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PROJECTIVE TESTS AND TECHNIQUES

NOTHING IS EITHER GOOD OR BAD, BUT THINKING MAKES IT SO


SHAKESPEARE, HAMLET

November,
2013

I. Introduction in projective techniques

Definition

Classification
II. Presentation of some projective techniques

Case studies:

1. adult / male/ age 23

2. child / male / age 9

III. Conclusions
V. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Presented by : Daniel Cochirlea

PERSON

FAMILY

TREE

WHAT DO YOU SEE?

ITS JUST AN INKBLOT

PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES ARE INDIRECT AND UNSTRUCTURED METHODS OF


INVESTIGATION. PSYCHOLOGISTS USE THEM FOR INFERRING ABOUT UNDERLINE
MOTIVES, URGES OR INTENTIONS WHICH CANNOT BE DISCOVERED THROUGH DIRECT
QUESTIONING AS THE RESPONDENT EITHER RESISTS TO REVEAL THEM OR IS SIMPLY
NOT AWARE OF THEM
A METHOD OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING, USED IN PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT, IN
WHICH RELATIVELY UNSTRUCTURED STIMULI ARE PRESENTED (EG AN INKBLOT OR A
PICTURE) AND ELICIT SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES FROM THE SUBJECT. THESE ARE
PRESUMED TO INVOLVE THE PROJECTION OF THE SUBJECT'S PERSONALITY ON TO THE
TEST
MATERIAL.
SCIENCE
DICTIONARY:
HTTP://THESCIENCEDICTIONARY.ORG/PROJECTIVE-TECHNIQUE-PROJECTIVE-TEST
A PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST IN WHICH SUBJECT'S RESPONSES TO AMBIGUOUS OR
UNSTRUCTURED STANDARD STIMULI, SUCH AS A SERIES OF CARTOONS, ABSTRACT
PATTERNS, OR INCOMPLETE SENTENCES, ARE ANALYZED IN ORDER TO DETERMINE
UNDERLYING PERSONALITY TRAITS, FEELINGS, OR ATTITUDES.
THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

DISADVANTAGES OF PROJECTIVE
TECHNIQUES
1. Highly trained interviewers and
skilled interpreters are needed.
2. Interpreters bias can be there.
3. It is a costly method.
4. The respondent selected may not
be representative of the entire
population.

Projective Techniques classified by type

NAME AND TEST DESCRIPTION

ASSETS AND LIMITS

APPLYING INSTRUCTIONS

PRACTICAL EXAMPLES AND CONCLUSIONS

DRAWING A PERSON TEST

ASSETS
* The purpose of the
test is to assist
professionals in
inferring children's
cognitive
developmental levels
with little or no
influence of other
factors such as
language barriers or
special needs

LIMITS
* Test results can be
influenced by
previous drawing
experience,
* has been no
validation of this
test as indicative of
schizophrenia.

INDICATIONS
The psychologist gives the child a sheet
of paper and a black pencil well sharp
or/and a set of colors and asks him to
make a draw of a person. The rest is
for the child to decide, whether he uses
just the black pencil or the set of
colors, where he is going to place the
drawing on the page; or if hes going to
draw a girl or a boy, a. s. o.

IMPORTANT INDICATORS

IMPORTANT FACTORS

line style sharp, vague, continuous or pointed


colors used
objects shape
objects position on page
intellectual maturity is important because the
drawing evolves according to the
childs age from
Doodles (from 1 year) thru Representation (between
2-3 years) and logical state (from 4 years) to the
stage of visual realism (variable age ) when he can
copy, do a representation , or an adaptation to
reality.
visual perception
the amount of time needed to complete the drawing
the attitude answers spontaneously? asks questions
before starting to draw? Fells the application as
frustrating?

1. As INTELIGENCE TEST: we appreciate


the mental age of the child by the
presence or absence of anatomical parts
of the body and by presence or absence
of vestments and accessories.
2. As PERSONALITY TEST: the drawing of a
person is considered to be a mirror and
reflection of the childs personality.

A Drawing can be used as diagnostic


tool but in order to have the whole
view of the childs personality we have
to use some other complimentarily
methods.

THE PERSON DRAWN BY


CHILD

FIRST DRAWING

SECOND DRAWING

INTERPRETATION
SUBJECT:
CHILD

DRAW A PERSON TEST

shyness

inadequacy

weakness

anxiety

emotional imbalance

aggressive

impatience

THE TREE

The tree is
one of the
most popular
symbolic
themes. It
represents
life, fertility,
the human
been

THE ROOTS

are symbols of the unconscious

THE TRUNK is the ego, the conscious mind, the


emotional life
THE BRANCHES are symbols for social relations
THE CROWN represents the mind, and spiritual life.

ASSETS

LIMITS

* Richness of
information
* Symbolic form
* Useful adjunct to
other tests
* Provides a way for
expressing material
that is difficult to
express orally
* Provide a relatively
"culture-free" means

* Difficulty establishing
the reliability and
validity of projective
drawings
* Questionable validity
in specific psychiatric
classifications
* Many of the
interpretive
hypotheses have not
been fully

INDICATIONS

Materials used : a sheet of paper


and a black pencil

Request : Draw a tree, different


from a fire tree

IMPORTANT INDICATORS
type of the tree:
position on page
the accentuated parts of the tree (on
the right or on the left from the
vertical ax of symmetry; up and down
from the horizontal ax between crown
and trunk)
the quality of lines
the shape of roots; trunk, crown and
branches
the relation between roots, trunk
and crown
the existence or omission of lives,
flowers and fruits and their specific
shape
the existence of scenery (the sun,

RED COLOR is an indicator of explosive


personalities
(juvenile delinquency
often occurs).
GREEN is considered a feminine color
(occurs in
some psychotic tendencies,
hermaphrodites).
YELLOW
is for those with religious
delusions.
BLACK
psychotic

appear in the drawings of

&
individuals, suggesting, chaos
WHITE confusion, disorder, anxiety and

THE TREE DRAWN BY CHILD

INTERPRETATION
SUBJECT:

DRAW A PERSON

CHILD

TEST

TREE TEST

aggressiveness

Adapting difficulties

anxiety

aggressiveness

emotional imbalance

easily influenced

impatience

inhibition

inadequacy

introverted

shyness

realism;
practical trends;
material orientation

weakness

Sensitivity and
imagination
Stubbornness

THE TREE DRAWN BY ADULT

INTERPRETATION
SUBJECT

TREE TEST

/ ADULT
R

Rigurous in the activity

Some adapting difficulties

Realism- practical trends;

Organized

Open for new experiences

Self confidence- perseverance- arogance

Well engaged in the present

DRAWING A FAMILY TEST

ASSETS
* An optional tool for the
investigation of the child's
mental representation of
attachment to the parents
* Provides insight into the
child's fantasies that
combine the child's
subjective life experiences
and interactions

LIMITS
* There is little professional
support for the use of
figure drawing, so the
examples that follow should
be interpreted with caution.
* Call for skilled and trained
administrators familiar with
both the theory behind the
tests and the structure of
the tests themselves.

INDICATIONS
We note:
the childs attitude: mimic, verbalization
and if they are or not related to the
drawing
if the drawing begins from the right or
left side of the paper
the order the characters are drawn
if he spends more time in drawing one
character or another
We ask:
1. What is this family doing, where are they?
2. What is the nicest and why?
3. What is the less nice and why?
4. Who is the happiest and why?
5. Who is the saddest and why?

IMPORTANT INDICATORS
In order to discover:
The most loved person
The least favorite family member
Relations between child and family
members
Parents

We ask question about:


Name, age, gender of family members
Relationship between them
If he is pleased with his drawing or
wants to change something and what

THE FAMILY DRAWING

INTERPRETATION
SUBJECT CHILD

DRAW A

PERSON TEST
aggressiveness

E
S

anxiety
emotional
imbalance

U
L

impatience
inadequacy

shyness

weakness

TREE TEST

FAMILY

adapting
difficulties
aggressiveness
easily

TEST
attached to
father
inadequacy
anxiety

influenced
Inhibition
introverted
realism;
practical trends;
material
orientation
Sensitivity and
imagination

dynamic
difficulty in
focusing

THE RORSCHACH TEST

THE RORSCHACH TEST (also known as


the
Rorschach
inkblot
test,
the
Rorschach technique, or simply the
inkblot test) is a psychological test in
which subject' s perceptions of inkblots
are recorded and then analyzed using
psychological interpretation, complex
algorithms, or both.

HERMANN RORSCHACH

Psychologist
s use this
test to
detect
thought
disorder,
especially
when
patients are
reluctant to
describe
their
thinking

ASSETS

* Richness of
protocol, mystery &
allure
* Access covert or
unconscious
material
* Reduces
defensiveness &
social desirability
* Highly resistant to

LIMITS

* Questionable
variable validity
across different
scoring categories
* Immense time
involved in scoring
and interpretation

FREQUENTLY GIVEN ANSWERS

INDICATIONS
After the tested subject has
seen and responded to all
of the inkblots FREE
ASSOCIATION PHASE;
the tester presents them
again one at a time for the
subject to study. The
subject is asked to note if
he sees what he originally
saw and what does it look
like;
this
is
the
INQUIRY PHASE.

CARD 1 WORRIORS HELMET

CARD 2 2 ELEPHANTS OR CATS

CARD 3 TWO BIMBOS

CARD 4 PIRATES OF THE CARRIBEAN MOVIE


CARACTERS

CARD 5 A BAT

CARD 6 ANIMAL SKIN

CARD 7 MAN SHAPED TOAST


BREAD

CARD 8 CORSAGE OF MEDIEVAL


DRESS

CARD 9- CARNIVOR PLANT FACING


UPWARDS

CARD 10- TWO PERSONS MEETING IN FRON OF EFFEL


TOWER IN A BUSSY DAY

INTERPRETATION
SUBJECT / ADULT

TREE TEST

RORSARCH

Rigurous in the activity

Accepts and enjoys

Some adapting difficulties

new tasks
Ignores physical harm

Realism- practical trends;

Good relationship skills

Organized

Good emotional

Open for new experiences

balance
Anxiety of women

Self confidence-

Easy dealing with

perseverance- arogance

concurrent stimuli

Well engaged in the


present

LUSCHER COLOUR
TEST

The Author, Prof. Dr.


Max Lscher is the
Head of the Institute
of
Psycho-medical
Diagnostics in Lucerne
(Switzerland).

ASSETS
* because the color selections
are
guided
in
an
unconscious manner, they
reveal the persons as they
really are, not as they
perceive
themselves
or
would like to be perceived.
* the results of the LscherColor-Diagnostic
contain
indications pertaining to
personal assessment and
special,
professional
recommendations as to how
psychological stress and the
resulting
physical
symptoms can be avoided.
* offers additional information

LIMITS
* the validity of the color
test
has
often
been
questioned.
* being easy to interpret
can be used also by non
professionals

INDICATIONS

Colors
Blue
Green

Red

Yellow
Violet
Brown
Black
Grey

Meanings
Depth of Feeling passive, concentric,
tranquility, calm, tenderness
Elasticity of Will passive, concentric,
defensive, persistence, selfesteem/assertion, pride, control
Force of Will ex-centric, active
aggressive, competitive, action, desire,
excitement, sexuality
Spontaneity ex-centric, active,
projective, aspiring, expectancy,
exhilaration
Identification unrealistic/ wishful
fulfillment, charm, enchantment
Bodily senses, indicates the bodys
condition
Nothingness, renunciation, surrender or
relinquishment
Non-involvement and concealment

The results of the Lscher-Color-Diagnostic


contain indications pertaining to personal
assessment
and
special,
professional
recommendations as to how psychological
stress and the resulting physical symptoms
can be avoided. It also offers additional
information for verbal and homeopathic
therapy.
The validity of the color test has often been
questioned.

INTERPRETATION
SUBJECT /
ADULT

TREE TEST

RORSARCH

LUSHER
COLOUR TEST
balanced
friendly

R
E
S
U
L
T
S

Rigurous in the
activity

Accepts and
enjoys new
tasks
Some adapting
Ignores physical
difficulties
harm
Realism- practical
Good
tendencies
relationship
skills
Organized
Good emotional
balance
open for new
Concerns with
experiences
female figures
Self confidenceEasy dealing
perseverancewith concurrent
arogance
stimuli
Well engaged in

intuitive
Emotional
sensitive
funny
egocentric
proud
ambitious
anxiety

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST (MURRAY


AND MORGAN)

HENRY MURRAY

The
TAT
was
developed during
the 1930s by the
American
psychologist
Henry A. Murray
and
lay
psychoanalyst
Christiana
D.
Morgan
at
the
Harvard Clinic at
Harvard
University

CHRISTIANA
MORGAN

ASSETS

LIMITS

*Access to covered or
*Difficulty
establishing
unconscious
reliability (test-retest)
part of personality
*Inadequate
* Less susceptibility to standardization
faking
*Inadequate
normative
* Global focus on personality data
*Subject to clinician bias
* Richness of data
*Questionable
validity
* Ease of Rapport
when the test is used in
isolation

INDICATIONS

the event shown in


the picture
what has led up to
it

what
the
characters in the
picture are feeling
and thinking
the outcome of the
event

ROSENZWEIG PICTURE FRUSTRATION TEST

Saul Rosenzweig (1907


2004) was an American
psychologist and
therapist.
Rosenzweig's study of
aggre-ssion lead to the
development of the
Rosenzweig PictureFrustration Study, a
test of latent
hostility.

ASSETS
* the overall purpose of
the study is find out
how the examinee
responds to
frustration and
frustrating
situations
* a test of latent
hostility

LIMITS
*

involves a verbal
response to a semiambiguous picture
scenario
* The reability of the
test-retest procedure
is marginal

INDICATIONS

The
subject
is
required
to
express his spontaneous attitude
using a few words or a phrase
for the first 16 pictures and
for the next 8 he has to respond
to an acusation or an injury.

The
Rosenzweig
Picture
Frustration
Study
(the
PF
Test),
tries to discover
our tolerance and
our
ways
of
responding to the
The subject is required
daily
induced
to
express
his
stress .
spontaneous
attitude
using a few words or a
phrase for the first 16
pictures and for the next
8 he has to respond to an
acusation or an injury.

INTERPRETATION

The score is based on a total of nine


factors, derived from combinations of
three types of aggression : obstacledominance, ego-defense, and needpersistence and three directions of
aggression: extraggression,
imaggression, and intraggression.

However, testers often analyze the


subject's responses more informally and
intuitively.

I am so
sorry
for
him. What
has
happened?

I am sorry for this


situation,what
makes you feel that
this watch is
crummy? I have
some other models
here...

You!

Many people come here with a lot of cheap things ... right? But I
know you are a smart guy and you realize that this is a Rolex. I
trust that we can help eachother.

I feel so
horrible, I am
so sorry please
forgive me, let
me see what I
can do to fix it.

You are a clever


man, this is why
I called you.
Please take a
seat, let me buy
you a drink.

Yeah...well..
.it`s nice of
you to say
sorry, not
many people
do this so
it`s OK

Now I am here
anyway so let us
talk a little about
why I am here

VERBAL ASOCIATIVE TEST

WHO LOOKS OUTSIDE IS DREAMING.


WHO LOOKS INSIDE WAKES UP
CARL GUSTAV JUNG

ASSETS
* Empirical proof of the
physiological difference
between conscious and
unconscious reactions.
* Used as a technique to
enhance the therapeutic
process
* Activates both conscious
and unconscious
phenomena or
complexes.

LIMITS

Associates
psychoanalytic
meanings to the words
There is no single
accepted list of words.
The efficacy has not
been determined.
Gives some quality
information that, in the
very least, can inspire
further investigation.

INDICATIONS
The examiner uses a list of inductive words and
invites the subject to pronounce as quicly as
possible , the first word which comes into his
mind.
Te examiner needs chronometer and a Protocol
sheet containing 5 columns :
1) the list of verbal stimuli
2) the subjects response
3) time of response
4) reproduction of response
5) observations ( unusual behavior)

STAGES OF THE TEST


1. ASOCIATION STAGE subject must answer to stimuli
words
2. REPRODUCTIVE STAGE subject must reproduce the
answers
3. INVESTIGATION STAGE the goal is to discover clusters
so the examiner asks questions like: What is the
connections between inducer word and the word
induced or What brings in your mind the word .

JUNGS POSSIBLE LIST OF INDUCTIVE WORDS

FINAL CHAPTER

By this project we intended to give you some


basic
information
regarding
projection
techniques.
We also tried to give you some examples by
applying some of them to our subjects.
We are now looking forward to your feedback:
questions,

critics

or

congratulations.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

This is a group project made by second year students at


Psychology Faculty from Ecological University Bucharest:
BADITA PAULA
CRISTINA

DRAW A PERSON

BUGA MIHAI

ROSENSWEIG THECHNIC

IONESCU ROXANA
PADUREAN
CRISTINA

PROJECT COORDINATOR

SCORTAN TEODOR

RORSCHACH TEST

TENE ANDREEA
COCHIRLEA
DANIEL

PPT and PPS PROJECT FORMAT

TANASESCU ANCA

DRAW A FAMILY TEST

FUSEA ANDREI

TAT

TREE TEST

LUSHER TEST OF COLOURS

MITITELU ANDREEA LUSHER TEST


INTRODUCTION TO PROJECTIVE
LITA ALIN
TECHNIQUES
NICOLAESCU
RALUCA
ASSETS AND LIMITS OF PROJECTIVE TESTS
GEORGESCU
IULIAN
VERBAL ASOCIATION TEST

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