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ADVERB CLAUSE

A. Pengertian Adverb Clause


Adverb Clause terdiri dari dua kata yaitu Adverb and Clause
adverb adalah : kata keterangan yang menerangkan verb (kata kerja) dan adjective (kata sifat),
clause adalah : anak kalimat.
Jadi adverb clause adalah anak kalimat yang menerangkan kata sifat dan kata kerja dan berfungsi
sebagai adverb.
Adverb clause adalah terdiri dari delapan macam: seperti: Adverb clause of time, Adverb clause
of place, Adverb clause of number, Adverb clause of menner, adverb clause of reanson, adverb
clause of result, adverb clause of condition, dan adverb clause of contrast.
Adverbial Clause biasanya diklasifikasikan berdasarkan arti/maksud dari Conjunction (kata
penghubung yang mendahuluinya).

Jenis-jenis Adverbial Clause antara lain:


1. Clause of Time
Clause yang menunjukkan waktu. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunction (kata
penghubung) seperti after, before, no sooner, while, as, dll.
Contoh:
Shut the door before you go out.
You may begin when(ever) you are ready.
While he was walking home, he saw an accident.
By the time I arrive, Alex will have left.
No sooner had she entered than he gave an order.
2. Clause of Place
Clause yang menunjukkan tempat. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunction seperti
where, nowhere, anywhere, wherever, dll.
Contoh:
They sat down wherever they could find empty seats
The guard stood where he was positioned.
Where there is a will, there is a way.
Where there is poverty, there we find discontent and unrest.
Go where you like.
3. Clause of Contrast (or Concession)
Clause yang menunjukkan adanya pertentangan antara dua kejadian atau peristiwa yang saling

berhubungan. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunction (kata penghubung) seperti


although, though, even though, whereas, even if, in spite of, as the time, dll.
Contoh:
As the time you were sleeping, we were working hard.
Mary wanted to stop, whereas I wanted to go on.
Although it is late, well stay a little longer.
He is very friendly, even if he is a clever student.
4. Clause of Manner
Clause yang menunjukkan cars bagaimana suatu pekerjaan dilakukan atau peristiwa terjadi.
Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunction (kata penghubung) seperti as, how, like, in
that, dll.
Contoh:
He did as I told him.
You may finish it how you like.
They may beat us again, like they did in 1978.
5. Clause of Purpose and Result
Clause yang menunjukkan hubungan maksud/tujuan dan hasil. Biasanya dibuat dengan
menggunakan kata penghubung seperti (in order) that, so that, in the hope that, to the end that,
lest, in case, dll.
Contoh:
They went to the movie early (in order) to find the best seats.
She bought a book so (that) she could learn English
He is saving his money so that he may take a long vacation.
I am working night and day in the hope that I can finish this book soon.
6. Clause of Cause and Effect
Clause yang menunjukkan hubungan sebab dan akibat. Ada beberapa pola membentuk Clause
jenis ini. Perhatikan baik-baik.
Contoh:
Ryan ran so fast that he broke the previous speed record.
It was so cold yesterday that I didnt want to swim.
The soup tastes so good that everyone will ask for more.
The student had behaved so badly that he was dismissed from the class.
Contoh:
The Smiths had so many children that they formed their own baseball team.
I had so few job offers that it wasnt difficult to select one.

Contoh:
He has invested so much money in the project that he cannot abandon it now.
The grass received so little water that it turned brown in the heat.
Contoh:
It was such a hot day that we decided to stay indoors. ATAU It was so hot a day that we decided
to stay indoors.
It was such an interesting book that he couldnt put it down. ATAU It was so interesting a book
that he couldnt put it down.
Contoh:
She has such exceptional abilities that everyone is jealous of her.
They are such beautiful pictures that everybody will want one.
Perry has had such bad luck that hes decided not to gamble.
This is such difficult homework that I will never finish it.
Di samping itu, untuk mengungkapkan hubungan cause and effect (sebab dan akibat) dapat
digunakan pola lain, yaitu:
1.Menggunakan Preposition (kata depan) seperti because of, due to, due to the fact that, dll
Contoh:
Because of the cold weather, we stayed home. (=We stayed home because of the cold weather)
Due to the cold weather, we stayed home. (=We stayed home due to the cold weather)
Due to the fact that the weather was cold, we stayed home. (=We stayed home due to the fact
that the weather was cold)
2.Menggunakan kata penghubung (conjunction) seperti because, since, now, that, as, as
long as, in as much as
Contoh:
Because he was sleepy, he went to bed.
Since hes not interested in classical music, he decided not to go to the concert.
As she had nothing in particular to do, she called up a friend and asked her if she wanted to take
in a movie.
Inasmuch as the two government leaders could not reach an agreement, the possibilities for
peace are still remote.
3.Menggunakan transition words seperti therefore, consequently.
Contoh:
Alex failed the test because he didnt study.
Alex didnt study. Therefore, he failed the test.
Alex didnt study. Consequently, he failed the test.
Catatan:

Beberapa Adverb Clause dapat diubah menjadi Modifying Phrases dengan cara:
1)Menghilangkan subjek dari dependent Clause dan verb (be).
Contoh:
a.ADVERB CLAUSE
: While I was walking to class, I ran into an old friend.
b.MODIFYING PHRASE : While walking to class, I ran into an old friend.
2)Jika dalam Adverb Clause tidak ada be, hilangkanlah subjek dan ubahlah verb dalam
Adverb Clause itu menjadi bentuk -ing.
Contoh:
a.ADVERB CLAUSE
: Before I left for work, I ate breakfast.
b.MODIFYING PHRASE : Before leaving for work, I ate breakfast.
Adverb Clause dapat diubah menjadi Modifying Phrase jika subjek dari adverb Clause dan
subjek dari main Clause sama.
Contoh:
1. DAPAT DIRUBAH
While I was sitting in class, I fell asleep MENJADI While sitting in class, I fell asleep.
While Ann was sitting in class, she fell asleep MENJADI While sitting in class, Ann fell asleep.
Since Mary came to this country, she has made many friends MENJADI Since coming to this
country, Mary has made many friends.
2. TIDAK DAPAT DIRUBAH
While the teacher was lecturing to the class, I fell asleep.
While we were walking home, a frog hopped across the road in front of us.
7. Clause of Condition
Clause yang menunjukkan adanya persyaratan antara dua kejadian (peristiwa) yang
berhubungan. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunctions seperti if, even if, unless, in
the even that, or in even that, in case, provided (that), providing (that), on condition that, if only,
suppose (that), supposing (that), dll.
Contoh:
If I see him, I will invite him to the party tomorrow.
She would forgive her husband everything, if only he would come back to her.
Suppose (that) your house burns down, do you have enough insurance to cover such a loss.
In case a robbery occurs in the hotel, the management must be notified at once.
The company will agree to arbitration on condition (that) the strike is called off at once.
We should be able to do the job for you quickly, provided (that) you give us all the necessary
information.

B. Jenis-Jenis Adverb Clause


1. Adverb Clause of Reason
Adalah : sebuah anak kalimat yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan sebab atau alasan. Adverb

clause of reason di awali dengan konjungsi (penghubungnya) adalah : as/ since/ because/
whereas/ on the ground that.
Example:
Is I love you, I can do anything for you.
Since she has a desire to marry, she discontinued her studying.
I stopped the work because I was tired.
Whereas I came late, My father punished me.
His teacher punished him on the grand that, he came late.
2. Adverb Clause of Result
Adalah : sebuah anak kalimat yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan hasil perbuatan atau akibat.
Adverb clause of result di awali dengan konjungsi so that, so + adjective + that, so + adverb +
that, so.
Example:
Nadhavi was so beautiful that I loved her at first sight.
He studies so hard that many students like him.
3. Adverb Clause of Condition
Adalah : sebuah anak kalimat yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan kondisi. Adverb clause of
condition di awali dengan konjungsi if/ unless/ whether/ provided that and so long as.
Example:
If you help me, I shall be happy.
Unless you tell her about your love, she wont know it
You must do this whether, you like it or not
I can help you provide that you must follow my advice
So long as you work hard, you have no problem with me
4. Adverb Clause of Contrast
Adverb Clause of Contrast adalah sebuah anak kalimat yang menerangkan bertentangan. Adverb
Clause of Contrast diawali dengan konjungsi: although, even though, though, whatever, no
matter, however much, not with standing that.
Example:
a. I still no money although I worked hard
b. Even though he hates me, he lend me the bock
c. Though he is rice, he never give me the money
d. Whatever he has done, he is your father
e. No matter what she said, I still love her
f. She will never succeed however much he may try
g. He was not refreshed not with standing that he had spent 2 weeks leave.

Adverb Clauses Exercises:


A. Combine the following sentences using adverb clauses at the end of the sentence.
1. We watched the robins. They raised their young in our apple tree.
2. Becky read the book. It was recommended by a friend.
3. Dad donates his suits to charity. He has worn them a year.
4. The policemen delayed the drivers. The wrecks were cleared.
5. Ann ate an apple. She studied her vocabulary.

B. Combine the following sentences using adverb clauses at the beginning of the sentence.
1. Frank started medical training. He drove a forklift for a living.
2. The rains had started the mud slides. The homes were not safe to live in.
3. Older people love to sit in the park. They feed the birds and visit.
4. I enjoyed camping out. I was much younger.
5. Joe recognised the man. The man had stopped his car to help.

C. Find the adverb clauses in these sentences. What are their meanings (time, place...)? If it
is a reduced adverb clause, add the missing words.
1. You seem very happy when you help other people.
2. While you wait, we will detail your car.
3. I am happier than I ever was before.

4. That horse is more obstinate than a mule.


5. The woman took notes while being taught to cook with broccoli.
6. Ben fields baseballs better than he hits.
7. As the lions approached the carcass, the cheetahs retreated once more.
8. While eating, I choked on a bone.
Suggested answers:
A.
1. We watched the robins while they raised their young in our apple tree.
2. Becky read the book since it was recommended by a friend.
3. Dad donates his suits to charity after he has worn them a year.
4. The policemen delayed the drivers until the wrecks were cleared.
5. Ann ate an apple as she studied her vocabulary.
B.
1. Before Frank started medical training, he drove a forklift for a living.
2. Because the rains had started the mud slides, the homes were not safe to live in.
3. While they feed the birds and visit, older people love to sit in the park.
4. When I was much younger, I enjoyed camping out.
5. After the man had stopped his car to help, Joe recognised him.
C.
1. when you help other people (time)
2. While you wait (time)
3. than I ever was (happy) before (comparison)

4. than a mule (is obstinate) (comparison)


5. while (she was) being taught to cook with broccoli (time)
6. than he hits (baseballs well) (comparison)
7. As the lions approached the carcass (time)
8. While (I was) eating (time)

Adverb Clauses
Definition: an adverb clause is a subordinate clause (i.e. a sentence within another
sentence) that functions as an adverb in a sentence. Adverb clauses are introduced
by subordinate conjunctions. Below is a chart of the most frequently used English
subordinate conjunctions for adverb clauses. These conjunctions are listed
according to their meanings. Some conjunctions have more than one meaning.
ADVERBIAL SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS
Time

after - as soon as as - before - no sooner...than since until


when - while

Place

where - wherever

Manner

as - as if - as though

Purpose

to - in order (not) to - so as to - in order that - so that

Reason

because since - as

Result
so (that), so... (+ adjective/adverb) that - such ... (+ noun) that
Condition

if even if - unless - in case - provided that - as long as

Concession

although though even though even if in spite of the fact that


despite the fact that - not that

Comparison

as - than
Sometimes we find adverb clauses that have left some words out:

While (she was) speaking to the timid student, the teacher spoke slowly.
You are smarter than I (am smart.)

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