Anda di halaman 1dari 5

Sentence Connectors

Table 1: Academic English Connectors and Their Meaning (Adapted from Swales and Feak
1994)
Subordinators
Sentence Connectors
Phrase Linkers
Addition
Furthermore, ...
In addition to..., ...
In addition, ...
Moreover, ...
Adversative
..., although
However, ...
Despite ..., ...
Although ..., ...
Nevertheless, ...
In spite of ..., ...
Even though ____, ...
Despite the fact that..
Cause and Effect ...because...
Therefore, ...
Because of...
Since..., ...
As a result, ...
Due to...
..., since ...
Consequently, ...
As a result of...
..., hence...
Thus, ...
Clarification
In other words, ...
That is, ...
i.e., ...
Contrast
While ..., ...
In contrast, ...
Unlike ... , ...
..., whereas ...
However, ...
On the other hand, ...
Conversely, ...
Illustration
For example, ...
For instance, ...
Intensification
On the contrary, ...
As a matter of fact, ...
In fact, ...

Page 1 of 5

Uses of Connectors
Different points of view can be taken and different arguments can be built from any given piece of
information, depending on which part is emphasized or de-emphasized. This is a matter of deciding on
one's stance and then using the appropriate logical connectors that help express this position. This can be
demonstrated by showing them the example below.
Information: John is very old and ugly, John is filthy rich. No point of view? John is very old, ugly, and
filthy rich.

Different Points of View Using Connectors:

John is old and ugly. However , he is filthy rich


John is filthy rich. Nevertheless , he is old and ugly.
Despite the fact that John is old and ugly, women love him because he is filthy rich.
John has some qualities, for example , he is filthy rich. On the other hand , he has the unwanted
characteristics of being old and ugly.
While Peter is young and handsome, John is old and ugly. In fact , John's appearance is
disgusting.
Unlike John, who is filthy rich, Peter is an abbreviated piece of nothing. As a result , women
prefer John.
John is filthy rich and, although he is old and ugly, women love him.
We could come up with endless examples looking at the same information from different points
of view. At this point students will be ready to do some exercises related to actual theory.

Using Connectors to Express One's Point of View about the Literature


In the following exercises, students are asked to manipulate the information to express different
points of view, using support from sources.
Integrating Ideas from Sources
Handling and presenting information from different sources can be really difficult. Students must know
that:

They must clearly distinguish between their own opinions, ideas, and words, and those of others
(citations, quotations).

As citing somebody else's work and using their concepts is the main characteristic of the literature
review, reported speech is used very often.

Page 2 of 5

Below is a list of common verbs and expressions students can use to cite the authors' work.

Verbs:

State

Comment

Maintain

Report

Remark

Assert

Propose

Claim

Observe

Contend

Suggest

Point out

Declare

Argue

Define

Imply

Emphasize

Explain

Page 3 of 5

Phrases:

The blank space represents the name of the author(s).

According to _____, ...


o

In the opinion of _____, ...


o

As Jones (2013) states,

As reported by _____, ...


o

Jones (2013) holds the view that

As _____ states, ...


o

Jones (2013) expresses the view that

_____ holds the view that...


o

In the opinion of Jones (20130),

_____ expresses the view that...


o

According to Jones (2013),..

As reported by Jones (2013),

As stated by . ,
o

As stated by Jones (2013),

Expressions Referring to Previous Research:

_____'s study shows that ...

_____'s research suggests that ...

_____s results demonstrate that ...

_____s research provides evidence of ...

From '__s results, it may follow that ...

As shown in ___'s research, ...

Reference:
Criollo, R. (2003) 'Teaching TESOL Undergraduates to Organize and Write Literature
Reviews', The Internet TESL Journal, vol. IX, April.