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December 2015

Welcome to
your Digital Edition of
Aerospace & Defense
Technology
December 2015

3-Phase Single-Step Power Factor Correction in MilAero Systems


Using Sensor Technology to Combat Legacy Issues in Defense Avionics
Counterfeit Electronics in the DOD Supply Chain
Sandwich Cores for the Future
How Avionics Developments are Changing Life in the Cockpit

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setec
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Supplement to NASA Tech Briefs

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December 2015

3-Phase Single-Step Power Factor Correction in MilAero Systems


Using Sensor Technology to Combat Legacy Issues in Defense Avionics
Counterfeit Electronics in the DOD Supply Chain
Sandwich Cores for the Future
How Avionics Developments are Changing Life in the Cockpit

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Aerospace & Defense Technology

Contents
FEATURES ________________________________________

33

4
4

Power Supplies
3-Phase Single-Step Power Correction in MilAero Systems

34

10
10

Test & Measurement


Using Sensor Technology to Combat Legacy Issues in Defense
Avionics

DEPARTMENTS ___________________________________

Quantitative Diagnostics of Multilayered Composite Structures


with Ultrasonic Guided Waves
Reactive, Multifunctional, Micellar, Composite Nanoparticles
for Destruction of Bio-Agents

14
14

Designing with FPGAs


Counterfeit Electronics in the DOD Supply Chain

36
39
41
44

17
17

Avionics
Touch and Go Avionics Developments are Changing Life in
the Cockpit

ON THE COVER ___________________________________

22 Materials
22 Sandwich Cores for the Future
26
26
29

RF & Microwave Technology


Making AESA Radar More Flexible
Developing Secondary Surveillance Radar Automated Test
Equipment

31
31
32

Tech Briefs
Structural Composites with Tuned EM Chiralty
Advanced, Single-Polymer, Nanofiber-Reinforced Composite

Technology Update
Application Briefs
New Products
Advertisers Index

An illustration depicting what a Preliminary


Research Aerodynamic Design to Land on Mars
(Prandtl-m) aircraft might look like flying above
the surface of Mars. To learn more about this
unique project, read the Technology Update
article on page 38.
(Photo courtesy of NASA/Dennis Calaba)

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

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Single-Step
-Phase
Power Correction
in MilAero Systems

s OEMs seek advantages in


Size, Weight, Power and
Cost (SWaP-C), focus is
shifting to advancements in
power electronics. Gaining an advantage requires close attention not only
to performance requirements such as
power factor and current distortion,
but also size, weight, efficiency and
cost. This is no small feat, given that
power solutions must seamlessly handle the multi-step regulation and isolation of electronic circuits, a costly and
complex process commonly required
for AC to DC conversion in high-performance power applications.
Existing power electronics solutions
highlight the challenge; based on autotransformer rectification units (ATRUs)
or Vienna rectifiers, these systems can
be heavy, overly complicated and inflexible as power needs evolve during

Figure 1. This graph illustrates unwanted power


performance, with extreme disparity between perfect sine wave voltage and current waveform.
(Marotta Controls)

long-term system deployment. The


landscape is evolving to address this,
and today includes a new circuit topology that achieves three-phase active
power factor correction, power regulation and electrical isolation in a single
conversion step. The resulting highpower conversion efficiency solves a
long list of potential design challenges,
helping drive advancements in military
platforms, shipboard systems and commercial aircraft.

High Performance Power Conversion


Three-phase AC power must routinely be converted to DC voltage for
safe and ready use in military and industrial applications. Typical devices for
converting a three-phase power input to
an adjustable DC output generally require two steps: 1) a rectification stage
for converting AC input into DC output, followed by 2) a DC-DC conversion
stage for regulating and isolating the
DC output voltage. The DC-DC conversion stage may be capable of raising or
lowering the DC voltage level, or both,
depending on the particular features of
a given device.
At the same time, this type of advanced power solution must pose a
low technical risk, reducing the threat
of failure as well as the cost of designing, manufacturing and maintaining
the circuitry. The resulting circuitry
must be operable in applications sup-

www.aerodefensetech.com

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plied by high-frequency power, such


as the 115V 400Hz AC power commonly used for aircraft. Ultimately,
the goal of rectification is to provide
isolated, regulated DC output, free of
input harmonics and with a unity
power factor.

Power Electronics Design Landscape


Existing rectification options include passive power factor correction,
ATRUs, single phase x3, and Vienna
solutions each requiring a multi-step
approach. The addition of a singlestep solution is unique; developed by
Marotta Controls, this topology enables power electronics engineers to
achieve extremely efficient circuit performance and eliminate wasted
power, weight, volume and cost associated with a second DC-DC conversion. Achieving regulation and isolation in one conversion simplifies
complicated circuitry; systems have a
tangible design advantage with reduced size and weight, improved performance based on low harmonics
(<3%), and unity power factor of one
at both full and partial loads. Looking
at the primary features of contrasting
solutions illustrates the value and design challenges of each option.
Passive Power Factor Correction (PPFC)
Passive power factor correction keeps
costs down with the absence of active

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SHIPS FROM STOCK

Power Supplies

components, but requires increased inductance and capacitance. Solutions are


heavy, not inherently smart, and limited
to low-power applications ranging from a
kilowatt to ~1500W. Output power is limited to ~2kW of voltage and power factor
is only achieved at upper-end loads. Frequency is usually around 400Hz; for military and industrial applications in the
range of 60Hz, the device would be too
large for practical deployment.
ATRUs
No regulation or isolation is available
in PPFCs or ATRUs, leading to a more
difficult second step DC-DC conversion. ATRU topologies do have an advantage over PPFCs, as they can handle
higher power and achieve power factor
through the entire load. Yet solutions
remain costly and impractically heavy
for SWaP-conscious, high-performance
applications. ATRU power density is just
444 watts per pound, while a single step
topology may be as high as 930 watts
per pound.
Single Phase x3
Using three lines of single-phase
power is an option; however, this results in no isolation, step-up voltage
only, and not one but two stages of DC
DC conversion to yield converted
power. The solution is risky and intricate, requiring nine independent con-

trol circuits working together one for


each of three DC converters, DC-DC
converters, and load share circuits.
Power factor is achieved through the
entire load as well as low current total
harmonic distortion (THD), although
overall efficiency is reduced based on a
complicated, costly and heavy design.
The device is opened up to greater engineering requirements and additional
points of failure, while cost, weight
and space are added to the design.

Single Step Topology


The single-step topology includes a
rectifier circuit for rectifying threephase power input into a plurality of
rectified outputs, a converter circuit for
converting each of the rectified outputs,
and a control circuit for generating the
control signal based at least in part on
the single DC output.
Because regulation and isolation are
handled in one step, total power efficiency is maintained at 96% or equivalent efficiency at 100%. Ideal power
factor of one is achieved through the
entire load; output is regulated and
isolated without a second DC-DC conversion and can be stepped up or
down depending on the needs of the
application. Load sharing occurs automatically with one converter that
does not require current sensing. As a
result, the device can scale by linking

Vienna Rectifiers
Vienna rectifiers are complex, with
three switch-controlled rectifier circuits.
A single control circuit uses heavy calculations to determine a separate control
instruction set for each rectifier. Output
voltage may only be stepped up and not
down, a drawback that limits Vienna devices to high voltage output. The system
offers no isolation and can regulate only to 350 volts and above
without a second DC-DC conversion. When a particular application requires something lower,
perhaps 270 volts, the output is
actually lower than the line voltage. The Vienna solution would
require a second DC-DC conversion to accommodate down-conversion, adding unwanted cost
Figure 2. This graph illustrates the power performance ideal,
and technical risk, as well as in- with current following voltage and power factor of one.
(Marotta Controls)
creased weight and space.

Single Step Power Topologies in Context


Power systems deployed onboard military vehicles and aircraft, naval ships, or civil aircraft must meet a range of industry certifications to ensure military and commercial performance standards. For example MIL-STD-461 defines performance for all electronic, electrical and electromagnetic equipment and subsystems procured and used by all branches of the Department of Defense
(DoD), while validation to MIL-STD-1399 further ensures the circuit meets the required characteristics for shipboard equipment
using AC electric power. Further, conducted emissions (CE101) validation ensures that low frequency conducted emissions are properly controlled by the circuit, and that its harmonics do not conflict with any operational requirements of related systems. Single
step power topologies are poised to play an important role here, meeting these standards while ensuring high power conversion
efficiency and power factor of one, reducing cost and size, and minimizing moving parts and complex control circuits.
For shipboard systems, inherently difficult harmonics distortion and power factor requirements commonly dictate that
any application over 1500 Watts requires an active power factor solution; however traditional solutions can be too large for
shipboard deployment. Applications often include switch-mode power supplies, for example running a large bank of electronics equipment, which present a difficult load that does not appear resistant. Using a 60Hz application as an example,
a single step topology offers a size and performance advantage in contrast to a magnetics-based solution such as an ATRU
or Vienna device containing large inductors.
Airborne electronics have similar stringent requirements, defined in the RTCA-DO160 specification, a key section of the
industrys DO160 standard for power quality requirements. Commercial aircraft have numerous power converters onboard;
the engine generates three phase power which must in most cases be converted to DC to be used safely. When these systems run AC motors, they also require an intervening device to control the power factor. In addition to its own set of conducted emissions ratings, RTCA-DO160 assures avionics safety and reliability by requiring very low current harmonic distortion and high power factor of one, or close to it.
6

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

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Power Supplies

multiple 3kW modules to achieve


6kW, 9kW, 12kW, 15kW performance
and more.

Engineering Challenges
In power rectification, design issues
related to power factor correction,
electrical isolation, and input current

distortion often consume the most


engineering resources.
Power Factor Correction
In many applications, and particularly high-power applications, power
conversion circuitry ideally provides
power factor correction (PFC) to mini-

mize the input current. PFC is required


to reduce overall current for a given
power requirement, and prevents input
current distortion. As a result, both
input voltage and current waveforms
are kept in phase and maintain an acceptable power factor of the three-phase
power input.
Electrical Isolation
Electrical isolation protects circuits,
equipment and operators from shocks
and short circuits occurring in the system. In some applications, output voltage must be electrically isolated from
the input, creating infinite resistance
between the two. The single-step power
design enables complete isolation between output and input; if a short circuit occurs at the output, the function
stops and the system is safe.
Input Current Distortion
A fullwave rectifier is often used to
convert three-phase AC to DC voltage.
This type of device incorporates six
diodes in a full bridge configuration.
However, this topology allows just
two of three phases to provide power
at one instant, while the third phase
is inactive. The resulting current discontinuity causes problems in realizing ideal harmonics and power factor.
To overcome this, all three phases
must provide power simultaneously
and the load must appear resistive for
all three phases.
Figure 1 demonstrates the problem,
showing essentially a perfect voltage
sine wave (yellow) but extremely distorted current waveform (blue). When
current waveform is distorted, power
generation is disrupted because the
circuit must conduct greater amounts
of current where there is insufficient
voltage. Designers must guard against
circuits that draw power in this way.
To ensure reliability and optimal performance, current waveform must be
directly coincident with voltage waveform. Because the single-step topology draws power continuously from
all phases, it meets this need and creates a perfect sine wave current in
phase with voltage. In contrast to Figure 1, Figure 2 illustrates ideal resistance; current follows voltage and
power factor is one.

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

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Power Supplies

Design options for power electronics offer a range of advantages and drawbacks in the quest for lighter,
less costly circuitry. For example, passive power factor correction is low risk but applicable only to lower
performance applications, while a single-step solution offers low risk, high performance, and applicability
to a wider range of rugged applications. (Marotta Controls)

Power Electronics Advancements


Single-step topologies are evolving
power electronics design providing
unity power factor correction at full and
partial loads, as well as rectification of
three-phase AC input, regulation of DC

output, and isolation of DC output


from AC input, all in a single conversion step. Technical risk is low, size and
weight are minimized, and costs are reduced for both development and longterm performance.

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With rectification and power factor


correction occurring in a single conversion stage, the device achieves an overall high power conversion efficiency of
up to 96% including current harmonic
distortion at 3% or less, automatic load
sharing, and modular scalability. These
attributes solve a cascade of costly
problems for the power conversion engineer: no power is wasted, no heat is
added to the conversion process, and
no cooling equipment is needed to
mitigate thermal impact. By realizing
comprehensive improvements in
power factor, harmonics, weight, and
cost, OEMs can distinguish their own
systems and equipment capitalizing
on high power conversion efficiency as
a new opportunity for competitive
edge and design innovation.
This article was written by Joseph
Youssef, Senior Electrical Engineer, Marotta
Controls (Montville, NJ). For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/
55596-500.

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Royal Air Force Panavia


Tornado F3 fighter jet

Using Sensor Technology


to Combat Legacy Issues in Defense Avionics

eliance on aging military platforms has become a global


concern and military aircraft
today are expected to remain
in service for longer than their original
life cycles. This is partly as a result of a
post-Cold War slowdown in purchasing
of new material in the late 1990s, as
well as cuts in defense spending. Indeed, the current USAF fleet is the oldest in its history, with the average age of
aircraft being 26 years.
Moreover, the rising cost of new
weapon systems, juxtaposed with the
need to ensure mission capability and effectiveness, has made the maintenance
cycles of aging military fleets an issue of
critical importance. To solve this, the
military must extensively source, remanufacture and upgrade components, not
only to maintain availability and reliability, but also to improve their mission-capability and superiority.

Extending Service Life


The useful life expectancy of aging military platforms may be extended significantly using customized high-performance electronic sensors to enhance
existing systems, or to replace obsolete
items with those manufactured embodying the latest sensor technology. Theoretically, engineers could sustain aircraft almost indefinitely through modernization
and maintenance. The iconic B-52 operated by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for example, first flew in 1952 and entered military service in 1954, while the F-5s
initial flight took place in 1963. Both
have undergone extensive retrofits and
continue to fly missions today.
In 2005, the USAF initiated a fouryear program to upgrade the B-52s
communications system, its first major
upgrade since the Kennedy administration. The upgrades included software
and hardware, such as the ACR-210
Warrior (beyond-line-of-sight software
compatible with radio and able to transmit voice) and LINK-16, a high-speed
digital data link for transmitting targeting and Intelligence, Surveillance, and
Reconnaissance (ISR) information.

Upgrading Platform Performance

Sensors typical of the type used to counteract


legacy issues in aging avionics systems.

The military employ defense applications where situational awareness is critical. Sensors provide critical information
to enable the systems into which they are
incorporated to take the most appropriate
action. Today, sensors play a crucial role

10

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in enabling this situational awareness


and, as a result, there has been a huge increase in the volume of information becoming available to military personnel.
The scope of sensor applications for
avionics in defense aircraft is extensive,
and all demand the highest levels of
precision, repeatability, ruggedness, and
reliability. Indeed, the need to consistently deliver measurement precision
and repeatability continues to drive the
need for further customization of sensors. Often these devices must function
in the harshest operating conditions,
and frequently in space restricted areas;
thus sensors are constantly evolving in
order to fully address the specific requirements of the application.
The RAFs IDS (interdictor strike) aircraft, the Tornado, for example, has
been the principal strike weapon employed by the UK, Germany, and Italy
for over three decades. It has an expected life-span of 40 years. The MidLife Update (MLU) program that took
place between 1998 and 2003 has been
vital to ensuring its longevity, upgrading 142 Tornados to a new variant, designated Tornado GR4/4A, with advances in systems, stealth technology,
and avionics at a cost of 943 million.
Compared to the Tornado GR1, the
GR4 has Forward-Looking Infra-Red
(FLIR), a wide angle Heads-Up Display
(HUD), improved cockpit displays, NightVision Goggle (NVG) compatibility, new
avionics and weapons systems and up-

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

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Test & Measurement

dated computer software. The GR4s upgraded navigation systems include a


Global Positioning System (GPS), BAE Systems Terprom digital terrain mapping system and a Honeywell H-764G laser Inertial Navigation System (INS).

Sourcing Spare Parts


Militaries increasingly rely on sustaining and modernizing aging aircraft that
form the bulk of their fleets but this
comes with two key challenges. Firstly,
they must confront the issue of how to
source essential parts which have become
obsolete. Secondly, maintaining these
aging planes is increasingly diverting
funds that could be used to design a new
generation of aircraft for the costs of
Maintenance, Repair, and Operations
(MRO) services for the legacy fleet.
A common issue is that the original
strategy for sustainment and replacement of sensors, based on the original
projected life, becomes redundant. To
combat this, each aircraft requires extensive repair and remanufacture, component by component, in order to
maintain airworthiness, mission capability and effectiveness. Subsequently,
there are unique issues for sourcing
parts that both fit the aging platform
model and conform to contemporary
quality standards for example, attempting to integrate a digital system
into a platform built in the analog era.
Often the desired spare parts are out
of production as the original manufacturers may have become bankrupt,
closed down, or been absorbed into a
larger organization. More often than
not, the low demand is simply not commercially viable. Cannibalising parts
from other aircraft, either permanently
grounding the aircraft or rendering
them no longer mission capable, may
be the only option open.

Sustainable Maintenance Strategies


Whilst replacing obsolete parts does
extend service life and upgrade performance, the life cycle of a commercial
off-the-shelf (COTS) part may only be
about 18 months. An aircrafts service
life is measured in decades. As such, in
the long-term, it is vital that this approach, dictated by the short refresh
cycle of technology advancements, is

Boeing B-52H Stratofortress heavy bomber

managed effectively, otherwise it can


exacerbate the problem.
Military equipment ages in two basic
ways: redundant hardware or software
that renders the equipment insupportable; and inadequate performance that
renders the equipment unable to fulfil its
mission. There are also two distinct types
of aging: chronological and cyclic. The
former is driven by factors such as system
obsolescence, corrosion, environmental
damage and general wear. The latter is determined by the way the aircraft, vehicle,
or vessel is operated and includes fatigue,
thermal and stress damage.
Both chronological and cyclic
events affect the rising cost of maintaining an aging fleet. Aging can cause
flaws to develop earlier than predicted
in the original strategy for replacement of parts, while extended usage
can accelerate their growth. Aggressive
environments can also accelerate the
development of flaws faster than what
was initially predicted.
Maintenance cycles based on the fatigue life of structures or the mean time
between failures (MTBF) are determined
through rigorous testing. This is to determine when failures become prevalent, or
the function of the system becomes compromised. Maintenance cycle inspections are, therefore, timetabled regularly
to ensure safety and parts are replaced or
repaired accordingly.
The USAF implements two major
strategies for its maintenance work:
Condition Based Maintenance + Prognostics (CBM+), and Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM). The former
performs maintenance when there is
evidence from sensor data, or from offline trend monitoring. The latter uses

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reliability tools and techniques to


schedule maintenance to balance
safety, schedule and risk by considering the probability of parts failure.

The Pathway Forward


Sensors are a crucial component in
many significant defense applications including fire control systems, naval communications and vehicle systems. Mission capability drives this trend because
personnel need to have ever more precise and diverse information about the
environments in which they operate.
Given the rapid pace of development
in sensor technologies, it is essential
that any replacement sensors are form,
fit, and function compatible with the
original product. They should also be
manufactured by a high quality organisation that understands the requirements of military systems, and by one
that has the relevant approvals.
As a result, the sensors industry will
continue to further develop sensor technologies so legacy aircraft can adapt to
ever more stringent military requirements. In most cases, this pathway will
be more cost effective than developing,
testing and fielding a new technological
solution, a process which typically takes
many years. Precise, robust and environmentally protected sensors therefore
offer core capabilities which can meet
operational demands. They are one crucial solution to the challenge of ensuring legacy fleets are mission capable and
effective for present and future service.
This article was written by Jonathan
Tinsley, VP of Sales & Marketing, Sherborne
Sensors (Wyckoff, NJ). For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/
55596-501.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

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Counterfeit Electronics
in the DOD Supply Chain

Electrical testing of a counterfeit IC. One of the surest ways to detect counterfeit ICs is to perform full electrical testing.

ounterfeit semiconductor devices entering the Department of Defense (DOD) supply chain continue to pose
risks to many of our countrys most sophisticated aerospace and defense systems. However, considerable progress is
being made by the DOD, industry and
academia in developing approaches to
help eliminate these devices before they
are put into critical systems.

sophisticated systems have product


lifetimes that far exceed the lifetime
of a typical commercial semiconductor device. Defense systems can have
useful lifetimes of 30 years or more
and can be prohibitively expensive to
redesign and requalify. Meanwhile,
commercial semiconductor production is dominated by devices intended
for the consumer electronics market,
where lifetimes can be as short as 3-5
years. With a nearly unlimited and in-

expensive supply of obsolete semiconductor devices in the world and a


DOD long term demand for these
same obsolete semiconductors, the
counterfeiters will find a way to bring
that supply and demand into balance.
At this stage in the battle with counterfeiters, the defense industry, their
suppliers and leading test labs have become adept at screening out the relatively unsophisticated counterfeit devices that have made up the majority of

Supply and Demand


A short review of how we have arrived
at this point in the counterfeit battle will
help put these new approaches in perspective. As with any market in the world,
there must be both supply and a demand
for counterfeit devices. In this case the
majority of the supply comes from an unintended source electronic waste. An unfortunate side effect of the effort to recycle
the millions of tons of obsolete e-waste
generated each year is that it has created a
nearly unlimited supply of very inexpensive semiconductors that can be easily removed from e-waste printed circuit
boards and cosmetically refurbished, remarked and resold as authentic material.
The demand side of this market exists because many of the DODs most

Initial Screening Technique

What it can determine

Paperwork Inspection (if any exists).

If a verifiable paper chain of ownership exists,


it can bolster the likelihood parts are genuine.

Gross and Fine Visual Inspection

Can identify bent leads, package cracks, etc.


that may indicate that the parts were pulled
from recycled systems.

Re-mark/Resurface Solvent Testing.

Can identify a re-marked device, but


counterfeiters are becoming increasingly
adept at re-marking.

Standard X-Ray

Can determine if a die is present in the


package and if it is the correct shape.

X-Ray Fluorescence

Can determine if there are any foreign


elements present on the package or leads.

Device Decapsulation

Can verify die manufacturer and die part


number marking, but is a destructive test and
can only be performed on a sample basis.

Table 1. Initial Counterfeit Mechanical Screening Techniques

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Designing with FPGAs

the initial wave of counterfeits washing


over our supply chain. These initial
screening techniques tend to be mechanically oriented tests but have been
effective at identifying these relatively
unsophisticated counterfeits (Table 1).
As good as these techniques have
been at catching the initial waves of
counterfeits, the counterfeiters continue to develop more refined and difficult to detect counterfeits. In particular, the counterfeiters ability to
remark devices has become so good
that it can be impossible to differentiate them from an authentic device.
Todays more sophisticated counterfeits are taking advantage of the fact
that many semiconductor devices
come from families of devices derived
from the identical die design. For instance, a single microprocessor design
will typically yield a range of performance characteristics as a natural consequence of the variability of the underlying wafer fabrication process upon
which it is built. The manufacturer
will test these devices and grade
them according to their performance
characteristics such as speed and functionality over temperature.
The parts are marked according to
this grading process and sold into different applications for different
prices. For instance, a slower speed device could be sold to a consumer electronics manufacturer for five dollars,
while a high speed device may be sold
to an Air Force contractor for a high
performance application for twentyfive dollars. All that is needed to create a very difficult to detect counterfeit is to re-mark the poorer
performing device as the higher performing one. Re-marking, as stated
above, is one process the counterfeiters are getting very good at. Since
both of these parts have the exact
same die in them and come in the
same package, the traditional counterfeit detection techniques of Table 1
will not be able detect them.
The only way to reliably screen
these more sophisticated counterfeits
is to perform full electrical testing
across the devices entire specified
temperature range. This is the same
type of testing the original

Counterfeit Types Requiring Full Electrical Test Screening for Detection


Substitution of one speed device for another.
Substitution of one temperature grade device for another.
Substitution of one die revision for another.
Substitution of a low power device for a high power one.
"Walking Wounded" devices that have been electrically damaged from mishandling.
Cloned devices redesigned exact copies of the original device.
Table 2. Counterfeit Types Requiring Full Electrical Test Screening

manufacturer performed and will be


able to verify the grading marked
on the device. Table 2 lists some of
these more sophisticated counterfeit
types that require full electrical
testing to detect.
The second entry in Table 2, where a
commercial temperature range device is
re-marked as a military temperature
device, is particularly problematic. In
this circumstance, the device will
perform all of its intended functions at
full rated speed across the narrower
commercial temperature ranges just not
at the wider military temperature range.
Making detection of these counterfeit
types even more difficult is that there is
normally only a one-character difference
in the way the device is marked. Unless
full electrical testing across the entire
military temperature range is performed,
this counterfeit type might not be
discovered until its in the field
attempting to operate at full load and/or
in extreme temperature conditions.

Clones and Trojans


Another particularly difficult to detect
counterfeit device type from Table 2 is the
Clone. A cloned device is one that is actually redesigned and remanufactured
using todays semiconductor technology
in order to meet the original manufacturers performance specifications. By
using current semiconductor technology,
these cloned devices often perform much
faster and with more device operating
margin than the original device. The only
way to catch these devices is to perform
full electrical testing over the entire operating temperature range, as discussed previously, but in this case take the testing
one step further. Instead of only testing to
make sure it at least meets its performance

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Intro

specs, the actual device performance must


be measured to see if it statistically exceeds its performance specification. This
actual performance testing will determine
if the device is too good and is, therefore, a potential counterfeit.
When discussing clones, the question
is inevitably asked that if a cloned device has even better electrical performance than the original device, why cant
it just be used in place of the original?
The answer is that while it is relatively
easy to redesign a simple device to electrically function like an old one, it is
much more difficult to make that new
device with the same quality and reliability as the original manufacturer. Remember that the counterfeiters are out
to make money by doing as little as possible to get someone to buy parts and
are not likely to employ the same rigorous military qualification processes over
the entire operating temperature range
that the original manufacturer did.
Another important category of
counterfeit devices is the Trojan. A
Trojan is generally defined as the introduction of malicious hardware or
software into a device such that it can
be activated by some external event or
after a predetermined amount of time.
Trojans, if designed well, can be extremely difficult to detect. Today, there
are no commercially available ways to assure your device doesnt contain a Trojan. On the other hand, a good Trojan is
even more difficult to engineer than a
Clone, so it is less likely that the older,
common industry devices (that make up
the bulk of todays counterfeit devices)
would include a Trojan.
But as the counterfeit device supply
issue moves from the hands of relatively
unsophisticated e-waste recyclers and

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15

Designing with FPGAs

Counterfeit Example. Identically marked parts


contain different die revisions. They both function
the same, but the counterfeit consumes much
more power.

into the hands of establishments or


governments with malicious intent, the
resources and desire to create Trojans
increases significantly. This is compounded by the fact that most new
semiconductor fabrication is done outside the United States where designs
and mask sets could be more easily
compromised to introduce Trojans.
One solution to limiting the Trojan
threat is to use the DOD Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) Trusted
source program. This program accredits
US based semiconductor manufacturing
locations that have proven high level
security processes and procedures in
place. Numerous other solutions are
being studied by the DOD and academia, but so far none of the published
approaches can be considered a universally viable solution.
There is some good news in the industry when it comes to identifying
and eliminating counterfeit semicon-

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/55596-765

16

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ductor threats. There is a growing


awareness in the industry with an
abundance of technical conferences
and papers proposing solutions. Academic institutions are studying techniques to guarantee newly fabricated
devices can be authenticated. Finally
the DOD is sponsoring defense industry research programs in numerous
counterfeit related areas.
One such program is sponsored by
the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and
targets the development of new and
more effective counterfeit screening
techniques for Field Programmable
Gate Arrays (FPGAs). FPGAs are used
extensively in the defense industry because of their flexibility and wide
range of available functions. They are
often the brains of the system they
are designed into, where failures
caused by counterfeit devices could
lead to catastrophic consequences.
Another is DARPAs Supply Chain
Hardware Integrity for Electronics Defense (SHIELD) program. The goal of
DARPAs SHIELD program is to eliminate counterfeit integrated circuits from
the electronics supply chain by making
counterfeiting too complex and timeconsuming to be cost-effective. SHIELD
aims to combine NSA-level encryption,
sensors, near-field power and communications into a microscopic-scale chip capable of being inserted into the packaging of an integrated circuit.
Although the industry is doing
much more to thwart the incursion of
counterfeit semiconductors into the
DOD supply chain than ever before,
there is no realistic end in sight. Continued diligence is required in employing the initially developed mechanical
counterfeit detection techniques as
well as the even more effective comprehensive electrical test techniques.
The counterfeiters will be relentless
it will take the combined efforts of the
DOD, academia, the original semiconductor manufacturers and independent test labs to ultimately bring this
threat under control.
This article was written by Joseph L
Holt, Vice President, Integra Technologies
LLC (Wichita, KS). For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/
55596-502.

Touch and Go
Avionics developments are changing life in
the cockpit and at airborne work stations.
by Richard Gardner

ince the digital revolution


changed forever the pilots
working environment, innovators and suppliers of cockpit
systems have strived to provide a continuous stream of new developments
and products that offer increasingly automated solutions to what has to be
done to fly and land an airplane safely.
As the first glass cockpits with CRTtype displays were introduced in the
1980s, there was understandably much
opposition from many within the active
flying community as these revolutionary devices removed at a stroke all those
scores of instruments that were so familiar and which all seemed absolutely
essential at the time.
Airbus made the first strategic leap in
committing to a cockpit with primary
displays projected on a glass screen,
starting with its A310, and with the allnew A320 provided almost all its instrumentation in this form, and went even
further with a highly automated fly-bywire flight control system, featuring
fighter-style side stick controllers.

There was an outcry from flight crews


when increased computerization led
Airbus to conclude that the new technologies could completely eliminate the
need for a flight engineer in the cockpit.
But with all essential onboard systems,
plus all navigational and flying information available and in clear view, or
just a flick of a switch or press of a button away, the change to digital became
a headlong rush.

Human Factors
Following recent high-profile aircraft
losses and other flight incidents, some
critics have suggested that industry has
made the profession of flying too easy
and too relaxed. When an aircrafts key
integrated flight data inputs are supposedly protected by five separate computer systems and a series of fail-safe
flight control recovery modes, and yet
the crew become confused as the computers become overwhelmed by conflicting information returns, there is a
need for quick and decisive, but appropriate, corrective action.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Intro

Human factors are often the key to


analyzing what has gone wrong and so
the onward march of cockpit automation and component miniaturization,
which has led to even very small executive jets and general aviation aircraft
being fitted with highly automated displays, now has to seriously consider if
enough scope is being allowed for pilots
to actually fly the aircraft and not just
assume it will fly itselfeven though it
usually does!
All the leading cockpit system suppliers are now well advanced in designing
and bringing to market what appear to
be approaching the ultimate in userfriendly displays. Even quite recently
some of these developments have looked
more like science-fiction inventions, but
the availability of new materials and new
manufacturing processes that can embed
touch-sensitive switches and controls
into large wraparound transparent panels, have been made possible by adopting
much technology that has come from
the gaming and CGI sector as well as the
Grand Prix car racing sector.

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17

Avionics

Making these applications robust


enough for safe everyday use in life-critical aviation use is more time-consuming
from a regulatory angle, as ease of use has
to be balanced by sufficient tactile interaction between man and machine so that
there is no loss of authority or confidence
on the part of the pilot, who ultimately
must remain in charge.

HUD Advances
The day when civil air passengers will
fly in commercial aircraft that have no
human pilots on board could happen

very soon, technically, but it wont, as no


airline, and few customers, would want to
take the risk. However, an identical flight,
with two crew in the cockpit as monitors
and who could take control in an emergency, will probably be the most likely
way forward, with little difference in delivery and presentation to todays operations. Truly disruptive advanced avionics
technology will more likely appear first in
the military sector.
One development that certainly has its
origins in military aviation but which has
now taken pilot situational awareness

Current standard of airline cockpitthe latest Boeing 787-900. (Richard Gardner)

(SA) to new levels in the commercial market is the head-up display (HUD). Certified by Airbus this year, Thales has now
introduced a twin HUD configuration
that enables all the projected information
to be seen by both pilots simultaneously.
With eyes focused outside, viewing
the presentation of the flightpath, acceleration, visual glideslope angle, and
the runway aim point, both crew
members can achieve greater precision
and SA at all times and can interact
with one another with the same information during the most critical phases
of the flight, especially in bad weather
and low light conditions.
In late September, Thales announced
that its latest dual HUD system had
been selected by China Southern Airlines for use aboard its 30 new A320s. It
is a significant order as its the first dual
HUD to be ordered by a Chinese airline
and the countrys Civil Aviation Authority (CAAC) has made it mandatory
for all Chinese registered aircraft to be
equipped with HUDs.
As Chinas skies become more congested, HUDs are fast becoming a mainstay for pilots and the country is leading
the world in adopting this technology.
China has progressed in under two
decades from operating some of the
worlds oldest airline fleets, flying largely
Russian-designed aircraft, to having some
of the worlds youngest airline fleets, flying the latest models from Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier, and Embraer. As well as
placing orders for thousands of new
Western aircraft, China is developing its
own indigenous aircraft and in due
course will no doubt design and build
more of its own avionics systems in place
of buying Western products.

Helmet-Mounted Display Case


Taking the avionics progress story
on the SA theme back into the military
sector, the latest developments go beyond HUDs with ever more sophisticated
helmet-mounted
displays
(HMDs). Recently BAE Systems presented its latest, fifth-generation
HMD, the Striker II, which incorporates features that were developed to
give pilots flying aircraft such as the F35 and Typhoon a comprehensive,
game-changing capability.

Cockpit display of the future? ODICIS wraparound touchscreen. (Richard Gardner)

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Avionics

The F-35 is presently unique in new


combat aircraft in so far as it doesnt
have a HUD but depends on an HMD to
provide all the key target and flying
cues and data ahead of the pilots normal vision. During the F-35s lengthy
development phase BAE's Striker was
used as an interim alternative while the
incumbent supplier solved image vibration issues. In the meantime the Striker
has been proven operationally in use
with Typhoon and Gripen fighter aircraft and has now been enhanced by
making it an all-digital solution. In addition the helmet has been fitted with
an integral night vision camera.
The key to exploiting HMD usage in
modern combat aircraft is to give the
pilot minimal interference or restrictions in operation, while remaining
lightweight and comfortable. This is
easier described than solved as such a
system has to not only provide crystal
clear imagery under all environmental

The Thales AMASCOS Multi-Mission display console with touchscreens and integrated target identification
system. (Thales)

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Avionics

conditions, by day or night,


but must not result in creating any blind spots or causing extra strain on the neck
and upper torso.
The new Striker II enables
the HMD to show imagery
from any source and adds new
levels of functionality. As well
as projecting night vision imagery and standard weaponsaiming and flight symbology,
the digital architecture allows a
zooming function and the ability to present picture-withinpicture imagery and even images from external (off-board)
sensors that could aid the pilot
in target identification. This
new comprehensive digital capability can incorporate sensor
mixing to increase SA significantly, and this work is under
active development.
Although the HMD is Close up of an AMASCOS display.
aimed primarily at use onfrom the new helmet is an advanced
board fighters and attack helicopters,
head-tracker system that supplements
the system architecture is adaptable to
the aircrafts optical tracker. This gives
allow it to be integrated into almost any
increased tracking accuracy and conaircraft. An analog converter has been
tinues to track the helmet in positions
developed so the helmet can be comin which some of the optical tracking
patible with older systems as well. The
is lost.
addition of an embedded night vision
camera replaces the traditional night vision goggles (NVGs) that are clipped
Multi-Mission Functionality
onto a helmet in front of the visor.
The evolution of digital avionics is
With NVGs the pilots ability to
taking many other paths in addition to
look around from the cockpit is usurevolutionizing the pilots cockpit. A
ally restricted and they also upset the
good example is the new functionality
natural mass balance of the helmet asthat can be applied to the displays and
sembly. If a pilot wears NVGs for some
controls needed aboard multi-mission
time then this can cause neck fatigue
aircraft. The traditional interior of a
as well as leading to restrictions on
multi-engine military sensor platform
the g-limits being imposed on the airaircraft has rows of display consoles,
craft, not a good feature with combat
each faced by an operator who is alloagility an important requirement for
cated specialist tasks collecting, searchall military fast jets.
ing for or analyzing data that is
On the Striker II helmet the night
streamed into the aircraft.
vision function can be switched on or
On aircraft such as the Boeing E-3
off through a hands-on throttle and
Sentry or other electronic communicastick control. Trials and feedback from
tions and signals intelligence platoperations indicate that this new
forms, the specialist crews onboard can
function will be particularly valuable
number around 30 and have bespoke
at dawn or dusk when a pilot may
display stations with operational manhave some difficulty deciding whether
agers keeping the data flows moving
visibility is better with or without the
and helping to set priorities. So much
night vision imagery. Another benefit
data can be collected on these missions
20

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that information overload is a real


challenge. Although automated data
filtration systems can narrow down
some of the input so operators including signals specialists can focus on mission priorities or unusual data, it is
highly skilled personnel who ultimately identify, track, and deal with
suspect information and then distribute it accordingly.
In the case of maritime patrol and
surveillance air platforms, the aircraft
cabins are also filled by displays and
operator desks. Major defense system
companies, such as Raytheon,
Northrop Grumman, L-3, Boeing,
Lockheed Martin, Thales, and Selex ES
are all engaged in the development
and supply of integrated mission systems for specialist air platforms.
Thales has just introduced AMASCOS,
a new airborne mission system for
maritime and ground surveillance aircraft that may have a similar design
impact to that which accompanied the
first Airbus glass cockpit.
The main feature that sets AMASCOS
apart in a very competitive market is the
innovative operator screen display configuration, which is particularly userfriendly, thanks to easy-to-learn interac-

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Avionics

tive touchscreens, which are part of a flexible networked integrated system. It


makes maximum use of the latest display
technologies and is linked to the latest
generation of sensors, including radar,
laser, and electro-optical systems and is
built around a tactical command system.
With its modular architecture, the
network centric system can be configured to optimize the crew task sharing
for either a lightweight version for simple surveillance tasks (such as coastal or
border patrol in a small twin turboprop
platform) right up to full-function antisubmarine or surface warfare versions
(for an MPA aircraft such as P-8 or P-3
size platform), with typically up to five
consoles controlling radar, IFF, EO/IR
sensors,
electronic
intelligence,
acoustics, magnetic anomaly detection,
datalinks, sonobuoys, and weapons.
This formula allows the system to be integrated onto an optimized platform for
customer requirements, offering a wide
range of multi-mission capabilities. The
operator workload is kept to efficient levels as a result of the high level of system
automation. This includes data fusion,
identification, and classification. There is
a large data base in support of sensors
with both an onboard library and access
through secure datalinks to additional library databases.
All the data available can be shared between single or multiple operators as
needed, and the touchscreen layout allows saved tracking information and
situational maps and radar pictures to be
continuously updated in real time with
sub-displays dragged across to another
display so the operator can investigate or
carry out actions with the maximum
awareness of all relevant information in
front of him or her, and without having
to look away to operate another screen
and its controls. The operational picture
can thus be as simple or as complex as
needs demand. The compact design of the
displays and their utility enables a smaller
platform aircraft, with a smaller number
of crews, to carry out the mission with no
loss of capability.
This new system is not the only
product on the market, but as state-ofthe-art avionics for maximizing exploitation of the new technologies
while keeping volume, crew demands,

and costs affordable, it shows the way


ahead. The old convention of operating many different surveillance aircraft types in small numbers for specialist roles is becoming unaffordable
and very demanding on training infrastructure. Introducing more flexible

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Intro

multi-mission aircraft that are adaptable to different ISTAR (intelligence,


surveillance, targeting, and reconnaissance) tasks is now a more practical solution, thanks to the availability of
avionics solutions that allow fewer to
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Materials

Sandwich Cores for the Future


Decreasing weight while increasing strength is always critical, from airliners to future space
missions to Mars. Research in sandwich cores today may lead to radical improvements in the future.
by Bruce Morey

he search for lighter weight,


stronger materials to construct
airplanes and spacecraft remains as important as ever.
But it takes a long time for new materials in aerospace structures to make their
way into production designs. Capital is
one reason; it is harder to take risks
when it costs so much to develop new
composites. Another is the long approval process from regulatory agencies
due to safety constraints.
Aerospace is an interesting case because there is a lot that you can do with
composites that is being done in [just] a
few cases today, explained Anthony
Vicari, Lead Analyst for Advanced Materials for Lux Research, in an interview
with Aerospace & Defense Technology.
One of those materials that is well established but arousing increasing atten-

tion in the aerospace industry is sandwich materials, according to Vicari.


A sandwich panel design can be used
to avoid local buckling in panels loaded in
shear and Euler buckling in panels with
compressive in-plane loads, which simplifies the structure and structural analysis. It
is also particularly suitable to stiffen a
panel that is subjected to out-of-plane
loading or torsional loads, Malcolm Foster, Chief Engineer for GKN Aerospace,
explained to A&DT.
Foster went on to explain some of
the disadvantages. One is that sandwich cores can absorb water vapor,
and condensation accumulates in the
cell under constant cycling of air pressure and temperature that aircraft
structures are exposed to. It is possible to seal the cores to prevent this,
but this adds weight that [may] offset

the benefits of core over a monolithic


layup, he said.
The sealed air inside the honeycomb
cells exerts a pressure in the reduced
ambient pressure at altitude, leading to
potential cycle fatigue. Manufacturing
issues may include inability to handle
full 100-psi autoclave pressure as well as
telegraphing issues with honeycomb
and co-cured skins, among others. Honeycomb does not play well with resininfusion processes.
Honeycomb is an added expense. It
requires careful placement in the
layup, and the layup is complicated by
having to fit around the core. All of
this is difficult to integrate with automated fiber deposition processes and,
therefore, it drives you towards manual processes, he said.
However, sandwich composites may
well get a boost as a number of companies are looking to exploit new manufacturing technologies to expand the
range of cores and skins alike, overcoming some of these problems to get
lighter and stronger structures.

Sandwich Construction Innovations

Researchers have developed membranes that can significantly reduce aircraft noise when inserted into
the honeycomb structures used in aircraft design. (Dr. Yun Jing)

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At GKN Aerospace we are working on


new ways to create custom cores for
complex shapes that would not normally be possible to form from a pre-fabricated sheet, explained Foster. There is
still a lot of innovation in foam cores
for example, in-mold foaming (IMF) of
structural foams has the potential to

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Materials

allow greater design freedom and wider


use of foam. Previously, IMF was only
available for non-structural cores such as
expanded polystyrene.
NASA announced in April 2015 the selection of three proposals to develop and
manufacture ultra-lightweight core
(ULWC) materials for future aerospace vehicles and structures. All three focus on
advanced sandwich construction.
Standard composites gives us 30%
weight savings, but for the Mission to
Mars we really need to find a way to further lightweight our vehicles and structuresour ultimate goal is to achieve 40%
weight savings, even 50% weight savings
over conventional aerospace materials
such as aluminum, John Vickers, Associate Director for Materials Processing for
NASA, told A&DT. Sandwich cores have
a very widespread applicability to space
systems. Sandwich construction in our
opinion is the most weight optimal, especially in crew habitats.

GKN Aerospace delivered a wing leading edge demonstrator to the Clean Sky program, demonstrating a
natural laminar flow (NLF) wing. The profile needed close tolerances under air loads, requiring a very stiff
out-of-plane leading edge skin. A honeycomb panel was by far the lightest solution for this component,
according to a company spokesman.

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23

Materials

He believes industry can develop


sandwich construction that can handle
structural loads as well as the conventional metal skin and stringer designs
often found in aerospace.
The criteria for evaluation of the three
approaches over conventional ones, and
against each other, include weight savings, crush strength, and mechanical
structure test, explained Azlin BiaggiLabiosa, Project Manager for the Nanotechnology project at NASA, under
which these contracts are implemented.
The three companies selected for contracts include HRL Laboratories, ATK
Space Systems, and Dynetics, Inc. Phase I
awards of the solicitation are valued up to
$550,000, providing awardees with funding for 13 months to produce 12121-in
ultra-lightweight core panels. Technologies selected to continue to Phase II will
demonstrate the ability to scale up to 2-ft
by 2-ft by 1-in and ultimately to produce
10-ft by 11-ft by 1-in ULWC panels, with
NASA providing up to $2 million per
award for up to 18 months.
As with most new technologies, we
should not expect these to be flying
anytime soon. NASA does expect applications outside of space flight.
The work that we are talking about
today, with the ultra-lightweight core, is
at a low technology readiness level
(TRL), explained Vickers.
This technology, if it goes all the
way to Phase II [including] our ground
testing, would be at TRL 6, added Biaggi-Labiosa, referring to the nine steps
NASA uses to rate maturity of a technology. A TRL of 9 means the technology
has actually flown in space.

Quieting Cores

Azlin Biaggi-Labiosa, Project Manager at NASA,


explained that the evaluation criteria for the contract for new sandwich composites include
weight savings, crush strength, and mechanical
structure test.

Anthony Vicari, Lead Analyst for Advanced


Materials for Lux Research, notes that overall
progress in developing new aerospace materials is
a continuing series of incremental advances.
Expect to see that with sandwich composites.

While sandwiched honeycomb


structures make for strong, lightweight aircraft, they are particularly
bad at blocking low-frequency noise,
like aircraft engines, according to Dr.
Yun Jing, Assistant Professor of
Mechanical
and
Aerospace
Engineering at North Carolina State
University.
Working with the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Jing helped
pioneer an approach unique in its
simplicityadd a sound-insulating
rubber membrane. Using a thin lightweight membrane covering one side
of the honeycomb structure, like the
skin of a drum, soundwaves bounce
off rather than passing through.
According to Jing, at low frequenciessounds below 500 Hzthe honeycomb panel with the membrane
blocks 100 to 1000 times more
sound energy than the panel without a membrane. His team has
measured sound transmission losses (STL) consistently greater than
45 dB up to 50 dB.
This research was prompted by
the needs of the airline industry, said
Jing in an interview with A&DT. He
also noted that it might be difficult to
retrofit existing aircraft. I think it has
to be considered when a new aircraft
design is started, he said. We are in
conversations with several companies [examining] the possibility of
commercializing this technique and
are actively looking for partners to
commercialize it.

Adapting the Proven for the New


The approach taken by one of those
winners is a case study in adapting proven
technologies in new ways. The proven
technology that HRL Laboratories is exploiting is UV curing of polymers. UV
light is used to solidify a liquid resin point
by point to create highly complex patterns (of plastic). Stereolithography 3D
printers use the same underlying technique, but HRL uses a self-propagating
waveguide process that enables the cores
to be made 100 to 1000 times faster.
A template in plastic is formed and
then coated with a metal such as nickel by

The HRL technique allows for easy creation of curved shapes.

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Materials

electroplating. The template is then


etched away, leaving the final core. The
key is order and structure at small scales.
These are structured, cellular materials
or architected materials in a micro-lattice
structure, Dr. Tobias Schaedler, the lead
researcher from HRL on the NASA contract, explained to A&DT.
He noted that sandwich structures provide high torsional and bending rigidity
at low weight, resisting forces perpendicular to the surface. But there are only two
types of cores, honeycomb and foam, he
said. Foam is cheaper, but not as stiff or
strong. That leaves honeycomb as the
only choice today for high-performance
sandwich composites.
The lattice distributes stress in many
directions where a honeycomb can only
do it normal to the face-sheet. HRL
demonstrated that making the core
using a truss lattice structure makes for
a stronger material, especially in shear.
This means it is better than honeycomb
core in resisting sliding forces along the
surface of a material and in bending, according to Schaedler. Currently, HRL
lattice cores are made from nanocrystalline nickel faced with carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP).
The performance of the material is a
combination of the structure, where
honeycomb and foam would be inferior,
with the increased strength of the material the truss lattice is actually made of,
he said. The NASA project will use an
unspecified but lighter and stronger
nanocrystalline metal.

Schaedler was quick to point out other


distinct advantages using what is, at its
heart, a 3D-printing technique to form
cores. The technique can grow compound shapes and curves because you can
grow the structure into the shape desired, he explained.

No machining is needed. Also, the


density of the lattice can be adapted to
match local stress less dense where less
strength is needed, higher density
where it is needed.

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Dr. Tobias Schaedler is one of a group of


researchers at HRL that adapted 3D-printing techniques for cores with a lattice structure that distributes forces better and is easier to make into
complex shapes.

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25

RF & Microwave Technology

Making AESA Radar

More Flexible
A modular, building-block approach brings greater design flexibility to Active Electronically
Scanned Array (AESA) radar technology, simplifying system integration, and permitting rapid
first-line repair with no downtime using standard off-the-shelf components.

ntil recently, AESA radar was utilized almost exclusively by prime


aerospace contractors within their
own proprietary systems. These customized solutions were relatively
costly and time-consuming to manufacture, and not reconfigurable to alternative uses.
Meanwhile, growing requirements
such as border security have punctuated
the need for a modular, building-block
approach that expands the use of AESA
radar technology to a wide array of applications including naval, airborne, vehicle-mounted, and ground-based systems; coastal and harbor security; air
traffic control; foreign object detection
(FOD) for airport runways; satellites;
and data links.

AESA radar systems contain multiple


transmit/receive modules (TRMs) that
transmit and receive high-power radio
waves of varying frequencies, scanning
rates, and radiation patterns on demand
to provide highly agile beam steering. By
generating unpredictable scan patterns,
AESA radar systems can track multiple targets simultaneously. These scan patterns
are also difficult to detect by radar warning receivers (RWRs) particularly older
systems thus providing high jamming
resistance. These systems can also operate
in a receiver-only mode to track the
source of jamming signals, or to act as a
radar warning receiver. AESA radar can
also serve as a high-speed data link able to
support peer-to-peer networking by combining data from multiple platforms

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A Modular, Stackable Approach


A recently introduced Active Antenna
Array Unit (AAAU) consists of modular
Quad Transmit Receive Module (QTRM)
sub-arrays (Figure 1), which are also
available as a standalone product or as
scalable planks. The typical plank is
constructed from four QTRMs, along
with an integrated, linear, 16-element
antenna array; liquid cooling with
quick-release, non-drip connections;
and distribution networks to provide RF
and DC control signals to each QTRM.
The Planks are designed to plug into
slots in the main array structure to create a 2D array solution.
Each QTRM module (Figure 2) consists
of four T/R channels, each containing a
power amplifier (PA), a low-noise amplifier with receiver protection, along with
digitally controlled phase and gain con-

Figure 1. The roadmap to an Active Array Antenna Unit (AAAU).

26

while also delivering expanded radar coverage and enhanced resolution.


AESA radar does have its limitations;
the highest field of view (FOV) achievable
for a flat phased array antenna is generally
between 90 to 120 degrees. Wider coverage can be obtained through multiple antenna faces or two rotating antenna faces.
Similarly, an X-band array mounted onto
the nose of an aircraft can expand its FOV
through the use of a mechanical gimbal.
Thermal management is also required
to dissipate heat generated by the power
amplifiers (PAs) that are distributed across
the antenna face. The cooling system
must fit within the limited space envelope
between the elements.

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

RF & Microwave Technology

trol elements to reduce undesirable sidelobes. QTRM modules also feature local
DC power supply conditioning, a built-in
logic interface for serial control and BITE
power supply monitoring, and a protective thermal shutdown facility.
The QTRMs are supplied factory-calibrated and individually addressed for
plug-and-play installation and rapid integration. The system integrator simply programs in adjustments for external system
loss, antenna offsets, and phase offsets.
A key performance attribute is graceful
degradation, as each T/R channel is individually controlled, so the failure of any
individual T/R channel will not impact
the rest of the module. By contrast, legacy
radar systems can become inoperable due
to a single Point of Failure (PoF), such as
the loss of the travelling wave tube (TWT)
power amplifier.
Modular, stackable QTRMs use standard commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)
components, and are designed as Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) to reduce first-line
repair costs. Individual QTRMs have
unique address codes so individual modules can be swapped out anywhere within
the overall array without incurring any
system downtime. By contrast, with older,
non-modular AESA systems, the entire
platform needs to be taken off-line in
order to perform routine repairs, maintenance, and upgrades.

Use of the X-band frequency range


permits even greater miniaturization
and resolution enhancement, as over
1,000 elements can be concentrated
w i t h i n a s q u a r e m e t e r. T h e s e
miniaturized systems are commonly
used by aircraft for intercept and

attack of enemy fighters and ground


targets, and also as high-speed data
links. X-band systems are also ideal
for
short-range
applications,
including border surveillance, as their
compact size permits man-portability
and fast deployment.

Choosing the Right Frequency Range


Modular, stackable QTRMs are available
at X-band and C-band, along with a Dual
Transmit Receive Module (DTRM) at Sband (Figure 3). Dual-module S-band systems are ideal for long-range applications
such as seaborne surveillance and tracking, where higher output power per element and lower atmospheric attenuation
must be achieved. S-band systems utilize
Silicon LDMOS or GaN discrete transistors
for the output stage of the PA.
C-Band radar is most commonly utilized in short- and medium-range mobile
battlefield surveillance and missile control
applications where rapid relocation and
deployment are required. Higher-frequency C-band radar systems permit the
use of a smaller antenna while also improving accuracy and resolution, thus enabling radar systems to be mounted onto
mobile platforms.
Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

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RF & Microwave Technology

Figure 3. A Quad Transmit Receive Module


(QTRM)

Figure 2. An X-band sub-array face

Additional Technical Considerations


Application-specific requirements
dictate the frequency, which, in turn,
influences the available space envelope, the circuit topology, and the circuit technology.
The available space envelope is dictated by the need to maintain a halfwavelength (or less) antenna spacing in
order to reduce undesirable grating
lobes, and by the array configuration,
with total power output limited by the
modules size, frequency, and heat dissipation requirements. Multiple modules
are packaged into a single housing
typically four per module for the higher
frequencies (C-band and above), and
two per module for S-band providing
sufficient space for full digital functionality, local power supply conditioning,
and a single, all-encompassing environmental seal rather than multiple channel-to-channel seals.
For circuit topology, the functional
building blocks of a typical T/R channel
remain the same regardless of overall system requirements. For C-band frequencies and above, a MMIC core chip is likely
utilized along with a low-noise amplifier
MMIC in the receive path, and a power
amplifier MMIC in the transmit path.
The MMICs are typically designed as a

chip set, with the power amplifier being


driven directly from the core chip.
The typical core chip consists of a digital phase shifter and an attenuator, along
with low-noise and medium-power amplifiers that interface directly with the receive and transmit path MMICs. Switches
within the core chip allow the attenuator
and phase shifter functions to be utilized
in both transmit and receive paths, thus
forming a common leg circuit. The systems minimum detectable range (MDR)
can be reduced by minimizing T/R switching speed, limiter recovery time, and DC
supply gating circuit requirements.
A limiter circuit in the LNA protects the
device from high-power RF signals generated from the transmit side or from external sources. The antenna port feed to the
T/R channel usually passes through a ferrite circulator, often with a ferrite isolator
to protect the power amplifier, or occasionally with a high-power T/R switch
that can terminate the receive path with a
load during the transmit pulse cycle.
Lower-frequency designs can utilize a
combination of discrete surface mount
MMIC devices to realize the core chip
functionality, along with discrete high
power transistors with external matching
circuits for the power amplifier. Combining a low-noise receive channel with high

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output power extends the signal transmission range. Adjacent T/R channels always
need to be isolated using channelized
grounded cavities or metal covers.
The circuit technology is influenced by
the frequency band, which, in turn, dictates the available space envelope. Lowerfrequency designs lend themselves to a
single-layer RF PCB design mounted onto
a backplane, with SMT packaged MMICs,
and drop-in devices such as circulators or
packaged discrete transistors. Higher-frequency designs have a smaller space envelope, making it difficult to fit all the required RF functionality and associated
interconnects onto a single layer, and prohibits the use of packaged devices. Therefore, a chip and wire approach is required
using a highly integrated MMIC chip set.
A multilayer approach can also be considered using either LTCC packaging or a
mixed-media multilayer board.

Conclusion
The development of a modular, stackable approach to AESA radar enables this
technology to be quickly and cost-effectively adapted to a wide variety of applications. This modularized approach reduces
the total cost of ownership by using COTS
components and MMIC technology, and
by simplifying installation and integration. Once installed, these modularized
systems are also relatively inexpensive to
maintain, offering graceful degradation
reducing single points of failure (PoF), and
permitting in-field TRM replacement
(LRU) without having to take the entire
system off-line.
This article was written by Mark
Howard, Chief Engineer at API Microwave Ltd., Philadelphia, PA.
For more information, visit http://
info.hotims.com/55596-541.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

RF & Microwave Technology

Developing Secondary Surveillance Radar Automated Test Equipment

nlike primary radars, Secondary


Surveillance Radar (SSR) calculates
the range and azimuth of a target,
such as an aircraft, using a bidirectional communication link to gather
information. Engineers use SSR in
both military and civil aviation, with
the former incorporating an identifying friend-or-foe system.
SSR works in different modes to obtain information from the target. The
system sends interrogating pulses from
the radar in a bidirectional rotating antenna at 1030 MHz. If a target detects
interrogation, the transponder of the
target replies with a frame of pulses at
1090 MHz. Radar at the ground station
generates interrogating pulses and requests information such as identity, altitude, or country code from the target
represented as mode-A/3A, mode-C, or
mode-S. Based on the interrogation answers, the aircraft replies with a standard reply pulse format. The system calculates range and azimuth based on the
speed-to-distance relation and rotary
antenna position with respect to north
or the heading direction.
Todays radars need rigorous testing
before they are deployed in military or
civil aviation. An automated test equipment (ATE) system was developed using
NI PXI modular instruments from National Instruments (Austin, TX) to facilitate the functionality tests of the radar
and physical parameters test of the receiver (Rx) and transmitter (Tx), including Rx bandwidth, Rx sensitivity, Tx
power, and Tx pulse parameters. Functionality tests included a target simulator to the radar at 1090 MHz, video signal detection, and radar scan converter
display using synthetic transistor-transistor logic (TTL) video signal and LAN
communication. Reply pulses in the target and multitarget simulators were stationary and trajectory motion.
The system was composed of an NI
PXI-1042 eight-slot chassis and an NI
PXI-8196 embedded controller. The
radar was kept either in transmitting
mode or receiving mode to test the Tx
and Rx functionality. External antenna
signals north and azimuth count pulses
(ACPs) were generated and simu lated

through an FPGA board. Target reply


pulses were generated through an NI
PXI-5671 vector signal generator (VSG)
at 1090 MHz. The system acquired demodulated video signals from the receiver through an oscilloscope card for
Rx functionality tests. High-power
transmitted RF pulses were acquired
through an NI PXI-5661 vector signal
analyzer (VSA) to measure Tx signal
power and pulse parameters. The synthesized video at the TTL level generated from the radar processing unit was
acquired through FPGA digital input,
and used for a radar scan converter to
display the target on a polar plot with
its range and azimuth position, informantion code, altitude, and country
code.
Each trigger and sync pulse was synchronized with the interrogating RF
pulse of the SSR. To protect the instruments, the radar transmitter was
switched off during the Rx tests because
the radar had a built-in TR module.
Both Tx and Rx ports shared the same
physical port, which connected to an
antenna. The VSA and VSG connected

Figure 1. Overall architecture of the ATE to test the SSR.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Intro

to this same physical port, replacing the


antenna, and generating and acquiring
RF signals at 1090 MHz and 1030 MHz.
Tx out of the radar is connected to
the VSA of the ATE with an attenuator.
Rx in the radar is received by the RF
pulses generated through the VSG,
which was synchronized with a
trigger/sync pulse. Each sync pulse was
synchronized with the interrogating
pulse. After receiving a sync pulse to the
trigger port of the VSG and FPGA, the
RF pulse out was generated through the
VSG. The Rx video out was connected
to the oscilloscope card to measure receiver sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic
range, and frequency stability; phase
differential; reception chain operational
sensitivity; and reception chain side
lobe suppression.
In the functional test, the system generated the antennal simulation signals,
such as north and ACP. It simulated
multiple targets at different azimuths
and ranges in both stationary and trajectory motion, and represented the
transponders azimuth and range in a
radar scan conversion application.

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RF & Microwave Technology

motion. A user configProper functional test


ures moving paths at
of an Rx can be condifferent trajectories.
ducted through target
The system can simusimulation using the
late multiple targets at
VSG based on sync
different ranges and
pulses. In this case, the
azimuths from the
ATE acts as a target sigsame VSG.
nal generator coming
A modular, editable
from the antenna. Each
sequence of tests was
interrogation is synchrodeveloped in LabVIEW
nized by a trigger pulse
to test total functionconnected to both the
ality. Users can select
VSG trigger and the
either automatic or
FPGA. Users can configmanual mode for indiure the range and azvidual parameter test.
imuth to simulate with
With a diagnostic panthe target. When a target
el, users can access the
is ready for simulation, Figure 2. The radar scan converter display decoded through the FPGA.
individual PXI instruthe VSG generates the
ments for loop-back or self-test.
reply RF pulses of a target after the azimuth count is
This article was written by Vishwanath Kalkur and Mondeep
reached in the FPGA and the next sync trigger is received
Duarah of Captronic Systems Pvt Ltd. using National Instruments
from the radar. The user can select reply code and mode,
products. For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/
and scripted pulses are generated at the specified range and
55596-542.
azimuth. Targets are simulated for stationary and trajectory

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Tech Briefs
Structural Composites with Tuned EM Chirality
Several metamaterials show promise in providing advanced radio frequency control.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, Virginia

ork on structural composites with


tunable chiral elements has produced electronically tunable overall chiral composites, mechanically tunable
chiral composites, flat lenses with soft
hyperbolic focusing due to indefinite
overall permittivity, a tunable flat lens
based on chiral elements with adjustable focal spot based on applied mechanical deformation, and a three-phase
periodic composite that demonstrates
positive and negative refraction, depending on the input frequency and
angle of incidence. A MATLAB code directly computes the group velocity and
pass bands for a given set of wave vectors, and generates an intuitive plot for
quick, but thorough analysis.
A broadening application range has
increased the demand for advanced RF
control. Recent research has identified
several metamaterials to provide this
control. This work seeks to expand this
idea through several novel metamaterials with enhanced electromagnetic
properties. First, copper wires braided
with Kevlar and nylon to form conductive coils were woven among structural
fiber to create a fabric. This yielded a
composite with all coils possessing the
same handedness, producing a chiral
material. The measured scattering parameters showed considerable chirality
within the 5.5-8 GHz frequency band,
agreeing with simulation results.
Simulation modeled the material
using a full-wave adaptive solution for
the 1-12 GHz frequency band with an
incidence angle between 0 and 90 degrees. Experiments are underway with a
three- layer sample consisting of an
array of hollow glass tubes in a Rexolite
matrix. Thicker samples may be tested
through the addition of extra layers.
The sample is placed in a polycarbonate-fiberglass test fixture that is adjusted
for the desired angles of incidence. A 3D
scanning robot scans the desired test
volume, and the vector analyzer (VNA)
sends and receives the field response in
the form of S-parameters for the 7-12
GHz frequency band (see figure).

Electronic chirality tuning is investigated by integrating varactor diodes


into an array of helical elements on a
printed circuit board. Applying a varied reverse bias voltage across the sample effectively tunes the chiral behavior of the material. Chirality can be

Source:
Horn Antenna

Dipole Detector
Parabolic
Reflector

Sample

Schematic of the test configuration (top) and the actual test setup (bottom). Note: Schematic is not to scale.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Intro

further tuned mechanically through


the deformation of an array of conductive coils. Parallel, metallic helices embedded in a polyurethane matrix are
subjected to mechanical stretching for
pitch adjustment. This change in pitch
directly affects the overall chirality of

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31

Tech Briefs

the composite. Repeatable elastic deformation is achieved up to 50% axial


strain. Over the 5.5- 12.5 GHz frequency range, an increase of 30% axial
strain yields an ~18% change in axial
chirality.
Hyperbolic microwave focusing is explored through an indefinite medium
with anisotropic permittivity. An array
of 12-gauge brass wires is embedded in
Styrofoam and scanned over the 7- 9
GHz frequency band to establish focusing patterns. A soft-focusing spot is observed at 7.6 GHz with a relative gain of
~7dB over averaged background.

Tests of the fixture with and without


the sample(s) will be normalized with respect to air. The measured S-parameters
will indicate the stop and pass bands in
the frequency range, and will be correlated with the numerical predictions.
Applying an axial refractive gradient
to a coil composite creates a lens capable
of fine adjustment in the microwave
range. The gradient required to achieve
sharp focusing, and the extent of this effect, is calculated through an anisotropic
ray-tracing analysis. A composite is created using coils of opposite handedness
to minimize chiral effects. Through ex-

tension of these coils, the refractive


index can effectively be fine- tuned to
achieve the desired result. Measurements
and full-wave simulations confirm a gain
of 6-8 dB over averaged background at
the predicted focal frequencies.
This work was done by Siavouche Nemat
Nasser of the University of California San
Diego for the Air Force Office
of Scientific Research. For more information, download the Technical Support
Package (free white paper) at
www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under
the Materials & Coatings category.
AFOSR-0010

Advanced, Single-Polymer, Nanofiber-Reinforced Composite


Continuous nanofibers provide unique advantages for future structural nanocomposites.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, Virginia

strategic goal of the U.S. Air Force


is to be able to deliver munitions
to targets anywhere around the globe
in less than an hour. This will require
very high speeds and novel lightweight
and temperature-resistant materials.
Nanocomposites are promising emerging materials for structural and functional applications due to unique properties of their nanoscale constituents.
However, the currently available
nanocomposites based mostly on
nanoparticles lack the high strength
and stiffness required for structural
applications.
The goals of this research were to establish feasibility of manufacturing and
evaluate performance of novel continuous polyimide nanofibers and their
nanocomposites. The main objectives
were to demonstrate feasibility of fabrication of continuous nanofibers from a
range of specially synthesized soluble
polyimides, characterize their mechanical behavior and properties, and fabricate and characterize polyimide
nanofiber-reinforced composites.
A new class of nanoscale reinforcement, i.e. continuous polyimide
nanofibers, was explored and developed
for the first time. Continuous
nanofibers were produced from a range

of specially designed and synthesized


polyimides (PIs).
Strength of structural materials and
fibers is usually increased at the expense of strain at failure and toughness. Recent experimental studies have
demonstrated improvements in modulus and strength of electrospun polymer nanofibers with reduction of their
diameter. Nanofiber toughness has not
been analyzed; however, from the classical materials property tradeoff, one
can expect it to decrease. By analyzing
long (5-10 mm) individual polyacrilonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, it was
shown that nanofiber toughness also
dramatically improved. Reduction of
fiber diameter from 2.8 micrometers to
~100 nanometers resulted in simultaneous increases in elastic modulus
from 0.36-48 GPa, true strength from
15-1750 MPa, and toughness from
0.25-605 MPa with the largest increases recorded for the ultrafine
nanofibers smaller than 250 nanometers. The observed size effects showed
no sign of saturation. Structural investigations and comparisons with mechanical behavior of annealed
nanofibers allowed us to attribute
ultra-high ductility (average failure
strain stayed over 50%) and toughness

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to low nanofiber crystallinity resulting


from rapid solidification of ultrafine
electrospun jets.
Several families of soluble polyimides
suitable for electrospinning were produced. The focus was on chemical control of solubility that is essential for
control of both PI synthesis and subsequent electrospinning of continuous
nanofibers from solutions. Control of
nanofiber structure formation during
electrospinning via altering liquid crystalline state of the solution was also addressed.
Modeling-based approaches to control nanofiber diameter, deposition, and
alignment were utilized. Samples of individual nanofilaments and aligned
sheets of nanofibers were fabricated. By
modifying the conditions of electrospinning, nanofiber diameter could be
modulated in a very broad range. New
insights into the jet motion and polymer structure formation in the presence
of solvent evaporation allowed further
refinement of the process. In addition,
this new coupled 3D continuum model
of the process provided better understanding of macromolecular orientation
within the nanofibers.
Variations of the measured strength,
modulus, strain at failure, and tough-

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Tech Briefs

rocket

science

ness with diameter of individual as-spun PI nanofibers were


plotted and analyzed. The results showed extraordinary increases in strength and modulus as nanofiber diameter decreased. The highest strength and modulus values measured
were on par with strengths and moduli of commercial carbon fibers. Such high values of modulus and strength in
polymers are usually achieved at the expense of strain at
failure. Remarkably, the high strength of the ultrafine PI
nanofibers was achieved without statistically noticeable reduction of their failure strain. These unique simultaneous
increases in modulus, strength, and strain at failure led to a
dramatic increase of toughness. The highest recorded
toughness was an order of magnitude higher than toughness of the best existing advanced fibers, and exceeded
toughness of spider silk.
This work was done by Yuris Dzenis of the University of Nebraska for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. For more information, download the Technical Support Package (free
white paper) at www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under the Materials & Coatings category. AFRL-0239

Adhesive Systems
for the Aerospace Industry
Serviceability from 4K to 550F
Superior durability and toughness
Exceptional bond strength
NASA low outgassing approved

Download our
white paper on
adhesives for
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www.masterbond.com

Quantitative Diagnostics of
Multilayered Composite
Structures with Ultrasonic
Guided Waves

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/55596-772

This nondestructive methodology inspects a


sound-absorbing composite structural system
consisting of polymeric and metallic materials.
Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards AFB,
California

Rod Ends and Spherical


Bearings designed and
manufactured to Aurora's
exacting standards for quality
and durability.

ging infrastructure has a major impact on safety, increasing the need to assess damage severity. Machinery, systems, and components such as airplanes, cars, pumps, and
pipes in the oil and chemical industry are subject to varying
cyclic service loading and environmental influences. Sometimes multilayered coatings are used, requiring a high-resolution inspection to confirm the presence of a defect such as a
delamination, and accurately locate and quantify its size.
Highly attenuating materials may significantly increase the
inspection time while limiting defect observability. Guided
waves have been recognized as having excellent potential for
nondestructive inspection. However, the presence of viscoelastic coatings used for corrosion protection is one of the
major obstacles for guided wave inspection.
The presence of sound absorbing viscoelastic rubber-like
materials in multilayered structures can cause significant challenges for conventional nondestructive inspection methods.
During the current investigation, an ultrasonic guided-wavebased pitch-catch scanning system was developed specifically

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Intro

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33

Tech Briefs

2 mm

6.25 mm

Aluminum or composite fiber

Polymeric composite
Polyimide film at
the first interface

Polyimide film at
the second interface

Butyl
Rubber

Side cross-sectional schematic view of the composite multilayered structure of the plate/tube-like specimens
used for the current investigation.

to detect internal delaminations in


plate- and tube-like multilayered composite structures.
The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying ultrasonic guided waves to detect internal
delaminations inside multilayered composite structures. A secondary objective
was to develop light, low-profile interdigitated transducers (IDTs) for interrogating entire targeted sections of multilayered composite structures by
selectively exciting only one mode of
guided waves in these structures.
Ultrasonic measurements were performed initially on multilayered flat
plate having aluminum and carbon
fiber outer skin. These measurements
were repeated on multilayered cylindrical half-tubes with the same aluminum
and carbon fiber skin. The first symmetric mode S0 of Lamb waves in plates

and tubes was excited selectively by


means of specially designed IDT sensors. These IDT sensors were fabricated
from thin wafers of piezoelectric lead
zirconate titanate (PZT) substrates
using a pulse laser micromachining
process to etch interdigitated electrode
patterns on the surface.
While successfully demonstrating
that the presence of internal delaminations can be detected reliably by measuring changes in the energy of the received signals, it is estimated that the
pitch-catch ultrasonic system developed
for the current investigation can detect a
delamination as small as 1 mm wide.
Similarly, in the half-tubes, small delaminations were also detectable in both
aluminum and composite structures.
To inspect the carbon fiber composite
structures, approximately four times
more energy was required due to a

higher attenuation property of the


outer composite casing layer. Additionally, the received energy was four times
lower than the aluminum multilayered
plate case. The portable system was
found to be effective for both aluminum and carbon fiber composite
structures, even though the carbon fiber
composite plate exhibited higher signal
attenuation. Yet, both defects in the
first and second bondline interfaces
were successfully detected.
An IDT sensor-based guided wave inspection methodology is thought to
have a high potential as a field-deployable inspection tool for complex multilayered structures. Among many advantages, the main benefit is that they can
propagate long distances with minimum distortions and decays. From the
current investigation, it is concluded
that guided wave signals are sensitive
enough to detect the presence of delaminations at the bond lines of multilayered structures.
This work was done by Gheorghe Bunget
and Fritz Friedersdorf of Luna Innovations
Inc., and Jeong K. Na of Edison Welding Institute for the Air Force Research Laboratory. For more information, download
the Technical Support Package (free
white paper) at www.aerodefensetech.
com/tsp under the Manufacturing &
Prototyping category. AFRL-0240

Reactive, Multifunctional, Micellar, Composite


Nanoparticles for Destruction of Bio-Agents
Composite nanoparticles are promising biocides that can be prepared in various forms and easily stored.
Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia

ultifunctional composites have


been investigated for destruction of
bio-agents. These materials unique
properties at the nano scale, including
their abrasive character and high surface
area leading to very close contact with
cells, and their unusual surface morphology leading to high surface reactivity, make them promising biocides.
Nanoparticles can also be prepared in a
variety of forms such as powders, slurries, pellets, and membranes, making
them more convenient and widely appli-

cable for bio-agent destruction. Additionally, nanoparticles can generally be easily


stored, which increases their flexibility.
Although metal oxide nanoparticles
perform well in destroying vegetative
bacteria, the reactivity of the pure metal
oxide nanoparticles may not be strong
enough to destroy non-vegetative bacteria (e.g., spores) that would be more vulnerable to additional attack. Therefore,
formation of efficient agents for destruction of bio-agents necessitates incorporating strong conventional biocides that

34

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synergistically function with metal


oxide nanoparticles. This concept becomes very important in the case of
spores, where a combination of two
agents is usually much more efficient
than one agent alone, and very often
necessary. Ideal nanoparticle-based biocides should be equipped with desirable
multifunctionality including the ability
to deliver large amounts of biocides, efficient co-encapsulation of one or more
agents, and reactive or energetic destruction of bio-agents.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Open Your Designs

Tech Briefs

to Flexible,
Precision
Maintenance
ZnO NP

High Precision,
Mechanical
Torque Wrenches
& Multipliers

Porous
Structure

DFFXUDF\
reduced calibration
/LJKWZHLJKWHUJRQRPLFVPDOOIRRWSULQW
$OOPHFKDQLFDOQRH[WHUQDOSRZHUUHTXLUHG
'LJLWDOFRQWURO,QWHUQDWLRQDOPHDVXUHPHQW

Functional chain
Silica (SiO2) matrix

The multifunctional metal oxide-silica composite nanoparticles developed for


destruction or neutralization of targeted biomolecules.

&XVWRPHUVLQFOXGH
86$UP\861DY\860DULQHV
Pratt &:KLWQH\6LNRUVN\/RFNKHHG0DUWLQ+RQH\ZHOO

The objective of this research is to develop a new, efficient


bio-agent neutralizer or destructor based on multifunctional
composite nanoparticles in large scale; and to gain a fundamental understanding of the basic science of how structure,
surface chemistry, and catalytic species affect chemical absorption and deactivation of bio-agents by dissecting structureproperty-performance relationships of these materials, and by
understanding their synthesis and resulting structure and composition of the materials.
Reactive and multifunctional porous metal oxide-silica
composite nanoparticles (ZnO-SiO2 nanoparticles) were developed for efficient destruction or neutralization of targeted biomolecules (chemical warfare agents, bio-agents, and other toxics) by aero-oxidation, electro-oxidation, or photo-catalytic
oxidation. In the composite nanoparticles, metal oxides crosslink surfactant or polymer into core-shell micellar composite
nanoparticles. The surface of the porous silica is covalently
bonded with an organic functional group through silane
chemistry.
Finally, reactive and multifunctional porous silicon (PSi)-Titania (TiO2) or PSi-silver (Ag) heterojunctions were developed.
There materials have efficient destruction and neutralization of
targeted biomolecules (chemical warfare agents, bio-agents,
and other toxics) by combined effects of aero-oxidation, electro-oxidation, photo-catalytic oxidation and absorption. The
reactive and multifunctional porous silicon (PSi)-Titania (TiO2)
or PSi-silver (Ag) heterojunctions were synthesized. In the
composite nanoparticles, Titania and/or silver nanodots were
dispersed on the surface of silicon particles instead of the coreshell structure to utilize mass transmission.
This project focused on synthesis and characterization of multifunctional composite nanoparticles, such as micellar Au-metal
oxide core-shell nanoparticles, metal oxide (ZnO)-silica composite
nanoparticles, porous silicon (PSi)-Titania (TiO2), and PSi-silver
(Ag) heterojunctions.
This work was done by Donghai Wang of Pennsylvania State
University for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. For more information, download the Technical Support Package (free
white paper) at www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under the Materials & Coatings category. DTRA-0003

Drop-in replacement for many Powerdyne

$9HWHUDQ2ZQHG&RPSDQ\

ZZZDGYDQFHGWRUTXHFRP
info@advancedtorque.com
860.828.1523
*Patent # 5,203,239 l Patent Pending
Powerdyne is a registered trademark of Bidwell Corporation

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/55596-774

Lightning Strike Protection


for Composite Aircraft

MicroGrid

Precision-Expanded Foils
203/294-4440

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Intro

wrenches

www.dexmetmaterial.com

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/55596-775

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35

Technology Update
Signal Compression Technology Enables E-Fan's Flight,
Potential Enhanced 'Black Box' Possibilities

This made it possible to transmit terrestrial HD video to the cockpit, and allowed personnel aboard the chase aircraft and on the ground to view the
E-Fans flight progress, as offline content and camera feeds from the crossing
were down-linked, encoded, and distributed in real time via 3G networks to
Android- and iOS-connected devices.
Streaming HD-quality live video
over existing 3G networks under demanding real-life aerospace conditions
is completely new, said Dr. Jean Botti,
Airbus Group Chief Technical Officer.
There are significant opportunities for
this technology to
support the aerospace industrys digital transformation.
PERSEUS provides
high-quality, highcompression encoding and decoding of
dataat significantly
faster speeds and the
same or lower latency
than traditional technologyusing commercial-off-the shelf
(COTS) hardware.
V-Nova's PERSEUS data compression technology enabled HD video telemeThe
successful
try for Airbus's E-Fan technology demonstrator's crossing of the English
video telemetry for EChannel. With its 74-km flight from Lydd, England to Calais in France in July,
Fans flight demonthe E-Fan became the first all-electric two engine aircraft taking off by its
own power to successfully cross the English Channel. (Airbus)
strated a wide range
-Nova Ltd. demonstrated the
capabilities of its PERSEUS data
compression
technology
for
aerospace applications as part of
Airbus all-electric E-Fan technology
demonstrator aircrafts flight across
the English Channel.
During the flight, PERSEUS enabled
up- and downstream HD (high-definition, 720p 25 frames/sec) video telemetry over standard, publically accessible
3G mobile networks, with a more than
80% bandwidth reduction compared to
traditional technology under similar
conditions, says V-Nova.

of potential aerospace industry uses for


the PERSEUS technology, including transmission of high-quality video content between the ground and aircraft, the handling of flight-critical data for trend
monitoring and aircraft optimization,
wireless distribution of in-flight entertainment throughout commercial jetliner
cabins, and other potential bonuses.
PERSEUS effective data compression
also opens opportunities for additional
services, such as an enhanced or virtual black box that could store more
data, or provide real-time critical information via the cloud, said Eric Achtmann, V-Nova Executive Chairman &
Co-Founder. Another possible application could be for continuous live video
observation of the cockpit or cabin for
security purposes, with this hierarchical
software enabling users to adjust the
level of video quality and bandwidth required on-the-fly as situations evolve.
PERSEUS has been developed and
tested over the past five years within an
open innovation, interoperable coalition
of over 20 global industry leaders, including Broadcom, Dell, Encompass, Hitachi,
Intel, Sky Italia, TataSky, VisualOn, and
WyPlay, to name a few. The PERSEUS software currently is offered in the form of
bundled hardware, embedded software,
codec plug-ins, and silicon IP.
Jean L. Broge

TRB Turns Composites Focus to Aerospace Sector

RB Lightweight Structures Ltd. recently released an aerospace-grade


lightweight honeycomb composite panel
designed for interior applications, expanding the application areas for its range
of composite flat panels.
Cellite 840 panels are manufactured
from woven glass with a phenolic resin
and a Nomex honeycomb core, bonded
with high-performance adhesive. The
woven glass prepreg skins are 0.5 mm
thick. Standard panels are 2500 mm wide
(4 mm) by 1250 mm long (3 mm).
Other panel sizes are available upon re-

quest, the Cambridgeshire, U.K.-based


company notes. Overall thickness is per
customer request, 0.25 mm.
The new design extends the range of
TRBs composite flat panels, which
have been used for years to manufacture bonded assemblies, lightweight
structures, and composite components
for rail, defense, marine, and motorsports industries.
This product development builds on
TRBs recent AS9100 (BS EN 9100) aerospace accreditation, adding to the IRIS
(International Railway Industry Standard)

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and ISO 9001 certifications already in


place. AS9100 is an industry-recognized
standard of quality and risk management
for the aerospace and defense industry
aimed at improving service standards and
product reliability.
Obtaining AS9100 is part of TRBs
long-term strategic investment in the
aerospace sector, both in the U.K. and
globally. Additional new capacity and
capabilities in the design and manufacture of composite materials have
been made over the past year to help
secure new business. Recent invest-

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Technology Update

ments for manufacturing composites


include the procurement of a new 3- x
1.5-m autoclave system.
As specialists in the design and engineering of lightweight composite solutions, we enjoy the challenges that the
aerospace industry provides, said
Richard Holland, Managing Director of
TRB. Obtaining AS9100 now allows us to
extend our expertise as an end-to-end
service provider further into the heart of
this demanding industry, as well as improving our service to existing customers
in aerospace and defense.
In the last 12 months, in addition to
putting in place additional composites
capabilities, weve been on a journey
that has seen us implement many improvements across the business to raise
quality and drive down costs, Holland
continued. A key focus on production
efficiency means that we are now able
to offer significantly reduced lead times.
As a result, were currently in the
process of negotiating new contracts

with a number of aerospace customers,


and we expect more to come on board
now that we are AS9100 approved.
Procured in June 2015, the new autoclave system for the manufacturing of
high-performance composite components is 3 m long and has a process mass
including tooling of up to 500 kg. The
vessel is designed to meet the requirements of PD 5500 with a design pressure
capability of 10 bar at 250C.
The autoclave system complements
TRBs existing range of machines for composite manufacture that includes ovens,
computer-controlled
multi-daylight
heated platen presses for high-performance material bonding, and a 4000-ft
ISO 14644 class clean room.
The autoclave system is an important step in the continued development of our business, said Andrew
Dugmore, Sales Director at TRB. [It]
enhances our current in-house capability, ensuring we maintain control of
costs, lead times, and quality.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Intro

He added, This has resulted in new


contracts for key customers including
the manufacture of a complex, lightweight backing structure for use in an
RF Mock-Up of a new microwave instrument for Airbus, and a complete carbon-fiber floor system for a high-performance racing yacht for Green Marine.
Ryan Gehm

Cellite 840 panels from TRB are manufactured


from woven glass with a phenolic resin and a
Nomex honeycomb core, bonded with high-performance adhesive.

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/55596-776

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37

Technology Update

Preparing for First Flight on Mars

ith its eye on Mars, NASA Armstrong has been working on a


prototype it refers to as the Preliminary
Research Aerodynamic Design to Land
on Mars, or Prandtl-m, which is a flying wing aircraft with a twist. It is
planned to be ready for launch from a
high-altitude balloon later this year
and will be released at about 100,000
ft. That altitude will allow it to operate
in similar flight conditions as the Martian atmosphere, according to Al Bowers, NASA Armstrong Chief Scientist
and Prandtl-m Program Manager.
Testing is expected to lead to modifications that will allow the aircraft to
fold and deploy from a 3U CubeSat in
the aeroshell of a future Mars rover. A
CubeSat is a miniature satellite used for
space research that is usually about 4-in
in each dimension; a 3U is three of
those stacked together.
Bowers describes the aircraft as being
part of the ballast that would be ejected
from the aeroshell that takes the Mars
rover to the planet. It would be able to
deploy and fly in the Martian atmosphere and glide down and land. The
Prandtl-m could overfly some of the proposed landing sites for a future astronaut
mission and send back to Earth very detailed high-resolution photographic map
images that could tell scientists about the
suitability of those landing sites, he said.
Because the Prandtl-m could ride in a
CubeSat as ballast aboard the
aeroshell/Mars rover piggyback stack
going to Mars in 2022-2024, the additional weight would not add to the missions cost, he said. Once in the Martian
atmosphere, the Prandtl-m would
emerge from its host, deploy, and begin
its mission.
It would have a flight time of right
around 10 minutes. The aircraft would
be gliding for the last 2000 ft. to the surface of Mars and have a range of about
20 miles, Bowers said.
But first, Were going to build some
vehicles and we are going to put them in
very unusual attitudes and see if they will
recover where other aircraft would not.
Our expectation is that they will recover.
As soon as we get that information, we
will feel much better flying it from a
high-altitude balloon, said Bowers.

An illustration depicting what a Preliminary


Research Aerodynamic Design to Land on Mars
(Prandtl-m) aircraft might look like flying above
the surface of Mars. (NASA/Dennis Calaba)

Jonathan Zur, from left, Alexandra Ocasio, Derek


Abramson, Red Jensen, Etan Halberg and Keenan
Albee wait for data to download from a Prandtl-d
flight. (NASA/Ken Ulbrich)

TRBs new autoclave system for the manufacturing


of high-performance composite components is 3 m
long and has pressure capability of 10 bar at
250C.

The actual aircraft's wingspan when it


is deployed would measure 24-in and
weigh less than a pound, Bowers said.
With Mars gravity 38% of what it is on
Earth, that actually allows us up to 2.6 lb.
and the vehicle will still weigh only 1 lb.
on Mars. It will be made of composite
material, either fiberglass or carbon fiber.
We believe this particular design could
best recover from the unusual conditions
of an ejection.

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The Flight Opportunities Program,


which is managed at NASA Armstrong,
will fund two balloon flights during the
next several years and potentially a
sounding rocket flight following that to
demonstrate how the flier would work
on Mars. The flights will be at one of
two locationsTucson, Arizona, or
Tillamook, Oregon.
We are going to use GPS initially,
but obviously there is no GPS on Mars,
so later on we will have to find something else for navigation, Bowers
said. But the little autopilot that provides the waypoint navigation, thats
one of the things were going to exercise on a research vehicle and then on
the prototype that flies on a future
balloon flight.
The flight test could also include
some scientific research that will apply
to a Mars mission.
We could have one of two small science payloads on the Prandtl-m on that
first balloon flight, Bowers said. It
might be the mapping camera, or one
might be a small, high-altitude radiometer to measure radiation at very
high altitudes of Earths atmosphere.
Eventually the aircraft may carry both
of them at the same time.
A second research flight from a balloon is planned for next year and would
feature an aircraft capable of returning
to the launch site on a flight that could
be as long as five hours as it glides back
to Earth, he said.
Success could lead to a third mission
that is already being discussed because
the Flight Opportunities Program has access to a sounding rocket capable of
going to very high altitudes, Bowers said.
That mission could be to 450,000 ft.
and the release from a CubeSat at
apogee, he said. The aircraft would fall
back into the Earth's atmosphere and as it
approaches the 110,000- to 115,000-ft. altitude range, the glider would deploy just
as though it was over the surface of Mars.
If the Prandtl-m completes a
450,000-ft. drop, then I think the project stands a very good chance of being
able to go to NASA Headquarters and
say we would like permission to ride to
Mars with one of the rovers.
Jean L. Broge

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Application Briefs
Aircraft Casting Alloy
IBC Advanced Alloys Corp.
Wilmington, MA
855-237-2522
www.ibcadvancedalloys.com

BC Advanced Alloys Corp. will continue production of


components for Lockheed Martin's F-35 Lightning II
Electro-Optical Targeting System (EOTS).
The Electro-Optical Targeting System (EOTS) is the
world's first sensor that combines forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and infrared search and track (IRST) functionality. The high-performance, lightweight, multi-function system provides precision air-to-air and air-to-surface
targeting capability in a single package. Through EOTS, pilots have access to high-resolution imagery, automatic
tracking, IRST, laser designation and range-finding, and laser
spot tracking at greatly increased standoff ranges. The lowdrag, stealthy EOTS is integrated into the F-35 Lightning II's
fuselage with a durable sapphire window and is linked to the
aircraft's integrated central computer through a high-speed
fiber-optic interface.
The EOTS azimuth gimbal housing is manufactured using
Beralcast, IBC Advanced Alloys Corporations proprietary
beryllium-aluminum casting alloy. The targeting system,
produced by Lockheed Martin, is integrated on all F-35
variants. IBC will deliver near-net-shape castings directly to
Lockheed Martin, which will then separately contract the

War-Game Simulation Software


MASA Group
Paris, France
+33 1 55 43 13 20
www.masagroup.net

ilitary training tools must work effectively with reduced staff numbers and simulate a large variety of
situations. Following 12 years of collaboration, the
French Armed Forces have expanded their use of SWORD,

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Intro

finishing and final machining processes. To ensure continued


production, Lockheed Martin has agreed to a long-lead-time
procurement provision for essential materials.
The F-35 Lightning II, a 5th generation fighter, combines
advanced low-observable stealth technology with fighter
speed and agility, fully fused sensor information, network-enabled operations, and advanced sustainment. Three distinct
variants of the F-35 will replace the A-10 and F-16 for the U.S.
Air Force, the F/A-18 for the U.S. Navy, the F/A-18 and AV-8B
Harrier for the U.S. Marine Corps, and a variety of fighters for
at least 10 other countries.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-507

a constructive simulation software package developed by


MASA Group.
SWORD is an automated war game that is powered by artificial intelligence technology, enabling simulated units to act
according to the Army's doctrine validated by subject matter
experts. This unique capability means large-scale exercises are
conducted in the most realistic way possible, while minimizing the combined operating costs and animation effort.

www.aerodefensetech.com

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Application Briefs

Preparing military staff for action is made much more efficient by training in a realistic operational environment, with
joint forces and allies, in a variety of different battlefield scenarios. SWORD provides an immediate solution to SOULT
(the simulation program for Combined Forces and Ground
Logistics Units Operations), for the operational preparation
of combined forces at division, brigade, and battle group command posts. SWORD's simulations also target specialist training areas, including engineering, intelligence, logistics, or
CBRN-Chemical. Large-scale exercises are conducted in realistic ways, minimizing operating costs and animation efforts.
The Centre of Expertise for Information validation and SIMulation (CEISIM), which oversees simulation and digitization
within the French Armed Forces, will manage the simulation
program for SOULT and its assimilation into the Army. The
SOULT program will be rolled out gradually, beginning with

the Training Centre for Command Posts (CEPC), to ensure the


continued service of the current SCIPIO system, which already operates with previous versions of SWORD and has
been deployed and used operationally by the CEPC since
2006. SOULT will also progressively replace the JANUS software -which is currently used in several training centers for
French and foreign command units, as it comes to the end of
its lifecycle. The CEISIM has already tested SWORD's capacity
to engage in the exercise, traditionally undertaken by JANUS
software, at the Armed Forces Engineering School in Angers.
Training centers, brigades and regiments will steadily be
equipped beginning in 2016, giving them their first decentralized capability for self-training and allowing them to
make the best use of their training sessions in force readiness centers.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-508

VPX Chassis for Missile System

ing subsystem, the reconfigurable and analogue Self Test Subsystem (STS). The STS chassis validates the signal outputs from
other parts of the control system to ensure signal integrity.
Signals enter the STS through four high-density circular connectors in the front panel. The signals are initially processed
through FPGA-based cards, which are cooled by one of two integral high-performance fan trays mounted in the base of the
unit. The top and base of the chassis are fitted with high-perforation covers to maximize airflow through the cards. The
processed signals from the FPGA cards are propagated to a 3U
9 Slot VPX (VITA 46) system at the rear of the unit, which is
housed in a heavy-duty KM6-HD card cage, powered from a
300 Watt pluggable PSU and cooled by the second dedicated
fan system. The rear panel also provides cut-outs for DIN, USB,
and RJ45 connectors. Signals exit the VPX section of the system to a DMM and oscilloscope, generating external data that
allows the operating personnel to confirm
their integrity against reference values as part
of the pre-launch sequence.
A typical THAAD battery consists of four
main components:
Launcher: Truck-mounted, highly-mobile, able to be stored; interceptors can be
fired and rapidly reloaded.
Interceptors: Eight per launcher.
Radar: Army Navy/Transportable Radar
Surveillance (AN/TPY-2) Largest air-transportable x-band radar in the world searches,
tracks, and discriminates objects and provides
updated tracking data to the interceptor.
Fire Control: A communication and datamanagement backbone, the fire control system links THAAD components together; links
THAAD to external Command and Control
nodes and to the entire BMDS; and plans and
executes intercept solutions.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/
55596-571

Verotec
Manchester, NH
603-821-9921
www.verotec.us

sing a hit-to-kill approach, a US Army anti-ballistic missile system called Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
(THAAD) is designed to shoot down short, medium, and intermediate ballistic missiles in their terminal phase. The interceptor missile, developed by Lockheed Martin, carries no warhead, but relies on the kinetic energy of the direct impact to
destroy the incoming threat.
Verotec has supplied Lockheed with a custom 4U, 750-mmdeep, 19-inch VPX chassis that houses a signal integrity test-

40

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

New Products

SIP DC-DC Converters


Premier Magnetics (Lake
Forest, CA) has announced
additions to its PDCS family of self-contained, single-in-line-package (SIP)
DC-DC converters for distributed power applications. The additions to the
PDCS product family include two three-pin series.
The first is the PDCS01x series, which contains nine models
featuring regulated power outputs from 0.75 to 15 watts.
They also offer nominal input ranges of 12 VDC and 24
VDC, outputs ranging from 1.5 to 15 VDC, and all are offered with a maximum output current of 500mA. Also being
introduced is the three-pin PDCS04x series that includes 10
devices offering a similar range of input and output voltages
as the PDC01x series, but with a maximum output current
of 1000mA.
The new four-pin series added to the PDCS family contains 49
models of 0.25W-rated devices featuring 1000 VDC isolation
and with input voltages from 1.8 to 24 VDC. For each input
voltage, the devices are offered with an unregulated output voltage (10%) ranging from 1.8 to 24 VDC.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-510

5-Slot 3U Mission Computer


Curtiss-Wright Corporation (Ashburn, VA) announced that
its Defense Solutions division has introduced a new fully integrated 5-slot 3U OpenVPX rugged mission computer designed to quickly deploy computer power on defense and aerospace platforms. The MPMC-9355-0002 Multi-Platform
Mission Computer can be readily configured with up to four
2.1 GHz VPX3-1257 3U OpenVPX single board computers
(SBCs), each of which features a quad-core 3rd Generation
Intel Corei7 processor. The MPMCs SBCs are flexibly connected using a fully managed Layer 2 Ethernet switch and a
PCIe backplane infrastructure. The integral VPX3-652
Ethernet switch supports up
to eight external Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) connections for
inter-system communication.
This flexible mission computer can be personalized
with a wide array of module
options via each of the SBCs
onboard PMC/XMC expansion sites. The MPMC-9355-0002 can also be configured to
support high performance graphics displays by integrating an
optional VPX3-716 graphics engine that can drive up to four
independent displays. Power is provided by a 3-phase 115
VAC power supply.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-511

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Intro

Contactless Connectivity System


TE Connectivitys (TE) (Berwyn, PA) new ARISO Contactless
Connectivity system, available from Mouser Electronics (Mansfield, TX), is a hybrid interconnect system that allows for both
power and data to be sent over short distances without any mechanical contact between the two couplers. This permits easy
connectivity through materials such as walls, fluids, dust, and
harsh atmospheric conditions. Power transfer of up to
12W along with eight PNP
channels can be sent between the couplers, which
can move at an angle and be
subjected to intense vibration without losing signals.
Each coupler contains
two transmission mechanisms. On the outside of
each coupler is a tightly wrapped circular coil, providing the
inductive transfer of power across short distances to a second
coupler. On the inside of the circular coil is a loop antenna
which allows the transfer of data between the two couplers.
Behind each coupler are electronics that manage the transfers
and provide an interface to the external devices that are
attached to each coupler. The system allows for the transmission of power and data over a distance of 7mm and allows for
a misalignment of up to 5mm between the two couplers.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-512

Micro System-on-Module
Inforce Computing,
Inc. (Fremont, CA) has
announced the ultrasmall Inforce 6501
Micro System-on-Module (SOM). The Inforce
6501 Micro SOM is
powered by the Qualcomm Snapdragon 805 processor. The
Snapdragon 805 processor with 2.7 GHz CPUs features the Qualcomm Adreno 420 GPU, Qualcomm Hexagon DSP v50,
and dual image signal processors, supporting a comprehensive
encoding and decoding Ultra HD (4K) video solution, and delivers high-resolution video and imaging for embedded devices. The
Inforce 6501 Micro SOM comes with up to 3GB of PoP LPDDR3
RAM on a 264-bit high-bandwidth memory bus to provide fast
and seamless multitasking.
Measuring just 28mm 50mm, the Inforce 6501 Micro SOM
targets space constrained embedded systems applications that require 4K HD video and graphics, low power consumption, and
high-end CPU, GPU, and DSP compute performance. Android
function and peripheral support with a KitKat 4.4 BSP that includes drivers for GbE, SDIO, Wi-Fi, BT 4.1, GPS, and video acceleration up to 4K resolution, cameras up to 55MP resolution, and
highly flexible power management.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-513

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New Products

Carbon-Graphite Bushings

XMC Modules

Metallized Carbon Corporation (Ossining, NY) has announced Metcar carbon- graphite bushings for use in gear
pumps that pump aviation fuel for aircraft engines. The carbon-graphite bushings are used to support both the drive gear
shaft and the idler gear shaft.
Metcar carbon-graphite bushings are preferred for this application because they can use aviation fuel as the bushing lubricant. Aviation fuel is a
low viscosity liquid that
produces only an extremely thin hydrodynamic film, too thin to
provide adequate lubrication for traditional
metallic bushings. But
since Metcars carbongraphite material has no
atomic attraction to a
metallic shaft, the thin fuel film is sufficient to lubricate metallic shafts running in the carbon-graphite bushings.
A second major advantage of carbon-graphite bushings is
that they are self-lubricatingthey can run dry for short periods of time without catastrophic pump failure or significant
wear. In addition, Metcar carbon-graphite bushings are dimensionally stable, which permits the close bushing to shaft running clearances that are required in gear pump applications.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-514

Acromags (Wixom,
MI) new XMC-7A200 is
a XMC mezzanine module enhanced with Xilinx Artix -7 FPGA for
low-power consumption
and exceptional 128M
16-bit Quad DDR3
SDRAM processing performance. Reconfigurable Artix-7 FPGA is possible via a direct
download into the Flash configuration memory over the PCIe
bus or the JTAG port. Four-lane high-speed serial interface on
rear P15 connector for PCI Express Gen 1/2 (standard), Serial
RapidI/O, and Xilinx Aurora implementations are supported.
Rear I/O provides 8-lane high-speed serial interface on the P16
XMC port. SelectI/O or LVDS pairs plus global clock pairs direct to FPGA via rear P4 or P16 port. The FPGA serves as a coprocessor applying custom logic and algorithms to streams of
remote sensor data.
Build options include XC7A200T FPGA device with plugin I/O or conduction-cooled for extended temperature. An
engineering design kit provides user with basic information
required to develop a custom FPGA program. Software support packages are available for VxWorks 32-bit, Windows
DLL, and Linux.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-516

Flow Transmitter
Small Form Factor Systems
4DSP (Austin, TX) has announced two new additions
to its Compact Embedded
System (CES) line. The
CES820 and the ruggedized
CESCC820 variant both feature an upgraded Xilinx
Kintex UltraScale FPGA and
support for the new SDAccel development environment. These standalone, small
form factor systems are complete and generic processing platforms for data acquisition, signal processing, and communication. The powerful UltraScale FPGA provides a flexible processing backbone for interfacing to the FMC site, CPU, and external
DDR3 SDRAM.
The CES820 enclosure measures about five inches per side
and weighs less than 1 Kg. Designed with Size, Weight and
Power (SWaP) in mind, this system provides a quad-core, lowpower Atom CPU that is tightly coupled to the UltraScale
FPGA and FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC - VITA 57.1).
The ruggedized CESCC820 version features a slightly larger,
more robust, and vibration-resistant chassis which offers conduction cooling and space for additional FMC modules. It optionally offers a dual 10Gb Ethernet port for high-bandwidth
applications in the military and aerospace markets.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-515

42

The AS-FT Flow Transmitter from FCI Aerospace (San


Marcos, CA) features a rugged, highly reliable thermal dispersion technology sensor design that is ideal for missioncritical air, gas and fluid monitoring systems on commercial and military aircraft.
Highly versatile, the FCI AS-FT flow transmitters measure
air from 0.25 SFPS to 1000 SFPS [0,07 NMPS to 305 NMPS].
Measurement of fuel, hydraulic fluid or coolant is available
from 0.01 SFPS to 10
SFPS [0,003 MPS to 3
MPS]. The measurement range for water
and ethylene glycol
(EGW) is from 0.01
SFPS to 5 SFPS [0,003
MPS to 1,5 MPS]. Accuracy for measurement is 2 % of full
scale; higher accuracy optionally available. Temperature accuracy is 1 F
[ 1 C] over the specified range.
With their rugged design, the FCI AS-FT flow transmitters operate from -40 F to 250 F [-40 C to 121 C]. They
are proof pressure tested up to 2000 psig [138 bar (g)] or
greater as required by application. Certifications include:
MIL-STD-810, MIL-STD-461 and RTCA / DO-160.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-517

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Product Spotlight
COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 5.2

New Products

VPX Embedded Computer


Kontron (Augsburg, Germany) introduced its nextgeneration StarVX high performance embedded computing (HPEC) system based on the companys
VX3058 3U VPX single board computer (SBC). Leveraging the processing power of the advanced 8-core
version Intel Xeon D-1540 (Broadwell DE), the StarVX packs server-class silicon and
highly ruggedized technologies in a compact 3U blade footprint. Each blade is connected to two 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) and high bandwidth PCI Express (PCIe) 3.0
through the system backplane, while the processor uses high speed DDR4 memory to
meet increased sensor data processing needs. Kontrons VXFabric API provides a
TCP/IP protocol over the PCI Express infrastructure.
Ruggedized for harsh environments, the OpenVPX-based air and conduction cooled
StarVX offers extended operating temperature and is shock, vibration, humidity and altitude tested. It is also optimized for reduced size, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) requirements and offers central health and power management capabilities. The StarVX also offers a 24 port 10 Gigabit Ethernet switch as well as a PCIe switch.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-527

Flat Cable Assemblies


Cicoil's (Valencia, CA) flat cable assemblies are
designed for use in targeting pods, thermographic
camera and infrared sight systems typically utilized in multi-role fighter aircraft, attack helicopters and maritime surveillance vessels where cable
failure is not an option. The compact, Flexx-Sil
encased flat cable solutions are engineered to provide consistent electrical characteristics, space &
weight savings, EMI/RFI suppression, and optimum cable flexibility.
Unlike Teflon or Polyurethane cables, Cicoil utilizes an exclusive process of encapsulating individual components in a shock absorbing jacket that renders them unaffected by repeated exposure to severe vibration, G-Forces, flames (UL 94V-0), ice, fog, ozone, steam,
humidity, extreme temperatures (-65C to +260C), harsh weather, salt corrosion, operational stress, chemicals, and the rigors of turbulent flight. Each Cicoil flat cable can incorporate a variety of components including power conductors, controlled impedance pairs,
shielded control wires, video conductors, multi-layer shielding options and Cicoil's
patented StripMount fastening strip.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-519

COMSOL redefined the engineering simulation market


with the release of COMSOL
Multiphysics software version
5.2, featuring the new and revolutionary
Application
Builder. COMSOL users can
now build applications for use by engineering and
manufacturing departments, expanding accessibility
to their expertise and to cutting edge simulation
solutions. See how at comsol.com/5.2

COMSOL, Inc.

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/55596-777

NICKEL
CONDUCTIVE
EPOXY
ADHESIVE
SYSTEM
Master Bond EP76MHT is a two component, nickel
filled, electrically conductive epoxy for high performance bonding, sealing and coating. EP76MHT features a paste like consistency with a mix ratio of one to
one by weight or volume. It has an exceptionally long
working life and cures readily at ambient temperatures. http://www.masterbond.com/tds/ep76mht

Master Bond

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/55596-778

WIRELESS
COMMUNICATION PLANNING
SOFTWARE
Wireless InSite is site-specific radio propagation
software for the analysis of
wireless communication
systems, wireless networks, sensors, radars, and other
devices that transmit or receive radio waves. The
new version allows import of KMZ and COLLADA
geometry files, making it easy to add single structures, such as bridges, high resolution buildings, or
new construction, to a scene. Learn more at
www.remcom.com/wireless-insite.

Remcom
Aerospace Gimbals Test Service
A new test service introduced by Bal Seal Engineering, Inc.
(Foothill Ranch, CA) offers OEMs verified performance results
for Bal Seal spring-energized rotary/face seals used in aerospace and defense gimbal applications. Bal Seal Engineerings
gimbal seal test equipment measures friction and leak rate
using customer-defined hardware tolerances and operating
conditions, including pressure and speed.
Fixtures can accommodate seals up to 22 in. OD, and can
be modified for larger seal dimensions. The fixtures can produce a wide range of pressures and exert specific frictional
forces to accurately simulate a seals performance under real-world conditions. Rotating
plates on the fixtures are connected to digital force testers, which measure the friction
of rotation. A vacuum tester simulates air flow over the gimbal during flight. The tester
pulls a vacuum across the plates, creating suction inside the seal to measure the leak rate
across its surface. Both friction and leak rate are measured simultaneously.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/55596-520

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/55596-779

A WORLD OF FIBER OPTIC


SOLUTIONS

T1/E1 & T3/E3 Modems, WAN


RS-232/422/485 Modems and Multiplexers
Profibus-DP, Modbus
Ethernet LANs
Video/Audio/Hubs/Repeaters
USB Modem and Hub
Highly shielded Ethernet, USB (Tempest Case)
ISO-9001
http://www.sitech-bitdriver.com

S.I. Tech
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/55596-780

Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

Intro

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Ad Index
Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Joseph T. Pramberger
Editorial Director TBMG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Linda L. Bell
Editorial Director SAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kevin Jost
Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bruce A. Bennett
Managing Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jean L. Broge
Managing Editor, Tech Briefs TV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kendra Smith
Associate Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Billy Hurley
Associate Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ryan Gehm
Production Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Adam Santiago
Assistant Production Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kevin Coltrinari
Creative Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lois Erlacher
Senior Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ayinde Frederick
Global Field Sales Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Marcie L. Hineman
Marketing Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Debora Rothwell
Marketing Communications Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Monica Bond
Digital Marketing Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kaitlyn Sommer
Audience Development Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Marilyn Samuelsen
Audience Development Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stacey Nelson
Subscription Changes/Cancellations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .nasa@omeda.com
TECH BRIEFS MEDIA GROUP, AN SAE INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
261 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1901, New York, NY 10016
(212) 490-3999 FAX (646) 829-0800
Chief Executive Officer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Domenic A. Mucchetti
Executive Vice-President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Luke Schnirring
Technology Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oliver Rockwell
Systems Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vlad Gladoun
Web Developer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Karina Carter
Digital Media Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Peter Bonavita
Digital Media Assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Keith McKellar, Peter Weiland, Anel Guerrero
Digital Media Audience Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jamil Barrett
Credit/Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Felecia Lahey
Accounting/Human Resources Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sylvia Bonilla
Office Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Alfredo Vasquez
Receptionist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Elizabeth Brache-Torres
ADVERTISING ACCOUNT EXECUTIVES
MA, NH, ME, VT, RI, Eastern Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ed Marecki
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tatiana Marshall
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(401) 351-0274
CT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stan Greenfield
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(203) 938-2418
NJ, PA, DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John Murray
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (973) 409-4685
Southeast, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ray Tompkins
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(281) 313-1004
NY, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ryan Beckman
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(973) 409-4687
MI, IN, WI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chris Kennedy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(847) 498-4520 ext. 3008
MN, ND, SD, IL, KY, MO, KS, IA, NE, Central Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bob Casey
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(847) 223-5225
Northwest, N. Calif., Western Canada
Craig Pitcher
(408) 778-0300
CO, UT, MT, WY, ID, NM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tim Powers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(973) 409-4762
S. Calif., AZ, NV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tom Boris
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (949) 715-7779S.
Europe Central & Eastern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sven Anacker
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49-202-27169-11
Europe Western . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chris Shaw
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44-1270-522130
Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mike Hay
852-2369-8788 ext. 11
China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Marco Chang
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86-21-6289-5533 ext.101
Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Howard Lu
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .886-4-2329-7318
Integrated Media Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Patrick Harvey
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (973) 409-4686
Angelo Danza
(973) 874-0271
Scott Williams
(973) 545-2464
Rick Rosenberg
(973) 545-2565
Todd Holtz
(973) 545-2566
Corporate Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Terri Stange
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (847) 304-8151
Reprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jill Kaletha
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(866) 879-9144, x168

44

For free product literature, enter advertisers reader service numbers at www.techbriefs.com/rs, or visit the Web site beneath their
ad in this issue.
Reader Service
Number

Company

ACCES I/O Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .770 . . . . . . . . . . . .27


Advanced Torque Products LLC . . . . . . . .774 . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Aurora Bearing Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .773 . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Boyd Coatings Research Co., Inc. . . . . . . .769 . . . . . . . . . . . .25
C.R. Onsrud, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .763 . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Coilcraft CPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .758 . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
COMSOL, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .777, 782 . . . .43, COV IV
Cornell Dubilier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .760 . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Crane Aerospace & Electronics . . . . . . . .757 . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
CST of America, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .781 . . . . . . . .COV III
Dawn VME Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .767 . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Dexmet Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .775 . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Evans Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .761 . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Master Bond Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .772, 778 . . . . . . . .33, 43
Mini-Systems, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .771 . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Opto Diode Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .766 . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Photon Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .762 . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Proto Labs, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .756 . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Remcom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .779 . . . . . . . . . . . .43
S.I. Tech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .780 . . . . . . . . . . . .43
SME - AeroDef Manufacturing . . . . . . . . .764 . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Specialty Coating Systems, Inc. . . . . . . . .768 . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Tube Hollows International . . . . . . . . . . . .765 . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Ulbrich Stainless Steels &
Special Metals, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .776 . . . . . . . . . . . .37
VPT, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .759 . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
W.L. Gore & Associates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .755 . . . . . . . .COV II

www.aerodefensetech.com

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2015

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