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Applied Research NET 412

Research Project:
Key Technologies and
Communication Standards for
Internet of Things

Nurgeldi Pudakov


1. Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
............... 3
2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. IoT Definitions
4. Examples of Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Fundamental IoT Mechanisms and Key Technologies. . . . .
Structural Aspects of the
IoT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Key IoT
Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..... 8
Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RFID Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Evolving IoT Communication Standards
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
IETF IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy
Networks (LLNs) . . 10
Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
. . . . . 17
7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
8. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

This project explores main technologies involved in the concept of Internet
of Things (IoT) as well as the emerging standards of IoT/M2M (machine-tomachine) communication. The project holds an educational purpose. Literary
analysis was conducted in order to achieve detailed and an overall view of
the IoT in terms of communication technologies and standards.

2. Introduction
The potential of Internet of Things (IoT) is a world where billions of objects,
interconnected over public or private Internet Protocol (IP) networks, can
sense, communicate and share information. These interconnected objects
can collect data regularly, analyze and use it to provide a wealth of high
quality information for planning, management and decision making. This is
the world of the Internet of Things. The concept of the IoT and the term
Internet of Things were invented by the co-founder of the MIT Auto-ID
Center, Kevin Ashton, in 1999 and only recently the IoT has gained its
relevance to the practical world mainly because of the growth of mobile

industry, cloud computing and data analytics. Since then, many visionaries
have recognized the phrase Internet of Things as the general idea of
everyday objects that are readable, locatable, addressable, and controllable
via the Internet, irrespective of the communication means (whether via RFID,
wireless LAN, WAN or other means). The objects in the IoT are not only the
electronic devices we encounter in daily basis or the equipment of higher
technology, but things that we do not ordinarily think of as electronic at all such as food and clothing. Examples of things include people, location (of
objects), time Information (of objects), condition (of objects). These things
of the real world will be seamlessly integrated into the virtual world by the
IoT, enabling ubiquitous connectivity at any time.

3. IoT Definitions
The overall definition of the IoT is still evolving as it is the new Internet
application and its standards are in the process of development and
implementation. However, as mentioned in Chapter 2, the concept of the IoT
was invented by Kevin Ashton, the co-founder of the MIT Auto-ID Center, and
formulated as the architecture that includes four elements:

Passive radio frequency identification (RFIDs), such as Class-1

Generation-2 UHF RFIDs, operating in the 860 960 MHz range 1,
introduced by the electronic product code (EPC) Global Consortium
Readers plugged to a local (computing) system, which read the EPC
A local system offering IP connectivity that collects information pointed
by the EPC through a protocol called object naming service (ONS)
EPC Information Services (EPCIS) servers that process incoming ONS
requests and returns physical markup language (PML) files, for
example, XML documents carrying meaningful information linked to

Despite the formulation of the concept by its inventor, different perspectives

of commercial and non-commercial organizations in the ICT industry on the
IoT concept have created definition of it in multiple variations. The material
includes several of these definitions to provide the overall perception of the
IoT concept by the industry:

The Internet of Things consists of networks of sensors attached to objects

and communication devices, providing data that can be analyzed and used
to initiate automated actions. The data also generate vital intelligence for
planning, management, policy, and decision-making.
Proposed by Cisco
A global network infrastructure, linking physical and virtual objects through
the exploitation of data capture and communication capabilities. This
infrastructure includes existing and evolving Internet and network
developments. It will offer specific object identification, sensor and
connection capability as the basis for the development of independent
federated services and applications. These will be characterized by a high
degree of autonomous data capture, event transfer, network connectivity,
and interoperability.
Proposed by Coordination and Support Action (CSA) for Global RFID-related
Activities and Standardization (CASAGRAS)
A global ICT infrastructure, linking physical objects and virtual objects (as
the informational counterparts of physical objects) through the exploitation
of sensor and actuator data capture, processing and transmission
capabilities. As such, the IoT is an overlay above the generic Internet,
offering federated physical-object-related services (including, if relevant,
identification, monitoring, and control of these objects) to all kinds of
Proposed by France Telecom
The Internet of Things links the objects of the real world with the virtual
world, thus enabling anytime, anyplace connectivity for anything and not
only for anyone. It refers to a world where physical objects and beings, as
well as virtual data and environments, all interact with each other in the
same space and time.
Proposed by IoT European Research Cluster (IERC)
A more reflective definition of the IoT concept was produced by International
Telecommunication Union (ITU):

A global information and communication infrastructure, enabling automated

chains of actions (not requiring explicit human intervention), facilitating
information assembly and knowledge production and contributing to
enrichment of human life by interconnecting physical and logical objects
based on standard and interoperable communication protocols and through
the exploitation of data capture and communication capabilities, supported
by existing and evolving information and communication technologies.

4. Examples of Application
This chapter provides a list of possible applications than can be developed by
the Internet of Things (IoT), although the list is incomplete and is limited in
the temporal domain (with new applications being added on an ongoing
basis). Also, the chapter includes several examples of already functioning IoT
A long list of possible applications includes, but is not limited to, the
following (Libelium):

Smart Cities
Smart Parking (monitoring the availability of parking spaces in the
Traffic Congestion (monitoring of vehicles and pedestrian levels to
optimize driving and walking routes)
Smart Lightning (intelligent and weather adaptive lightning in the
street lights)
Waste Management (detection of rubbish levels in the trash
containers to optimize the trash collection routes)

diversions according to climate conditions and unexpected events

like accidents or traffic jams)
Smart Environment

Smart Roads (intelligent Highways with warning messages and

Air pollution (control of CO2 emissions of factories, pollution

emitted by cars)

Smart Water

City water monitoring (monitoring the quality of tap water in the


Chemical leakages detection in the rivers (detecting leakages

and wastes of factories in the rivers)
Water leakage detection (detecting water leakages in water tanks
and pipes of the city)

Smart Grid (intelligent energy consumption monitoring and

Smart Security

Perimeter Access Control (detection of people in non-authorized

Liquid Detection (in data centers, warehouses)

Smart Retail

Supply Chain Control (monitoring of storage conditions along the

supply chain and product tracking for traceability purposes)

Smart Product Management (control of rotation of products in

shelves and warehouses to automate restocking processes)

Smart Logistics
Quality of Shipment Conditions (monitoring of vibrations,
strokes, container openings or cold chain maintenance for insurance
Item Location (search of individual items in big surfaces like
warehouses or harbors)
Storage Incompatibility Detection (warning emission on
containers storing inflammable goods closed to others containing
explosive material)
Fleet Tracking (control of routes followed for delicate goods like
medical drugs, jewels or dangerous merchandises)
Home Automation
Energy and Water Use (energy and water supply consumption
monitoring to obtain advice on how to save cost and resources)

Intrusion Detection Systems (detection of windows and doors

openings and violations to prevent intruders)
Fall Detection (remote assistance for elderly or disabled people
living independent)
Sportsmen Care (monitoring of sportsmens performance and
health status)
Patients Surveillance (monitoring of conditions of patients inside
hospitals and in old people's home)

5. Fundamental IoT Mechanisms and Key

This chapter explores the fundamental mechanisms and technologies that
are involved in the design and deployment of the IoT. A hybrid view of the IoT
both as a service concept and as an infrastructure is provided in this part of
the material.

5.1 Structural Aspects of the IoT

IoT or machine-to-machine (M2M) nodes have several design constraints and
requirements, the most important of them are the following (Minoli, 2013):

Low power (with the requirement that they will run potentially for years
on batteries)
Low cost (total device cost in single-digit dollars)
Significantly large amount of devices than in a LAN environment
Severely limited code and RAM space (fixed-size code: MAC, IP, and
data to execute the embedded application in, for example, 32K of
flash memory, using 8-bit microprocessors)
New types of user interface for configuration (e.g., using gestures or
interactions involving the physical world)

Requirement for simple wireless communication technology (the IEEE

802.15.4 standard is suitable for the physical and link layers)

The M2M communication has specific requirements and properties due to its
format. Table 1.0 shows these characteristics of the M2M communication in
some areas of IoT application.
Table 1.0 Properties and Requirements of M2M Applications



Smart Meters




Message size



Traffic pattern



Device density
Very high (up





Very high



(few msec)




to 10000 per cell)

Power efficiency




Very high

Very high

(<200 ms)


Courtesy: A. Maedar, NEC Laboratories Europe.


5.2 Key IoT Technologies

The following content of the material describes the main technologies which
serve as the fundamental of the IoT.

5.2.1 Sensor Technology

A sensor network is an infrastructure with primary functions such as sensing

(measuring), computing, and communication elements that gives an
administrator the ability to instrument, observe, and react to events and
phenomena in a specified environment. Usually, the administrator of the
sensor network is a civil, governmental, commercial, or industrial entity. The
operating environment of such networks can be the physical world, a
biological system, or an information technology (IT) framework. Typical
applications include, but are not limited to, data collection, monitoring,
surveillance, and medical telemetry (Sohraby, Minoli & Znati, 2007).
There are four basic components in a sensor network: (i) an assembly of
distributed or localized sensors; (ii) an interconnecting network (usually, but
not always, wirelessbased); (iii) a central point of information clustering; and
(iv) a set of computing resources at the central point (or beyond) to handle
data correlation, event-trending, querying, and data mining. Because the
interconnecting network is generally wireless. These systems are known as
wireless sensor networks (WSNs).
The sensing and control technology includes electric and magnetic field
sensors; radio-wave frequency sensors; optical, electro-optic, and infrared
sensors; radars; lasers; location/navigation sensors; earthquake-oriented and
pressure sensors; undersea submarine traffic sensors based on sonars;
controllable environmental sensors for sensing weather conditions such as
wind, humidity, heat.
Sensors operate and are interconnected via a series of multi-hop shortdistance low-power wireless links. They typically utilize the Internet for longhaul delivery of information to a point (or points) of final data collection and
analysis. In general, within the sensor field, WSNs employ contentionoriented random-access channel sharing and transmission techniques that
are now incorporated in the IEEE 802 family of standards (Sohraby, Minoli &
Znati, 2007).


Sensors differ in physical size; they range from nanoscopic-scale devices to

mesoscopic-scale devices at one end, and from microscopic-scale devices to
macroscopic-scale devices at the other end. Nanoscopic (also known as
nanoscale) refers to objects or devices on the order of 1 to 100 nm in
diameter; mesoscopic scale refers to objects between 100 and 10,000 nm in
diameter; the microscopic scale ranges from 10 to 1000 mm, and the
macroscopic scale is at the millimeter-to-meter range.
Sensors may be passive and/or be self-powered. Some sensors may require
relatively low power from a battery or line feed. High power-consumption
sensors such as radars may require very high power feeds.

5.2.2 RFID Technology

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is a method of identifying unique items
using radio waves. Typical RFID systems consist of three components:
readers (interrogators), antennas and tags (transponders) that carry the data
on a microchip. The data carrier, tag, transmits information to a reader within
the safe reading range, which can forward the information to a host
computer. RFID technology is used in various applications, including security
and access control, transportation and supply chain tracking. It is an efficient
technology for collecting multiple pieces of data on items for tracking and
counting purposes in a cooperative environment. Figure 1.0 illustrates the
communication mechanism of RFID tag.


Figure 1.0 Communication mechanism of RFID tag

One of the methods of object identification for tracking purpose is the EPC
(Electronic Product Code) which provides a standardized unique serial
number for an object in the EPCglobal Network, with an Object Name Service
(ONS) providing the adequate Internet addresses to access or update specific
data of the object. Typically, EPC codes used for active RFIDs are transmitted
in clear text format; however, some new protocols are now emerging that
can solve the privacy issue of the IoT. One example of such protocols is host
identity protocol (HIP) within which the identity of active RFIDs are not
exposed in clear text, but protect the identity value (e.g., an EPC) using
cryptographic procedure (Ilie, Kemeny, Egri & Monostor, 2006).
RFID primarily operates in the following frequency bands (ISO 18000):
Low Frequency (125/134KHz) most commonly used for access control and
asset tracking.
Mid-Frequency (13.56 MHz) Used where medium data rate and read
ranges are required.
Ultra High-Frequency (850 MHz to 950 MHz and 2.4 GHz to 2.5 GHz) offer
the longest read ranges and high reading speeds.


6. Evolving IoT Communication Standards

This chapter is dedicated to the evolving communication standards which are
emerging in the IoT market.

6.1 IETF IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy

Networks (LLNs)
Low power and lossy networks (LLNs) are a class of networks in which both
the routers and the connection between them are constrained. LLN routers
typically operate with constraints on processing power, memory, and battery
power. Their connections are characterized by high loss rates, low data rates,
and instability. To solve these routing issues, IETF ROLL Working Group
developed a new mechanism, called the IPv6 Routing Protocol for LLNs (RPL).
LLNs can comprise up to thousands of routers. All of the In LLNs, traffic flows
can be point-to-point (between devices inside the LLN), point-to-multipoint
(from a central control point to a subset of devices inside the LLN), and
multipoint-to-point (from devices inside the LLN toward a central control
point). These types of traffic flows are supported by the IPv6 Routing Protocol
for LLNs (RPL), a protocol by proposed by IETF.
As shown in the Figure 2.0, existing routing protocols fail to meet one or
more communication metrics for IoT applications.

Figure 2.0 Survey of routing protocol for IoT applications


Communication metrics for IoT applications include:

Routing State - limited memory resources of low-power nodes

Loss Response - response to link failures
Control cost - constraints on control traffic
Link&Node cost - link and node properties are considered when
choosing routes

In order to be useful in a wide range of LLN application domains, RPL

separates packet processing and forwarding from the routing optimization
objectives such as minimizing energy, minimizing latency and satisfying
constraints. A RPL implementation, in support of a particular LLN application,
will include the necessary Objective Function(s) as required by the
application (RFC 6550).
The functioning of the RPL routing protocol is based on the construction of
Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), a directed graph of a network with no cycles in
connection of its nodes. A DAG consists of one or more DODAGs (Destination
Oriented DAGs). DODAG is a DAG rooted at a single destination, as illustrated
in Figure 2.1. There is a DODAG for each single destination in the network.

Figure 2.1 DAG and DODAG

DODAG determines the position of each node in the network by the
calculated rank of the nodes. The calculation of this rank is performed the
Objective Function (OF), which defines how to interpret one or more metrics
and constraints, defined in Routing metrics used for path calculation in lowpower and lossy networks (RFC 6551), into a rank. Each node has a set of
parent nodes, and they are also specified by OF. Different DODAGs based on
a same OF are identified by a RPLInstanceID.


In topology building and negotiating metrics such as link reliability, link

latency, node power state, RPL uses three types of messages:

DAG information object (DIO)carries information that helps a node to

discover an RPL instance, get its configuration parameters, and select
DODAG parents;
DAG information solicitation (DIS)solicit a DODAG information object
from an RPL node;
Destination advertisement object (DAO)used to propagate
destination information upward along the DODAG.

When a new node is connected to a RPL network, it first listens to receive

DODAG Information Object (DIO) messages. Neighboring nodes periodically
broadcast DIO messages into the network. The node will trigger the
neighboring nodes to send a DIO message by broadcasting a DODAG
Information Solicitation (DIS) message, if no DIO message is received. The
information inside the DIO message from the neighboring nodes allows the
Objective Function (OF) to select the preferred parent in the network. The
DODAG has been constructed for a specific OF and for each root when all the
nodes of the network have selected a preferred parent. Routing in RPL is
hierarchical. Packets are forwarded by each node to its parent node, until
they reach the root. Destination Advertisement Object (DAO) messages are
used to create downward routes. DAO messages are forwarded by each node
to its parent node. This process continues, until the messages reach the root.
There are two modes of RPL operation: Storing and Non-Storing mode.
In the Non-Storing operation mode, packets will first travel all the way to a
DODAG root and only then they will travel to the destination node. In the
Storing mode, packets are forwarded towards the destination node by a
common ancestor of the source and the destination prior to reaching a
DODAG root. If the destination is on the route towards the root, the
destination node will not forward the message (Ishaq, 2013).
RPL supports many-to-one and one-to-many traffic flows. In RPL protocol,
stateless nodes can store only configuration parameters and a list of parent
nodes. The protocol constructs paths to destination, considering link and
node properties.

6.2 Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)


The IETF constrained RESTful environments (CoRE) Working Group has

recently started to work on a new standardization The Constrained
Application Protocol (CoAP).
CoAP is a simple application layer protocol purpose of which is to allow
electronic (IoT/M2M) devices to communicate interactively over the Internet.
CoAP is a protocol specially developed for wireless sensor network (WSN),
which is a network of actuators that are monitored and remotely controlled
through the Internet. CoAP can be categorized as web transfer protocol for
communication of M2M application nodes in constrained networks.
CoAP provides a request/response interaction model between application
endpoints, supports built-in discovery of services and resources, and includes
key concepts of the Web such as URIs and Internet media types. CoAP is
designed to easily interface with HTTP for integration with the Web while
meeting specialized requirements such as multicast support, very low
overhead, and simplicity for constrained environments (RFC 7252).
Some key aspects of the protocol are as follows:

easy mapping with HTTP;

low header overhead and easy parsing;
support for the discovery of resources;
simple resource subscription process;
simple caching and proxy capabilities;
asynchronous message exchanges.

The interaction model of CoAP is analogous to the client/server model of

HTTP. However, in CoAP, M2M nodes can act as both client and server roles.
This interaction is called an end-point. As in HTTP, client, using a method
code, sends a CoAP request to a server for action on URI identified resource.
Then, server, using a response code, sends a response with a resource


Figure 2.2 Abstract Layering of CoAP

However, in CoAP, the exchange of these messages between client and

server is not similar to HTTP interaction model. CoAP performs the
transmission of the messages asynchronously over a datagram-oriented
transport such as UDP. This process is done logically by using a part of
messages that is responsible for optional reliability, with exponential backoff. CoAP operates four types of messages: confirmable (CON), nonconfirmable (NON), acknowledgement and reset.
In the CoAP messaging model, the exchange of messages between a client
and a server is done over UDP. Both request and response messages consist
of a short fixed-length binary header (4 bytes), compact binary options and a
payload. To prevent duplication, each CoAP message has an ID. Reliable
messages are marked as CON. A CON message is retransmitted using a
default timeout and exponential back-off between retransmissions, until the
recipient sends an acknowledgement message (ACK) with the same message
ID from the corresponding end-point. If a recipient cannot process a CON
message, it sends a reset message (RST) to a sender instead of an ACK. A
message such as measurement data sent by an actuator does not require
reliable delivery and can be marked as a NON message. This type of
messages is not acknowledged, but it is still identified with an ID to prevent
duplication. If a recipient cannot process a NON message, it sends an RST
message. Since the messaging model of CoAP is based on UDP, which
supports the multicast IP destination addresses, the protocol can send
multicast CoAP requests.


Using validity information in CoAP response message, the protocol caches

the responses to process efficiently the requests. A cache is saved in an endpoint or an intermediate node which is located in the path to destination.
CoAP also features proxy, which is helps to limit the traffic in constrained
networks and access to resources of sleeping. CoAP uses proxy on request on
the behalf of an end-point. A CoAP request includes the URI of the resource,
while the destination IP address is set to the proxy.
As shown in Figure 2.2, CoAP operates on top of UDP not TCP. UDP does not
support SSL/TLS to provide security. DTLS (Datagram Transport Layer
Security) is can be a security solution for CoAP. It provides the same security
level as TLS but for transfers of data over UDP. Typically, DTLS capable CoAP
devices will support RSA and AES or ECC and AES.

6.3 Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT)

MQTT was developed by Andy Stanford-Clark (IBM) and Arlen Nipper
(Eurotech) in 1999 for the monitoring of an oil pipeline through the desert.
The goal was to design a protocol, which requires low bandwidth and powerefficient, because the sensing devices were connected via satellite link,
which was extremely expensive at that time. These features of the MQTT
protocol recently became the reason of standardization of it for the
communication of IoT applications.
Unlike the request/response model of HTTP, MQTT protocol has a different
architecture, called a publish/subscribe. Publish/Subscribe is event-driven,
which means messages are delivered to clients even without a request.
MQTT has a central communication point called the MQTT broker. It
coordinates all messages between the senders and the rightful receivers.
Each client publishes a message to the broker with a topic included in the
message. The topic is the routing information for the broker. Each client
subscribes to a certain topic in order to receive messages and the broker
delivers all messages with the matching topic to the client. Therefore, the
clients do not have to identify each other, they only communicate over the
topic (Figure 2.3). This architecture enables high scalability of networks,
staying independent from the data producers and the data consumers.
In MQTT, a client does not request a resource, instead, it subscribes to the
topic and the broker pushes any new resource, related to the topic, to the

client. Therefore, each MQTT client keeps an open TCP connection with the
broker. If this connection is lost, the MQTT broker buffers all messages and
sends them to the client when the connection is recovered. (HiveMQ, 2015).

Figure 2.3 MQTT Publish/Subscribe Architecture (Courtesy of HiveMQ)

The main concept of MQTT is that the delivery of messages to clients is

based on subscription to a topic which the messages are related to. A topic is
a clear-text string which can consist of several hierarchy levels, separated by
a slash. A sample topic for sending temperature data of the living room could
be house/living-room/temperature. There are two subscription options for
a client: subscribing to the exact topic or using a wildcard. The subscription
to house/+/temperature would result a client receiving all messages sent
to the previously mention topic house/living-room/temperature as well as
any topic that is under the house topic, for
example house/kitchen/temperature. The plus sign is a single level
wildcard which allows clients to receive all messages related to the subtopics
of only one hierarchy level. If client wants to subscribe to all levels under the
main level, there is also a multilevel wildcard (#). It allows subscribing to all
underlying hierarchy levels. For example house/# is subscribing to all topics
beginning with house (HiveMQ, 2015).

6.4 ETSI M2M


Technical Committee, recently formed by ETSI, is working on the

development of M2M communication standards. The goal of this group is to
provide an end-to-end view of M2M standardization for emerging IoT
industry. According to standards released by ETSI Technical Committee (ETSI
TS 102 689, ETSI TS 102 690 and ETSI TS 102 921, 2010-13), main elements
in M2M environment are the following:

M2M device: A device capable of replying to request for data contained

within those device or capable of transmitting data contained within
those devices autonomously;
M2M area network (device domain): A network that provides
connectivity between M2M devices and M2M gateways, for example, a
M2M gateway: A gateway (a router or higher layer network element)
that uses M2M capabilities to ensure M2M devices interworking and
interconnection to the communication network;
M2M communication networks (network domain): A wider-range
network that supports communications between the M2M gateway(s)
and M2M application; examples include but are not limited to xDSL,
M2M applications: Systems that contain the middleware layer where
data goes through various application services and is used by the
specific business processing engines.

7. References
1. Ishaq, I. (2013). IETF Standardization in the Field of the Internet of Things
(IoT): A Survey. Journal of Sensor and Actual Networks, 2, 235-287.
Retrieved from
2. ETSI, (2013). Machine-to-machine communications (M2M); Functional
architecture. ETSI TS 102 690. 2.1.1. Retrieved from
3. ETSI, (2012). Machine-to-machine communications (M2M); mla, dla and
mld interfaces. ETSI TS 102 921. 1.1.1. Retrieved from


4. ETSI, (2010). Machine-to-machine communications (M2M); M2M service

requirements. ETSI TS 102 689. 1.1.1. Retrieved from
5. Minoli, D. (2015). Building the Internet of Things with IPv6 and MIPv6 :
The Evolving World of M2M Communications. Somerset, NJ, USA: John
Wiley & Sons.
6. IETF, (2014). The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). RFC 7252.
Retrieved from
7. IETF, (2012). RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy
Networks. RFC 6550. Retrieved from
8. HiveMQ, (2014). MQTT 101 - How to get started with the lightweight IoT
protocol. Retrieved from
9. Ilie, E., Kemeny, Z., Egri, P., & Monostor, L. (2006). The RFID Technology
and Its Current Applications. MITIP, 5 (7), 29-36. Retrieved from
10. Sohraby, K., Minoli, D., & Znati, T. (2007). Wireless Sensor Networks:
Technology, Protocols, and Applications. Canada: John Wiley & Sons.
11. Libelium. 50 Sensor Applications for a Smarter World. Retrieved from

8. Bibliography
1. ITU-T, (2012). Global Information Infrastructure, Internet Protocol
Aspects and Next-Generation Networks. Recommendation ITU-T,

2. Vermesan, O., & Friess, P. (2014). Internet of Things: From Research

and Innovation to Market Deployment. Denmark: River Publishers.


3. Vermesan, O., & Friess, P. (2013). Internet of Things: Converging

Technologies for Smart Environments and Integrated Ecosystems.
Denmark: River Publishers.

4. Kaur, M., Sandhu, M., Mohan, N., & Sandhu, P. (2011) RFID Technology
Principles, Advantages, Limitations & Its Applications. International
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