Anda di halaman 1dari 29

Impact of advertisement on the consumer buying behavior

A Dissertation
Submitted to the Department of Management Sciences,
Islamia University Bahawalpur.
In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of
Bachelor in Business Administration
In
Finance
By
Hassan Ali
Session of 2011-2015

1 | Page

Impact of advertisement on the consumer buying behavior


By
Hassan Ali
A Dissertation
Submitted to the Department of Management Sciences.
Islamia University Bahawalpur
Rahim yar Khan Campus
Bachelor of Business Administer

Approved By

____________________________
Sir Fahad

_____________________________
External Examiner

_____________________________
Internal Examiner

2 | Page

Dedication
To
The Allah Almighty,
The Merciful and The Beneficent,
Who gave me health, thoughts and cooperative people to enable me achieve
this goal.
And especially to
The loves of my parents,
And prayers, which always acted as a
catalyst in my academic life
And made possible my achievements.
To My loving brothers and sisters
For their never ending moral support.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

3 | Page

All praise belongs to Allah alone, lord of all the worlds, who created the heavens and the earth
and all that is between the two and indeed in them there are many signs for those who use
understanding. (Al-Quran)
First of all, I bow my head in the deep gratitude to ALMIGHTY ALLAH who endowed me
with the potential and ability to make solid contribution to the already existing ocean of
knowledge. I think that, although, I have attempted every possible measure to make it
presentable, piece of work, yet man is fallible and I am not an exception.
I wish to express my hearties gratitude and appreciation to my worthy research supervisor who is
Sir Mr. Fahad

providing this learned guidance. His elegant personality and invigorating

encouragement have always remained a source of inspiration for me.


Last but not the least, I am grateful to my parents for the inspiration and moral support. I would
not be here without their tremendous encouragement and prays.

Hassan Ali

Table of Contents
Absract
.6
1.1

Introduction:......................................................................................................... 7

1.2 Research objectives:......................................................................................... 9


1.3 Research Question:........................................................................................... 9
1.4 Significance level of the study:........................................................................10

4 | Page

2.2 Consumer Buying Behavior:..................................................................................... 10


2.3 Advertisement:................................................................................................ 12
Population size:............................................................................................................. 15
3.2 Area of Sampling:..................................................................................................... 15
3.3 Questionnaire survey:................................................................................................. 15
3.4 Theoretical Framework:.............................................................................................. 16
3.5 Hypothesis:............................................................................................................. 16
3.6 Sampling Design:...................................................................................................... 17
3.6.1 Type of the study:................................................................................................ 17
3.6.2 Unit of the analysis:............................................................................................. 17
3.6.3 Study Setting:..................................................................................................... 17
3.7 Quantitative Research:................................................................................................ 17
Chapter No. 4............................................................................................................... 18
Analysis and Results:...................................................................................................... 18
4.1Reliability and Validity Analysis:................................................................................ 18
4.2Descriptive Statistics:............................................................................................... 18
4.3 Correlation:.......................................................................................................... 20
5.1 Conclusion:.......................................................................................................... 22
5.2Limitations:........................................................................................................... 22
5.3Suggestions:.......................................................................................................... 23
References:.................................................................................................................. 24
Appendix:.................................................................................................................... 28

Abstract
Purpose:
The present study was conducted to find out the effects of advertisements on user behavior in
Rahim Yar Khan city (N=200). A questionnaire was used to measure the effects of
advertisements and every age person was targeted in our study for to get the perception and
awareness of any brand. For analysis Correlation, Z test and descriptive analysis were used. The
5 | Page

results proposed that people change their brand to try the new brand. Results are also proposed
that consumer behavior changed by the income and male are more like the advertisement rather
than the female. The behavior of the consumer can be changed by the advertisement but
expensive products and repetition of advertisement cannot be changed the purchase decision.
Practical Limitations: The research covers the small sample size of the population and not
specific industry is targeted so thats why the results may change.
Results: The independent variable have the positive impact on the dependent variable which is
the consumer buying behavior.

Chapter No. 1
1.1 Introduction:
Product or service is no such thing which exists itself without the help of customers (Riston
2004:21). So its important to capture a space in the mind of our customer. According to Nandan
(2004:1) customer perception about the brand is known as Brand image. The success of a
6 | Page

product relay to many factors, but an important factor is how well we market our product in front
of our customers and in our customers mind. Here a question arises that how we market our
product in front of our customers. The answer is if we effectively create brand awareness about
our product in front of our customers. But during this process we must aware of the needs and
wants of our customers. First, we decide how we create brand awareness among our customers.
BTL is the communication method by which we directly in touch with our customers as well as
we get fed back from them. It is not so much costly, but have very effective.
I choose the topic of advertisement Influence on consumer Buying behavior is because Mass
media reach is everywhere so we easily judge its effect..
All the advertising methods have their impact, but media advertising has greater effect than
others (Latif and Aberdeen, 2011). According to De Cherenatomy (1998) effective Brand
awareness only creates by tactical perception. According to (Dang et al., 2005) there were 2050
promotional campaigns in the RS 80000 crore in 2004. This shows the significance of the Sales
promotion. Advertisement tactics vary from country to country and market to market.

In

Pakistan generally in FMCG customer wants good quality but low cost products. But when we
talk about high-techproducts, customer wants high quality and here we cannot use sales
promotion because Quality never comes cheap. The customer buying behavior regarding about a
product take as utility and value producing activity(Kojima and Baba, 2001). If a customer is
buying a product means we are effectively communicating and delivering our product value. A
customeris not going through to every stage of advertisement some were used to see the TV ads
and someone focus on different posters and billboards which they see in market or roadside
during a road trip (Tellis, 1987). Any way of communication is effected the customer by different
ways, by content and appeal of the ad or poster, keywords and personality or attractiveness of the
advertisement. Much research shows that the buying behavior is largely affected by the
personality it is in the form of celebrity in a TV ad or soft spoken person in the direct selling
(Engel, Blackwell, &Miniard 1986).
Customer innovative nature is also a factor that how he responds to different types of ads a
communication process (Foxall& Goldsmith, 1994).The culture and Family setup is also
affecting the perception of a customer towards the advertisement (London&Bitta, 1994). Income
Level also determines the perception of a customer about different ways of advertising the
7 | Page

product low income people prefer sales promotion and they focus on posters and billboards and
high income people focus on luxury Quality TV ads (Malik, 1999). When we have taken a space
in the customer's mind and he is recognized with our product then no matter what source we use
the focus on every ad poster billboard about the product(Aaker, 2004). According to park and
Lessing (1981) if we have a better understanding of the customers' minds than we are able to
choose the better way of communication. In places like Pakistan TV coverage is not reached in
every village and some parts of the country so if we only use TV ads, then we cannot capture this
market segment because we are not able to convey our message to them to capture them first we
use the poster billboards and direct selling methods to award them with our product and use
strategies like sales promotion to cement our place in customers mind. Direct selling is also has a
benefit that every aspect of a product is not covered in 30 Sec ad so in direct selling customer is
getting every information which he went and sales person also give the answer to their questions
to satisfy them. Now a days service sector is targeting their customers by direct selling concept
or door to door marketing, insurance agents are the major examples of them a TV ad cannot give
you the proper knowledge about any insurance policy so insurance agent helps you to know
about polices and choose the best one. Henning-Thurau (1) explains the positive relation of
customer relationship and customer oriented approach. Means if we are more customers centered
and the sales staff treats customers well it affect the customers buying pattern and companies can
retain customers. According to Russell and Lane (1996) companies thinks Advertisement as a
magic because it affects the mind of the customer which effect on the product in the market. If a
customer responds to the Advertisement or promotional offer it means he is giving his response
about his mind set to the marketer (Slomon, 2004).
According to Leading and Bitta (1994)the influential factors are also included friends, family and
society they also affect user Behavior. Rosaldo (1989) cited inMonaghan and just (2000)
research that cultures are affected all the activities of human life in the culture. New ways of
communicating and selling of product enhance the quality and change the style of the product
(Stanton and Futrell, 1987). In BTL we immediately observe the effect of our strategy of placing
our product. CMO, Big Three Auto Company tells the rapidly growing phenomenon of using
social media for marketing of the product he says Two years ago 10% of my budget had an
online component. Today its 30%. Two years from now, it will be 50%. And overall budgets are
not growing. Its all coming at the expense of television and print media. Sales promotions or
8 | Page

incentives offered by manufacturers to retailers or customers (Blattberg and Nielsen, 1990). It is


very important for companies to communicate what they have to offer (Jobber and Lancaster,
2006). According to Schultz (1998) sales promotion directly affect the behavior of a consumer
but it cannot generate the brand awareness. Importance of sales promotion is shown by the
promotional budget growth from 58% in 1976 to 72% in 1992 and increasing at a rate of 12%
from the last ten years.Lam and Lee (2005) say that there are chances that brand loyalty will be
affected by cultural values.Zucker (1986) Said that when a customer purchases a good it means
he is trusting on companies promises that other group keep their promise. Direct Selling is also a
key factor to achieve the trust of the customer. If the trust factor is present, then it ultimately
shows in the form of customer buying behavior.

1.2 Research objectives:


The basic research objectives of my research are as follows:
To find the relationship between the advertisement and consumer buying behavior.
To study the impact of the advertisement on consumer buying behavior.

1.3 Research Question:


The following are the research questions:
Q1: How advertisement effect the consumer buying behavior?
Q2: What is the relationship of the consumer buying behavior and the advertisement?

1.4 Significance level of the study:


The significance level of the study means that the unique point of your research. The study is
conducted first time in lower Punjab and check the responses towards the consumer buying
behavior and the advertisement.

Chapter 2:
2.1Literature Review

9 | Page

2.2 Consumer Buying Behavior:


Consumer behavior:
Consumer Behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the
processes they use to select, secure. Buyer behaviors center of attention that how

customers make a decision what to purchase, why to purchase at what time to purchase, where to
purchase and how frequently they purchase, how often they make use of it, how they evaluate it
after the purchase and the impact of such evaluations on future purchases, and how they dispose
it off (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2004). There are a variety of aspects like social and economic
aspect that affect the buyer behavior other than culture is the fundamental determinant of buyer
behavior(Kotler, 2003).The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their
marketing strategies by understanding issues such as how The psychology of how consumers
think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives (e.g., brands, products, and
retailers);The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g.,
culture, family, signs, media), The behavior of consumers while shopping or making other
marketing decisions.
Schultz (1998) pronounces that, sales endorsement usually works on a direct behavioral
foundation instead of effecting attitude or awareness. Dwyer and Tanner (2006) say that, industry
buyer is bigger as compared to individual buyer; wants to say that every industry customers are
more significant to the financial circumstances of the business dealer company. There is also
little company, consequently every industry buyer is too essential to the economic circumstances
of the business; dissatisfied users are able to influence the business marketer's business in a
notable manner. Specified the rising significance of sales endorsement as a proportion of the
entire advertising and promotional budget(growth from 58% in 1976 to72% in 1992 and
increasing at a rate of 12% per year over the last 10 years), Gardener and Treved (1998) learning
struggle to be aware of the impact of the sales endorsement of buyer behavior and how very
essential they are.

Consumer culture and behavior:


10 | P a g e

Culture has an important effect on the individuals behavior (Luna and Gupta, 2001; Ogden and
Schau, 2004). Usunier (2000)file the chosen aspects of user behavior on which the culture might
have probable effect: perception, inspiration, knowledge and remembrance, age, self idea, group
pressure, social rank, sex roles, attitude modify, decision making, purchase and post-purchase
behavior. (Luna and Gupta, 2001) identify the consequence of cultural values on the user
behavior. (Lam and Lee, 2005) propose that brand faithfulness may be affected by means of
cultural values.(Briley, Morris and Simonson, 2000) give insights into the function of causes in
decision making and compete that knowledge and differentiation are made active when the
persons are inquire to provide cause for their decision or buy decision.
Williamson (1985) describes opportunistic behavior as the organization intentionally
transmitting incomplete or twisted information to others that would mislead, twist, hide and
confuse other people. Opportunistic behavior is not just dishonest openly, however, as well
implement a more not worth mentioning method, but still have the reason of move people to go
the incorrect way, curl the truth, imaginary and generate confusion. In the investigation of trust
and commitment between buyers and the e-bank business, Mukherjee and Nath (2003) projected
a pessimistic association among opportunistic behavior and trust. The consequence originates
that opportunistic behavior and trust has a considerable negative association. Robert and Shelby
(1994) trusted that the likelihood of opportunistic behavior to occur increases when the doubt in
a business action is sky-scraping for the reason that trust be able to decrease the opportunistic
behaviors of both parties. Opportunistic behaviors are able to harm the trusting affiliation of two
parties. Aside from disturbing economical manufacturing, the purchaser and the vendor be able
to use another trust to mutually raise the trust between both and decrease opportunistic behaviors
and set up a long-term collaboration with mutual survival for the profit of both parties to be more
closely linked (Bell and Anderson, 2000). Abel (1993) furthermore pointed out that the
association of opportunism and trust is an obsession with both sides and has a negative
association. Consequently, it is for the reason that opportunistic behavior of a party or two parties
that would decrease the trust among businesses. This learning assumed that opportunistic
behavior is a usual behavior of individuals and it cannot keep away from falling the offerings of
trust in orassociated.

11 | P a g e

2.3 Advertisement:
TV has a major role to aware about the fashion of urban and rural respondent as associates are
also important to know about it. Boutiques have important role to give knowledge about the
fashion to the urban young people. It means that social and income factors strongly impact
clothing TV ads on young people, food choice, using up and behavior. Advertising seen is
determined by looking at bang.Shokoffer an assess of advertising experience. If one member is
influenced then it is equal to one target member of marketable spot. one in five advertisement on
TV adds is an important seen by one young member. According to survey 30% iof rural and 77%
of urban population has access of TV. 45-48% viewership is expected till 2020.with the increase
of TV sets, the Indian viewers are increasing ,but there is a problem, many channels are and
programs are running at a time(Saxena, 2005). TV adds impact on teenagers and they buy these
brands and goods which is advertised more and more(Saksena 1990 ; McNeal, J. 1999). Due to
the high disposable income, marketers target younger,parental purchase impact, loyal about the
brand(Fox 1996; Mc Neal 1999).Girls have more interest towards tv and influence from
celebrities(Dubey&Patel, 2004).
Girls give information which watched on TV and then decision to buy. It is said that female have
positive attitude towards TV adds(Kotwal et al, 2008). Younger have better way of funds to use
up for different things and family purchases affect by it (Beatty&Talpade, 1994). Due to the
higher response rate of girls the advertisement number could also be more (Dubey& Patel,
2004).Recently past, rural India has been changed the living standard. Due to over one billion
population Indian consumer market is the foremost. from the big mass users quarter is urbanized
and others three quarter are rural(Sehrawet&Kundu, 2007).
It is examined that roar in rural areas because of a rise in income, rural improvement program,
and spreading the tv channels increase knowledge Ramana Rao (1997).Atkin (1978) said that
young and children influenced. The buy decision in on their use of product (Cotte& Wood,
2004).Its believe of organization and promoter that advertising builds magic in the marketplace
(Russell & Lane, 1996). Instead of all these varies publicity has for all time been a very strong
foundation, which sustained to affect our lives since opening time (Wright, Warner & Winter
1971; Wells, Burnett & Moriarty 1995; Jugneheimer& White, 1980).

12 | P a g e

The advertiser needs to be sure that he and his product are recognized in the ad from it he can get
the benefits. Magazines, tv, radio, billboards are some tools of mass media. The advertiser pays
for advertisement for time and space (Jugneheimer& White, 1980). Advertisement has changed
in electronic media and internet in the 20th century (David, 2001).Loudon and Bitta (1994) said
that buyer decision method divided into 5 categories; problem recognition; information search;
evaluation of alternatives; choice and outcome.
The announcement impact on users by three key features: petition of advertisement, keyword /
slogan and celebrity used in the advertisement. Studies on advertisement prove that character
effect on user behavior (Engel, Blackwell, &Miniard, 1986). The form of publicity proposes that
to be efficient, any part of a convincing statement to carry its viewer (Wilmshurst, 1985;
Lavidge& Steiner, 1961; Leckenby, 1976; Colley, 1961). Wilkie (1994) describesthe behavior as
psychological, touching and corporal actions which

people connect with when choosing,

buying, using and arranging of goods and services to satisfy the need and wish. Purchasers are of
two types: customers and business. Both kinds set out via a same decision course to complete
their needs. Wilkie, W. L. (1994).
Appeal of Advertisement:
The appeal is the slogan or need-creating verse used in advertisement. Eye-catching character,
commercials keyword/caption and some information adding up to information arrive below the
petition of the advertisement of a particular product. They stimulate the shopper to cure his/her
concentration to the definite brand of creation (Wells et al., 1995).

Acceptance of Advertisement:
Reception is the degree to which, a buyer relies on the advertisements information and do
something for that reason, for the demand, keyword / caption, stanza, slogan and a model
personality (Wells et al., 1995). There are six basic values on which publicity run researcher
studied: to attain concentration; to arise curiosity; to build up and maintain that curiosity; to
create aspiration; to provoke action and to produce good will (Shahid, 1999).

13 | P a g e

The sculpt of promotion proposes that to be effectual, any part of convincing statement has to
take its listeners through a chain of phases, every phase being reliant on the achievement on the
last

phase

(Wilmshurst,

1985;

Lavidge&

Steiner,

1961;

Leckeny,

1976;

Colley,

1961).Advertisement is everywhere in everyday of life. Its figures and positions are both
challenged and accepted. Several observed advertising, both the same as the mirror and the
creator of culture. Yet when advertisements put in new resonance and the signs that form
attribute, its words and descriptions reproduce the nearby and the precedent. Others speak
advertising is merely a financial action with one point, i.e., to put up for sale.
It is obvious as of meaning of advertisement that by modifying in times there include being
varied in the way marketing is processed. Though, in spite of all these transform advertising has
forever been a very strong organization, which has constant to pressure our lives since the start of
time (Wright, Warner & Winter 1971; Wells, Burnett & Moriarty 1995; Jugneheimer& White,
1980).Therefore, advertising is a mode of achieving trade efficiency and of maintenance selling
operating cost low down. The technique foundation on hierarchy of effects proposes that there
isant informal association between changes in a persons manner about an invention and persons
attitude to purchase that creation (Wilmshurst, 1985; Lavidge& Steiner, 1961; Leckenby, 1976;
Colley, 1961).
Advertising is compounded as numerous diverse advertisers attempt to reach lots of different
nature of viewers and several kinds of customers. Thats why there are various forms of publicity
also, so that every type of customers can be tackled. There is not now one sort of advertising; in
fact, advertising is a huge and mixed business and all nature of advertising require the inventive,
innovative post that are intentionally sound and fit bring out (Wells et al., 1995).

Chapter 3
14 | P a g e

3.1 Research Methodology:


We have collected the data from the lower area of Punjab and fill out the 200 the questionnaire
from the general respondent and give the whole analysis. The software which we use for the
whole interpretation is SPSS (statistical package social sciences).

Population size:
To complete the whole research, we the target the population of the southern Punjab only and
then we take the sample of the four cities from them to conduct the whole research.

3.2 Area of Sampling:


We have collected the data from the two different cities of the Southern Punjab to analyze the
whole research. These cities are as follows:
Rahim Yar Khan
Sadiqabad

3.3 Questionnaire survey:


A questionnaire is a set of different questions that can achieve the needed information and
evidences from the respondent for the research purpose. The requirements and needs of the
research are translated into a set of particular questions. These questions should be easy to read
and understand and respondent should willing to answer it.

15 | P a g e

3.4 Theoretical Framework:

3.5 Hypothesis:
H1: There exists the positive and the direct relation among the advertisement and the consumer
buying behavior.
Ho: There exists no relation among the advertisement and the consumer buying behavior.

3.6 Sampling Design:


In the sampling design we need to elaborate about the research and explains the following
factors:

16 | P a g e

3.6.1 Type of the study:


First is the type of the study and we need explains what type of the study is? Our research
belongs to the descriptive statistics because in our research, we find the relationship of already
discovered variables but in a different perspective.
3.6.2 Unit of the analysis:
The unit of the analysis means from whom you collect the data? The general public who use the
any cellular network is considered to be our respondents and we collect the data from them and
they belong to the six different cities as we mention in the sample size.
3.6.3 Study Setting:
The next we answer that either we conduct our whole research in the pure natural environment or
not. So, our data collect the data from the general public in the usual working hours and their
response is a natural phenomena because we dont be able to control the other variable. So, our
research belongs to the field experiment and the pure natural environment, we collect the whole
data.

3.7 Quantitative Research:


Quantitative research is also used in the research. This was necessary to collect response in
measureable units. Questionnaires are used for the collection of quantitative data of consumer to
check the impact of independent variables on the dependent variable in Punjab, Pakistan. This
will help to provide facts and estimation that will help to accurately predict the relationship of
independent and dependent variables. Details about the setting and design of the Questionnaire
will be discussed in this chapter later.

17 | P a g e

Chapter No. 4
Analysis and Results:
4.1Reliability and Validity Analysis:

Table 1.0
Cronbach Alpha
Variable Name

Cronbach Alpha

Number of items

Consumer Buying Behavior

0.68

Advertisement

0.805

10

Explanation:
The above table 1.0 shows the reliability and validity of the questionnaire that either the
questions which we asked from the different respondents measures those things that we actually
want to measure the standard value of the Croanch Alpha is 0.60 and value of the each and the
every variable must lie between them.. The consumer buying behavior and the value of the
Croanch alpha for that variable is the 0.68 and this also lies in the acceptable range so the
questions asked about the consumer buying behavior is valid. The last variable is the
advertisement and the value of the alpha for that variable is the 0.805 and this also lies in the
acceptable range so the questions asked about the advertisement valid and reliable.
4.2Descriptive Statistics:
The descriptive statistics tell you that where the respondent lays your research and this analysis
also tells you that the reliability of the whole data. This analysis also tells you both the data lies
18 | P a g e

in the acceptable region normally we set a standard for the questions, answers and this is also
known as the Allowable Error.

Table 1.1
Descriptive Statistics
N

Mean

Statistic

Statistic

Std. Deviation
Std. Error

Statistic

CB_behavior

200

3.4775

.08365

1.18305

Advertisement

200 3.7(Placeholder1)

.05646

.79844

Valid N (listwise)

200

Explanation:
The above table 1.1 shows that we asked 200 questions relevant to the consumer buying
behavior from the different respondents and the mean value lies in the 3.4 which means that the
mostly people are agree with the questions relevant to consumer buying behavior and the next is
the standard error whose value is also lies in the acceptable range and the standard is 0.08 and
that means the questions which we asked about the consumer buying behavior is valid and the
reliable and last is the standard deviation and the value of the this variable is1.18 which exceeds
from the standard and that means that the respondents dont fill out the questionnaire relevant to
the consumer buying behavior carefully. The last variable is the advertisement the we also fill out
the 200 questionnaire relevant to the advertisement and the mean value of the3.73 which means
that the mostly people are agree with the advertisement questions and the they think
advertisement is good to change the purchase decision of the consumers and the next is the
standard error whose value is the 0.56 which means that the questionnaire is valid and reliable
and the last is the standard deviation whose value is the 0.79 which also lies in the acceptable
range and the variation among the respondents is less due to carefully answers given by the
respondents.

19 | P a g e

4.3 Correlation:
The correlational analysis tells the relationship of the different variables which we include in the
research and this also tells us the extent of the relationship either the relationship is positive,
strong positive, negative, strong negative and the no relationship among the variables. The
analysis of the different helps us to reach the desired objectives of the research and also helps us
to prove the hypothesis accepted or rejected.
The below table1.9 shows that the relationship of the different variables and the relationship with
each other. For example in our research one variable is the customer loyalty and its relationship
with the other variables. The person correlation value lies between 0 to +1 and from 0 to -1 the
value between the 0 to 0.5 has a moderate positive relationship with the other variable while the
value lies between the 0.5 and +1 has a strong positive relationship with the other variable and
the value lies between the 0 to -0.5 have the moderate negative relationship and the value lies
between the -0.5 to -1 have the strong negative relationship with the other variables.
H1: There exists the positive and the direct relation among the advertisement and the
consumer buying behavior.
Ho: There exists no relation among the advertisement and the consumer buying behavior.
The above null hypothesis is rejected and the alternate hypothesis is accepted on the bases of the
information available of the correlation table the correlation shows that the positive relationship
exists among the advertisement and the consumer buying behavior and the relationship value
between these variables is 0.475

Table 1.9
CB_behavior
Pearson Correlation
CB_behavior

Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Pearson Correlation

Advertisment

Advertisment
.475**
.000

200

200

**

.475

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

200

200

20 | P a g e

Regression :
Regression analysis is performed when we want to check the relationship between the dependent
and independent variable. The explanation of the different table is given below:

Table 2.0
Model Summaryb
Model

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the

Durbin-Watson

Estimate
.558a

.311

.304

.98687

2.160

a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisment


b. Dependent Variable: CB_behavior

Explanation:
The above table 2.0 shows that the there is non-auto correlation between the advertisement and
the consumer buying behavior. According to the above table the effect of one variable doesnt
affect the other variable.

Table 2.1
Coefficientsa
Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized

Sig.

Coefficients
B
(Constant)
1

Consumer buying
behaviour
Advertisment

Std. Error
-.346

.413

.657

.133

.360

.112

Beta
-.838

.403

.373

4.934

.000

.243

3.215

.002

a. Dependent Variable: CB_behavior

Explanation:
The above table 2.1 shows that the importance of the one variable on the relationship according
to the above table the beta value is approximately 0.373 and this has moderate positive
relationship with the consumer buying behavior and if we want to change the consumer behavior
than there is need to increase the advertisement efforts.

21 | P a g e

Chapter 5
5.1 Conclusion:
The conclusion drawn by the whole research is that the customer have the more influence
towards th advertisement than other possible variables. The logic behind this is quite simple in
advertisement the company shows the actor to attract the customer towards them and its more
influential than other medias thats why companies spend huge amount of their budget to
advertisement. Actually people are more convienced by watching repeated advertisement and
listing from friends than to other sources like direct selling where they dont even trust the
person carrying product or benefits.Advertisiment has many aspacts and many things in it to do
and attract the customer with most interactive and creative ways of advertising like coca cola
company is adopting emotional and creative advertising strategies to connect with their customer
emotionally. Advertisiment is being trusted because of it source is directly company and the
message being deliverd is carefully tailored to meet the standards of integrated marketing
communication. So all considering the above information and by carefully analyzing the whole
questionnaire we arrive at a point that the advertisiment is more beneficial as compared to the
other variables. No doubt the cost of the advertisement is more than the other possible ways as of
direct selling etc, but companies dont pay focus on the advertisement while creating and in its
making process, companies usually dont pay attention (mainly small companies) while creating
advertisement so its not that eye catching and attractive for the final consumer to change his
buying behavior. With the help of advertisement and delivering the complete message to
consumer, consumer perception easily can be changed. Advertisiment is for masses so its
beneficial for the company to deliver the message to target audience with limited resources and
creative ways.

5.2Limitations:
The research is conducted in the pure natural environment but the research has the some kind of
the limitations which must be considered while implementing the research.
The data was collected from the general consumer who mostly lies in the age of 20 to 30 so we
can say that the results may be different if we consider the other people who are above the age of
the 40.
22 | P a g e

We only collect the 200 responses from the different people of the different cities of the southern
Punjab so chances of the results may be proven different of collect the more data. We dont
collect the any data from any company but the research question shown that we must fill the
questionnaire from the company as well so because of that the results may be different from the
above one.
The results have shown that the consumers mostly prefer the direct selling as compared to the
advertisement but we might consider the cost of the company as well and the other factors like
monitoring the performance of the sale people.

5.3Suggestions:
After conducting the whole research the main findings are discussed in the conclusion section
but we gave some of the common and valuable suggestions of the company after analyzing the
whole data.
The first is that the advertisiment is better and the it has more positive relationship with the
consumer buying behavior so if we want to change the responses of the general consumer
towards their company side then we might target the advertisment as compared to the other
sources available but companies must consider the other factor like the cost and the other
expenses which incurs.
No doubt the results proves that the advertisment is more beneficial for the company as
compared to the other options available to the company but on the other hand its impossible for
the company to change the consumer buying behavior through advertisement. But if its
conducted and created properly it can be most effective tool to influence the consumer behavior.

23 | P a g e

References:
Aaker, A. D., Batra, R., & Myers, G.J. (1992). Advertising management (2nd ed.). New Jersey:
Prentice Hall.
Aaker, A. D., Batra, R., & Myers, G.J. (1996). Advertising management (5th ed.). New Jersey:
Prentice Hall.
Ali, M., Fengjie, J. and Qureshi, A. Naveed.(2010), An exploratory study on consumer buying
behavior in Pakistan perspective, Asian Journal of Management Research, pp 216-228.
Beri G.C. (2008) Marketing Research 4th Edition Tata Mc-Graw Hill company.
Bovee, L. C., &Arans, F. W. (1986). Contemporary advertising (2nd ed.). Illinois: Irwin.
Cacioppo, J. T., Haugtved, C. P., & Petty, R. E. (1992). Need for cognition and advertising:
understanding the role of personality variables in consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer
Psychology, 1.
Chandok Anil (November, 2005) Impact of Advertisements on Childrens Buying Behaviour,
Marketing Mastermind, pp. 41-46.Colley, R. (1961). Defining advertising goals for measured
advertising results. New York: Association of National Advertisers.
Cotte, J. and Wood, S. L. (2004) Families and Innovative Consumer Behaviour: A Triadic
Analysis of Sibling and Parental Influence, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 31, No. 1. pp.
78-86.
DattaSrinivasa (April, 2008) Advertisements Do They Match Consumer Preferences?
Marketing Mastermind, pp.59-62
.Duncan T, Moriarty SE (1998). A communication-based marketing model for managing
relationships, J. Mark. 62(2):1-13.
Engel, F. J., Blackwell, D. R., &Miniard, P. (1986). Consumer behavior. New York: CBS College
Publishing.
Engel, F. J., Kollart, T. D., & Blackwell, D. R. (1973). Consumer behavior (2nd ed.). New York:
Holt, Rincart Italic and Winston, Inc.
Englis, B. G. (1994). Global and multi-national advertising. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates.
24 | P a g e

Fam Kim-Shyam and Waller David S. (2008) A Study of Liked/Disliked Television Commercials
in India, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp.3-10.
Farrelly F, Quester P, Mavondo F (2003). Collaborative communication in sponsor relations,
Corporate Communication: Int. J. 8(2):128-138.
Fine, S. H (1992). Marketing the public sector. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
Fox, R.F. (1996), Harvesting Minds: How TV Commercials Control Kids, New Haven, CT:
Praeger.
.
Hawkins, D., Best, r. and Coney, K. (2001), consumer Behaviour: Building Marketing Strategy,
8th Edition, McGraw Hills, Boston.
Hawkins, Del I., Roger J. Best, Kenneth A. Coney, and David F. Hawkins. (2001). Consumer
Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy (8th Ed.), New York, NY: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
Hoyer &Macinnis (2003) Consumer Behavior 3rd Edition Prentice-Hall of India
In L. Krasner & L. P. Ullman (Eds.). Research in behavior modification. New York: Holt.
Kavitha G. (2006) A Study on The Effectiveness Of The Advertising Techniques Used In The
Personal Care Segment Of Women Consumers, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol.36, No. 8, pp.
12-16.
Kojima S, Baba M (2001). Consumer Behavior. Jap. Psychol. Rev., (43):167.
Kotler Philip (2008) Principle of Marketing Management 12th Edition Prentice-Hall of India
KotwalNidhi, Gupta Neelima and Devi Arjee (2008) Impact of T.V Advertisements on Buying
Pattern of Adolescent Girls, Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 51-55.
Latif, Abdul, Saleem, Salman and Abideen, Zain UL. (2011). Influence of Role Model on
Pakistani Urban Teenagers Purchase Behavior. European Journal of Economics, Finance and
Administrative Sciences, Issue, 31, pp. 7-16.
Lavidge, R. C., & Steiner, G. A. (1961). A model of predictive measurement of advertising
effectiveness. Journal of Marketing, 59-62.
Loudon DL, Bitta DAJ (2002). Consumer Behavior. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.
Loudon, L. D., &Bitta, D. J. A. (1994). Consumer behavior (4th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill,
Inc.

25 | P a g e

Loudon, L. D., &Bitta, D. J. A. (1994). Consumer behavior (4th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill,
Inc.
Michael Solomen (2006) Consumer Behavior 3rd Edition Prentice-Hall of India
Mooij (2004). Consumer Behavior and Culture. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
Mooij MD, Hofstede, Geert (2002). Convergence and divergence in consumer behavior:
implications for international retailing. J. retailing, (78): 61-69.
Moorthy. K., 1974, Advertising as Information, Journal of Political Economy, 83, 729754.
Mowen, C. J. (1993). Consumer behavior (3rd ed.). New York: McMillan Publishing Company,
Inc.
Mowen, J. C., & Minor, M. (1998). Consumer behavior (5th ed.). USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Mullen, B. & Johnson, C., (1990). The psychology of consumer behavior. New Jersey: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates.
Munch, J. M., &Swasy, J. L. (1988). Rhetorical question, summarizations, frequency and
argument strength effects on recall. Journal of Consumer Research, 48, 78-92.
Nagaraja, B. (2004) Consumer Behaviour in Rural Areas: A Micro-level Study on Buying
Behaviour of Rural consumers in KavaliMandal, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. 34, No. 11,
pp. 30-36.
Naikzad, Z. (2009). Effects of advertisement on male vs female buying behavior. Karachi:
Preston University.
Nazir, S. (2001). Effects of advertisement on consumers behavior. Unpublished M.Sc. Research
Report. National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-Azam University, Islamabad.
Nelson, P., 1970, Information and Consumer Behavior, Journal of Political Economy, 78, 311
329.
North, E. J. and Kotze, T. (2001) Parents and television advertisement as Consumer
Socialisation Agents for Adolescents: An Exploratory Study, Journal of Family Ecology and
Consumer Science, Vol. 29, No. ISSN 0378-5254, pp. 91-98.
Robertson Thomas and Rossiter John (1977) Childrens Responsiveness to Commercials,
Journal of Communication, Vol.24, No.4, pp. 101-106.

Russell, J. T., & Lane, W. R. (1996). Advertising procedure (13th ed.). USA: Prentice Hall Inc.
26 | P a g e

Russell, J. T., & Lane, W. R. (1996).Advertising procedure (13th ed.). USA: Prentice Hall Inc.
Saksena, G. (1990) Advertising through T.V., Social Implications, Journal of Indian Institute
of Mass Communication, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp.44-49.
Sangwan, A. (2008). Effects of consumer buying behavior towards advertisement. Maharaja
Agrasen Institute of Management and Technology.
Sashidhar, A. S. and Adivi, S. (September, 2006) Advertising to Kids Is It Justified?
Advertising Express, pp. 12-16.
.
Schiffman&Kanuk (2006) Consumer Behavior 10th Edition Prentice-Hall of India
Schiffman LG, Kanuk LL (2004). Consumer Behavior. 8th Ed. Pearson Education, New Delhi.
.
Sehrawet, M. and Kundu, S. C. (2007) Buying behaviour of rural and urban consumers in
India: the impact of packaging, International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 31, No. ISSN
1470-6423, pp. 630-638.

Appendix:
27 | P a g e

Questionnaire
Dear respondent I am the student of the Islamia University Bahawalpur(RYK campus). My
research topic is the Impact of advertisement on the consumer buying behavior for the
completion of my degree. All the information given by you is kept secret. No data is given to any
company. All the data is used for the academic purpose only.

Strongly Agree

5 Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Sr.#
Particulars
Advertisement
1
Generally speaking, I have good impressions of
advertisement.
2
If I am satisfied with a product bought from a company
due to their advertisement, I will suggest it to my
friends and family members.
3
I am cautious and skeptical when a stranger
advertisement explains and demonstrates a product to
me.
4
If I accept to buy an unplanned product offered by an
advertisement of a comapny, I believe that he/she owes
me a favor.
5
Consumer perceives advertising in some media more
trustworthy than others.
6
The advertisement design could affect the class and
culture.
7
A new brand urges you to try the new brand.
8
FM radio advertisement urges you to try a new brand of
the company.
9
You prefer the new brand/product to the family/friends.
10
Based on this advertisement, you would be able to
purchase this product the next time you need [product
category].
Consumer Buying Behavior
11
I am willing to rely on ad-conveyed information when
making purchase related decisions.
12
I am willing to recommend the product or service that I
have seen in ads to my friends or family.

Strongly disagree

S.A

S.D

5
5

4
4

3
3

2
2

1
1

5
5

4
4

3
3

2
2

1
1

28 | P a g e

13
14

Buying behavior of the consumer depends upon their 5


needs and wants.
Consumer buying behavior depend upon the 5
advertisement which they seen on the T.V.

Please fill out the general information carefully:


Gender:

Qualification:

Male

below Metric
Bachelors

Age:

Marital Status:

Location:

Female

Metric
Masters

Below 20

Intermediate
above Masters

20-30

Married

30-40

above 40

Unmarried

..

29 | P a g e