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Automatic Gate Lamp circuit

This circuit lights the Premises of House around 6 pm and turns off in the morning. Its working
is fully automatic and uses the light sensing property of LDR. Unlike other LDR based circuits, it
will not cause lamp flickering during the light transition so that CFL and fluorescent lamps can
be used. It also exploits the Schmitt trigger action of timer IC 555 for a clean switching.

LDR and timer IC 555 are used in the circuit for automatic switching. Light Dependent Resistor
offers very high resistance around 10 Meg ohms in dark but in light it has only 100 ohms or less
resistance. So it it is an ideal component to switch on lamps based on the presence or absence of
sun light. Here it is used to trigger the timer IC 555 which is designed as a Schmitt trigger.
Schmitt Trigger
The popular Timer IC 555 has two internal comparators. These are Threshold comparator and
Trigger comparator. The Set and Reset action of these comparators can be used for On/ Off
actions. Here the IC 555 functions as a Bistable with Schmitt trigger action. The upper
comparator (Threshold comparator) of IC 555 trips at 2/3 of the supply voltage and the lower
comparator(Trigger comparator) trips at 1/3 of the supply voltage. In the circuit, the inputs (pin6
and pin2) of both the comparators are shorted and connected to the junction of LDR and the
Preset VR1.
In day light, LDR passes more current and the current into the upper comparator (pin6) is above
2/3 Vcc. This resets the internal Flip-Flop of IC. At the same time, the current into the lower
comparator (pin2) is more than 1/3 Vcc. Both these condition causes low output from IC1.

Automatic Gate Lamp Circuit

When the light falling on the LDR decreases, its resistance increases, and the current flowing to
the upper and lower comparators of IC1 decreases. The input voltage of upper comparator
decreases below 2/3 Vcc and that of lower comparator below 1/3 Vcc. This causes, high output
from pin 3 of IC1. This triggers T1 and the relay connected to its collector turns on. The lamp
gets AC through the Common and NO (Normally Open) contacts of the relay. Only the Phase
line is connected through the relay contacts. The neutral line goes as such.
VR1 adjusts the sensitivity of LDR at the particular light level at which the lamp turns on.
Capacitor C2 maintains the base voltage of T1 for clean switching action and also avoids relay
clicking. Diode D1 removes back e.m.f when T1 switches off.

IC 555 Internal Circuit

Note: LDR should be placed away from the Lamp light but it should get day light. Use 6 Volt
PCB relay. Wiring connections are given in the diagrams.
PCB Relay and Wiring connection

Caution: Take extreme care while connecting AC line to the relay contacts. Do not touch the
relay contacts when the circuit is connected to mains. Provide sleevings to relay contacts to avoid
accidental shorting.
PCB Relay