80 MW/m3 . The left and right faces are kept at

constant temperatures of 160c C and 120c C respectively. The plate has a constant

thermal conductivity of 200 W/mK.

Q. 29

The location of maximum temperature within the plate from its left face is

(A) 15 mm

(B) 10 mm

(C) 5 mm

(D) 0 mm

Q. 30

(A) 160

(B) 165

(C) 200

(D) 250

YEAR 2006

Q. 31

ONE MARK

In a composite slab, the temperature at the interface (Tinter ) between two material

is equal to the average of the temperature at the two ends. Assuming steady onedimensional heat conduction, which of the following statements is true about the

respective thermal conductivities ?

(A) 2k1 = k2

(B) k1 = k2

(C) 2k1 = 3k2

(D) k1 = 2k2

YEAR 2006

Q. 32

TWO MARKS

insulated room having a temperature of 20cC . The room temperature at the end

of 24 hours will be

(A) 321cC (B) 341cC

(C) 450cC (D) 470cC

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Q. 33

Heat Transfer

A thin layer of water in a field is formed after a farmer has watered it. The

ambient air conditions are : temperature 20cC and relative humidity 5%. An

extract of steam tables is given below.

Temp(c C)

- 15 - 10 - 5

0.01

10

15

20

Neglecting the heat transfer between the water and the ground, the water

temperature in the field after phase equilibrium is reached equals

(A) 10.3cC (B) - 10.3c C

(C) - 14.5c C (D) 14.5c C

Q. 34

With an increase in the thickness of insulation around a circular pipe, heat loss

to surrounding due to

(A) convection increase, while that the due to conduction decreases

(B) convection decrease, while that due to conduction increases

(C) convection and conduction decreases

(D) convection and conduction increases

YEAR 2005

Q. 35

Q. 36

ONE MARK

T is the temperature at position x , at time t . Then 2T is proportional to

2t

T

2

T

(A) (B)

x

2x

2

2

(C) 2T (D) 2T2

2x2t

2x

The following figure was generated from experimental data relating spectral black

body emissive power to wavelength at three temperature T1, T2 and T3 (T1 > T2 > T3)

.

(A) correct because the maxima in Ebl show the correct trend

(B) correct because Plancks law is satisfied

(C) wrong because the Stefan Boltzmann law is not satisfied

(D) wrong because Wiens displacement law is not satisfied

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

YEAR 2005

Q. 37

TWO MARKS

Heat flows through a composite slab, as shown below. The depth of the slab is

1 m. The k values are in W/mK. The overall thermal resistance in K/W is

(A) 17.2

(C) 28.6

(B) 21.9

(D) 39.2

Q. 38

whose temperature is 300 K. The thermal conductivity of copper is 400 W/mK

, its density 9000 kg/m3 and its specific heat 385 J/kgK. If the heat transfer

coefficient is 250 W/m2 K and lumped analysis is assumed to be valid, the rate

of fall of the temperature of the ball at the beginning of cooling will be, in K/s,

(A) 8.7

(B) 13.9

(C) 17.3

(D) 27.7

Q. 39

A solid cylinder (surface 2) is located at the centre of a hollow sphere (surface 1).

The diameter of the sphere is 1 m, while the cylinder has a diameter and length

of 0.5 m each. The radiation configuration factor F11 is

(A) 0.375

(B) 0.625

(C) 0.75

(D) 1

Q. 40

Hot oil is cooled from 80 to 50cC in an oil cooler which uses air as the coolant.

The air temperature rises from 30 to 40cC . The designer uses a LMTD value of

26cC . The type of heat exchange is

(A) parallel flow

(B) double pipe

(C) counter flow

(D) cross flow

Common

Data For

Q 41 and 42

, carrying air at 20c C with a velocity of 10 m/s, is exposed to an ambient of

30c C . Neglect the effect of duct construction material. For air in the range of

20 - 30cC , data are as follows; thermal conductivity = 0.025 W/mK ; viscosity

= 18 Pas , Prandtl number = 0.73 ; density = 1.2 kg/m3 . The laminar flow

Nusselt number is 3.4 for constant wall temperature conditions and for turbulent

flow, Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.33

Q. 41

(A) 444

(B) 890

5

(C) 4.44 # 10 (D) 5.33 # 105

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Q. 42

(A) 3.8

(B) 5.3

(C) 89

(D) 769

YEAR 2004

Q. 43

Heat Transfer

ONE MARK

One dimensional unsteady state heat transfer equation for a sphere with heat

generation at the rate of q can be written as

q

q

(A) 1 2 br2T l + = 1 2T (B) 12 2 br22T l + = 1 2T

r 2r 2r

a 2t

a 2t

k

k

r 2r 2r

2

2

q

q

(C) 2T2 + = 1 2T (D) 22 (rT) + = 1 2T

a 2t

a 2t

k

k

2r

2r

YEAR 2004

Q. 44

TWO MARKS

3 cm thick asbestos ^ka = 0.2 W/m Kh. If the temperature difference between the

innermost and outermost surfaces is 600c C , the heat transfer rate per unit length

is

(A) 0.94 W/m

(B) 9.44 W/m

(C) 944.72 W/m

(D) 9447.21 W/m

Q. 45

measurement of temperature of a gas stream. The convective heat transfer coefficient on the bead surface is 400 W/m2 K . Thermo-physical properties of

thermocouple material are k = 20 W/mK , c = 400 J/kg K and r = 8500 kg/m3

. If the thermocouple initially at 30cC is placed in a hot stream of 300cC , then

time taken by the bead to reach 298cC , is

(A) 2.35 s

(B) 4.9 s

(C) 14.7 s

(D) 29.4 s

Q. 46

In a condenser, water enters at 30cC and flows at the rate 1500 kg/hr. The

condensing steam is at a temperature of 120cC and cooling water leaves the

condenser at 80cC . Specific heat of water is 4.187 kJ/kgK. If the overall heat

transfer coefficient is 2000 W/m2 K , then heat transfer area is

(A) 0.707 m2

(B) 7.07 m2

(C) 70.7 m2

(D) 141.4 m2

YEAR 2003

Q. 47

ONE MARK

A plate having 10 cm2 area each side is hanging in the middle of a room of 100 m2

total surface area. The plate temperature and emissivity are respectively 800 K

and 0.6. The temperature and emissivity values for the surfaces of the room are

300 K and 0.3 respectively. Boltzmanns constant s = 5.67 # 108 W/m2 K 4 . The

total heat loss from the two surfaces of the plate is

(A) 13.66 W

(B) 27.32 W

(C) 27.87 W

(D) 13.66 MW

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

YEAR 2003

Heat Transfer

TWO MARKS

Q. 48

In a counter flow heat exchanger, for the hot fluid the heat capacity = 2 kJ/kgK ,

mass flow rate = 5 kg/s , inlet temperature = 150cC , outlet temperature = 100cC

. For the cold fluid, heat capacity = 4 kJ/kgK , mass flow rate = 10 kg/s , inlet

temperature = 20cC . Neglecting heat transfer to the surroundings, the outlet

temperature of the cold fluid in cC is

(A) 7.5

(B) 32.5

(C) 45.5

(D) 70.0

Q. 49

Consider a laminar boundary layer over a heated flat plate. The free stream

velocity is U3 . At some distance x from the leading edge the velocity boundary

layer thickness is dv and the thermal boundary layer thickness is dT . If the Prandtl

number is greater than 1, then

(A) dv > dT

(B) dT > dv

(C) dv . dT + (U3 x) -1/2

(D) dv . dT + x-1/2

Common

Data For

Q 50 and 51

whose surface that is exposed to the water is at 40c C . The thermal conductivity

of water is 0.6 W/mK and the thermal conductivity of glass is 1.2 W/mK.

The spatial gradient of temperature in the water at the water-glass interface is

dT/dy = 1 # 10 4 K/m .

Q. 50

The value of the temperature gradient in the glass at the water-glass interface in

K/m is

(A) - 2 # 10 4

(B) 0.0

(C) 0.5 # 10 4

(D) 2 # 10 4

Q. 51

(A) 0.0

(B) 4.8

(C) 6

(D) 750

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

YEAR 2002

Q. 52

ONE MARK

For the same inlet and outlet temperatures of hot and cold fluids, the Log mean

Temperature Difference (LMTD) is

(A) greater for parallel flow heat exchanger than for counter flow heat

exchanger

(B) greater for counter flow heat exchanger than for parallel flow heat

exchanger

(C) same for both parallel and counter flow heat exchangers

(D) dependent on the properties of the fluids.

YEAR 2001

Q. 53

ONE MARK

For the circular tube of equal length and diameter shown below, the view factor

F13 is 0.17. The view factor F12 in this case will be

(C) 0.79 (D) 0.83

Q. 54

In descending order of magnitude, the thermal conductivity of (a) pure iron, (b)

liquid water, (c) saturated water vapour and (d) aluminum can be arranged as

(A) abcd

(B) bcad

(C) dabc

(D) dcba

**********

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

Solution

Sol. 1

The one-dimensional steady state heat conduction equation without heat

generation is given by

2

k d T2 = 0 where k = k0 + bT and T2 > T1

dx

d k dT = 0

b

l

dx dx

Integrating both the sides

d k dT = C where C is the integration constant.

b

l

dx dx

k dT = C ...(i)

dx

# ^k + bT hdT = # Cdx

0

2

Let the boundary condition

(a) At x = 0 , T = 0 and (b) At x = 1, T = 100cC

From boundary condition (a), we get B = 0 .

and from (b),

k0 (100) + b (5000) = C

Now from Eq. (i), we obtain

dT = 100k0 + 5000b ...(ii)

dx

k0 + bT

From this Eq. (ii), it is concluded that as T increases, the dT decreases because

dx

it is a function of temperature only and T2 > T1 .

Sol. 2

d 2T + qg = 0

k

dx2

dT = qg x + C

On integrating, we get

1

k

dx

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

T =

Again integrating,

qg x2

+ C1 x + C2 ....(i)

k 2

Now Applying the boundary condition on Eq.(i)

T ^0 h = 0 :

0 = C1 ^0 h + C2 & C2 = 0 and

T ^L h = 100cC :

or

So that

qg L2

+ C1 L

2k

q L

C1 = 100 + g

L

2k

100 =

T =

qg x2

q L

+ c 100 + g m x

L

2k

2k

qg # 2x 100 qg L

dT = 0 :

= 0

+

+

L

2k

dx

2k

q L

or

x = k c 100 + g m

qg L

2k

or

x = 100k + L ...(ii)

2

qg L

2

d T = qg (Negative)

Also

k

dx2

From Eq. (ii), it means the maximum temperature is inside the wall and it must

be greater than 100cC .

Sol. 3

Sol. 4

We have

d = 60 mm, Ti = 1030 cC , Ta = 30 cC , h = 20 W/m2 K , T = 430 cC

r = 7800 kg/m2 , k = 40 W/m2 K , c = 600 J/kg K

The characteristic length is

4

pr 3

l = Volume = 3 2 = r = 0.030 = 0.010 m

3

3

Surface area

4pr

(20) (0.01)

Biot number

Bi = hl =

= 0.005 < 0.1

40

k

Thus, applying the lumped analysis formula

T - Ta = exp hAt = exp ht

c rvc m

c rlc m

Ti - Ta

430 - 30 = exp c

20t

or

m

1030 - 30

7800 # 0.01 # 600

2 = exp c t m

or

5

2340

or

& t = 2144 sec

ln b 2 l = t

5

2340

Option (A) is correct.

As both the plates are gray, the net radiation heat exchange between the two

plates is

1 2

T 4 T 24h

Q12 =

1 + 2 1 2 b ^ 1

0.8 # 0.8

=

5.67 # 108 8^400h4 ^300h4B

0.8 + 0.8 0.8 # 0.8 #

= 661 W/m2 = 0.66 kW/m2

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Sol. 5

Heat Transfer

We have

d = 0.05 m , L = 3 m , c p = 4.18 kJ/kg K , h = 1000 W/m2 K

Now

or

o

# qll 2prdx = q ll2prL = mc

0

qwllpdL

o p + Tin = Tout

mc

^Tout Tin h

3 = 76.36 K

Tout = 20 + 5000 # 3.14 # 0.05 #

0.01 # 4.18 # 103

Now for wall temperature at outlet

qwll = h ^Tw Tout h

q ll

or

Tw = w + Tout = 5000 + 76.36 = 81.36cC b 81cC

1000

h

or

Sol. 6

We have

qwll = 2500 x

Due to heat transfer from wall, the enthalpy changes, from inlet to outlet.

o p dTm

Now

qwlldA = mc

Where

dTm = Bulk mean Temperature

o p dTm

2500x # 2prdx = mc

Integrating both the sides, we get

5000pr

or

o # dT

# xdx = mc

0

o p ^Tout, m Tin, m h

= mc

5000 pdL2 = mc

o p ^Tout, m 20h

2

2

^0.01 # 4.18 # 103h

= 20 + 42.27 = 62.27cC b 62cC

or

Sol. 7

Tout, m = 20 +

The sum of the absorbed, reflected and transmitted radiation be equal to

+ + = 1

a = Absorpivity, r = Reflectivity , t = Transmissivity

For an opaque surfaces such as solids and liquids t = 0,

Thus,

+ = 1

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

Sol. 8

The performance of the fins is judged on the basis of the enhancement in heat

transfer area relative to the no fin case. The fin effectiveness

efin = Heat transfer rate from the fin of base area

Heat transfer rate from the surface area

When determining the rate of heat transfer from a finned surface, we must

consider the unfinned portion of the surface as well as the fins and number of fins.

Thin and closed spaced fin configuration, the unfinned portion of surface is reduced

and number of fins is increased. Hence the fin effectiveness will be maximum for

thin and closely spaced fins.

Sol. 9

According to the reciprocity relation.

A1 F12 = A2 F21

Which yields

F21 = A1 # F12 = pD1 L # 1 = b D1 l

pD 2 L

D2

A2

F11 = 0 since no radiation leaving surface 1 and strikes 1

F12 = 1, since all radiation leaving surface 1 and strikes 2

The view factor F22 is determined by applying summation rule to surface 2,

F21 + F22 = 1

Thus

F22 = 1 F21 = 1 b D1 l

D2

Sol. 10

o h = 0.5 kg/ sec , m

oc = 2.09 kg/ sec., e = 0.8

Given : th1 = 80cC , tc1 = 30cC , m

Cc = 1 # 2.09 = 2.09 kJ/K sec.

Ch = Cc

(t t ) C

Qo

Effectiveness e = o

= h1 h1 h

(th1 tc1) Cc

Q max

0.8 = 80 th2

80 30

Capacity rate for hot fluid

So,

or,

80 - th2 = 40 & th2 = 40cC

From energy balance,

Ch (th1 - th1) = Cc (tc 2 tc1)

80 - 40 = tc2 30

tc2 = 70cC

Now LMTD

qm = q1 qq2 ...(i)

ln q

1

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

q1 = th1 tc 2 = 80 70 = 10cC

q2 = th 2 tc1 = 40 30 = 10cC

q1 = q2 ...(ii)

So LMTD is undefined

q1 = x & q = xq

Let

1

2

q2

q (x 1)

Put in equation (i), so

qm = lim xq2 q2 = lim 2

x"1

x"1

ln x

ln xq2

q2

It is a : 0 D form, applying L-Hospital rule

0

q (1 0)

qm = lim 2

= lim xq2

1

x"1

x"1

x

From equation (ii)

qm = q2 = q1

qm = q1 = th1 tc 2 = 80 70 = 10cC

Sol. 11

From diagram, we have

q1 = th1 tc1 = 60 30 = 30c C

And

q2 = th2 tc2 = 60 45 = 15c C

Now LMTD,

Sol. 12

qm = q1 q2 = 30 15 = 21.6c C

ln b 30 l

ln b q1 l

15

q2

2

k = 0.05 W/mK

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

rc = k = 0.05 = 0.01 m

5

h

rc < r0 or r0 > rc ...(i)

So, from equation (i) option a and b is incorrect. The critical radius is less than

the outer radius of the pipe and adding the insulation will not increase the heat

loss. Hence the correct statement is adding the insulation will reduce the heat

loss.

Sol. 13

Given : D = 12 mm = 12 # 103 m , h = 5 W/m2 K , k = 20 W/m K

3

For spherical ball, = 12 # 10 = 2 # 103 m

6

4 pR 3

D

volume

3

=

l =

2 = 6

surface area

4p R

The non-dimensional factor (hl/k) is called Biot Number. It gives an indication of

the ratio of internal (conduction) resistance to the surface (convection) resistance.

A small value of Bi implies that the system has a small conduction resistance

i.e., relatively small temperature gradient or the existence of a practically uniform

temperature within the system.

3

Biot Number,

Bi = hl = 5 # 2 # 10 = 0.0005

20

k

Since, Value of Biot Number is very less. Hence, conduction resistance is much

less than convection resistance.

Sol. 14

dH

dH

1

Given :

b dTh l = 2 and b dTh l = 2

P

Q

Here,

And

dTh "Thickness of thermal boundary layer

(Re) P = (Re)Q = 10 4

(Pr) P = 1

8

(Nu) P = 35

For thermal boundary layer prandtl Number is given by, (For fluid Q)

(Pr)Q1/3 = b dH l = 2

dTh Q

(Pr)Q = (2) 3 = 8

For laminar boundary layer on flat plate, relation between Reynolds Number,

Prandtl Number and Nusselt Number is given by,

Nu = hl = (Re) 1/2 (Pr) 1/3

k

Since, Reynolds Number is same for both P and Q .

So,

(Nu) P

(Pr) 1P/3

=

(Nu)Q

(Pr)Q1/3

(Pr)Q1/3

(8) 1/3

2

Nu

=

(

)

# 35

P

1/3 # (35) =

1/3 #

1

/

2

(1/8)

(Pr) P

= 140

(Nu)Q =

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Sol. 15

Heat Transfer

Given, d = 5 mm = 0.005 m , l = 100 mm = 0.1 m , k = 400 W/m K

T0 = 130c C , Ta = 30c C , h = 40 W/m2 K

Heat loss by the fin is given by,

Q fin = mkAc (T0 Ta) tanh (ml) ...(i)

p

Perimeter

=

= ppd2 = 4 = 4

0.005

d

Ac

Cross sectional Area

4d

p

= 800 ...(ii)

Ac

p

40

And

m = h b l =

800 = 80

400 #

k Ac

From equation(i),

Q fin = 80 # 400 # p # (0.005) 2 (130 30) # tanh ( 80 # 0.1)

4

= 8.944 # 400 # 1.96 # 105 # 100 # tanh (0.8944)

= 7.012 # 0.7135 - 5 W

Sol. 16

Given : T1 = 30c C , T2 = 100c C , k = 1.0 W/mK ,

T = 30 + 70 exp ( y) ...(i)

Heat transfer by conduction = Heat transfer by convection

A " Area of plate

- kA dT = hADT

dy

kA d (30 + 70ey) = hADT

dy

Solving above equation, we get

- kA (- 70e-y) = hADT

At the surface of plate, y = 0

Hence

70kA = hADT

h = 70kA = 70k = 70 # 1 = 1 W/m2 K

ADT

DT

(100 30)

Option (B) is correct.

o h = 1 kg/ sec , c ph = 4 kJ/kg K , th1 = 102c C , tc1 = 15c C

Given : Coh = Coc , m

2

U = 1 kW/m K , A = 5 m2

The figure shown below is for parallel flow.

Sol. 17

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

o h c ph = 4 kJ/sK

Coh = m

The heat exchanger is characterized by the following relation,

1 exp ( 2NTU)

..(i)

e =

2

For parallel flow heat exchanger effectiveness is given by

1 exp [ NTU (1 + C)]

...(ii)

e =

1+C

Comparing equation (i) and equation (ii), we get capacity ratio

C = Cc = C min = 1 ...(iii)

Ch

C max

Applying energy balance for a parallel flow

Ch (th1 - th2) = Cc (tc2 tc1)

Cc = th1 th2 = 1

tc2 tc1

Ch

From equation(iii)

th1 - th2 = tc2 tc1

Number of transfer units is given by,

NTU

= UA = 1 # 5 = 1.25

4

C min

1 exp ( 2 # 1.25)

Effectiveness,

e =

= 1 0.0820 = 0.46

2

2

Maximum possible heat transfer is,

Q max = C min (th1 tc1)

= 4 # 6(273 + 102) (273 + 15)@ = 348 kW

But Actual Heat transfer is,

Qa = eQ max = 0.46 # 348 = 160 kW

And

Qa = Cc (tc2 tc1)

160

= 4 (tc2 15)

tc2 = 40 + 15 = 55c C

Sol. 18

www.gatescore.in

Req = 1 + L1 + L2 + 1

h i A k1 A k 2 A h 0 A

Req # A = 1 + L1 + L2 + 1 = 1 + 0.3 + 0.15 + 1

20 20

50

50

h i k1 k 2 h 0

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

= 0.05 + 0.015 + 0.003 + 0.02 = 0.088 m2 K/W

Q

Heat flux,

q = = DT

Q = DT

A AReq

R

Under steady state condition,

k (T T ) k2 (T T2)

...(i)

q = T3i T3o = hi (T3i T1) = 1 1

=

L1

L2

AReq

20 ( 2)

= T3i T3o =

= 250 W/m2 ...(ii)

0.088

AReq

From equation(i)

= T3i T1 = 20 T1

1

1

20

hi

250

= 20 (20 T1)

& T1 = 20 12.5 = 7.5c C

12.5 = 20 T1

Again from equation(i),

k (T T)

q = 1 1

L1

250 = 20 (7.5 T)

0.3

3.75 = 7.5 T & T = 3.75c C

Alternative :

Under steady state conditions,

Heat flow from I to interface wall = Heat flow from interface wall to O

(T3, i T)

(T T3,o)

=

L2 + 1

1 + L1

h i A k1 A

k2 A h0 A

T3, i T

T T3, o

=

L2 + 1

1 + L1

h i k1

k2 ho

(20 T)

T ( 2)

=

1 + 0.3

0.15 + 1

20 20

50

50

(20 - T) T + 2

=

1.3

1.15

20

50

(20 - T) = 2.826 (T + 2) = 2.826T + 5.652

Sol. 19

www.gatescore.in

T = 14.348 = 3.75c C

3.826

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

T1 = (727 + 273) K = 1000 K

Let,

a " The absorptivity of the gray surface

E1 " The radiant energy of black surface

E2 " The radiant energy of gray surface

Now, Plate 1 emits radiant energy E1 which strikes the plate 2. From it a part

aE1 absorbed by the plate 2 and the remainder (E1 - aE1) is reflected back to the

plate 1. On reaching plate 1, all the part of this energy is absorbed by the plate

1, because the absorptivity of plate 1 is equal to one (it is a black surface).

Irradiation denotes the total radiant energy incident upon a surface per unit time

per unit area.

Energy leaving from the plate 2 is,

E = E2 + (1 a) E1 ...(i)

Hence, E2 is the energy emitted by plate 2.

E2 = b T 24 = 0.7 # 5.67 # 108 # (500) 4

E = b T 4

= 0.7 # 5.67 # 108 # 625 # 108 = 2480.625 W/m2

And fraction of energy reflected from surface 2 is,

= (1 a)E1 = (1 ) T 14

= 5.67 # 108 (1 0.7) # (1000) 4 = 17010 W/m2

Now, Total energy incident upon plate 1 is,

E = E2 + (1 a) E1 = 2480.625 + 17010

= 19490.625 W/m2 = 19.49 kW/m2 , 19.5 kW/m2

Sol. 20

Given : e2 = 0.8 , e1 = 0.7

As both the plates are gray, the net heat flow from plate 1 to plate 2 per unit

time is given by,

1 2

1

(T 4 T 24) =

(T 4 T 24)

Q12 =

1 + 2 1 2 b 1

1 + 1 1 b 1

2 1

1

=

5.67 # 108 [(1000) 4 (500) 4]

1 + 1 1#

0.8 0.7

= 1 # 5.67 # 9375 = 31640.625 W/m2

1.68

- 31.7 kW/m2

Sol. 21

Given : = 0.001 Pa s , c p = 1 kJ/kg K , k = 1 W/m K

The prandtl Number is given by,

3

c

Pr = p = 0.001 # 1 # 10 = 1

1

k

d = hydrodynamic bondary layer thickness = (Pr) 1/3

And

Thermal boundary layer thickness

dt

Given,

d = 1 m

d = (1) 1/3 = 1

dt

d = dt = 1 mm

Hence, thermal boundary layer thickness at same location is 1 mm.

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Sol. 22

Heat Transfer

The T - L curve shows the counter flow.

oc

oh & m

oc = 2m

= 2 ...(i)

m

o

mh

c

c ph = 2c pc & ph = 2 ...(ii)

c pc

Energy balance for counter flow is,

Heat lost by hot fluid = Heat gain by cold fluid

o h c ph (th1 - th2) = m

oc c pc (tc2 tc1)

m

oc

c ph

(th1 - th2) = m

o h (tc2 tc1)

c pc

m

th1 - tc2 = th2 tc1

q1 = q2 ...(iii)

And

qm = q1 q2 ...(iv)

ln b q1 l

q2

Substituting the equation (iii) in equation (iv), we get undetermined form.

q1 = x ,

Let

& q1 = q2 x ...(v)

q2

Substitute q1 in equation(iv),

q (x 1)

...(vi)

qm = lim q2 x q2 = lim 2

x"1

x"1

ln x

ln b q2 x l

q2

0 form, So we apply L-Hospital rule,

:0D

q (1 0)

qm = lim 2

= lim x q2

1

x"1

x"1

x

qm = q2 = q1

Now we have to find exit temperature of cold fluid (tc2),

So,

qm = q1 = th1 tc2

tc2 = th1 qm = 100 20 = 80c C

Sol. 23

From equation(iii)

Given : h = 10 W/m2 K , Ti = 30c C , qg = 100 W/m3

Five faces of the object are insulated, So no heat transfer or heat generation

by these five faces. Only sixth face (PQRS) interacts with the surrounding and

generates heat.

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

Q = Rate of heat Generated # Volume of object

= 100 # (1 # 2 # 2) = 400 W

And heat transfer by convection is given by

Q = hA (Tf Ti)

400

= 10 # (2 # 2) (Tf 30)

Tf = 30 + 10 = 40c C

Sol. 24

Given : D1 = 1 m , D2 = 2 m

Hence, the small cylindrical surface (surface 1) cannot see itself and the radiation

emitted by this surface strikes on the enclosing surface 2. From the conservation

principal (summation rule).

For surface 1,

F12 + F11 = 1

F11 = 0

F12 = 1 ...(i)

From the reciprocity theorem

A1 F12 = A2 F21

F21 = A1 = pD1 L = D1 = 1 = 0.5

D2 2

A 2 pD 2 L

and from the conservation principal, for surface 2, we have

F21 + F22 = 1

F22 = 1 F21 = 1 0.5 = 0.5

So, the fraction of the thermal radiation leaves the larger surface and striking

itself is F22 = 0.5 .

Sol. 25

Given : b2T l = 10 K/m , (T ) P = (T)Q , (k) P = (k)Q = 0.1 W/mK

2x Q

Direction of heat flow is always normal to surface of constant temperature.

So, for surface P ,

2T = 0

2x

Because, Q = kA (2T/2x) and 2T is the temperature difference for a short

perpendicular distance dx . Let width of both the bodies are unity.

From the law of energy conservation,

Heat rate at P = Heat rate at Q

- 0.1 # 1 # c2T m = 0.1 # 2 # b2T l

2y P

2x Q

Sol. 26

Because for P heat flow in y direction and for Q heat flow in x direction

2T

0.1 # 2 # 10 = 20 K/m

c2y m =

0.1

P

Option (B) is correct.

The region beyond the thermal entrance region in which the dimensionless

temperature profile expressed as b T - Tw l remains unchanged is called thermally

T3 - Tw

fully developed region.

Nusselt Number is given by,

...(i)

Nu = hL = c2T m

k

2yl at yl = 0

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

y

T = T Tw and yl =

T3 Tw

2t

y

y 3

So,

N u = 2 ; 3 b l 1 b l E

= 2 3 yl 1 (yl) 3D

2 dt yl = 0 2y :2

2

2yl 2 dt

yl = 0

y 2

3

3

3

= ; b lE

= = 1.5

2 2 dt yl = 0

2

Option (B) is correct.

The counter flow arrangement of the fluid shown below :

Here,

Sol. 27

Given: for hot fluid : th1 = 60c C , m

oc = 2 kg/ sec , cc = 5 kJ/kg K

And for cold fluid : tc2 = 30c C , m

Heat capacity of Hot fluid,

o h ch = 1 # 10 = 10 kJ/k. sec

C h = m

And heat capacity of cold fluid,

oc cc = 2 # 5 = 10 kJ/k sec

Cc = m

By energy balance for the counter flow

o h ch (th1 - th2) = m

oc cc (tc2 tc1)

m

Ch (th1 - th2) = Cc (tc2 tc1)

Ch = Cc

th1 - tc2 = th2 tc1

q1 = q2

LMTD,

qm = q1 q2 ...(i)

ln b q1 l

q2

q

1

= x

Let,

q1 is equal to q2 and qm is undetermined

q2

q1 = x q2

Substituting q1 in equation (i), we get,

q (x 1)

qm = lim x q2 q2 = lim 2

x " 1 ln (x)

x"1

ln (x)

0 form , So we apply L-hospital rule,

b0l

qm = lim q2 # 1 = lim x q2

1

x"1

x"1

x

qm = q2 = q1 & q1 = th1 tc2 = 60 30 = 30c C

Sol. 28

Given : T1 = 25c C = (273 + 25) = 298 K , A = 0.1 m2 , m = 4 kg ,

c = 2.5 kJ/kg K

h = ? , T2 = 225c C = 273 + 225 = 498 K

Temperature Gradient, dT = 0.02 K/s

dt

Here negative sign shows that plate temperature decreases with the time.

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

Heat transfer by convection to the plate = Rate of change of internal energy

hA (T2 - T1) = mc dT

dt

h =

= 10 W/m2 K

Sol. 29

mc

dT = 4 # 2.5 # 103

( 0.02)

#

dt

0.1 (498 298) #

A (T2 T1)

Let the location of maximum temperature occurs at the distance x from the

left face. We know that steady state heat flow equation in one dimension with a

uniform heat generation is given by,

22 T + qg = 0 ...(i)

k

2x2

Here qg = Heat generated per unit volume and per unit time,

Given : qg = 80 MW/m2 = 80 # 106 W/m2 , k = 200 W/m K

Substituting the value of qg and k in equation (i), we get

22 T + 80 # 106 = 0

200

2x2

22 T + 4 105 = 0

#

2x 2

Integrating the above equation,

2T + 4 105 x + c = 0 ...(ii)

#

#

1

2x

Again integrating, we get

2

T + 4 # 105 # x + c1 x + c2 = 0 ...(iii)

2

Applying boundary conditions on equation (iii), we get

(1) At x = 0 , T = 160c C

160 + c2 = 0

c2 = 160 ...(iv)

(2) At x = 20 mm = 0.020 m , T = 120c C

120 + 4 # 105 #

(0.020) 2

+ c1 # 0.020 + ( 160) = 0

2

c2 = 160

0.020c1 + 40 = 0

c1 = 40 = 2000 ...(v)

0.020

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

dx

c1 = 2000

0 + 4 # 105 x + ( 2000) = 0

x = 2000 5 = 500 # 105 = 5 # 103 m = 5 mm

4 # 10

Option (B) is correct.

From the previous part of the question, at x = 5 mm temperature is maximum.

So, put x = 5 mm = 5 # 103 m in equation(iii), we get

(5 # 103) 2

5

+ ( 2000) # 5 # 103 + ( 160) = 0

T + 4 # 10 #

2

Sol. 30

Sol. 31

T + 5 170 = 0

& T = 165c C

Tinter = T1 + T2

2

Heat transfer will be same for both the ends

k A (T Tinter )

k A (T T2)

So,

Q = 1 1 1

= 2 2 inter

2b

b

Q = kA dT

dx

There is no variation in the horizontal direction. Therefore, we consider portion

of equal depth and height of the slab, since it is representative of the entire wall.

So,

A1 = A2 and Tinter = T1 + T2

2

k1 ;T1 bT1 + T2 lE

2

So, we get

= k2 :T1 + T2 T2D

2

2

k1 :2T1 - T1 - T2 D = 2k2 :T1 + T2 2T2 D

2

2

k1 [T - T ] = k [T T ]

2

1

2

2

2 1

Given :

Sol. 32

k1 = 2k2

Given : P = 100 W , n = 2.5 # 3 # 3 = 22.5 m3 , Ti = 20c C

Now Heat generated by the bulb in 24 hours,

Q = 100 # 24 # 60 # 60 = 8.64 MJ ...(i)

Volume of the room remains constant.

Heat dissipated,

Q = mcv dT = cv (Tf Ti)

m = rv

Where,

Tf = Final temperature of room

r = Density of air = 1.2 kg/m3

cv of air = 0.717 kJ/kg K

Substitute the value of Q from equation (i), we get

8640000

= 1.2 # 22.5 # 0.717 # 103 (Tf 20)

8640

= 1.2 # 22.5 # 0.717 (Tf 20)

(Tf - 20) = 446.30

Tf = 446.30 + 20 = 466.30c C - 470c C

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Sol. 33

Heat Transfer

Given : Relation humidity = 5% at temperature 20c C

Relative humidity,

Actual mass of water vapour in a given volume of moist air

f =

mass of water vapour in the same volume of saturated

air at same temperature & pressure

p

f = mv = v = 0.05 ...(i)

ms

ps

Where, pv = Partial pressure of vapor at 20c C

From given table at T = 20cC , ps = 2.34 kPa

From equation (i),

pv = 0.05 # ps = 0.05 # 2.34 = 0.117 kPa

Phase equilibrium means, ps = pv

The temperature at which pv becomes saturated pressure can be found by

interpolation of values from table, for ps = 0.10 to ps = 0.26

10 ( 15)

T = 15 + ;

(0.117 0.10)

0.26 0.10 E

= 15 + 5 # 0.017 = 14.47 -- 14.5c C

0.16

Sol. 34

The variation of heat transfer with the outer radius of the insulation r2 , when

r1 < rcr

The rate of heat transfer from the insulated pipe to the surrounding air can be

expressed as

T1 T3

Qo = T1 T3 =

r

Rins + Rconv.

ln a 2 k

r1

1

+

2pLk

h (2pr2 L)

o

The value of r2 at which Q reaches a maximum is determined from the requirement

dQo

that

= 0 . By solving this we get,

dr2

rcr, pipe = k ...(i)

h

From equation (i), we easily see that by increasing the thickness of insulation,

the value of thermal conductivity increases and heat loss by the conduction also

increases.

But by increasing the thickness of insulation, the convection heat transfer co-

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

efficient decreases and heat loss by the convection also decreases. These both

cases are limited for the critical thickness of insulation.

Sol. 35

Sol. 36

The general heat equation in cartesian co-ordinates,

22T + 22T + 22T = 1 2T

a 2t

2x2 2y2 2z2

For one dimensional heat conduction,

22T = 1 2T = c p 2T

= k = Thermal Diffusitivity

c p

2t

k 2t

2x2

For constant properties of medium,

2T \ 22T

2t

2x2

Option (D) is correct.

From, Wiens displacement law,

lmax T = 0.0029 mK = Cnstant

lmax \ 1

T

If T increase, then lm decrease. But according the figure, when T increases,

then lm also increases. So, the Wiens law is not satisfied.

Sol. 37

Assumptions :

(1) Heat transfer is steady since there is no indication of change with time.

(2) Heat transfer can be approximated as being one-dimensional since it is

predominantly in the x -direction.

(3) Thermal conductivities are constant.

(4) Heat transfer by radiation is negligible.

Analysis :

There is no variation in the horizontal direction. Therefore, we consider a 1 m

deep and 1 m high portion of the slab, since it representative of the entire wall.

Assuming any cross-section of the slab normal to the x - direction to be isothermal,

the thermal resistance network for the slab is shown in the figure.

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

0.5

R1 = L1 =

= 25 K/W

k1 A1 0.02 (1 # 1)

0.25

R 2 = L 2 =

= 5 K/W

k2 A2 0.10 # (1 # 0.5)

0.25

R 3 = L 3 =

= 12.5 K/W

k 3 A 3 0.04 # (1 # 0.5)

Resistance R2 and R 3 are in parallel. So the equivalent resistance Req will be

1 = 1 + 1

Req

R2 R 3

1 = R 3 + R 2

Req

R2 R3

Req = R2 R 3 = 5 # 12.5 = 3.6 K/W

5 + 12.5

R2 + R 3

Resistance R1 and Req are in series. So total Resistance will be

R = R1 + Req = 25 + 3.6 = 28.6 K/W

Sol. 38

Given : D = 5 mm = 0.005 m , Ti = 500 K , Ta = 300 K , k = 400 W/mK ,

r = 9000 kg/m3 , c = 385 J/kg K , h = 250 W/m2 K ,

Given that lumped analysis is assumed to be valid.

T - Ta = exp hAt = exp ht ...(i)

So,

c c m

c rlc m

Ti - Ta

4 R 3

Volume

of

ball

= 3 2

l = =

l= n

A

Surface Area

A

4R

= R = D = 0.005 = 1 m

3

6

6

1200

On substituting the value of l and other parameters in equation. (i),

T - 300 = exp

250 # t

c 9000 # 1 385 m

500 - 300

1200

0.08658t

T = 300 + 200 # e

On differentiating the above equation w.r.t. t ,

dT = 200 ( 0.08658) e0.08658t

#

#

dt

Rate of fall of temperature of the ball at the beginning of cooling is (at beginning t = 0

)

dT

b dt l = 200 # ( 0.08658) # 1 = 17.316 K/sec

t=0

Negative sign shows fall of temperature.

Sol. 39

Option (C ) is correct.

Given : d1 = 1 m , d2 = 0.5 m , L = 0.5 m

The cylinder surface cannot see itself and the radiation emitted by this surface

falls on the enclosing sphere. So, from the conservation principle (summation

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

F21 + F22 = 1

F21 = 1

F22 = 0

A1 F12 = A2 F21

F12 = A2 # F21 = A2 ...(ii)

A1

A1

For sphere,

F11 + F12 = 1

F11 = 1 F12 ...(iii)

From equation (ii) and (iii), we get

F11 = 1 A2 = 1 2pr22l = 1 2r22l

A1

pd 1

d1

# 0.5 = 1 1 = 0.75

= 1 2 # 0.250

4

12

Sol. 40

The figure shown below are of parallel flow and counter flow respectively.

th1 = 80cC , th2 = 50cC , tc1 = 30cC , tc2 = 40cC

(t t ) (th2 tc2)

qmp = q1 q2 = h1 c1

q

1

ln b th1 tc1 l

ln b l

th2 tc2

q2

Where, qmp denotes the LMTD for parallel flow.

(80 30) (50 40)

qmp =

= 40 = 24.85c C

50

ln (5)

ln b l

10

For counter flow arrangement

th1 = 80cC , th2 = 50cC , tc1 = 40cC , tc2 = 30cC

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

(t t ) (th2 tc1)

qmc = q1 q2 = h1 c2

q

1

ln b th1 tc2 l

ln b l

th2 tc1

q2

(80 30) (50 40)

=

= 40 = 28.85cC

50

ln (5)

ln b l

10

Now for defining the type of flow, we use the correction factor.

qm = Fqmc = Fqmp ...(i)

Where F = correction factor, which depends on the geometry of the heat exchanger

and the inlet and outlet temperatures of the of the hot and cold streams.

F < 1, for cross flow and F = 1, for counter and parallel flow

So, From equation (i),

F = qm = 26 = 0.90 < 1

qmc 28.85

and also

F = qm = 26 = 1.04 > 1

qmp 24.85

So, cross flow in better for this problem.

Sol. 41

Sol. 42

Given : A duct of rectangular cross section. For which sides are

a = 1 m and b = 0.5 m

T1 = 30cC , T2 = 20cC , V = 10 m/ sec , k = 0.025 W/m K

Viscosity = 18 Pas , Pr = 0.73 , r = 1.2 kg/m3 , Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.33

Hence, For a rectangular conduit of sides a and b,

Hydraulic diameter,

DH = 4A

p

Where, A is the flow cross sectional area and p the wetted perimeter

DH = 4ab = 2ab

2 (a + b) (a + b)

= 2 # 1 # 0.5 = 1 = 0.666 m

1.5

(1 + 0.5)

VDH

Reynolds Number,

Re =

= 1.2 # 10 # 06.666 = 4.44 # 105

18 # 10

Option (D) is correct.

From the first part of the question,

Re = 4.44 # 105

Which is greater than 3 # 105 . So, flow is turbulent flow.

Therefore,

Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.33

hL = 0.023 4.44 105 0.8 (0.73) 0.33

Nu = hL

#

^

h #

k

k

= 0.023 # 32954 # 0.9013 = 683.133

h = 683.133 # k

L

= 683.133 # 0.025 = 25.64 W/m2 K

0.666

DH = L = 0.666 m

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Sol. 43

Heat Transfer

Total Area,

A = 2 (a + b) L = 2 (1 + 0.5) L = 3L

Heat transfer by convection is given by,

Q = hA (T1 T2)

= 25.64 # 3L # [(273 + 30) (273 + 20)]

Heat transfer per meter length of the duct is given by

Q

= 25.64 # 3 # 10 = 769.2 W - 769 W

L

Option (B) is correct.

The one dimensional time dependent heat conduction equation can be written

more compactly as a simple equation,

1 2 rn 2T + q = rc 2T ...(i)

k 2t

rn 2r : 2r D k

Where,

n = 0 , For rectangular coordinates

n = 1, For cylindrical coordinates

n = 2 , For spherical coordinates

Further, while using rectangular coordinates it is customary to replace the r

-variable by the x -variable.

For sphere, substitute r = 2 in equation (i)

1 2 r22T + q = rc 2T

k 2t

r22r : 2r D k

1 2 r22T + q = 1 2T

= k = thermal diffusivity

c

a 2t

r22r : 2r D k

Sol. 44

Given : r1 = d1 = 2/2 cm = 1 cm , r2 = 5 cm = 2.5 cm

2

2

Radius of asbestos surface,

r3 = d2 + 3 = 2.5 + 3 = 5.5 cm

2

ks = 19 W/mK , ka = 0.2 W/mK

And

T1 - T2 = 600c C

From the given diagram heat is transferred from r1 to r2 and from r2 to r3 . So

Equivalent thermal resistance,

loge (r2 /r1)

SR = 1 ln a r2 k + 1 ln a r3 k For hollow cylinder Rt =

r1

r2

2pkl

2pks l

2pka l

SR # l = 1 ln a r2 k + 1 ln a r3 k

r2

r1

2pks

2pka

1

1

=

ln 2.5 +

ln 5.5

2 # 3.14 # 19 b 1 l 2 # 3.14 # 0.2 b 2.5 l

= 0.916 + 0.788 = 0.00767 + 0.627

119.32 1.256

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

= 0.635 mK/W ...(i)

Heat transfer per unit length,

Sol. 45

(R # l) 0.635

Given : h = 400 W/m2 K , k = 20 W/mK , c = 400 J/kg K , r = 8500 kg/m3

Ti = 30c C , D = 0.706 mm , Ta = 300c C , T = 298c C

Biot Number,

Bi = hl ..(i)

k

4 pR 3

1 pD 3

Volume

3

And

=

= 6 2

l =

Surface Area

4 pR 2

pD

3

= D = 0.706 # 10 = 1.176 # 104 m

6

6

From equation (i), we have

4

Bi = hl = 400 # 1.176 # 10 = 0.0023

20

k

Sol. 46

Bi < 0.1

The value of Biot Number is less than one. So the lumped parameter solution for

transient conduction can be conveniently stated as

T - Ta = ec hAt

n =l

ht

c m = e c rcl m

Ti - Ta

A

400t

298 - 300 = exp

b 8500 400 1.176 104 l

30 - 300

#

#

#

2

t

= e

- 270

2 = et

270

Take natural logarithm both sides, we get

ln b 2 l = t " t = 4.90 sec

270

Option (A) is correct.

o = 1500 kg/hr = 1500 kg/ sec = 0.4167 kg/ sec

Given : tc1 = 30cC , dm = m

3600

dt

th2 = th1 = 120c C , tc2 tc2 = 80cC , cw = 4.187 kJ/kg K , U = 2000 W/m2 K .

Figure for condensation is given below :

Hence,

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

And

q2 = th2 tc2 = 120 80 = 40c C

So, Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) is,

qm = q1 qq2 = 90 9040 = 61.66c C

ln ^ 40 h

ln _ q i

Energy transferred is given by,

o w T = UAm

Q = mc

o

A = mcw T = 0.4167 # 4.187 # 1000 # 50

2000 # 61.66

Um

= 0.707 m2

1

Sol. 47

Given, for plate :

A1 = 10 cm2 = 10 # (102) 2 m2 = 103 m2 , T1 = 800 K , e1 = 0.6

For Room : A2 = 100 m2 , T2 = 300 K , e2 = 0.3 and s = 5.67 # 108 W/m2 K 4

Total heat loss from one surface of the plate is given by,

Eb1 Eb2

(Q12) =

(1 e1)

(1 e2)

+ 1 +

A1 e1

A1 F12

A2 e2

If small body is enclosed by a large enclosure, then F12 = 1 and from Stefans

Boltzman law Eb = sT 4 . So we get

(T 14 T 24)

5.67 # 108 [(800) 4 (300) 4]

(Q12) =

=

1 0. 6 + 1 + 1 0 . 3

1 1 + 1 + 1 2

A1 1

A1

A2 2

103 # 0.6 103 100 # 0.3

22.765 # 103

=

= 13.66 W

666.66 + 1000 + 0.0233

Q12 is the heat loss by one surface of the plate. So, heat loss from the two surfaces

is given by,

Qnet = 2 # Q12 = 2 # 13.66 = 27.32 W

Sol. 48

In counter flow, hot fluid enters at the point 1 and exits at the point 2 or cold

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

Given : for hot fluid,

ch = 2 kJ/kg K , mh = 5 kg/ sec , th1 = 150c C , th2 = 100c C

and for cold fluid,

cc = 4 kJ/kg K , mc = 10 kg/ sec , tc2 = 20c C , tc1 = ?

From the energy balance,

Heat transferred by the hot fluid = Heat gain by the cold fluid

o h ch (th1 - th2) = m

oc cc (tc1 tc2)

m

5 # 2 # 103 (150 - 100) = 10 # 4 # 103 (tc1 20)

10 4 # 50 = 4 # 10 4 (tc1 20)

tc1 = 130 = 32.5c C

4

Hence, outlet temperature of the cold fluid,

tc1 = 32.5c C

Sol. 49

The non-dimensional Prandtl Number for thermal boundary layer is,

dv = (Pr) 1/3

dT

(i) When Pr = 1

dv = dT

(ii) When Pr > 1

dv > dT

(iii) When Pr < 1

dv < dT

So for Pr > 1, dv > dT

Sol. 50

Given for water : Tw = 48c C , kw = 0.6 W/mK

And for glass : Tg = 40c C , kg = 1.2 W/mK

Spatial gradient

dT

4

c dy m = 1 # 10 K/m

w

Heat transfer takes place between the water and glass interface by the conduction

and convection. Heat flux would be same for water and glass interface. So, applying

the conduction equation for water and glass interface.

dT

Q kA dx

dT

dT

= k g c

kw c

q= =

= k dT

dy mw

dy mg

dx

A

A

Sol. 51

kw dT

dT

0.6

4

4

c dy m = kg c dy m = 1.2 # 10 = 0.5 # 10 K/m

g

w

From the equation of convection,

Heat flux,

q = h [Tw Tg] ...(i)

Where, h = Heat transfer coefficient

First find q ,

q = kw c dT m = kg c dT m = 0.6 # 10 4 = 6000 W/m2

dy w

dy g

Now from equation (i),

q

h =

= 6000 = 6000 = 750 W/m2 K

8

Tw Tg

48 40

www.gatescore.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Sol. 52

Heat Transfer

LMTD , qmc = q1 q2

ln q1

q2

(t t ) (th2 th1)

(th1 tC2) (th2 tC1)

2 (th1 th2)

...(i)

= h1 h2

=

ln :th1 th2 D

ln :th1 th2 D

ln :th1 tC2 D

t h2 t h1

t h2 t h1

th2 tC1

(B) For parallel flow given : th1 = tC 2 , th 2 = tC 1

qmc =

LMTD , qmp = q1 q2

ln b q1 l

q2

(t t ) (th2 th1)

(t t ) (th2 tC2)

2 (th1 th2)

...(ii)

qmp = h1 C1

= h1 h2

=

t

t h1 t h2

t

h1 t h2

h1 tC1

ln

ln

ln :

:th2 th1D

:th2 th1 D

th2 tC2 D

qmc = qmp

Sol. 53

Given :

F13 = 0.17

Applying summation rule :

F11 + F12 + F13 = 1

The flat surface cannot see itself.

So,

F11 = 0

This gives,

F12 = 1 F11 F13 = 1 0 0.17 = 0.83

Sol. 54

S. No.

Materials

1.

Aluminum

237

2.

Pure Iron

80.2

3.

Liquid Water

0.607

4.

***********

www.gatescore.in

- Fluent-Intro 14.5 L08 HeatTransferDiunggah olehJesús Castillo González
- Heat Transfer Lecture NotesDiunggah olehJustin
- Nusselt Number Calculation in Fluent -- CFD Online Discussion ForumsDiunggah olehmiladparsman
- Laminar and Turbulent Natural Convection Combined With Surface ThermalDiunggah olehakhourch
- Turbulent Heat Transfer from a Flat Plate Placed Downstream of a FenceDiunggah olehAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Lecture 9 Energy TransportDiunggah olehFarahin Burhan
- ME302 Heat and Mass TransferDiunggah olehRagesh Dudu
- Analogy Heat Mass Transfer Turbulent FlowDiunggah olehchemsac2
- Heat Transfer (Corrected)Diunggah olehDennis Arhin
- Thermo Training Handout PublicDiunggah olehpradeepsmart1988
- Geankoplis answer 14Diunggah olehAngela Aprina Kartika Putri
- MEC551 Test 1 Solution(Sept2011-Feb2012) StudentDiunggah olehHilmyZulkifli
- hmt_lab_manual.docDiunggah olehr_arumugam
- Heat TransferDiunggah olehHassanKM
- CEP 220_exp No 01_thermal ConductivityDiunggah olehpinak
- MmmDiunggah olehfarhan
- introduction.pdfDiunggah olehIsyana Melz
- 1.Int. JOURNAL IJTAM.pdfDiunggah olehTejaswini M M
- Thermal sterilisation of liquid foods in a sealed container.pdfDiunggah olehnpsfpt335
- lec03-130312015416-phpapp01Diunggah olehRajneesh Vachaspati
- Radial ConductionDiunggah olehJack Andreas
- sm1-008.pdfDiunggah olehميثاق علي
- S4-C6_AletasDiunggah olehsantiago alonso perilla lozano
- chen2013 (1).pdfDiunggah olehyazenanes
- Paper for AIMTDR20164816Diunggah olehSujit Mule
- 03C -Chapter 3 - Sec 3.6Diunggah olehcmegmhi
- 21 Nor Azizah.pdfDiunggah olehHendar Sibarani
- Ritchie 1956 asymptotic thermal stress.pdfDiunggah olehマガラエス オーガスト
- silabusDiunggah olehrachma tia
- File ServeDiunggah olehmatheswaran a s

- Mechanical Industrial 010815Diunggah olehchutiya
- IC Engine PartsDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- Theory Questions on machine designDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- Design of PistonDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- PH_S04Diunggah olehAupendu Kar
- Design of IC Engine CylinderDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- Fundamentals of Machining ProcessesDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- DVGDiunggah olehbalajigandhirajan
- 103_MANUFACTURING_ENGINEERING.PDFDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- 101 Industrial EngineeringDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- Heat TransferDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- Strength of MaterialsDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- Mechanical-Engineering Gate2016.Info (1)Diunggah olehHenry
- ThermodynamicsDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- Machine DesignDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- Fluid MechanicsDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- Engineering MathematicsDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- General AptitudeDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- Hydraulic MachineryDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh

- Protection of Radiation and Waste TreatmentDiunggah olehPopy Sarah Chairunnisa
- Electromagnetic SpectrumDiunggah olehhamidkatebi
- (35-7-3) NPTEL - Cryogenic InsulationsDiunggah olehCryogenics_NPTEL
- Heat Transfer QP BankDiunggah olehrasekakm
- Chapter 8 CombinedDiunggah olehtamdinh1411
- RMI Example Building Model Checklist 01-12-11Diunggah olehhoangpalestine
- CFD Analysis of Shell and Tube Heat ExchangerDiunggah olehInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- 24 Degrees - Confort Productivity and energy ConsuptionDiunggah olehAmmoniaR717
- 2-12-139383130737-42.pdfDiunggah olehmohan
- Foil-TecDiunggah olehgibboofunk
- Vented Brake RotorDiunggah olehsonirocks
- 1-s2.0-S1290072905002127-main.pdfDiunggah olehSrinivas Jangili
- 90 1 2016 AddendaDescriptionTableDiunggah olehArsalan Malik
- Capitulo 3 de Libro Heat Exchanger Design HandbookDiunggah olehricva_rj
- Hvac lineDiunggah olehRich_78
- Tutorial 2 Heat Transfer Answer Bmm3513 Sem 1-12-13Diunggah olehSuhadahafiza Shafiee
- heat transferDiunggah olehAmal Joy
- Content_ Measuring HeatDiunggah olehAli McDillon
- Air Conditioning Design for Conference Hall PDFDiunggah olehkalyan1492
- Aerodynamic HeatingDiunggah olehHurrie
- L2- Air Conditioners and Energy Efficiency-Part I [Compatibility Mode]Diunggah olehAhmad Idrees
- IC-16 VAV Box With Reheat.pdfDiunggah olehfghabboon
- Chapter 1Diunggah olehrajeshvm
- 25Cygler-OSL.pdfDiunggah olehAlfonso Quintero
- 29Diunggah olehDHAMODHARAN
- 10.pdf murtadha ahmedDiunggah olehMurtadha Ahmed
- [BS 1041-5-1989] -- Temperature measurement. Guide to selection and use of radiation pyrometers.pdfDiunggah olehAnonymous Y833nLdD
- R-Value and CR Value Spreadsheet (Ver11)Diunggah olehSouvik Roy Chowdhury
- Trigeneration Unit by Dusan MedvedDiunggah olehTofanB
- Calorimetry and Heat Transfer Type 1Diunggah olehvishal110085