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GATE-ME

Previous Years Solved Paper

Heat Transfer

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GATE Previous Year Papers Solved by Team GATESCORE


GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME
YEAR 2013
Q. 1

Heat Transfer
ONE MARK

Consider one-dimensional steady state heat conduction, without heat generation in


a plane wall, with boundary conditions as shown in figure below. The conductivity
of the wall is given by k = k 0 + bT where k 0 and b are positive constants and T
is temperature.

As x increases, the temperature gradient ^dT/dx h will


(A) remain constant
(B) be zero
(C) increase
(D) decrease
Q. 2

Consider one-dimensional steady state heat conduction along x -axis ^0 # x # L h,


through a plane wall with the boundary surfaces ^x = 0 and x = L h maintained
at temperatures of 0cC and 100cC . Heat is generated uniformly throughout the
wall. Choose the Correct statement.
(A) The direction of heat transfer will be from the surface at 100cC to the
surface at 0cC .
(B) The maximum temperature inside the wall must be greater than 100cC .
(C) The temperature distribution is linear within the wall.
(D) The temperature distribution is symmetric about the mid-plane of the wall.
YEAR 2013 two MARKs

Q. 3

A steel ball of diameter 60 mm is initially in thermal equilibrium at 1030cC in


a furnace. It is suddenly removed from the furnace and cooled in ambient air at
30cC, with convective heat transfer cofficient h = 20 W/m2 K . The thermo-physical
properties of steel are: density r = 7800 kg/m2 , conductivity k = 40 W/m2 K and
specific heat c = 600 J/kg K . The time required in seconds to cool the steel ball
in air from 1030cC to 430cC is
(A) 519
(B) 931
(C) 1195
(D) 2144

Q. 4

Two large diffuse gray parallel plates, separated by a small distance, have surface
temperatures of 400 K and 300 K. If the emissivities of the surface are 0.8 and
the Stefan-Boltzmann constant is 5.67 # 10-8 W/m2 K 4 , the net radiation heat
exchanges rate in kW/m2 between the two plates is
(A) 0.66
(B) 0.79
(C) 0.99
(D) 3.96

Common

Data For

Q 5 and 6

Water (specific heat, c p = 4.18 kJ/kgK ) enters a pipe at a rate of 0.01 kg/s and
a temperature of 20cC . The pipe of diameter 50 mm and length 3 m, is subjected
to a wall heat flux qwll in W/m2

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GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

Q. 5

If qwll= 5000 and the convection heat transfer coefficient at the pipe outlet is
1000 W/m2 K , the temperature in cC at the inner surface of the pipe at the outlet is
(A) 71
(B) 76
(C) 79
(D) 81

Q. 6

If qwll= 2500x , where x is in m and in the direction of flow (x = 0 at the inlet),


the bulk mean temperature of the water leaving the pipe in cC is
(A) 42
(B) 62
(C) 74
(D) 104
YEAR 2012

ONE MARK

Q. 7

For an opaque surface, the absorptivity (a), transmissivity (t) and reflectivity (r)
are related by the equation :
(A) + = (B) + + = 0
(C) + = 1 (D) + = 0

Q. 8

Which one of the following configurations has the highest fin effectiveness ?
(A) Thin, closely spaced fins
(B) Thin, widely spaced fins
(C) Thick, widely spaced fins
(D) Thick, closely spaced fins
YEAR 2012

Q. 9

TWO MARKS

Consider two infinitely long thin concentric tubes of circular cross section as
shown in the figure. If D1 and D2 are the diameters of the inner and outer tubes
respectively, then the view factor F22 is give by

(A) b D2 l - 1
(B) zero
D1
(C) b D1 l (D) 1 - b D1 l
D2
D2

Q. 10

Water (c p = 4.18 kJ/kgK) at 80cC enters a counter flow heat exchanger with a
mass flow rate of 0.5 kg/s. Air (c p = 1 kJ/kgK) enters at 30cC with a mass flow
rate of 2.09 kg/s. If the effectiveness of the heat exchanger is 0.8, the LMTD
(in cC) is
(A) 40
(B) 20
(C) 10
(D) 5
YEAR 2011

Q. 11

ONE MARK

In a condenser of a power plant, the steam condenses at a temperatures of 60c C


. The cooling water enters at 30c C and leaves at 45c C . The logarithmic mean
temperature difference (LMTD) of the condenser is

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GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

(A) 16.2c C (B) 21.6c C


(C) 30c C (D) 37.5c C
Q. 12

A pipe of 25 mm outer diameter carries steam. The heat transfer coefficient


between the cylinder and surroundings is 5 W/m2 K . It is proposed to reduce the
heat loss from the pipe by adding insulation having a thermal conductivity of
0.05 W/m K. Which one of the following statements is TRUE ?
(A) The outer radius of the pipe is equal to the critical radius.
(B) The outer radius of the pipe is less than the critical radius.
(C) Adding the insulation will reduce the heat loss.
(D) Adding the insulation will increases the heat loss.
YEAR 2011

TWO MARKS

Q. 13

A spherical steel ball of 12 mm diameter is initially at 1000 K. It is slowly cooled


in surrounding of 300 K. The heat transfer coefficient between the steel ball and
the surrounding is 5 W/m2 K . The thermal conductivity of steel is 20 W/mK.
The temperature difference between the centre and the surface of the steel ball is
(A) large because conduction resistance is far higher than the convective
resistance.
(B) large because conduction resistance is far less than the convective
resistance.
(C) small because conduction resistance is far higher than the convective
resistance.
(D) small because conduction resistance is far less than the convective
resistance.

Q. 14

The ratios of the laminar hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness to thermal


boundary layer thickness of flows of two fluids P and Q on a flat plate are 1/2
and 2 respectively. The Reynolds number based on the plate length for both the
flows is 10 4 . The Prandtl and Nusselt numbers for P are 1/8 and 35 respectively.
The Prandtl and Nusselt numbers for Q are respectively
(A) 8 and 140
(B) 8 and 70
(C) 4 and 40
(D) 4 and 35
YEAR 2010

Q. 15

A fin has 5 mm diameter and 100 mm length. The thermal conductivity of fin
material is 400 Wm-1 K-1 . One end of the fin is maintained at 130c C and its
remaining surface is exposed to ambient air at 30c C. If the convective heat
transfer coefficient is 40 Wm-2 K-1 , the heat loss (in W) from the fin is
(A) 0.08
(B) 5.0
(C) 7.0
(D) 7.8
YEAR 2009

Q. 16

TWO MARKS

ONE MARK

A coolant fluid at 30cC flows over a heated flat plate maintained at constant
temperature of 100cC . The boundary layer temperature distribution at a given

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GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

location on the plate may be approximated as T = 30 + 70 exp ( y) where y (in


m) is the distance normal to the plate and T is in c C . If thermal conductivity of
the fluid is 1.0 W/mK, the local convective heat transfer coefficient (in W/m2 K
) at that location will be
(A) 0.2
(B) 1
(C) 5
(D) 10
YEAR 2009

TWO MARKS

Q. 17

In a parallel flow heat exchanger operating under steady state, the heat capacity
rates (product of specific heat at constant pressure and mass flow rate) of the
hot and cold fluid are equal. The hot fluid, flowing at 1 kg/s with c p = 4 kJ/kg K ,
enters the heat exchanger at 102c C while the cold fluid has an inlet temperature
of 15c C . The overall heat transfer coefficient for the heat exchanger is estimated
to be 1 kW/m2 K and the corresponding heat transfer surface area is 5 m2 . Neglect
heat transfer between the heat exchanger and the ambient. The heat exchanger
is characterized by the following relations:

2e = exp ( 2 NTU)
The exit temperature (in c C ) for the cold fluid is
(A) 45
(B) 55
(C) 65
(D) 75

Q. 18

Consider steady-state conduction across the thickness in a plane composite wall


(as shown in the figure) exposed to convection conditions on both sides.

Given : hi = 20 W/m2 K , ho = 50 W/m2 K;, T3,i = 20c C ; T3,o = 2cC ,


k1 = 20 W/mK ; k2 = 50 W/mK ; L1 = 0.30 m and L2 = 0.15 m .
Assuming negligible contact resistance between the wall surfaces, the interface
temperature, T (in c C ), of the two walls will be
(A) - 0.50
(B) 2.75
(C) 3.75
(D) 4.50

Common

Data For

Q 19 and 20

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GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

Radiative heat transfer is intended between the inner surfaces of two very large
isothermal parallel metal plates. While the upper plate (designated as plate 1)
is a black surface and is the warmer one being maintained at 727cC , the lower
plate (plate 2) is a diffuse and gray surface with an emissivity of 0.7 and is kept
at 227cC . Assume that the surfaces are sufficiently large to form a two-surface
enclosure and steady-state conditions to exits. Stefan-Boltzmann constant is
given as 5.67 # 10-8 W/m2 K 4
Q. 19

The irradiation (in kW/m2 ) for the plate (plate 1) is


(A) 2.5
(B) 3.6
(C) 17.0
(D) 19.5

Q. 20

If plate 1 is also diffuse and gray surface with an emissivity value of 0.8, the net
radiation heat exchange (in kW/m2 ) between plate 1 and plate 2 is
(A) 17.0
(B) 19.5
(C) 23.0
(D) 31.7
YEAR 2008

Q. 21

ONE MARK

For flow of fluid over a heated plate, the following fluid properties are known
Viscosity
= 0.001Pa-s;

Specific heat at constant pressure = 1 kJ/kg.K ;

Thermal conductivity = 1W/m K
The hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness at a specified location on the plate
is 1 mm. The thermal boundary layer thickness at the same location is
(A) 0.001 mm
(B) 0.01 mm
(C) 1 mm
(D) 1000 mm
YEAR 2008

TWO MARKS

Q. 22

The logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) of a counter flow heat


exchanger is 20c C . The cold fluid enters at 20c C and the hot fluid enters at
100c C . Mass flow rate of the cold fluid is twice that of the hot fluid. Specific
heat at constant pressure of the hot fluid is twice that of the cold fluid. The exit
temperature of the cold fluid
(A) is 40c C
(B) is 60c C
(C) is 80c C
(D) cannot be determined

Q. 23

For the three-dimensional object shown in the figure below, five faces are insulated.

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GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

The sixth face (PQRS), which is not insulated, interacts thermally with the
ambient, with a convective heat transfer coefficient of 10 W/m2 K . The ambient
temperature is 30c C . Heat is uniformly generated inside the object at the rate
of 100 W/m3 . Assuming the face PQRS to be at uniform temperature, its steady
state temperature is

(A) 10c C
(B) 20c C
(C) 30c C
(D) 40c C
Q. 24

A hollow enclosure is formed between two infinitely long concentric cylinders of


radii 1 m and 2 m, respectively. Radiative heat exchange takes place between the
inner surface of the larger cylinder (surface-2) and the outer surface of the smaller
cylinder (surface-1). The radiating surfaces are diffuse and the medium in the
enclosure is non-participating. The fraction of the thermal radiation leaving the
larger surface and striking itself is

(A) 0.25
(B) 0.5
(C) 0.75
(D) 1
Q. 25

Steady two-dimensional heat conduction takes place in the body shown in the
figure below. The normal temperature gradients over surfaces P and Q can be
considered to be uniform. The temperature gradient 2T/2x at surface Q is equal
to 10 K/m. Surfaces P and Q are maintained at constant temperature as shown
in the figure, while the remaining part of the boundary is insulated. The body
has a constant thermal conductivity of 0.1 W/mK. The values of 2T and 2T at
2x
2y
surface P are

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GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

(A) 2T = 20 K/m, 2T = 0 K/m (B) 2T = 0 K/m, 2T = 10 K/m


2x
2x
2y
2y
(C) 2T = 10 K/m, 2T = 10 K/m (D) 2T = 0 K/m, 2T = 20 K/m
2x
2x
2y
2y

year 2007 two marks


Q. 26

The temperature distribution within the thermal boundary layer over a heated
isothermal flat plate is given by
T Tw = 3 y 1 y 3 ,

T3 Tw 2 b dt l 2 b dt l
where Tw and T3 are the temperature of plate and free stream respectively, and y
is the normal distance measured from the plate. The local Nusselt number based
on the thermal boundary layer thickness dt is given by
(A) 1.33
(B) 1.50
(C) 2.0
(D) 4.64

Q. 27

In a counter flow heat exchanger, hot fluid enters at 60c C and cold fluid leaves
at 30c C . Mass flow rate of the fluid is 1 kg/s and that of the cold fluid is 2 kg/s.
Specific heat of the hot fluid is 10 kJ/kgK and that of the cold fluid is 5 kJ/kgK.
The Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) for the heat exchanger in cC is
(A) 15
(B) 30
(C) 35
(D) 45

Q. 28

The average heat transfer co-efficient on a thin hot vertical plate suspended in still
air can be determined from observations of the change in plate temperature with
time as it cools. Assume the plate temperature to be uniform at any instant of
time and radiation heat exchange with the surroundings negligible. The ambient
temperature is 25c C , the plat has a total surface area of 0.1 m2 and a mass of
4 kg. The specific heat of the plate material is 2.5 kJ/kgK. The convective heat
transfer co-efficient in W/m2 K , at the instant when the plate temperature is
225c C and the change in plate temperature with time dT/dt = 0.02 K/s , is
(A) 200
(B) 20
(C) 15
(D) 10

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Common

Data For

Heat Transfer

Q 29 and 30

Consider steady one-dimensional heat flow in a plate of 20 mm thickness with


a uniform heat generation of 80 MW/m3 . The left and right faces are kept at
constant temperatures of 160c C and 120c C respectively. The plate has a constant
thermal conductivity of 200 W/mK.
Q. 29

The location of maximum temperature within the plate from its left face is
(A) 15 mm
(B) 10 mm
(C) 5 mm
(D) 0 mm

Q. 30

The maximum temperature within the plate in cC is


(A) 160
(B) 165
(C) 200
(D) 250
YEAR 2006

Q. 31

ONE MARK

In a composite slab, the temperature at the interface (Tinter ) between two material
is equal to the average of the temperature at the two ends. Assuming steady onedimensional heat conduction, which of the following statements is true about the
respective thermal conductivities ?

(A) 2k1 = k2
(B) k1 = k2
(C) 2k1 = 3k2
(D) k1 = 2k2
YEAR 2006
Q. 32

TWO MARKS

A 100 W electric bulb was switched on in a 2.5 m # 3 m # 3 m size thermally


insulated room having a temperature of 20cC . The room temperature at the end
of 24 hours will be
(A) 321cC (B) 341cC
(C) 450cC (D) 470cC

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Q. 33

Heat Transfer

A thin layer of water in a field is formed after a farmer has watered it. The
ambient air conditions are : temperature 20cC and relative humidity 5%. An
extract of steam tables is given below.
Temp(c C)

- 15 - 10 - 5

Saturation Pressure (kPa) 0.10

0.01

0.26 0.40 0.61

10

15

20

0.87 1.23 1.71 2.34

Neglecting the heat transfer between the water and the ground, the water
temperature in the field after phase equilibrium is reached equals
(A) 10.3cC (B) - 10.3c C
(C) - 14.5c C (D) 14.5c C
Q. 34

With an increase in the thickness of insulation around a circular pipe, heat loss
to surrounding due to
(A) convection increase, while that the due to conduction decreases
(B) convection decrease, while that due to conduction increases
(C) convection and conduction decreases
(D) convection and conduction increases
YEAR 2005

Q. 35

Q. 36

ONE MARK

In a case of one dimensional heat conduction in a medium with constant properties,


T is the temperature at position x , at time t . Then 2T is proportional to
2t
T
2
T
(A) (B)
x
2x
2
2
(C) 2T (D) 2T2
2x2t
2x
The following figure was generated from experimental data relating spectral black
body emissive power to wavelength at three temperature T1, T2 and T3 (T1 > T2 > T3)
.

The conclusion is that the measurements are


(A) correct because the maxima in Ebl show the correct trend
(B) correct because Plancks law is satisfied
(C) wrong because the Stefan Boltzmann law is not satisfied
(D) wrong because Wiens displacement law is not satisfied

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GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

YEAR 2005
Q. 37

TWO MARKS

Heat flows through a composite slab, as shown below. The depth of the slab is
1 m. The k values are in W/mK. The overall thermal resistance in K/W is

(A) 17.2
(C) 28.6

(B) 21.9
(D) 39.2

Q. 38

A small copper ball of 5 mm diameter at 500 K is dropped into an oil bath


whose temperature is 300 K. The thermal conductivity of copper is 400 W/mK
, its density 9000 kg/m3 and its specific heat 385 J/kgK. If the heat transfer
coefficient is 250 W/m2 K and lumped analysis is assumed to be valid, the rate
of fall of the temperature of the ball at the beginning of cooling will be, in K/s,
(A) 8.7
(B) 13.9
(C) 17.3
(D) 27.7

Q. 39

A solid cylinder (surface 2) is located at the centre of a hollow sphere (surface 1).
The diameter of the sphere is 1 m, while the cylinder has a diameter and length
of 0.5 m each. The radiation configuration factor F11 is
(A) 0.375
(B) 0.625
(C) 0.75
(D) 1

Q. 40

Hot oil is cooled from 80 to 50cC in an oil cooler which uses air as the coolant.
The air temperature rises from 30 to 40cC . The designer uses a LMTD value of
26cC . The type of heat exchange is
(A) parallel flow
(B) double pipe
(C) counter flow
(D) cross flow

Common

Data For

Q 41 and 42

An uninsulated air conditioning duct of rectangular cross section 1 m # 0.5 m


, carrying air at 20c C with a velocity of 10 m/s, is exposed to an ambient of
30c C . Neglect the effect of duct construction material. For air in the range of
20 - 30cC , data are as follows; thermal conductivity = 0.025 W/mK ; viscosity
= 18 Pas , Prandtl number = 0.73 ; density = 1.2 kg/m3 . The laminar flow
Nusselt number is 3.4 for constant wall temperature conditions and for turbulent
flow, Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.33
Q. 41

The Reynolds number for the flow is


(A) 444
(B) 890
5
(C) 4.44 # 10 (D) 5.33 # 105

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Q. 42

The heat transfer per meter length of the duct, in watts is


(A) 3.8
(B) 5.3
(C) 89
(D) 769
YEAR 2004

Q. 43

Heat Transfer

ONE MARK

One dimensional unsteady state heat transfer equation for a sphere with heat
generation at the rate of q can be written as
q
q
(A) 1 2 br2T l + = 1 2T (B) 12 2 br22T l + = 1 2T
r 2r 2r
a 2t
a 2t
k
k
r 2r 2r
2
2
q
q
(C) 2T2 + = 1 2T (D) 22 (rT) + = 1 2T
a 2t
a 2t
k
k
2r
2r
YEAR 2004

Q. 44

TWO MARKS

A stainless steel tube ^ks = 19 W/m Kh of 2 cm ID and 5 cm OD is insulated with


3 cm thick asbestos ^ka = 0.2 W/m Kh. If the temperature difference between the
innermost and outermost surfaces is 600c C , the heat transfer rate per unit length
is
(A) 0.94 W/m
(B) 9.44 W/m
(C) 944.72 W/m
(D) 9447.21 W/m

Q. 45

A spherical thermocouple junction of diameter 0.706 mm is to be used for the


measurement of temperature of a gas stream. The convective heat transfer coefficient on the bead surface is 400 W/m2 K . Thermo-physical properties of
thermocouple material are k = 20 W/mK , c = 400 J/kg K and r = 8500 kg/m3
. If the thermocouple initially at 30cC is placed in a hot stream of 300cC , then
time taken by the bead to reach 298cC , is
(A) 2.35 s
(B) 4.9 s
(C) 14.7 s
(D) 29.4 s

Q. 46

In a condenser, water enters at 30cC and flows at the rate 1500 kg/hr. The
condensing steam is at a temperature of 120cC and cooling water leaves the
condenser at 80cC . Specific heat of water is 4.187 kJ/kgK. If the overall heat
transfer coefficient is 2000 W/m2 K , then heat transfer area is
(A) 0.707 m2
(B) 7.07 m2
(C) 70.7 m2
(D) 141.4 m2
YEAR 2003

Q. 47

ONE MARK

A plate having 10 cm2 area each side is hanging in the middle of a room of 100 m2
total surface area. The plate temperature and emissivity are respectively 800 K
and 0.6. The temperature and emissivity values for the surfaces of the room are
300 K and 0.3 respectively. Boltzmanns constant s = 5.67 # 108 W/m2 K 4 . The
total heat loss from the two surfaces of the plate is
(A) 13.66 W
(B) 27.32 W
(C) 27.87 W
(D) 13.66 MW

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YEAR 2003

Heat Transfer
TWO MARKS

Q. 48

In a counter flow heat exchanger, for the hot fluid the heat capacity = 2 kJ/kgK ,
mass flow rate = 5 kg/s , inlet temperature = 150cC , outlet temperature = 100cC
. For the cold fluid, heat capacity = 4 kJ/kgK , mass flow rate = 10 kg/s , inlet
temperature = 20cC . Neglecting heat transfer to the surroundings, the outlet
temperature of the cold fluid in cC is
(A) 7.5
(B) 32.5
(C) 45.5
(D) 70.0

Q. 49

Consider a laminar boundary layer over a heated flat plate. The free stream
velocity is U3 . At some distance x from the leading edge the velocity boundary
layer thickness is dv and the thermal boundary layer thickness is dT . If the Prandtl
number is greater than 1, then
(A) dv > dT
(B) dT > dv
(C) dv . dT + (U3 x) -1/2
(D) dv . dT + x-1/2

Common

Data For

Q 50 and 51

Heat is being transferred by convection from water at 48c C to a glass plate


whose surface that is exposed to the water is at 40c C . The thermal conductivity
of water is 0.6 W/mK and the thermal conductivity of glass is 1.2 W/mK.
The spatial gradient of temperature in the water at the water-glass interface is
dT/dy = 1 # 10 4 K/m .

Q. 50

The value of the temperature gradient in the glass at the water-glass interface in
K/m is
(A) - 2 # 10 4
(B) 0.0
(C) 0.5 # 10 4
(D) 2 # 10 4

Q. 51

The heat transfer coefficient h in W/m2 K is


(A) 0.0
(B) 4.8
(C) 6
(D) 750

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Heat Transfer

YEAR 2002
Q. 52

ONE MARK

For the same inlet and outlet temperatures of hot and cold fluids, the Log mean
Temperature Difference (LMTD) is
(A) greater for parallel flow heat exchanger than for counter flow heat
exchanger
(B) greater for counter flow heat exchanger than for parallel flow heat
exchanger
(C) same for both parallel and counter flow heat exchangers
(D) dependent on the properties of the fluids.
YEAR 2001

Q. 53

ONE MARK

For the circular tube of equal length and diameter shown below, the view factor
F13 is 0.17. The view factor F12 in this case will be

(A) 0.17 (B) 0.21


(C) 0.79 (D) 0.83
Q. 54

In descending order of magnitude, the thermal conductivity of (a) pure iron, (b)
liquid water, (c) saturated water vapour and (d) aluminum can be arranged as
(A) abcd
(B) bcad
(C) dabc
(D) dcba
**********

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GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

Solution
Sol. 1

Option (A) is correct.


The one-dimensional steady state heat conduction equation without heat
generation is given by
2

k d T2 = 0 where k = k0 + bT and T2 > T1
dx
d k dT = 0

b
l
dx dx
Integrating both the sides
d k dT = C where C is the integration constant.

b
l
dx dx

k dT = C ...(i)
dx

# ^k + bT hdT = # Cdx
0

k0 T + bT = Cx + B where B is the integration constant.


2
Let the boundary condition
(a) At x = 0 , T = 0 and (b) At x = 1, T = 100cC
From boundary condition (a), we get B = 0 .
and from (b),

k0 (100) + b (5000) = C
Now from Eq. (i), we obtain
dT = 100k0 + 5000b ...(ii)

dx
k0 + bT
From this Eq. (ii), it is concluded that as T increases, the dT decreases because
dx
it is a function of temperature only and T2 > T1 .

Sol. 2

Option (B) is correct.

The heat conduction one dimensional equation with heat generation is


d 2T + qg = 0

k
dx2
dT = qg x + C
On integrating, we get
1
k
dx

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GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

Heat Transfer

T =

Again integrating,

qg x2
+ C1 x + C2 ....(i)
k 2

we can see that it is a parabolic equation. Thus statement (C) is false.


Now Applying the boundary condition on Eq.(i)
T ^0 h = 0 :
0 = C1 ^0 h + C2 & C2 = 0 and
T ^L h = 100cC :
or
So that

qg L2
+ C1 L
2k
q L
C1 = 100 + g
L
2k

100 =

T =

qg x2
q L
+ c 100 + g m x
L
2k
2k

For maximum temperature


qg # 2x 100 qg L
dT = 0 :
= 0
+
+
L
2k
dx
2k
q L
or
x = k c 100 + g m
qg L
2k
or
x = 100k + L ...(ii)
2
qg L
2
d T = qg (Negative)
Also
k
dx2
From Eq. (ii), it means the maximum temperature is inside the wall and it must
be greater than 100cC .
Sol. 3

Sol. 4

Option (D) is correct.


We have
d = 60 mm, Ti = 1030 cC , Ta = 30 cC , h = 20 W/m2 K , T = 430 cC
r = 7800 kg/m2 , k = 40 W/m2 K , c = 600 J/kg K
The characteristic length is
4
pr 3

l = Volume = 3 2 = r = 0.030 = 0.010 m
3
3
Surface area
4pr
(20) (0.01)
Biot number
Bi = hl =
= 0.005 < 0.1
40
k
Thus, applying the lumped analysis formula
T - Ta = exp hAt = exp ht

c rvc m
c rlc m
Ti - Ta
430 - 30 = exp c
20t
or
m
1030 - 30
7800 # 0.01 # 600
2 = exp c t m
or
5
2340
or
& t = 2144 sec
ln b 2 l = t
5
2340
Option (A) is correct.
As both the plates are gray, the net radiation heat exchange between the two
plates is
1 2

T 4 T 24h
Q12 =
1 + 2 1 2 b ^ 1
0.8 # 0.8

=
5.67 # 108 8^400h4 ^300h4B
0.8 + 0.8 0.8 # 0.8 #

= 661 W/m2 = 0.66 kW/m2

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Sol. 5

Heat Transfer

Option (D) is correct.


We have
d = 0.05 m , L = 3 m , c p = 4.18 kJ/kg K , h = 1000 W/m2 K

Now
or

o
# qll 2prdx = q ll2prL = mc
0

qwllpdL
o p + Tin = Tout
mc

^Tout Tin h

3 = 76.36 K
Tout = 20 + 5000 # 3.14 # 0.05 #
0.01 # 4.18 # 103
Now for wall temperature at outlet

qwll = h ^Tw Tout h
q ll
or
Tw = w + Tout = 5000 + 76.36 = 81.36cC b 81cC
1000
h
or

Sol. 6

Option (B) is correct.


We have

qwll = 2500 x

Due to heat transfer from wall, the enthalpy changes, from inlet to outlet.
o p dTm
Now
qwlldA = mc
Where
dTm = Bulk mean Temperature
o p dTm

2500x # 2prdx = mc
Integrating both the sides, we get

5000pr

or

o # dT
# xdx = mc
0

o p ^Tout, m Tin, m h
= mc

5000 pdL2 = mc
o p ^Tout, m 20h
2
2

1250 # p # 0.05 # ^3h2


^0.01 # 4.18 # 103h

= 20 + 42.27 = 62.27cC b 62cC
or

Sol. 7

Tout, m = 20 +

Option (C) is correct.


The sum of the absorbed, reflected and transmitted radiation be equal to

+ + = 1
a = Absorpivity, r = Reflectivity , t = Transmissivity
For an opaque surfaces such as solids and liquids t = 0,
Thus,
+ = 1

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Heat Transfer

Sol. 8

Option (A) is correct.


The performance of the fins is judged on the basis of the enhancement in heat
transfer area relative to the no fin case. The fin effectiveness

efin = Heat transfer rate from the fin of base area
Heat transfer rate from the surface area
When determining the rate of heat transfer from a finned surface, we must
consider the unfinned portion of the surface as well as the fins and number of fins.
Thin and closed spaced fin configuration, the unfinned portion of surface is reduced
and number of fins is increased. Hence the fin effectiveness will be maximum for
thin and closely spaced fins.

Sol. 9

Option (D) is correct.


According to the reciprocity relation.

A1 F12 = A2 F21
Which yields
F21 = A1 # F12 = pD1 L # 1 = b D1 l
pD 2 L
D2
A2


F11 = 0 since no radiation leaving surface 1 and strikes 1

F12 = 1, since all radiation leaving surface 1 and strikes 2
The view factor F22 is determined by applying summation rule to surface 2,

F21 + F22 = 1
Thus
F22 = 1 F21 = 1 b D1 l
D2
Sol. 10

Option (C) is correct.


o h = 0.5 kg/ sec , m
oc = 2.09 kg/ sec., e = 0.8
Given : th1 = 80cC , tc1 = 30cC , m

Ch = 4.18 # 0.5 = 2.09 kJ/Ksec.


Cc = 1 # 2.09 = 2.09 kJ/K sec.
Ch = Cc
(t t ) C
Qo
Effectiveness e = o
= h1 h1 h
(th1 tc1) Cc
Q max

0.8 = 80 th2
80 30
Capacity rate for hot fluid

So,

or,
80 - th2 = 40 & th2 = 40cC
From energy balance,

Ch (th1 - th1) = Cc (tc 2 tc1)

80 - 40 = tc2 30

tc2 = 70cC
Now LMTD
qm = q1 qq2 ...(i)
ln q
1

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q1 = th1 tc 2 = 80 70 = 10cC

q2 = th 2 tc1 = 40 30 = 10cC

q1 = q2 ...(ii)
So LMTD is undefined
q1 = x & q = xq
Let
1
2
q2
q (x 1)
Put in equation (i), so
qm = lim xq2 q2 = lim 2
x"1
x"1
ln x
ln xq2
q2
It is a : 0 D form, applying L-Hospital rule
0
q (1 0)

qm = lim 2
= lim xq2
1
x"1
x"1
x

From equation (ii)
qm = q2 = q1

qm = q1 = th1 tc 2 = 80 70 = 10cC
Sol. 11

Option (B) is correct.

Given : th1 = th2 = 60c C , tc1 = 30c C , tc2 = 45c C


From diagram, we have

q1 = th1 tc1 = 60 30 = 30c C
And
q2 = th2 tc2 = 60 45 = 15c C
Now LMTD,
Sol. 12

Option (C) is correct.

qm = q1 q2 = 30 15 = 21.6c C
ln b 30 l
ln b q1 l
15
q2

Given : d 0 = 25 mm = 0.025 m , r0 = 0.025 = 0.0125 m , h = 5 W/m2 K ,


2
k = 0.05 W/mK

Hence, Critical radius of insulation for the pipe is given by,

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Heat Transfer

rc = k = 0.05 = 0.01 m
5
h


rc < r0 or r0 > rc ...(i)
So, from equation (i) option a and b is incorrect. The critical radius is less than
the outer radius of the pipe and adding the insulation will not increase the heat
loss. Hence the correct statement is adding the insulation will reduce the heat
loss.
Sol. 13

Option (D) is correct.


Given : D = 12 mm = 12 # 103 m , h = 5 W/m2 K , k = 20 W/m K
3
For spherical ball, = 12 # 10 = 2 # 103 m
6
4 pR 3
D
volume
3

=
l =
2 = 6
surface area
4p R
The non-dimensional factor (hl/k) is called Biot Number. It gives an indication of
the ratio of internal (conduction) resistance to the surface (convection) resistance.
A small value of Bi implies that the system has a small conduction resistance
i.e., relatively small temperature gradient or the existence of a practically uniform
temperature within the system.
3
Biot Number,
Bi = hl = 5 # 2 # 10 = 0.0005
20
k
Since, Value of Biot Number is very less. Hence, conduction resistance is much
less than convection resistance.

Sol. 14

Option (A) is correct.


dH
dH
1
Given :
b dTh l = 2 and b dTh l = 2
P
Q

Here,
And

dH "Thickness of laminar hydrodynamic boundary layer


dTh "Thickness of thermal boundary layer
(Re) P = (Re)Q = 10 4
(Pr) P = 1
8


(Nu) P = 35
For thermal boundary layer prandtl Number is given by, (For fluid Q)

(Pr)Q1/3 = b dH l = 2
dTh Q


(Pr)Q = (2) 3 = 8
For laminar boundary layer on flat plate, relation between Reynolds Number,
Prandtl Number and Nusselt Number is given by,

Nu = hl = (Re) 1/2 (Pr) 1/3
k
Since, Reynolds Number is same for both P and Q .
So,

(Nu) P
(Pr) 1P/3
=
(Nu)Q
(Pr)Q1/3

(Pr)Q1/3
(8) 1/3
2
Nu
=
(
)
# 35
P
1/3 # (35) =
1/3 #
1
/
2
(1/8)
(Pr) P

= 140

(Nu)Q =

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Sol. 15

Heat Transfer

Option (B) is correct.


Given, d = 5 mm = 0.005 m , l = 100 mm = 0.1 m , k = 400 W/m K
T0 = 130c C , Ta = 30c C , h = 40 W/m2 K
Heat loss by the fin is given by,

Q fin = mkAc (T0 Ta) tanh (ml) ...(i)
p
Perimeter
=

= ppd2 = 4 = 4
0.005
d
Ac
Cross sectional Area
4d
p

= 800 ...(ii)
Ac
p
40
And
m = h b l =
800 = 80
400 #
k Ac
From equation(i),

Q fin = 80 # 400 # p # (0.005) 2 (130 30) # tanh ( 80 # 0.1)
4

= 8.944 # 400 # 1.96 # 105 # 100 # tanh (0.8944)

= 7.012 # 0.7135 - 5 W

Sol. 16

Option (B) is correct.


Given : T1 = 30c C , T2 = 100c C , k = 1.0 W/mK ,

T = 30 + 70 exp ( y) ...(i)

Under steady state conditions,



Heat transfer by conduction = Heat transfer by convection

A " Area of plate
- kA dT = hADT
dy

kA d (30 + 70ey) = hADT
dy
Solving above equation, we get

- kA (- 70e-y) = hADT
At the surface of plate, y = 0
Hence
70kA = hADT
h = 70kA = 70k = 70 # 1 = 1 W/m2 K
ADT
DT
(100 30)
Option (B) is correct.
o h = 1 kg/ sec , c ph = 4 kJ/kg K , th1 = 102c C , tc1 = 15c C
Given : Coh = Coc , m
2
U = 1 kW/m K , A = 5 m2
The figure shown below is for parallel flow.

Sol. 17

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o h c ph = 4 kJ/sK

Coh = m
The heat exchanger is characterized by the following relation,
1 exp ( 2NTU)

..(i)
e =
2
For parallel flow heat exchanger effectiveness is given by
1 exp [ NTU (1 + C)]

...(ii)
e =
1+C
Comparing equation (i) and equation (ii), we get capacity ratio

C = Cc = C min = 1 ...(iii)
Ch
C max
Applying energy balance for a parallel flow

Ch (th1 - th2) = Cc (tc2 tc1)
Cc = th1 th2 = 1
tc2 tc1
Ch

From equation(iii)


th1 - th2 = tc2 tc1
Number of transfer units is given by,
NTU
= UA = 1 # 5 = 1.25
4
C min
1 exp ( 2 # 1.25)
Effectiveness,
e =
= 1 0.0820 = 0.46
2
2
Maximum possible heat transfer is,

Q max = C min (th1 tc1)

= 4 # 6(273 + 102) (273 + 15)@ = 348 kW
But Actual Heat transfer is,

Qa = eQ max = 0.46 # 348 = 160 kW
And
Qa = Cc (tc2 tc1)
160
= 4 (tc2 15)

tc2 = 40 + 15 = 55c C
Sol. 18

Option (C) is correct.

The equivalent resistance diagram for the given system is,

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Req = 1 + L1 + L2 + 1
h i A k1 A k 2 A h 0 A
Req # A = 1 + L1 + L2 + 1 = 1 + 0.3 + 0.15 + 1
20 20
50
50
h i k1 k 2 h 0

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Heat Transfer


= 0.05 + 0.015 + 0.003 + 0.02 = 0.088 m2 K/W
Q
Heat flux,
q = = DT
Q = DT
A AReq
R
Under steady state condition,
k (T T ) k2 (T T2)

...(i)
q = T3i T3o = hi (T3i T1) = 1 1
=
L1
L2
AReq
20 ( 2)

= T3i T3o =
= 250 W/m2 ...(ii)
0.088
AReq

From equation(i)
= T3i T1 = 20 T1
1
1
20
hi
250
= 20 (20 T1)

& T1 = 20 12.5 = 7.5c C
12.5 = 20 T1
Again from equation(i),
k (T T)

q = 1 1
L1

250 = 20 (7.5 T)
0.3


3.75 = 7.5 T & T = 3.75c C
Alternative :
Under steady state conditions,
Heat flow from I to interface wall = Heat flow from interface wall to O
(T3, i T)
(T T3,o)

=
L2 + 1
1 + L1
h i A k1 A
k2 A h0 A
T3, i T
T T3, o

=
L2 + 1
1 + L1
h i k1
k2 ho


(20 T)
T ( 2)
=
1 + 0.3
0.15 + 1
20 20
50
50
(20 - T) T + 2
=
1.3
1.15
20
50
(20 - T) = 2.826 (T + 2) = 2.826T + 5.652


Sol. 19

Option (D) is correct.

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T = 14.348 = 3.75c C
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Heat Transfer

Given : sb = 5.67 # 108 W/m2 K 4 , T2 = (227 + 273) K = 500 K


T1 = (727 + 273) K = 1000 K
Let,
a " The absorptivity of the gray surface

E1 " The radiant energy of black surface

E2 " The radiant energy of gray surface
Now, Plate 1 emits radiant energy E1 which strikes the plate 2. From it a part
aE1 absorbed by the plate 2 and the remainder (E1 - aE1) is reflected back to the
plate 1. On reaching plate 1, all the part of this energy is absorbed by the plate
1, because the absorptivity of plate 1 is equal to one (it is a black surface).
Irradiation denotes the total radiant energy incident upon a surface per unit time
per unit area.
Energy leaving from the plate 2 is,

E = E2 + (1 a) E1 ...(i)
Hence, E2 is the energy emitted by plate 2.

E2 = b T 24 = 0.7 # 5.67 # 108 # (500) 4
E = b T 4

= 0.7 # 5.67 # 108 # 625 # 108 = 2480.625 W/m2
And fraction of energy reflected from surface 2 is,

= (1 a)E1 = (1 ) T 14

= 5.67 # 108 (1 0.7) # (1000) 4 = 17010 W/m2
Now, Total energy incident upon plate 1 is,

E = E2 + (1 a) E1 = 2480.625 + 17010

= 19490.625 W/m2 = 19.49 kW/m2 , 19.5 kW/m2
Sol. 20

Option (D) is correct.


Given : e2 = 0.8 , e1 = 0.7
As both the plates are gray, the net heat flow from plate 1 to plate 2 per unit
time is given by,
1 2
1

(T 4 T 24) =
(T 4 T 24)
Q12 =
1 + 2 1 2 b 1
1 + 1 1 b 1
2 1
1

=
5.67 # 108 [(1000) 4 (500) 4]
1 + 1 1#
0.8 0.7

= 1 # 5.67 # 9375 = 31640.625 W/m2
1.68

- 31.7 kW/m2

Sol. 21

Option (C) is correct.


Given : = 0.001 Pa s , c p = 1 kJ/kg K , k = 1 W/m K
The prandtl Number is given by,
3
c

Pr = p = 0.001 # 1 # 10 = 1
1
k
d = hydrodynamic bondary layer thickness = (Pr) 1/3
And
Thermal boundary layer thickness
dt

Given,

d = 1 m
d = (1) 1/3 = 1
dt


d = dt = 1 mm
Hence, thermal boundary layer thickness at same location is 1 mm.

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Sol. 22

Heat Transfer

Option (C) is correct.


The T - L curve shows the counter flow.

Given : qm = 20c C , tc1 = 20c C , th1 = 100c C


oc
oh & m
oc = 2m
= 2 ...(i)
m
o
mh
c

c ph = 2c pc & ph = 2 ...(ii)
c pc
Energy balance for counter flow is,
Heat lost by hot fluid = Heat gain by cold fluid
o h c ph (th1 - th2) = m
oc c pc (tc2 tc1)

m

oc
c ph
(th1 - th2) = m
o h (tc2 tc1)
c pc
m

2 (th1 - th2) = 2 (tc2 tc1)


th1 - tc2 = th2 tc1
q1 = q2 ...(iii)
And
qm = q1 q2 ...(iv)
ln b q1 l
q2
Substituting the equation (iii) in equation (iv), we get undetermined form.
q1 = x ,
Let
& q1 = q2 x ...(v)
q2
Substitute q1 in equation(iv),
q (x 1)

...(vi)
qm = lim q2 x q2 = lim 2
x"1
x"1
ln x
ln b q2 x l
q2
0 form, So we apply L-Hospital rule,
:0D
q (1 0)

qm = lim 2
= lim x q2
1
x"1
x"1
x



qm = q2 = q1
Now we have to find exit temperature of cold fluid (tc2),
So,
qm = q1 = th1 tc2

tc2 = th1 qm = 100 20 = 80c C
Sol. 23

From equation(iii)

Option (D) is correct.


Given : h = 10 W/m2 K , Ti = 30c C , qg = 100 W/m3
Five faces of the object are insulated, So no heat transfer or heat generation
by these five faces. Only sixth face (PQRS) interacts with the surrounding and
generates heat.

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Heat Transfer

Hence, Heat generated throughout the volume



Q = Rate of heat Generated # Volume of object

= 100 # (1 # 2 # 2) = 400 W
And heat transfer by convection is given by

Q = hA (Tf Ti)
400
= 10 # (2 # 2) (Tf 30)

Tf = 30 + 10 = 40c C
Sol. 24

Option (B) is correct.


Given : D1 = 1 m , D2 = 2 m
Hence, the small cylindrical surface (surface 1) cannot see itself and the radiation
emitted by this surface strikes on the enclosing surface 2. From the conservation
principal (summation rule).
For surface 1,
F12 + F11 = 1
F11 = 0

F12 = 1 ...(i)
From the reciprocity theorem

A1 F12 = A2 F21

F21 = A1 = pD1 L = D1 = 1 = 0.5
D2 2
A 2 pD 2 L
and from the conservation principal, for surface 2, we have

F21 + F22 = 1

F22 = 1 F21 = 1 0.5 = 0.5
So, the fraction of the thermal radiation leaves the larger surface and striking
itself is F22 = 0.5 .

Sol. 25

Option (D) is correct.


Given : b2T l = 10 K/m , (T ) P = (T)Q , (k) P = (k)Q = 0.1 W/mK
2x Q
Direction of heat flow is always normal to surface of constant temperature.
So, for surface P ,
2T = 0

2x
Because, Q = kA (2T/2x) and 2T is the temperature difference for a short
perpendicular distance dx . Let width of both the bodies are unity.
From the law of energy conservation,

Heat rate at P = Heat rate at Q

- 0.1 # 1 # c2T m = 0.1 # 2 # b2T l
2y P
2x Q

Sol. 26

Because for P heat flow in y direction and for Q heat flow in x direction
2T
0.1 # 2 # 10 = 20 K/m

c2y m =
0.1
P
Option (B) is correct.
The region beyond the thermal entrance region in which the dimensionless
temperature profile expressed as b T - Tw l remains unchanged is called thermally
T3 - Tw
fully developed region.
Nusselt Number is given by,
...(i)

Nu = hL = c2T m
k
2yl at yl = 0

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Heat Transfer

y
T = T Tw and yl =
T3 Tw
2t
y
y 3
So,
N u = 2 ; 3 b l 1 b l E
= 2 3 yl 1 (yl) 3D
2 dt yl = 0 2y :2
2
2yl 2 dt
yl = 0
y 2
3
3
3

= ; b lE
= = 1.5
2 2 dt yl = 0
2
Option (B) is correct.
The counter flow arrangement of the fluid shown below :
Here,

Sol. 27

o h = 1 kg/ sec , ch = 10 kJ/kg K


Given: for hot fluid : th1 = 60c C , m
oc = 2 kg/ sec , cc = 5 kJ/kg K
And for cold fluid : tc2 = 30c C , m
Heat capacity of Hot fluid,
o h ch = 1 # 10 = 10 kJ/k. sec

C h = m
And heat capacity of cold fluid,
oc cc = 2 # 5 = 10 kJ/k sec

Cc = m
By energy balance for the counter flow
o h ch (th1 - th2) = m
oc cc (tc2 tc1)

m

Ch (th1 - th2) = Cc (tc2 tc1)
Ch = Cc

th1 - tc2 = th2 tc1

q1 = q2
LMTD,
qm = q1 q2 ...(i)
ln b q1 l
q2
q
1
= x
Let,
q1 is equal to q2 and qm is undetermined
q2

q1 = x q2
Substituting q1 in equation (i), we get,
q (x 1)

qm = lim x q2 q2 = lim 2
x " 1 ln (x)
x"1
ln (x)
0 form , So we apply L-hospital rule,
b0l

qm = lim q2 # 1 = lim x q2
1
x"1
x"1
x

qm = q2 = q1 & q1 = th1 tc2 = 60 30 = 30c C
Sol. 28

Option (D) is correct.


Given : T1 = 25c C = (273 + 25) = 298 K , A = 0.1 m2 , m = 4 kg ,
c = 2.5 kJ/kg K
h = ? , T2 = 225c C = 273 + 225 = 498 K

Temperature Gradient, dT = 0.02 K/s
dt
Here negative sign shows that plate temperature decreases with the time.

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Heat Transfer

From the given condition,


Heat transfer by convection to the plate = Rate of change of internal energy

hA (T2 - T1) = mc dT
dt

h =

= 10 W/m2 K
Sol. 29

mc
dT = 4 # 2.5 # 103
( 0.02)
#
dt
0.1 (498 298) #
A (T2 T1)

Option (C) is correct.

Let the location of maximum temperature occurs at the distance x from the
left face. We know that steady state heat flow equation in one dimension with a
uniform heat generation is given by,
22 T + qg = 0 ...(i)

k
2x2
Here qg = Heat generated per unit volume and per unit time,
Given : qg = 80 MW/m2 = 80 # 106 W/m2 , k = 200 W/m K
Substituting the value of qg and k in equation (i), we get
22 T + 80 # 106 = 0

200
2x2
22 T + 4 105 = 0
#
2x 2
Integrating the above equation,
2T + 4 105 x + c = 0 ...(ii)

#
#
1
2x
Again integrating, we get
2

T + 4 # 105 # x + c1 x + c2 = 0 ...(iii)
2
Applying boundary conditions on equation (iii), we get
(1) At x = 0 , T = 160c C


160 + c2 = 0

c2 = 160 ...(iv)
(2) At x = 20 mm = 0.020 m , T = 120c C

120 + 4 # 105 #

(0.020) 2
+ c1 # 0.020 + ( 160) = 0
2

c2 = 160

120 + 80 + 0.020c1 160 = 0


0.020c1 + 40 = 0
c1 = 40 = 2000 ...(v)
0.020

To obtain the location of maximum temperature, applying maxima-minima

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Heat Transfer

principle and put dT = 0 in equation (ii), we get


dx
c1 = 2000
0 + 4 # 105 x + ( 2000) = 0

x = 2000 5 = 500 # 105 = 5 # 103 m = 5 mm
4 # 10
Option (B) is correct.
From the previous part of the question, at x = 5 mm temperature is maximum.
So, put x = 5 mm = 5 # 103 m in equation(iii), we get
(5 # 103) 2
5
+ ( 2000) # 5 # 103 + ( 160) = 0
T + 4 # 10 #
2

Sol. 30



Sol. 31

T + 5 # 106 # 106 10 160 = 0


T + 5 170 = 0

& T = 165c C

Option (D) is correct.


Tinter = T1 + T2
2
Heat transfer will be same for both the ends
k A (T Tinter )
k A (T T2)
So,

Q = 1 1 1
= 2 2 inter
2b
b
Q = kA dT
dx
There is no variation in the horizontal direction. Therefore, we consider portion
of equal depth and height of the slab, since it is representative of the entire wall.
So,
A1 = A2 and Tinter = T1 + T2
2
k1 ;T1 bT1 + T2 lE
2
So, we get
= k2 :T1 + T2 T2D
2
2

k1 :2T1 - T1 - T2 D = 2k2 :T1 + T2 2T2 D
2
2
k1 [T - T ] = k [T T ]

2
1
2
2
2 1
Given :


Sol. 32

k1 = 2k2

Option (D) is correct.


Given : P = 100 W , n = 2.5 # 3 # 3 = 22.5 m3 , Ti = 20c C
Now Heat generated by the bulb in 24 hours,

Q = 100 # 24 # 60 # 60 = 8.64 MJ ...(i)
Volume of the room remains constant.
Heat dissipated,
Q = mcv dT = cv (Tf Ti)
m = rv
Where,
Tf = Final temperature of room

r = Density of air = 1.2 kg/m3

cv of air = 0.717 kJ/kg K
Substitute the value of Q from equation (i), we get
8640000
= 1.2 # 22.5 # 0.717 # 103 (Tf 20)
8640
= 1.2 # 22.5 # 0.717 (Tf 20)

(Tf - 20) = 446.30

Tf = 446.30 + 20 = 466.30c C - 470c C

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Sol. 33

Heat Transfer

Option (C) is correct.


Given : Relation humidity = 5% at temperature 20c C
Relative humidity,
Actual mass of water vapour in a given volume of moist air

f =
mass of water vapour in the same volume of saturated
air at same temperature & pressure
p

f = mv = v = 0.05 ...(i)
ms
ps
Where, pv = Partial pressure of vapor at 20c C
From given table at T = 20cC , ps = 2.34 kPa
From equation (i),

pv = 0.05 # ps = 0.05 # 2.34 = 0.117 kPa
Phase equilibrium means, ps = pv
The temperature at which pv becomes saturated pressure can be found by
interpolation of values from table, for ps = 0.10 to ps = 0.26
10 ( 15)
T = 15 + ;
(0.117 0.10)
0.26 0.10 E

= 15 + 5 # 0.017 = 14.47 -- 14.5c C
0.16

Sol. 34

Option (B) is correct.


The variation of heat transfer with the outer radius of the insulation r2 , when
r1 < rcr


The rate of heat transfer from the insulated pipe to the surrounding air can be
expressed as
T1 T3

Qo = T1 T3 =
r
Rins + Rconv.
ln a 2 k
r1
1
+
2pLk
h (2pr2 L)
o
The value of r2 at which Q reaches a maximum is determined from the requirement
dQo
that
= 0 . By solving this we get,
dr2

rcr, pipe = k ...(i)
h
From equation (i), we easily see that by increasing the thickness of insulation,
the value of thermal conductivity increases and heat loss by the conduction also
increases.
But by increasing the thickness of insulation, the convection heat transfer co-

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Heat Transfer

efficient decreases and heat loss by the convection also decreases. These both
cases are limited for the critical thickness of insulation.
Sol. 35

Sol. 36

Option (D) is correct.


The general heat equation in cartesian co-ordinates,
22T + 22T + 22T = 1 2T

a 2t
2x2 2y2 2z2
For one dimensional heat conduction,
22T = 1 2T = c p 2T

= k = Thermal Diffusitivity
c p
2t
k 2t
2x2
For constant properties of medium,
2T \ 22T

2t
2x2
Option (D) is correct.

Given : T1 > T2 > T3


From, Wiens displacement law,

lmax T = 0.0029 mK = Cnstant

lmax \ 1
T
If T increase, then lm decrease. But according the figure, when T increases,
then lm also increases. So, the Wiens law is not satisfied.
Sol. 37

Option (C) is correct.


Assumptions :
(1) Heat transfer is steady since there is no indication of change with time.
(2) Heat transfer can be approximated as being one-dimensional since it is
predominantly in the x -direction.
(3) Thermal conductivities are constant.
(4) Heat transfer by radiation is negligible.
Analysis :
There is no variation in the horizontal direction. Therefore, we consider a 1 m
deep and 1 m high portion of the slab, since it representative of the entire wall.
Assuming any cross-section of the slab normal to the x - direction to be isothermal,
the thermal resistance network for the slab is shown in the figure.

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Heat Transfer

0.5
R1 = L1 =
= 25 K/W
k1 A1 0.02 (1 # 1)
0.25

R 2 = L 2 =
= 5 K/W
k2 A2 0.10 # (1 # 0.5)
0.25

R 3 = L 3 =
= 12.5 K/W
k 3 A 3 0.04 # (1 # 0.5)
Resistance R2 and R 3 are in parallel. So the equivalent resistance Req will be
1 = 1 + 1

Req
R2 R 3

1 = R 3 + R 2
Req
R2 R3

Req = R2 R 3 = 5 # 12.5 = 3.6 K/W
5 + 12.5
R2 + R 3
Resistance R1 and Req are in series. So total Resistance will be

R = R1 + Req = 25 + 3.6 = 28.6 K/W

Sol. 38

Option (C) is correct.


Given : D = 5 mm = 0.005 m , Ti = 500 K , Ta = 300 K , k = 400 W/mK ,
r = 9000 kg/m3 , c = 385 J/kg K , h = 250 W/m2 K ,
Given that lumped analysis is assumed to be valid.
T - Ta = exp hAt = exp ht ...(i)
So,
c c m
c rlc m
Ti - Ta
4 R 3

Volume
of
ball

= 3 2
l = =
l= n
A
Surface Area
A
4R

= R = D = 0.005 = 1 m
3
6
6
1200
On substituting the value of l and other parameters in equation. (i),
T - 300 = exp
250 # t

c 9000 # 1 385 m
500 - 300
1200
0.08658t

T = 300 + 200 # e
On differentiating the above equation w.r.t. t ,
dT = 200 ( 0.08658) e0.08658t

#
#
dt
Rate of fall of temperature of the ball at the beginning of cooling is (at beginning t = 0
)
dT

b dt l = 200 # ( 0.08658) # 1 = 17.316 K/sec
t=0
Negative sign shows fall of temperature.

Sol. 39

Option (C ) is correct.
Given : d1 = 1 m , d2 = 0.5 m , L = 0.5 m
The cylinder surface cannot see itself and the radiation emitted by this surface
falls on the enclosing sphere. So, from the conservation principle (summation

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Heat Transfer

rule) for surface 2,



F21 + F22 = 1

F21 = 1

F22 = 0

From the reciprocity theorem,



A1 F12 = A2 F21

F12 = A2 # F21 = A2 ...(ii)
A1
A1
For sphere,
F11 + F12 = 1

F11 = 1 F12 ...(iii)
From equation (ii) and (iii), we get

F11 = 1 A2 = 1 2pr22l = 1 2r22l
A1
pd 1
d1
# 0.5 = 1 1 = 0.75

= 1 2 # 0.250
4
12
Sol. 40

Option (D) is correct.


The figure shown below are of parallel flow and counter flow respectively.

For parallel flow,


th1 = 80cC , th2 = 50cC , tc1 = 30cC , tc2 = 40cC
(t t ) (th2 tc2)
qmp = q1 q2 = h1 c1
q
1
ln b th1 tc1 l
ln b l
th2 tc2
q2
Where, qmp denotes the LMTD for parallel flow.
(80 30) (50 40)

qmp =
= 40 = 24.85c C
50
ln (5)
ln b l
10
For counter flow arrangement
th1 = 80cC , th2 = 50cC , tc1 = 40cC , tc2 = 30cC

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Heat Transfer

Where, qmc denotes the LMTD for counter flow.


(t t ) (th2 tc1)
qmc = q1 q2 = h1 c2
q
1
ln b th1 tc2 l
ln b l
th2 tc1
q2
(80 30) (50 40)

=
= 40 = 28.85cC
50
ln (5)
ln b l
10
Now for defining the type of flow, we use the correction factor.

qm = Fqmc = Fqmp ...(i)
Where F = correction factor, which depends on the geometry of the heat exchanger
and the inlet and outlet temperatures of the of the hot and cold streams.
F < 1, for cross flow and F = 1, for counter and parallel flow
So, From equation (i),

F = qm = 26 = 0.90 < 1
qmc 28.85
and also
F = qm = 26 = 1.04 > 1
qmp 24.85
So, cross flow in better for this problem.

Sol. 41

Sol. 42

Option (C) is correct.


Given : A duct of rectangular cross section. For which sides are
a = 1 m and b = 0.5 m
T1 = 30cC , T2 = 20cC , V = 10 m/ sec , k = 0.025 W/m K
Viscosity = 18 Pas , Pr = 0.73 , r = 1.2 kg/m3 , Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.33
Hence, For a rectangular conduit of sides a and b,
Hydraulic diameter,
DH = 4A
p
Where, A is the flow cross sectional area and p the wetted perimeter
DH = 4ab = 2ab
2 (a + b) (a + b)

= 2 # 1 # 0.5 = 1 = 0.666 m
1.5
(1 + 0.5)
VDH
Reynolds Number,
Re =


= 1.2 # 10 # 06.666 = 4.44 # 105
18 # 10
Option (D) is correct.
From the first part of the question,

Re = 4.44 # 105
Which is greater than 3 # 105 . So, flow is turbulent flow.
Therefore,
Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.33
hL = 0.023 4.44 105 0.8 (0.73) 0.33

Nu = hL
#
^
h #
k
k

= 0.023 # 32954 # 0.9013 = 683.133

h = 683.133 # k
L

= 683.133 # 0.025 = 25.64 W/m2 K
0.666
DH = L = 0.666 m

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Sol. 43

Heat Transfer

Total Area,
A = 2 (a + b) L = 2 (1 + 0.5) L = 3L
Heat transfer by convection is given by,

Q = hA (T1 T2)

= 25.64 # 3L # [(273 + 30) (273 + 20)]
Heat transfer per meter length of the duct is given by
Q
= 25.64 # 3 # 10 = 769.2 W - 769 W

L
Option (B) is correct.
The one dimensional time dependent heat conduction equation can be written
more compactly as a simple equation,
1 2 rn 2T + q = rc 2T ...(i)

k 2t
rn 2r : 2r D k

Where,
n = 0 , For rectangular coordinates

n = 1, For cylindrical coordinates

n = 2 , For spherical coordinates
Further, while using rectangular coordinates it is customary to replace the r
-variable by the x -variable.
For sphere, substitute r = 2 in equation (i)
1 2 r22T + q = rc 2T

k 2t
r22r : 2r D k
1 2 r22T + q = 1 2T

= k = thermal diffusivity
c
a 2t
r22r : 2r D k
Sol. 44

Option (C) is correct.

Let Length of the tube = l


Given : r1 = d1 = 2/2 cm = 1 cm , r2 = 5 cm = 2.5 cm
2
2
Radius of asbestos surface,
r3 = d2 + 3 = 2.5 + 3 = 5.5 cm
2
ks = 19 W/mK , ka = 0.2 W/mK
And
T1 - T2 = 600c C
From the given diagram heat is transferred from r1 to r2 and from r2 to r3 . So
Equivalent thermal resistance,
loge (r2 /r1)

SR = 1 ln a r2 k + 1 ln a r3 k For hollow cylinder Rt =
r1
r2
2pkl
2pks l
2pka l

SR # l = 1 ln a r2 k + 1 ln a r3 k
r2
r1
2pks
2pka
1
1

=
ln 2.5 +
ln 5.5
2 # 3.14 # 19 b 1 l 2 # 3.14 # 0.2 b 2.5 l

= 0.916 + 0.788 = 0.00767 + 0.627
119.32 1.256

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= 0.635 mK/W ...(i)
Heat transfer per unit length,

Sol. 45

Q = T1 T2 = 600 = 944.88 - 944.72 W/m


(R # l) 0.635

Option (B) is correct.


Given : h = 400 W/m2 K , k = 20 W/mK , c = 400 J/kg K , r = 8500 kg/m3
Ti = 30c C , D = 0.706 mm , Ta = 300c C , T = 298c C
Biot Number,
Bi = hl ..(i)
k
4 pR 3
1 pD 3
Volume
3
And
=
= 6 2
l =
Surface Area
4 pR 2
pD
3

= D = 0.706 # 10 = 1.176 # 104 m
6
6
From equation (i), we have
4

Bi = hl = 400 # 1.176 # 10 = 0.0023
20
k

Sol. 46


Bi < 0.1
The value of Biot Number is less than one. So the lumped parameter solution for
transient conduction can be conveniently stated as
T - Ta = ec hAt
n =l
ht
c m = e c rcl m

Ti - Ta
A
400t
298 - 300 = exp

b 8500 400 1.176 104 l
30 - 300
#
#
#
2
t

= e
- 270
2 = et

270
Take natural logarithm both sides, we get

ln b 2 l = t " t = 4.90 sec
270
Option (A) is correct.
o = 1500 kg/hr = 1500 kg/ sec = 0.4167 kg/ sec
Given : tc1 = 30cC , dm = m
3600
dt
th2 = th1 = 120c C , tc2 tc2 = 80cC , cw = 4.187 kJ/kg K , U = 2000 W/m2 K .
Figure for condensation is given below :

Hence,

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And
q2 = th2 tc2 = 120 80 = 40c C
So, Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) is,

qm = q1 qq2 = 90 9040 = 61.66c C
ln ^ 40 h
ln _ q i
Energy transferred is given by,
o w T = UAm

Q = mc
o

A = mcw T = 0.4167 # 4.187 # 1000 # 50
2000 # 61.66
Um
= 0.707 m2
1

Sol. 47

Option (B) is correct.


Given, for plate :
A1 = 10 cm2 = 10 # (102) 2 m2 = 103 m2 , T1 = 800 K , e1 = 0.6
For Room : A2 = 100 m2 , T2 = 300 K , e2 = 0.3 and s = 5.67 # 108 W/m2 K 4

Total heat loss from one surface of the plate is given by,
Eb1 Eb2

(Q12) =
(1 e1)
(1 e2)
+ 1 +
A1 e1
A1 F12
A2 e2
If small body is enclosed by a large enclosure, then F12 = 1 and from Stefans
Boltzman law Eb = sT 4 . So we get
(T 14 T 24)
5.67 # 108 [(800) 4 (300) 4]

(Q12) =
=
1 0. 6 + 1 + 1 0 . 3
1 1 + 1 + 1 2
A1 1
A1
A2 2
103 # 0.6 103 100 # 0.3
22.765 # 103

=
= 13.66 W
666.66 + 1000 + 0.0233
Q12 is the heat loss by one surface of the plate. So, heat loss from the two surfaces
is given by,

Qnet = 2 # Q12 = 2 # 13.66 = 27.32 W
Sol. 48

Option (B) is correct.

In counter flow, hot fluid enters at the point 1 and exits at the point 2 or cold

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fluid enter at the point 2 and exit at the point 1.


Given : for hot fluid,
ch = 2 kJ/kg K , mh = 5 kg/ sec , th1 = 150c C , th2 = 100c C
and for cold fluid,
cc = 4 kJ/kg K , mc = 10 kg/ sec , tc2 = 20c C , tc1 = ?
From the energy balance,
Heat transferred by the hot fluid = Heat gain by the cold fluid
o h ch (th1 - th2) = m
oc cc (tc1 tc2)

m
5 # 2 # 103 (150 - 100) = 10 # 4 # 103 (tc1 20)
10 4 # 50 = 4 # 10 4 (tc1 20)

tc1 = 130 = 32.5c C
4
Hence, outlet temperature of the cold fluid,

tc1 = 32.5c C

Sol. 49

Option (A) is correct.


The non-dimensional Prandtl Number for thermal boundary layer is,
dv = (Pr) 1/3

dT
(i) When Pr = 1
dv = dT
(ii) When Pr > 1
dv > dT
(iii) When Pr < 1
dv < dT
So for Pr > 1, dv > dT

Sol. 50

Option (C) is correct.


Given for water : Tw = 48c C , kw = 0.6 W/mK
And for glass : Tg = 40c C , kg = 1.2 W/mK
Spatial gradient

dT
4
c dy m = 1 # 10 K/m
w

Heat transfer takes place between the water and glass interface by the conduction
and convection. Heat flux would be same for water and glass interface. So, applying
the conduction equation for water and glass interface.
dT
Q kA dx
dT
dT
= k g c


kw c
q= =
= k dT
dy mw
dy mg
dx
A
A

Sol. 51

kw dT
dT
0.6
4
4
c dy m = kg c dy m = 1.2 # 10 = 0.5 # 10 K/m
g
w

Option (D) is correct.


From the equation of convection,
Heat flux,
q = h [Tw Tg] ...(i)
Where, h = Heat transfer coefficient
First find q ,
q = kw c dT m = kg c dT m = 0.6 # 10 4 = 6000 W/m2
dy w
dy g
Now from equation (i),
q

h =
= 6000 = 6000 = 750 W/m2 K
8
Tw Tg
48 40

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Sol. 52

Heat Transfer

Option (C) is correct.

Given : (A) For counter flow th1 = tC1 , th2 = tC 2



LMTD , qmc = q1 q2
ln q1
q2
(t t ) (th2 th1)
(th1 tC2) (th2 tC1)
2 (th1 th2)
...(i)
= h1 h2
=
ln :th1 th2 D
ln :th1 th2 D
ln :th1 tC2 D
t h2 t h1
t h2 t h1
th2 tC1
(B) For parallel flow given : th1 = tC 2 , th 2 = tC 1
qmc =

LMTD , qmp = q1 q2
ln b q1 l
q2
(t t ) (th2 th1)
(t t ) (th2 tC2)
2 (th1 th2)
...(ii)
qmp = h1 C1
= h1 h2
=
t
t h1 t h2
t
h1 t h2
h1 tC1
ln
ln
ln :
:th2 th1D
:th2 th1 D
th2 tC2 D

From equation (i) and (ii), we get



qmc = qmp
Sol. 53

Option (D) is correct.


Given :
F13 = 0.17
Applying summation rule :

F11 + F12 + F13 = 1
The flat surface cannot see itself.
So,
F11 = 0
This gives,
F12 = 1 F11 F13 = 1 0 0.17 = 0.83

Sol. 54

Option (C) is correct.


S. No.

Materials

Thermal Conductivity (W/m - K)

1.

Aluminum

237

2.

Pure Iron

80.2

3.

Liquid Water

0.607

4.

Saturated Water Vapour 0.026

***********

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