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Israel Antiquities Authority /

65 / A Dagger Pommel, Two Scarabs and A Seal from Tomb 65 at Khirbet Nisya
' ,
Author(s): Baruch Brandl and
Source:
'Atiqot /

43 / 2002), pp. 37-48 ("


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'AtiqotXLlU,

2002

and A Seal

Pommel, Two Scarabs


from Tomb 65 at Khirbet

A Dagger

Baruch

Introduction
Discussed

here

are

four

Brandl

of the small

finds

that

described below in chronological order.1

Material.

Alabaster

2.3

cm,

(2.8 cm at the base).


Method of Manufacture:

max.

diam.

cm,

Carving, polishing

Excellent.

Workmanship:

Technical Details'. Drill marks from two drill


are

visible

clearly

the

on

of the

walls

perforations and the socket (Figs.

and Discussion2

3.85

and drilling.4

heads

1. Dagger Pommel (K12834;


Basket 6); Figs. 1-3.

Dimensions:

were discovered in Tomb 65 at Khirbet Nisya


during the 1985 season. The finds will be

Description

Nisya

1, 2). The

Reg. No. 86; L4;

gypsum.3

Ml

sm

VV^-V
Fig.

1. Dagger

mm
mi

If
i,

pommel.

0
1
Fig. 2. Drill marks on the dagger pommel
of the drill-heads.
reconstruction

and

2
I

of wooden handle attached


Fig. 3. Reconstruction
the dagger pommel and its rivets.

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to

38

Baruch

diameter of the narrower drill-head was 4.5 mm,


while that of the larger, tubular in shape,5 was
15 mm.
Preservation:

Broken

through

the perforations,

Brandl

Date

It seems, based on the above-cited parallels,


that dagger pommels of the oval type were used
throughout the Middle Bronze Age II:

only half of it has survived.


MB IIA. Gezer Tomb 1; Megiddo Tomb 911
Al; Megiddo Str. XIII-XIIIA
(Loud 1948: PI.

Description
A horizontal oval

object with a flat base.


out at the base in order to hold the

Hollowed

dagger's wooden handle (reconstruction, Fig.


3).6 Two antithetic and slightly diagonal

178:7, 8); Tell el-Far'ah (N) Tomb AD; Gibeon


Tomb 31; Moza Tomb 2.
MB IIB.

Gibeon Tombs 22, 39, 45; Jericho

perforations were drilled from the pommel's


sides toward the central socket7 (see Fig. 2) for

Tomb D 22.

the fastening

MB IIC. Tell Abu Hawam.11

rivets.8

Typology
This find belongs to the oval type,9 one of the
three most common types of Middle Bronze
Age dagger pommels.10 Dagger pommels of
this type have been found in more than a dozen
Canaanite sites, mainly in burial caves, some
close to their daggers. Examples have been
published from the following sites: Gezer
Tomb 1 (Macalister

1912 1:301, III: PI. 61:23);


Tell el-'Ajjul
(Petrie 1932:8, PI. 14:71;
1933:10, PI. 27:64; 1934:12, PI. 41:111, 118;

It may be possible to limit the date of the Kh.


Nisya dagger pommel to the second half of the
seventeenth century BCE on the basis of the
suggested date for the scarab found in the same
locus (see below, No. 2).
Archaeological

Context

Tomb

65 yielded a few MB II remains


(Livingston 1989:37-38, 98; this volume). It
seems that these, as well as the object discussed
here, belong to the first period of burial in the

Petrie, Mackay and Murray 1952:18, PI.


20:56); Tell Abu Hawam (Hamilton 1935:57

cave.

[No. 349]); Megiddo Tombs 911 Al, 1100 B


and 73 (Guy and Engberg 1938: Fig. 171:4, 9;
Pis. 118:2; 146:1,2; 163:5); Megiddo occupation

2. Scarab (K12837;
1); Fig. 4.

levels (Lamon and Shipton 1939: PI. 107:11;


Loud 1948: PI. 178:7, 8); Byblos (Dunand
1954:331, Fig. 369; 332 [No. 9998]); Na'an
PI. Ill:A);
Cemetery (Ben-Dor 1957:20-21,
Tell el-Far'ah (N) Tomb AD (de Vaux 1962:244,
= Mallet
1973:71, 124-125, Pis.
Fig. 4:1, 248
16:8, XIX: Photo 2:8 = Gerstenblith 1983: Fig.
40:7); Gibeon Tombs 22, 31, 39, 45 (Pritchard
1963:39,

118-119,

Fig. 30:24;

126-127,

Fig.

34:3; 48, 132-133, Fig. 46:13; 138-139, Fig.


51:46); Jericho Tomb D22 (Kenyon 1965:237,
111:4, 5, 7 and 258); Moza Tomb 2
(Sussman 1966:43, Fig. 3:1 = Gerstenblith
Fig.

1983: Fig. 39:7); Shechem (Kerkhof 1969:98


99, Fig. 30:13); Nazareth Tomb 1 (Bagatti
1969:264, Fig. 211:13; 314 [No. 13]).

Reg. No. 102; L4; Basket

Material: Steatite, yellow glaze.


Dimensions: L 13 mm, W 7+ (reconstructed 9)
mm,

H 5.5+mm.

Method of Manufacture: Carving, drilling and


glazing.
Workmanship: Mediocre.
Technical Details: Perforated, drilled from both
sides. Linear engravings. The hieroglyphic signs
and all other incisions have traces of a glaze.
Preservation: Broken; the left half of the scarab
is missing.
Scarab

Shape12

The head and clypeus, and the elytra and


pronotum

are completely

damaged.

Fortunately,

one of the sides (the right) has survived and


could be identified as Rowe's Side Type 13

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A Dagger

Two

Pommel,

Scarabs

Fig. 4. Scarab

from

used

the

Xllth

to

the

Hyksos

1936: PI. 35:13), while according to


Tufnell, Scarab Side e9 did not continue after
(Rowe

the Xlllth Dynasty (Tufnell 1984:38, Table 34), a


that is not completely

statement

accurate.13

of her cases
all

three

Design

The

vertical

oval

The

upper

that serves

signs

hieroglyphic
row

as a frame
in

arranged

contains

the sign

has

three
s3

five

rows:14

'protection'

[V 16]. The middle row has the sign nfr 'good'


[F 35] flanked by two 'nh 'life' [S 34] signs.
The lower row is occupied by the sign nb 'lord'

dated

to Group

careless

manner

the uppermost

that is particularly
si

and

sign

noticeable

in the complete

in
'nh.

the upper

and

in the central

signs

one

39

of her

found

scarabs,

three

IV, has
and

the other,

lower

two

identical.

at Jericho

different

have

or

signs,

are

row,

and
one

signs,

the same

on the

edges of the central row (Tufnell 1984: PI.


8:1337).
The

in the central

combination

row

of the Kh.

Nisya scarab ('nh


nfr 'nh) is known both on
inner

of different

as

(such

organization

Petrie 1932: PI. 8:153 = Rowe 1936: No. 358 =


Tufnell 1984: PI. 8b: 1435 = Keel 1997:222-223
[Tell el-'Ajjul No. 355]), and on scarabs and
bifacial oval plaques with the same inner
organization (Weill 1917:83, No. 37; Petrie
1930: PI. 31:318;

Kertesz 1991:59, Fig.l;

60

[No. 5]).

or'all'

[V 30].
The hieroglyphic signs were incised in a

either

Only

scarabs
Base

Nisya

impression.

above

Dynasty

Khirbet

No. 2 and its modern

1995a:53, 111.
e9 (Tufnell
or
Tufnell's
Scarab
Side
67:13),
= Keel 1995a:55, 111.
14:e9
1984:37, Fig.
69 :e9). According to Rowe, Side Type 13 was

from

1936: PI. 35:13 = Keel

(Rowe

a Seal

and

The
was

closest
found

to the

parallel
at

Tell

Jemmeh

Kh.

scarab

Nisya

1928:

(Petrie

PI.

19:1). It differs only in its lower sign, having a


s3 sign17

second

instead

of the nb sign.

It seems that both the Kh. Nisya and the Tell


scarabs

are

scarabs

with

later

derivatives

of Xllth

Typology
The scarab fits generally into Tufnell's Design
Class
Signs and Symbols,
3A3'Egyptian

Jemmeh

Varia' (Tufnell 1984: Pis. 8, 8b).15 This class,

touches and with antithetic signs on their sides:

due

to

its

many

is

components,

not

yet

completely sub-classified.16
The inner organization of the Kh. Nisya
scarabof

one,

horizontallycould

three

and
be

one

seen

signs
among

arranged
Tufnell's

examples (cf. Tufnell 1984: Pis. 8:1324, 1327,


1337; 8b: 1369, 1379, 1398, 1433), but in most

Dynasty
decorated

(1)

The

from

with

closest

the

the

s3

scarab

Egyptian

royal

names

that

were

sign

above

their

car

to that from

Museum,

Kh.

Nisya

Cairobears

the

name of Khakaure/Sesostris III and all the signs


that exist on ours (Petrie 1889: PI. 8:248 =
Newberry 1907:3, PI. 1:36009).
(2) Another scarabnow

in the Ashmolean

Museum,

to Nymare/Amme

Oxfordbelongs

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Baruch

40

Brandl

nemes III (Newberry 1906:119, PI. 9:26 =


Matouk 1971:18, 178 [No. 60] = Tufnell 1984:

scarab

from Tell

re-dated

el-'Ajjul

to the Xllth

PI. 53:3080).

XVth Dynasties (Keel 1997:154-155


[Tell el
'Ajjul No. 147], and see refrences therein).
(2) As shown and discussed above, Rowe's

Date

Side

The Kh. Nisya scarab should be considered as a


local

Canaanite

of the
half

XVth

of

the

timespan

or the

the

MB

IIC

first

half

13 or Tufnell's

Scarab

into the Hyksos

clearly

Side

e9

scarabs.

(3) Since this scarab is considered as a later

second
This
of

or

period19

continues

part

BCE.18

century

with

longer

to the earlier

Dynasty

(Hyksos)
seventeenth

equates

traditional

dated

product

Type

the

derivative

of Xllth

names

the negligent

and

unknown
an

alter

natively the later part of the 'extended' MB IIB

among

the

date

during

earlier

with

scarabs

Dynasty

standard
Xlllth
the

royal

of its signs

Dynasty
Hyksos

is

scarabs,
period

is

preferable.

period.20
The

suggested

scarab

is based

and

origin

the

on the following

date

for

the

Context

Archaeological
As No.

considerations:

1.

(1) The negligent standard of the hieroglyphic


The

signs:
any

such

Dynasty

s3

sign

sign

is altogether

either

on

Xllth

different
or

on

3. Scarab (K12825;
Fig. 5.

from
Xlllth

scarabs.

Material:

The complete 'nh and its triangular 'head'


can

be

compared

with

those

depicted

on

0
1

Dimensions:

Reg. No. 24; L2; Basket 3);

Bone.
L 14 mm,

11 mm,

H 8 mm.

Method of Manufacture: Carving and drilling.

1_

Fig. 5. Scarab

No. 3.

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A Dagger

Two

Pommel,

Scarabs

Workmanship: Mediocre.
Technical Details: Perforated, drilled from both
sides.

Hollowed-out

Preservation:

with

linear

engravings.

and

a Seal

pottery

from

Khirbet

in the tomb,22

and

Nisya

were

41

imported

to the

site from the Phoenician

coast together with


Phoenician pottery in the eleventh century BCE
(Maynor-Bikai 1983:405).
(2) One scarab is from the former Fouad S.

Complete.

The representation of the natural features is

Matouk Collection, now in the collection of the


Biblical Institute of the University of Freiburg,

very schematic.

Switzerland

Scarab

Shape21

Head

and

Shown

Clypeus:

as a square

structure

divided into three strips: the head (or the lower)


strip is divided vertically into four, while the
of two

consists

clypeus
above

horizontal

strips

one

and

separated

Pronotum:

from

Israel are included in the first volume of O.


Keel's

1997:92-93

corpus (Keel

41]; 546-548,604-605

the other.

Elytra

(Wiese 1990:92, 94 [572], 171


PI.
20:5704).
[5704],
(3) Three scarabs from private collections in

The

the elytra

['AkkoNos.

49,213]).

is

pronotum

by a double

[Afek No.

concave

Base Design

line with an additional groove between them on


the left side. The suture dividing the elytra is
made of three parallel lines that sag to the left

In a vertical

side.
Side: The side is a strip with the same thickness

from the rosette's central disc. Each pair of


curls, the upper as well as the lower, is twisted

as that of the base.

toward

This

Typology
The scarab's decoration belongs in general to
Petrie's 'Cross Spirals' group (Petrie 1925:16,

Keel

is actually absent from


=
typology (Rowe 1936: Pis. 32-35
111. 44; 44-45, 111. 46;
1995a:41^13,

scarab

Rowe's

shape

52-53, 111.67).
Unfortunately, scarabs with this shape are
known till now only from problematic contexts:
(1) Two scarabs were found in Tomb 86 in the

oval

that serves

as a frame,

a floral

motif is depicteda

four-leafed rosette with a

curl

pair

between

every

its common

of

leaves

emerging

leaf.

PI. 8:270-280, the closest parallel there being


seal No. 275). The 'Cross Patterns' are known
on scarabs since the early second millennium
PI. 23Class
(Tufnell 1984:125,
5), and

Cyprus (Karageorghis 1983:303 [Nos. 2 and


5], 308-309, PI. 182:2,5; Clerc 1983:384-387,

continue into the first (Keel 1995a: 183-184,


494). However, the pattern depicted on the
Kh. Nisya scarabwith
open curls that

Figs. 4, 5).

resemble

Iron

The

Age

tomb

at

Cemetery

was

dated

Palaeopaphos-Skales,

by

its excavator

to the

Cypro-Geometric III period (850-700 BCE) on


the basis of its pottery (Karageorghis 1983:
309). The scarabs were published as dating to
the seventh-sixth centuries BCE on the basis of
the erroneous

dating

(Clerc 1983:385-386;

of a scarab

found

at Kition

Clerc et al. 1976:91-92

scepter

the

hieroglyphic

[S39]has

for

sign

a shorter

timespan,

the

rwt

between

the mid-thirteenth and the end of the eleventh


century

BCE.

Scarabs

and

seals

with

such

a motif

are rare:

(1) One scarab (Petrie 1930: PI. 31:323) was


found in Tomb 227 at Tell el-Far'ah (S), dated by
Petrie to the XXth Dynasty (Petrie 1930: PI. 68).23

[Kit. 1004]).
It is clear that such a situation, in which the
scarabs are later than the pottery, is strange.

(2) A round seal from Tomb 218 at Lachish was


dated by its publisher to Iron Age III (Murray

Moreover, according to their motifs, it seems


that these scarabs are actually earlier than the

context

1953:372,
LB

Pis.

precedes

II-Iron

44A-45-.126).
that timespan

I.24

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However,
and

its

is actually

42

Baruch

(3) A parallel of the seal from Lachish comes


from Tomb 201 at Amathus, Cyprus (Smith
1900:99-100, Fig. 147:27).
(4) One such scarab was discovered in the
Western Cemetery at Meroe, in Tomb W846
(Dunham 1963:52, Fig. 37a-b:47, 53 23-M
716), which contained inter alia several earlier
Ramesside scarabs (for example Nos. 59, 63,
65 and 173).

Brandl

Seal Shape
A rounded pyramid with a rectangular base
(compare, e.g., with Buchanan and Moorey
PI. 4 [No. 112]). Each two of its
faces
form a pair, one triangular with a
opposite
rounded top (with the longer base-line) and the
1988:20,

other trapezoidal (with the shorter base-line).


This seal is perforated both lengthwise and
breadthwisea

uncommon

very

feature.

Since

the drilling into each of the faces was more-or


Date

less perpendicular (Fig. 6) the seal could have

The scarab should be dated to LB II/Iron I, or


from the mid-thirteenth to the end of the

been

to an additional component.

eleventh century BCE, on the basis of the


scarab's shape and its motif:

Base

simultaneously

on

strung

a necklace

and

Design

Scarab Shape: The two scarabs from Tomb 86


at Palaeopaphos-Skales
should be dated to the

The base contains several groups of deep and

eleventh century BCE as discussed above. All

and

other

to

outstretched legs and arms of which the head is

Production Group'
to the thirteenth

now lost. Below that figure is a chain of six

of

parallels

Keel's

the

same

'Ramesside

Mass

that is generally

dated

eleventh

shape

belong

BCE.25

centuries

The Motif: The above-mentioned scarabs with


the parallel motif are dated to Iron 1 and LB
IIB/Iron I respectively.
However, on the basis of its archaeological
context, the timespan of the Kh. Nisya scarab
could

be shortened

to Iron

here

seems

connected

to

belong

to

the

latter

presents

that

depressions

figure

serve

may

with

as

plain. The other groups on both sides of the


figure are unidentifiable. The method of
creating motifs by a series of connected
drillings is known from the fourth millennium
BCE where it was a quite common technique
(Buchanan and Moorey 1984:22, PI. 11 [Nos.

Material: Bone.
Dimensions: L 20 mm, W 17 mm (base) 9 mm
(top), H 18 mm.

was

[Nos.

used

42, 43]).

on stone

seals.

Typology
group

Reg. No. 168; L6; Basket 13);

this technique

Usually

The

assemblage.

4. Seal (K12847;
Fig. 6.

group

that the larger

a human

(Pittman and Aruz 1987:63

Most of the finds in Tomb 65, except for the


few MB II objects, belong to Iron I. The object
described

It seems

depressions.

central

165, 166]); sporadic appearances continued


into the second millennium BCE as well

I.

Context

Archaeological

connected

seal

on the one

of truncated

or square

bases

hand

fits into

pyramids

coined

with

as 'Anchor

Keel's

Iron

rectangular
Seals'

(Keel

1994). On the other hand, it is compatible with


the small group of Iron I bone seals (Grant
1932:21, 82-83, PI. 48:1108 = Keel 1990:386

Method of Manufacture: Carving and drilling.


Workmanship: Mediocre.

[No. 26], 388, 111.94; Grant 1934:43, Fig. 3:19,


51; Brandl 1993a: 217-218 [No. 16]; Khne
and Salje 1996:120, PI. 16, Fig. 19, Plan 13

Technical Details:

[No. 66]).

Perforated, drilled from all

four sides.
Preservation:
two

of them

Almost

complete.

on the decorated

Four

scars,

base.

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A Dagger

Pommel,

Two

Scarabs

Fig. 6. Seal

and

a Seal

from

Khirbet

Nisya

43

No. 4 with its perforations

and modern

All

impression.

the

seem

be

(2)

The seal should be dated to Iron I on the basis

producedin

of both its typological

(3) The four small finds from Kh. Nisya have

shape,

as well

Archaeological

groupsthat

as that of its raw

of its

material.

Context

As No. 3.

not

objects

to

Date

contributed

only

locally

Canaan.

the local

history

methods

(the

to

the

reconstruction

of the site, but also


dagger

pommel)

of

to technical
and

to

the

diversity of the corpus of glyptic finds in both


MB

II and

Iron

I.

Conclusions
The

conclusions

can

be summarized

Acknowledgements

as follow:

(1) The four objects fit well chronologically


with the other finds in Tomb 65.

I would

David

like

to

express

Livingston,

the

my

gratitude

director

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to

of

Dr

the

Baruch

44

Brandl

excavations, for his invitation to publish these


finds that were briefly mentioned in Livingston
1989:37-38. I would also like to thank Gary

Special thanks are due to the editors and the


readers of this article for their contributions.

Lipton for making the firstcontact between us.

Notes
1

The

No.

were photographed

objects
3

was

(scarabK12825)
while

Halbreich,
author's

were

211:13)

that only one cross-pin

Sarah

by

and reconstructions

the drawings

all other objects

by Carmen

of
the

under

Hersch,

guidance.

All

material
Ella

by

identifications
of

head

Altmark,

sites as a basis

from collections

Canaanite

from

parallels

Israelite

have

Hieroglyphic
brackets

as

used

Early

Parallels

only when

they are

are

signs
they

referred
in

appear

to

in

square

Gardiner's

Sign-list

(Gardiner 1973).

Material

earlier

erroneously

of dagger

publishers
1912

1938:

by

as

PI. 61:23,

PI. 118:2;

of the

some

pommels

III:

1:301;

and Engberg

(Guy

quartzite

24)

For

an

unfinished
and

polishing

dagger

the drilling

PI.

1938:

the same,

showing

Dunand

118:2.
see

For

Petrie

= Mallet
Fig. 4:1

16:8;

Deverand

Lance

Dan

the

1986:

pommel

1973:124-125,

111. 32, PI.

1992:53,

at Tel
111. 31,

1; 1994:57,

Several

theoretical

reconstructions

see Garstang

published,

1932:46,

have

PI. 37:1,

been

2; Petrie

1933: Pis. 18:7,19:10 [=Tufnell 1980:43, Fig. 5:16];


Guy

and

1938:

Engberg

reconstruction

of

bronze

has

plating

171:9.

Fig.

Petrie's

handle

whose

crushed

survived

seems

to be

sheet

the best

(Petrie 1932:8, PI. 14:71).


7

The

impression

given

some

schematic

that the dagger


drawings
pommels'
perforations
were made by one horizontal
drilling (Petrie 1934:
= Mallet
PI. 41:110-119;
de Vaux 1962:244,
Fig. 4:1
1973:124-125,

PI.

16:8;

Bagatti

1969:264,

Murray

Mackay

of the two perforations

2. Each

Fig.

the central
PI.

1952:

has a small

of the other (Dunand

in the direction

deviation

1939:191,

Fig.

177 [No. 3024]).


3. One

of the perforations

(Petrie,

socket

9.14:2published
toward

These

rivets

were

3).

Fig.

most

Albrighfs

copper

cross-pin

alter
PI.

1931:

of wood

or of

see our reconstruction,


that

suggestion

fastened

or

down)

probably

(and

the

toward

1993b:248,

(Brandl

part (Fitzgerald

material

was

pommel

drilled

PI. 20:53).

upside

its lower

other perishable

1952:

are drilled diagonally

part of the central

Fig.

is not completely

and Murray

Mackay

upper

the

dagger

to the dagger-handle

by

should

1938:57)

(Albright

be

rejected, since there were no traces of any metal rivet


or pin in any one of the dozens
of dagger pommels

staves

differently

staffs

knobs

their

by

to this type were


publishers,

mainly

were not found with them: heads


PI.

1933:10,

(Petrie

walking

27:63,

1935:57

(Hamilton

PI.

1934:12,

(Petrie

64),

[No.

of
of

heads

41:110-119),
349];

Bagatti

1969:314, Fig. 211 [No. 13]), a stick-head(Lamon


and

1939:

Shipton

PI.

107:11),

petite

cupule

(Dunand 1939:191, Fig. 177; 192 [No. 3024];


1954:331,

Fig.

332

369;

[No.

or a macehead

9998])

(Kerkhof 1969:98-99, Fig. 30:5).


10The

other

bevelled
these

by

toward

and

identified

by a different type of

bidirectional

narrows

PI.

PI. l;Ilan 1996:235, Figs. 4.66 [bottom],4.106.2).

Petrie,

(cf.

when the daggers


1025

indicate

found in excavations
to date.
9
Several of the objects belonging

PI. 51:13.

bored

can

points

de

drawings

PI. 41:113;

refer to the find from Tomb

(Biran

are

13)

20:54).

40:11).

perforations

section

1934:

1962:244,

drill-head,

socket

1939:191

without

pommel

of the side

Vaux

For a dagger

following

natively

found at Gezer, see Deverand


Lance 1986: PI. 51:13.
5 For a
the mark of the
good photograph
showing
of such a tubular
see Guy and
drill-head,
edge
Engberg

The

or marble

Fig. 177, 192 [No. 3024]; 1954:331 Fig. 369, 332


[No. 9998]).

No.

drilling:

4. Both perforations

identified

(Macalister

110

1963:32,

132-133:

48,

99-100;

1. One of the perforations


of the

and

for future studies.

been

metal

to the discussion.

essential

Nos.

suggestions

them to the wooden

Pritchard

1938:57;

(Albright

111:

were

the

conservation
laboratory of the IAA.
2
An attempt has been made
to list most
excavated

handle

and Pritchard's
fastened

misleading.

author's

confirmed

and by Albright

by Ilan Sztulman.
drawn

two

types

(or biconical)
three

types

into

are

tops.
his

the

domed

and

the

G. Philip

consolidated

globular

type

(Philip

1989:113, 117, 120, 121, 126, 139, 169, 435-441,


445^49,472,493,499).
All

three types

have

been

found

in sites

such

as

Tell el-'Ajjul (Petrie 1933: PI. 27:63, 64, 66; 1934:


PI. 41:110-119;

Petrie,

Mackay

and

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Murray

1952:

A Dagger

Two

Pommel,

Scarabs

PI. 20:52-56), Megiddo (Loud 1948: Pis. 178:3,7, 8;


180:40), Gibeon (Pritchard 1963: Figs. 24:99, 100;
26:17,

18;

30:24;

34:3;

43:13;

and

51:46)

Jericho

(Kenyon 1965: Fig. 111:1-7).


11 In

to Tell

regard

few that belong


a

to MB

piriform

burnished

dipper

She

16]).

juglet,
scarab

5 and Fig.
No.

II. These
with

juglet

and a 'Hyksos'
1 = Keel

bowl

Balensi

Hawam,

period,
be

BCE

should
she

publication

and

Abu

[Tell

caution

in

Rowe

Frontispiece;

these

finds

1936:

PL

Tufnell

this

also

scarab

Ward

1978:

78 and

Fig.

conclusion

Keel

two

using

its

mentioning

and (b) referring in her

in later scarabs,

table only to appearances

by

not

(a)

approaches:

continuation

should

that were observed

in more

she presents

with the same

Side

some

later (Hyksos)

e9 (Tufnell

1984:

Pis.

scarabs

corpus

used)

among

sides,

only

while

Dynasty

(where

the scarabs
18

28 have

are

dated

with e9

to the

either a longer

are

types

from Tell el-'Ajjul

400/o)

(or

side

Tufnell's

XHIth
or

timespan

are dated to the XVth Dynasty.


14
survived,
Although
only one sign has completely
the reconstructions
of the others are obvious
due to
their small

number

and their symmetric

Khirbet

of

that

signs
169,

447),

groupings.
17
The only other seal
oval

Koptos,

and

shapes
of

development

see Brandl

classification

[3A3];

with two s3 signsa


by the same

1896:

(Petrie

Egypt

159

to provide

attempt

found

plaquewas

PI.

Keel

the different

1995a:

(Keel

any

45

see

described

order

without

Nisya

classification

of this, Keel

in alphabetical

new

bifacial

excavator

at

1925:

PI.

25:127;

16:1202).

18

It is generally

that the Hyksos

accepted

the XVth

Dynasty

(Tufnell

1978:87;

started at the earliest

ofTell
19
For

the view

el-Dab'a

whole

MB

that the XVth

IIC

(or MB

III)

BCE
Bietak

34;

the timespan

later, during

Stratum E2 (Bietak

or

period

c. 1650

Table

1984:196-201,

or a few years

1984:473)

1991:55).

Dynasty

the

equals

see

period

for example

Dever 1992:41^17;
Mazar
1990:191-196.
20
For the view that MB IIC equals only the later part
of

the

Hyksos

Bichrome

with

period,

Ware

21
22

Seen.

12.

This

is also

the Late

from

tombs

the

1600

of

appearance

BCE

see

on,

Bietak

Oren 1997:271.

the situation

Cypriot

with the Cypriot


found

periods

of the Cypro-Geometric

23

and

For its date see Brandl


It was

found

contained

seals

of

in that cemetery

in

Porada

(See

periods

scarab
209)

(Tuftiell,
dated

1986:247,

n. 65a.

1982:384,

in a repository,

Middle

and Late
Murray

east of Room

Bronze

25

or later (Murray

Dynasty

of that group

Scarabs

between

1250

Variants

b and

continued
even
340).

and

were

1150
Keel

g).

dated

BCE

to Iron IIA
He

eleventh

dated

centuries
Keel

BCE)

the group

BCE

of the XXth

to the second

half

n. 4. For

XXIst

(1130-945

1990:338

(Keel

1995b:

(Keel

that they

and possibly

to the thirteenth

dated the parallels

Tufnell's

Dynasty

BCE)

to

1990:89-94,

first suggested

(1000-900

later

by Wiese

(Wiese

to Iron I (1150-1000

and a

1953:203-204,

andDiringer

to the XlXth

A, that

sherds

Age

1953:363,368, Pis. 43^I3A:27).

his corpus,

arrangements.
15 On the
history
design

elaboration

1995a:158-246.
16
As a result

24

38:2576;

42:2691,2692 and 2712; 43:2729; 44:2763; 56:3212


[Khyan]; 57:3261, 3262 [Mayebre/Sheshi];60:3366,
3369,3372A [YKB (MW)] and 60:3392 [Sekhaenre]).
In Keel's

some

from

1983).

than 100/o of the scarabs.


Actually,

a Seal

!984:477,479,482^183;

reached

selective

VI

of the

23;

19953:20, Fig. 1.

later

If Balensi's

pommel

1990:62,

to Stratum

1993:9).

Artzy

Uehlinger

that they

In

be assigned to the MB IIC stratum.


12
See diagrams
the parts
showing
beetle

n.

Hawam

and then a date around

is correct, the dagger

suggestion

red

Cypriot

considered.

related

Herrera

(Balensi,

1985:66-67,

(Balensi

1600

a fragment
base,

Red-on-Black

with due

suggested

excavation

include
button

1997:10-11

were all from a single

13

identified

the Stratum V finds in Hamilton's

among
of

Abu

and

In

128-129).

mentioned
Dynasty

above
and

the

BCE).

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