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10th Samacheer kalvi Maths all units Points to Remember

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Contents
Contents......................................................................................................................................................1
SETS AND FUNCTIONS.................................................................................................................................2
SEQUENCES AND SERIES OF REAL NUMBERS..............................................................................................3
ALGEBRA......................................................................................................................................................5
MATRICES....................................................................................................................................................6
COORDINATE GEOMETRY............................................................................................................................6
GEOMETRY..................................................................................................................................................8
TRIGONOMETRY..........................................................................................................................................8
MENSURATION............................................................................................................................................8
PRACTICAL GEOMETRY................................................................................................................................9
GRAPHS.......................................................................................................................................................9
STATISTICS.................................................................................................................................................10
PROBABILITY..............................................................................................................................................10

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SETS AND FUNCTIONS


Sets
A set is a collection of well defined objects.
Set union is commutative and associative.
Set intersection is commutative and associative.
Set difference is not commutative.
Set difference is associative only when the sets are mutually disjoint.
Distributive Laws
A U (B
C) = (A U B) (A U C) - A union (B intersection C) equals (A
union B) intersection (A union C)
A
(B U C) = (A B) U (A C) - A intersection (B union C) equals (A
intersection B) union (A intersection C)
De Morgans Laws for set difference
A \ (B U C) = (A\B)
(A\C)
A \ (B
C) = (A\B) U (A\C)
De Morgans Laws for complementation.
(A U B) = A
B
(A
B) = A U B
Formulae for the cardinality of union of sets
n(A U B) = n(A) + n(B) - n(A
B)
n(A U B U C) = = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) - n(A
B) - n(B C) - n(A C) + n(A
B C)
FUNCTIONS
The cartesian product of A with B is defined as

A B = {(a,b) | a A and b B}.


A relation R from A to B is a non-empty subset of

A X B. That is, R A X B.

A function f : X Y is defined if the following condition hold:

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Every x X is associated with only one y Y.


Every function can be represented by a graph. However, the converse is not true in

general.
If every vertical line intersects a graph in at most one point, then the graph represents
a function.
A function can be described by
set of ordered pairs
an arrow diagram
a table
a graph.
The modulus or absolute value function y = | x| is defined by

| x| = { x if x>=0; -x if x<0}
Some types of functions:
One-One function
( distinct elements have distinct images)
(injective function)
Onto function
(the range and the co-domain are equal )
(surjective function)
Bijective function
(both one-one and onto)
Constant function
(range is a singleton set)
Identity function
(which leaves each input as it is)
SEQUENCES AND SERIES OF REAL NUMBERS
A sequence of real numbers is an arrangement or a list of real numbers in a specific order.
The sequence given by F1= F2= 1 and Fn= Fn-1 + 1 Fn-2 , n=3,4, ..is called the
Fibonacci sequence which is nothing but 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34,
A sequence a1 , a2 , a3 ..an,is called an arithmetic sequence if a n+1 = an + d, n N

where d is a constant. Here a1 is called the first term and the constant d is called the
common difference.

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The formula for the general term of an A.P. is tn = a + (n 1)d V n N .


A sequence a1 , a2 , a3 ..an,is called an geometric sequence if a n+1 = an r,

ZERO,

where r not equal to

n N where r is a constant. Here, a1 is the first term and the constant r is called the

common ratio. The formula for the general term of a G.P. is tn = ar n-1, n = 1,2,3.
An expression of addition of terms of a sequence is called a series. If the sum consists
only finite number of terms, then it is called a finite series. If the sum consists of infinite
number of terms of a sequence, then it is called an infinite series.
The sum Sn of the first n terms of an arithmetic sequence with first term a and common
difference d is given by Sn = n/2 [2a+ (n 1)d] = n/2 (a+l) where l is the last term.
The sum of the first n terms of a geometric series is given by
Sn = {a(nr-1)/r-1, a(1-rn), if r <> 1
na
if r=1
where a is the first term and r is the common ratio.
The sum of the first n natural numbers,

The sum of the first n odd natural numbers,

The sum of first n odd natural numbers ( when the last term l is given) is

The sum of squares of first n natural numbers,


The sum of cubes of the first n natural numbers,

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ALGEBRA
A set of finite number of linear equations in two variables x and y is called a system
of linear equations in x and y. Such a system is also called simultaneous equations.
Eliminating one of the variables first and then solving a system is called method of
elimination.
The following arrow diagram helps us very much to apply the method of cross
multiplication in solving a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 , a2 x + b2 y + c 2 = 0.

A real number k is said to be a zero of a polynomial p(x), if p(k) = 0.


The basic relationship between zeros and coefficients of a quadratic polynomial
Ax2+ bx + c = 0 are,

(i) For any polynomial p(x), x = a is zero if and only if p(a) = 0.


(ii) x - a is a factor for p(x) if and only if p(a)= 0.
GCD of two or more algebraic expressions is the expression of highest degree which
divides each of them without remainder.
LCM of two or more algebraic expressions is the expression of lowest degree which is
divisible by each of them without remainder.
The product of LCM and GCD of any two polynomials is equal to the product of the
two polynomials.
Let aR be a non negative real number. A square root of a, is a real number b such

that b2 = a. The square root of a is denoted by


A quadratic equation in the variable x is of the form ax2 + bx2 + c = 0 , where a,b,c are
real numbers and a <> 0.
A quadratic equation can be solved by (i) the method of factorization (ii) the method
of completing square (iii) using a quadratic formula.
The roots of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 are given by
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provided b2- 4ac >= 0


A quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 has
(i) two distinct real roots if b2- 4ac > 0
(ii) two equal roots if b2- 4ac = 0
(iii) no real roots if b2- 4ac < 0
MATRICES
A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers.
A matrix having m rows and n columns, is of the order m X n.
A = [aij]mix is a row matrix if m = 1.
A = [aij]mxn is a column matrix if n = 1..
A = [aij]mxn is a square matrix if m = n.
A = [aij]nxn is diagonal matrix if aij= 0 when I <> j.
A = [aij]nxn is scalar matrix if aij= 0 when I <> j and aij = k when i =j. (k is a non-zero
constant ).
A = [aij] is unit matrix if aij= 1 when i = j and aij= 0, when I <>j.
A matrix is said to be a zero matrix if all its elements are zero.
Two matrices A and B are equal if
A and B are of same order and their corresponding entries are equal.
Addition or subtraction of two matrices are possible only when they are of same
order.
Matrix addition is commutative
That is, A + B = B + A, if A and B are matrices of same order.
Matrix addition is Associative
That is, (A + B) + C = A + (B + C), if A, B and C are matrices of same order.
If A is a matrix of order mXn and B is a matrix of order nXp, then the product matrix
AB is defined and is of order mXp.
Matrix multiplication is not commutative in general. i.e.,AB <> BA.
Matrix multiplication is associative. i.e., (AB)C = A(BC), if both sides are defined.
(AT )T = A, (A +B)T = AT + BT and (AB)T = BT AT
Matrices A and B are multiplicative inverses to each other if AB = BA = I.
If AB = O, it is not necessary that A = O or B = O.
That is, product of two non-zero matrices may be a zero matrix.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
The distance between P(x1 , y1 ) and Q( x2 , y2) is
The point P which divides the line segment joining the points A(x1 , y1 ) and B( x2 , y2)

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internally in the ratio l : m is


The point Q which divides the line segment joining the points A(x1 , y1 ) and B( x2 , y2)

extrenally in the ratio l : m is


Midpoint of the line segment joining the points (x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2) is
The area of the triangle formed by the points (x1 , y1 ), ( x2 , y2) and (x3 , y3 ) is

Three points A(x1 , y1 ), B( x2 , y2) and C(x3 , y3 ) are collinear if and only if

(i) x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1 = x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3

(OR)

(ii) Slope of AB = Slope of BC or slope of AC.


If a line makes an angle i with the positive direction of x- axis, then the slope m = tan i.
Slope of the non-vertical line passing through the points (x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2) is

Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0 is m =

Slope of the horizontal line is 0 and slope of the vertical line is undefined.
Two lines are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal.
Two non-vertical lines are perpendicular if and only if the product of their slopes
is -1. That is, m1m2 = -1.
Sl.No
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Equation of straight lines


Straight line
x-axis
y-axis
Parallel to x-axis
Parallel to y-axis
Parallel to ax+by+c =0
Perpendicular to ax+by+c =0
Given
Passing through the origin
Slope m, y-intercept c
Slope m, a point (x1 , y1)
Passing through two points (x1 , y1),
(x2 , y2)
x-intercept a , y-intercept b

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Equation
y=0
x=0
y=k
x=k
ax+by+k = 0
bxay+k = 0
Equation
y = mx
y = mx + c
y y1 = m(xx1)

10th Samacheer kalvi Maths all units Points to Remember


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GEOMETRY
No Points to Remember section

TRIGONOMETRY
No Points to Remember section

MENSURATION

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PRACTICAL GEOMETRY
No Points to Remember section

GRAPHS
No Points to Remember section

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STATISTICS

PROBABILITY
No Points to Remember section

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