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A PROJECT REPORT

ON
FACTOR INFLUENCING THE JOB SATIAFACTION
Submitted to
Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar
In the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
(2013-15)

SUBMITTED TO:

SUBMITTED BY:

Mr. O.P. Midha


Director
RBIM

Harpreet Kaur
MBA-III Semester
1340284

RAYAT BAHRA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT


SAHAURAN, KHARAR (MOHALI)

CERTIFICATE OF SUPERVISION
This is to certify that Ms.Harpreet Kaur has completed her project report titled FACTOR
INFLUENCING THE JOB SATIAFACTION under my supervision. To the best of my
knowledge and belief this is her original work and this, wholly or partially, has not been submitted
for any degree of this or any other University.

Mr.O.P. Midha
(Director, RBIM)
Date:

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the project report entitled FACTOR INFLUENCING THE JOB
SATIAFACTION submitted for the degree of Master of Business Administration is my original
work and the project report has not formed the basis for the award of any degree, associate ship,
fellowship or any other similar titles. It has not been submitted to any other university or institution
for the award of any degree or diploma.

Place:
Date:

(Hapreet Kaur)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
If words are considered as symbol of Approval and Taken of appreciation then let the words play
the heralding role of expressing my sincere gratitude and thanks.
Any accomplishment requires the effort of many people and this work is no different. I am
indebted to Mr. O.P. MIDHA my project guide (RBIM, SAHAURAN), but for whose guidance
and patience I would have not been able to accomplish this task.
My topic of the report is FACTOR INFLUENCING THE JOB SATIAFACTION
I appreciate the contribution of each and hope that I have accurately incorporated their
considerable knowledge.
Last but not the least I am also thankful to my parents and friends who provided me with their full
cooperation for successfully completion of my project.
And I thank The Almighty who is always with me.

Harpreet Kaur
Roll no. 1340284

Executive Summary

(A) Project Title:-Factor Influencing the Job Satisfaction

(B) Project Location:-PTL MOHALI


(C) Objectives
The objective of the study is as follows
To assess the satisfaction level of employees in PTL.
To identify the factors which influence the job satisfaction of employees.
To identify the factor which improves the satisfaction level of employees.
To know the employee satisfaction towards the facilities.
To offer valuable suggestions to improve the satisfaction level of employees.

(D) Research Methodology


The research was mainly of primary research consisting of descriptive research and exploratory
research. The secondary research consisted of literature search and Internet search.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter. No

CONTENTS

ORGANIZATION PROFILE

INTRODUCT ION

INTRODUCTION OF JOB SATISFACTION

3.1

FACTORS OF JOB SATISFSCTION

3.2

REASON OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION

3.3

EFFECTS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION

3.4

INFLUENCES ON JOB SATISFACTION

MODELS OF JOB SATISFACTION

LITERATURE REVIEW

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

10

ANNEXTURE

CHAPTER No. 2
INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

Job satisfaction in regards to ones feeling or state of mind regarding nature of their
work. Job
can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of ones relationship with their
supervisor,
quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc.
Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where as negative attitude towards
job has been defined variously from time to time. In short job satisfaction is a persons
attitude towards job.
Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing & summation of many specific likes
and dislikes experienced in connection with the job- their evaluation may rest largely upon
ones success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceived
combination of
the job and combination towards these ends.
According to pestonejee, Job satisfaction can be taken as a summation of employees
feelings in
four important areas. These are:
1. Job-nature of work (dull, dangerous, interesting), hours of work, fellow workers,
opportunities on the job for promotion and advancement (prospects), overtime
regulations, interest in work, physical environment, and machines and tools.
2. Management- supervisory treatment, participation, rewards and punishments, praises and
blames, leaves policy and favoritism.
3. Social relations- friends and associates, neighbors, attitudes towards people in
community, participation in social activity socialibility and caste barrier.
4. Personal adjustment-health and emotionality.
Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of
work behavior such as organizational citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover. Job satisfaction
benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover,
and termination; as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. Job satisfaction is also
linked with a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity.

Job satisfaction is not synonyms with organizational morale, which the possessions of feeling
have being accepted by and belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common
goals and confidence in desirability of these goals.
Morale is the by-product of the group, while job satisfaction is more an individual state of mind.

Objective of the study


The objective of the study is as follows
To assess the satisfaction level of employees in PTL.
To identify the factors which influence the job satisfaction of employees.
To identify the factor which improves the satisfaction level of employees.
To know the employee satisfaction towards the facilities.
To offer valuable suggestions to improve the satisfaction level of employees.

Scope of the study


This study emphasis in the following scope:
To identify the employees level of satisfaction upon that job.
This study is helpful to that organisation for conducting further research.
It is helpful to identify the employers level of satisfaction towards welfare measure.
This study is helpful to the organization for identifying the area of dissatisfaction of job
of the employees.

CHAPTER No. 3
JOB SATISFACTION

3.1 DEFINITIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION

Different authors give various definitions of job satisfaction. Some of them are taken from the
book of D.M. Pestonjee Motivation and Job Satisfaction which are given below:
Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable, emotional, state resulting from appraisal of ones
job. An effective reaction to ones job.
By: Weiss
Job satisfaction is general attitude, which is the result of many specific attitudes in three areas
namely:

Specific job factors

Individual characteristics

Group relationship outside the job


By: Blum and Naylor

Job satisfaction is defined, as it is result of various attitudes the person hold towards the job,
towards the related factors and towards the life in general.
By: Glimmer
Job satisfaction is defined as any contribution, psychological, physical, and
environmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully say, I am satisfied with my
job.
Job satisfaction is defined, as employees judgment of how well his job on a whole is
satisfying
his various needs
By: Mr. Smith
Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable or positive state of mind resulting from appraisal of
ones job or job experiences.
By: Locke

3.2 HISTORY OF JOB SATISFACTION


The term job satisfaction was brought to lime light by hoppock (1935). He revived 35 studies on
job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 and observes that Job satisfaction is combination of
psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances. That causes a person to say.
I m
satisfied with my job. Such a description indicate the variety of variables that influence
the
satisfaction of the individual but tell us nothing about the nature of Job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction has been most aptly defined by pestonjee (1973) as a job, management, personal
adjustment & social requirement. Morse (1953) considers Job satisfaction as dependent upon job
content, identification with the co., financial & job status & priding group cohesiveness
One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne study. These
studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to
find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers productivity.
These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase
productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from
the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed.
This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which
paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction.
Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job
satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylors 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management,
argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to
a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift
from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and
hourly wages.
The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because
workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and
dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction.

It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg
set the tone for Taylors work.
Some argue that Maslows hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation
for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in
life
physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This
model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction
theories

3.3 IMPORTANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION


Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a
predictor of work behavior such as

organizational, citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover.

Job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant
work behavior.
Common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life style.
This correlation is reciprocal meaning the people who are satisfied with the life tends to
be satisfied with their jobs and the people who are satisfied their jobs tends to satisfied
with their life.
This is vital piece of information that is job satisfaction and job performance is directly
related to one another. Thus it can be said that, A happy worker is a productive
worker.

It gives clear evidence that dissatisfied employees skip work more often and more like to
resign and satisfied worker likely to work longer with the organization.

3.4 IMPORTANCE TO WORKER AND ORGANIZATION

Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction, self-respect,
self-esteem, and self-development. To the worker, job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional
state that can often leads to a positive work attitude. A satisfied worker is more likely to be
creative, flexible, innovative, and loyal.
For the organization, job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and
committed to high quality performance. Increased productivity- the quantity and quality of
output per hour worked- seems to be a byproduct of improved quality of working life. It is
important to note that the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity
is neither conclusive nor consistent.
However, studies dating back to Herzbergs (1957) have shown at least low correlation
between high morale and high productivity and it does seem logical that more satisfied workers
will tend to add more value to an organization.
Unhappy employees, who are motivated by fear of loss of job, will not give 100 percent of their
effort for very long. Though fear is a powerful motivator, it is also a temporary one, and also as
soon as the threat is lifted performance will decline.
Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints and grievances,
absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. Job
satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator
of longevity.
Although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity, Brown
(1996) notes that some employers have found that satisfying or delighting employees is a
prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers, thus protecting the bottom line.

3.5 WORKERS ROLE IN JOB SATISFACTION


If job satisfaction is a worker benefit, surely the worker must be able to contribute to his or her
own satisfaction and wellbeing on the job. The following suggestions can help a worker find
personal job satisfaction: Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. This often leads to
more challenging work and greater responsibilities, with attendant increases in pay and other
recognition.
Develop excellent communication skills. Employers value and rewards excellent
reading, listening, writing and speaking skills. Know more. Acquire new job related knowledge
that helps
you to perform tasks more efficiently and effectively. This will relive boredom and often gets
one noticed. Demonstrate creativity and initiative. Qualities like these are valued by most
organizations and often results in recognition as well as in increased responsibilities and rewards.
Develop teamwork and people skills. A large part of job success is the ability to work well with
others to get the job done.
Accept the diversity in people. Accept people with their differences and their imperfections and
learn how to give and receive criticism constructively.
See the value in your work. Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead to
satisfaction with the work itself. This help to give meaning to ones existence, thus
playing a vital role in job satisfaction.
Learn to de-stress. Plan to avoid burn out by developing healthy stress management techniques.

3.6 FACTORS OF JOB SATISFACTION

Hoppock, the earliest investigator in this field, in 1935 suggested that there are six major
components of job satisfaction. These are as under:

The way the individual reacts to unpleasant situations,

The facility with which he adjusted himself with other person

The relative status in the social and economic group with which he identifies himself

The nature of work in relation to abilities, interest and preparation of worker

Security

Loyalty

Herberg, mausaer, Peterson and capwell in 1957 reviewed more than 150 studies and listed
various job factors of job satisfaction. These are briefly defined one by one as follows:
1. Intrinsic aspect of job
It includes all of the many aspects of the work, which would tend to be constant for the work
regardless of where the work was performed.
2. Supervision
This aspect of job satisfaction pertains to relationship of worker with his immediate
superiors. Supervision, as a factor, generally influences job satisfaction.
3. Working conditions
This includes those physical aspects of environment which are not necessary a part of the
work. Hours are included this factor because it is primarily a function of organization,
affecting the individuals comfort and convenience in much the same way as other physical
working conditions.
4. Wage and salaries
This factor includes all aspect of job involving present monitory remuneration for work done.

5. Opportunities for advancement


It includes all aspect of job which individual sees as potential sources of betterment of
economic position, organizational status or professional experience.
6. Security
It is defined to include that feature of job situation, which leads to assurance for continued
employment, either within the same company or within same type of work profession.
7. Company & management
It includes the aspect of workers
organizational

immediate situation, which is a function of

administration and policy. It also involves the relationship of employee with all company
superiors above level of immediate supervision.
8. Social aspect of job
It includes relationship of worker with the employees specially those employees at same or
nearly same level within the organization.
9. Communication
It includes job situation, which involves spreading the information in any direction within the
organization. Terms such as information of employees status, information on
new developments, information on company line of authority, suggestion system, etc, are
used in
literature to represent this factor.
10. Benefits
It includes those special phases of company policy, which attempts to prepare the worker for
emergencies, illness, old age, also. Company allowances for holidays, leaves and vacations
are included within this factor.

3.7 REASONS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION

Reasons why employees may not be completely satisfied with their jobs:

1. Conflict between co-workers.


2. Conflict between supervisors.
3. Not being opportunity paid for what they do.
4. Have little or no say in decision making that affect employees.
5. Fear of losing their job.

3.8 EFFECTS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION

1. HIGH ABSENTEEISM
Absenteeism means it is a habitual pattern of absence from duty or obligation.
If there will be low job satisfaction among the employees the rate of absenteeism will definitely
increase and it also effects on productivity of organization.
As the job satisfaction is high the rate of both turn over and absenteeism is low and vise a versa.

2. HIGH TURNOVER
In human resource refers to characteristics of a given company or industry relative to the rate at
which an employer gains and losses the staff.
If the employer is said to be have a high turnover of employees of that company have shorter
tenure than those of other companies.

3. TRAINING COST INCREASES


As employees leaves organization due to lack of job satisfaction. Then Human resource manager
has to recruit new employees. So that the training expenditure will increases.

3.9 INFLUENCES ON JOB SATISFACTION


There are no. of factors that influence job satisfaction. For example, one recent study even found
that if college students majors coincided with their job , this

relationship will predicted

subsequent job satisfaction. However, the main influences can be summarized along with the
dimensions identified above.
The work itself:
The concept of work itself is a major source of satisfaction. For example, research related to the
job characteristics approach to job design, shows that feedback from job itself and autonomy are
two of the major job related motivational factors. Some of the most important ingredients of a
satisfying job uncovered by survey include interesting and challenging work, work that is not
boring, and the job that provides status.
Pay:
Wages and salaries are recognized to be a significant, but complex, multidimensional factor in
job satisfaction. Money not only helps people attain their basic needs but need satisfaction.
Employees often see pay as a reflection of how management views their contribution to the
organization. Fringe benefits are also important.
If the employees are allowed some flexibility in choosing the type of benefits they prefer within
a total package, called a flexible benefit plan, there is a significant increase in both benefit
satisfaction and overall job satisfaction.
Promotions:
Promotional opportunities are seem to be have

avarying effect on job satisfaction. This is

because of promotion take number of different forms.

WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION?

Many managers subscribe to the belief that a satisfied worker is necessarily good worker. In
other words, if management could keep the entire workers happy, good
performance would automatically fallow. There are two propositions concerning the
satisfaction performance
relationship. The first proposition, which is based on traditional view, is that satisfaction is
the effect rather than the cause of performance. This proposition says that efforts in a job
leads to rewards, which results in a certain level of satisfaction .in another proposition, both
satisfaction and performance are considered to be functions of rewards.
Various research studies indicate that to a certain extent job satisfaction affects employee
turnover, and consequently organization can gain from lower turnover in terms of lower
hiring and training costs. Also research has shown an inverse relation between job
satisfaction and absenteeism. When job satisfaction is high there would be low absenteeism,
but when job satisfaction is low, it is more likely to lead a high absenteeism
What job satisfaction people need?
Each employee wants:
1. Recognition as an individual
2. Meaningful task
3. An opportunity to do something worthwhile.
4. Job security for himself and his family
5. Good wages
6. Adequate benefits
7. Opportunity to advance
8. No arbitrary action- a voice a matters affecting him
9. Satisfactory working conditions
10. Competence leadership- bosses whom he can admire and respect as persons and as
bosses.

However, the two concepts are interrelated in that job satisfaction can contribute to morale and
morale can contribute to job satisfaction.
It must be remembered that satisfaction and motivation are not synonyms. Motivation is a drive
to perform, whereas satisfaction reflects the individuals attitude towards the situation.
The factors that determine whether individual is adequately satisfied with the job differs from
those
that determine whether he or she is motivated. the level of job satisfaction is largely determined
by the comfits offered by the environment and the situation . Motivation, on the other hand is
largely determine by value of reward and their dependence on performance. The result of high
job satisfaction is increased commitment to the organization, which may or may not result in
better performance.
A wide range of factors affects an individuals level of satisfaction. While organizational
rewards can and do have an impact, job satisfaction is primarily determine by factors that are
usually not directly controlled by the organization. a high level of job satisfaction lead to
organizational
commitment, while a low level, or dissatisfaction, result in a behavior detrimental to the
organization. For example, employee who like their jobs, supervisors, and the factors related to
the job will probably be loyal and devoted. People will work harder and derive satisfaction if
they are given the freedom to make their own decisions.

CHAPTER No. 4
MODELS OF JOB
SATISFACTION

MODELS OF JOB SATISFACTION

There are various methods and theories of measuring job satisfaction level of employees in the
organization given by different authors.
List of all the theories and methods measuring job satisfaction level is given below:

A MODEL OF FACET SATISFACTION


Affect theory(Edwin A. Locke 1976)
Dispositional Theory( Timothy A. Judge 1988)
Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) (Frederick Herzbergs)
Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham)
Rating scale
Personal interviews
action tendencies
Job enlargement
Job rotation
Change of pace
Scheduled rest periods

3.1 MODEL OF FACET OF JOB SATISFACTION

Skill
Experien
ce

Perceived
personal job
inputs

Training
Eforts
Age
Seniority

Perceived
inputs
& outcomes of
referent others

Perceived
amount
that
should be
received
(a)

Level
Difficult
y Time
span

a=b
Perceived
job
characterist
ics

satisfaction
a>b
dissatisfacti
on a<b

Perceived
outcome of
referent
others
Actual
outcome
received

Perceiv
ed
amount
receive
d

guilt
Inequity

(b)

Fig.no.2 Model of determinant of facet of job satisfaction


Edward E.lawler in 1973 proposed a model of facet satisfaction. This model is applicable to
understand what determines a persons satisfaction with any facet
of job.
According to this model actual outcome level plays a key role in a persons perception of
what
rewards he receives. His perception influenced by his perception of what his referent others
receive. The higher outcome level of his referent other the lower his outcome level will appear.

This model also focuses on his perception on reward level.

3.2 AFFECT THEORY


Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably
satisfaction

the most famous job

model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy
between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how
much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates
how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/arent met. When a person
values
a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when
expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who
doesnt value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace
and
Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a
position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no
autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet
will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.

3.3 DISPOSITIONAL THEORY


Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory it is a very general theory
that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a
certain level of satisfaction, regardless of ones job. This approach

became a notable

explanation
of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across
careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job
satisfaction.
A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Selfevaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core
Self-evaluations

that determine ones disposition towards job satisfaction:

self-esteem,

general
self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of selfesteem (the value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in ones
own
competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one
has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job

satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction

3.4 TWO-FACTOR THEORY (MOTIVATOR-HYGIENE THEORY)


Frederick Hertzbergs Two-factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts
to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction
and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors motivation and hygiene factors,
respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to
perform, and provide
people with satisfaction. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the
work carried out. Motivating factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay,
company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions.
While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably
empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original
formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact Furthermore, the theory does
not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical
manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors.. Finally, the model has been criticized in that it
does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured
3.4 JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL
Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a
framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job
satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task
identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological
states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of
the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work
motivation, etc.).The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential
score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an
employee's attitudes and behaviors. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the
model provides some support for the validity of the JCM.

3.6 MODERN METHOD OF MEASURING JOB SATISFACTION


In this method of measuring job satisfaction the comparison between various organizational
terms and conditions at managerial level and also the organization at a large.
SATISFACTION WITH HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT POLICIES OF THE
ORGANIZATION:
1. Management has a clear path for employees advancement
2. Decisions are made keeping in mind the good of the employees
3. Management is extremely fair in personal policies
4. Physical working conditions are supportive in attaining targets
5. I innovativeness is encouraged to meet business problems.
SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISION
1. I feel I can trust what my supervisor tells me
2. My supervisor treats me fairly and with respect
3. My supervisor handles my work-related issues satisfactorily
4. I get frequent appreciation of work done from supervisors
5. I get enough support from the supervisor
6. Individual initiative is encouraged
SATISFACTION WITH COMPENSATION LEVELS
1. Overall I am satisfied with the companys compensation package
2. I am satisfied with the medical benefits
3. I am satisfied with the conveyance allowance
4. I am satisfied with the retirement benefits

5. I am satisfied with the reimbursement of the expenses as per the eligibility


6. I am satisfied with the holiday (vacation) eligibilities
SATISFACTION WITH TASK CLARITY
1. Management decisions are Ad Hoc and lack professionalism (reverse scaled)
2. Rules and procedures are followed uncompromisingly
3. My job responsibilities are well defined and clear
SATISFACTION WITH CAREER DEVELOPMENT
1. I have adequate opportunities to learn and grow
2. I get opportunities to handle greater responsibilities
3. My skills and abilities are adequately used at work
From all above we can conclude level of job satisfaction of our employees.
3.7 RATING SCALE
It is one of the most common methods of measuring job satisfaction. The popular rating scale
used to measure Job satisfaction is to include:
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaires: It helps to obtain a clear picture of pertinent
satisfactions and dissatisfactions of employees.
Job Description Index: it measures Job satisfaction on the dimension identified by Smith,
Kendall, Hullin.
Porter Need Identification Questionnaires: It is used only for management personnel and
revolves around the problems and challenges faced by managers.

3.8 CRITICAL INCIDENTS


Fredrick Hertz berg and his Associates popularized this method of measuring Job satisfaction. It
involves asking employees to described incidents on job when they were particularly satisfied or
dissatisfied. Then the incidents are analyzed in terms of their contents and identifying those
related aspects responsible for the positive and negative attitudes.
3.09 PERSONAL INTERVIEWS
This method facilitates an in-depth exploration through interviewing of job attitudes. The
main advantage in this method is that additional information or clarifications can be obtained
promptly.
3.10 ACTION TENDENCIES
By this method, Job satisfaction can be measured by asking questions and gathering
information on how they feel like behaving with respect to certain aspects of their jobs. This
method provides employees more opportunity to express their in-depth feeling.
In his study on American employees, hoppock identified six factors that contributed to job
satisfaction among them. These are as follows:
1. The way individual reacts to unpleasant situations.
2. The facilities with which he adjust himself to other persons.
3. His relatives status in the social & economic group with which he identifies
himself.
4. The nature of work in relation to the abilities, interest & preparation of the workers.
5. Security.
6. Loyalty.
Because human resource manager often serve as intermediaries between employees &
management in conflict. They are concern with Job satisfaction or general job attitudes with the
employees.

Philip apple white has listed the five major components of Job satisfaction .as
1. Attitude towards work group.
2. General working conditions.
3. Attitude towards company.
4. Monitory benefits &
5. Attitude towards supervision
Other components that should be added to this five are individuals state of mind about the
work itself and about the life in general .the individuals health, age, level of aspiration.
Social status and political & social activities can all contribute to the Job satisfaction.
A persons attitude toward his or her job may be positive or negative.
3.11 JOB ENLARGEMENT
The concept of job enlargement originated after World War II. It is simply the organizing of the
work so as to relate the contents of the job to the capacity, actual and potential, of workers. Job
enlargement is oblivious forerunner of the concept and philosophy of job design. Stephan offers
three basic assumptions behind the concept of job enlargement.
Output will increase if
1. Workers abilities are fully utilized
2. Worker has more control over the work
3. Workers interest in work and workplace is stimulated.
Job enlargement is a generic term that broadly means adding more and different tasks to a
specialized job. It may widen the number of task the employee must do that is, add variety.
When additional simple task are added to a job, the process is called horizontal job enlargement.
This also presumably adds interest to the work and reduces monotony and boredom.
To check harmful effects of specialization, the engineering factors involved in each individual
job must be carefully analyzed. Perhaps, the assembly lines can be shortened so that there will be
more lines and fewer workers on each line. Moreover, instead of assigning one man to each job
and then allowed to decide for himself how to organize the work. Such changes permit more
social contacts and greater control over the work process.

3.12 JOB ROTATION


Job rotation involves periodic assignments of an employee to completely different sets of job
activities. One way to tackle work routine is to use the job rotation. When an activity is no longer
challenging, the employee is rotated to another job, at the same level that has similar skill
requirements.
Many companies are seeking a solution to on-the-job boredom through systematically moving
workers from one job to another. This practice provides more varieties and gives employees a
chance to learn additional skills. The company also benefits since the workers are qualified to
perform a number of different jobs in the event of an emergency.
3.13 CHANGE OF PACE
Anything that will give the worker a chance to change his pace when he wishes will lend variety
to his work. Further if workers are permitted to change their pace that would give them a sense
of accomplishment.
3.14 SCHEDULED REST PERIODS
Extensive research on the impact of rest periods indicates that they may increase both morale and
productivity. Scheduled rest periods bring many advantages:
They counteract physical fatigue
They provide variety and relieve monotony
They are something to look forward to- getting a break gives a sense of achievement.
They provide opportunities for social contacts.

CHAPTER No.5
LITERATURE
REVIEW

Characteristics of Good Review of Literature


A Literature review is the summary and critical evaluation of pervious published or unpublished
researches made by various scholars and researchers. The source of literature review may be
newspapers, articles, journals, magazines, books, thesis, reports etc. It may also include
discussions, methodological issues and suggestions for future research. It must be written clearly
and accurately. Simple and easily understandable wording should be used in a review and
unnecessary statements, jargon should be avoided. It must be written in such a way that it keeps
readers attention and dont make him bore. Dont make it too complex. Simplify
discussion. A
good literature review gives only the relevant details, findings and feelings of the researcher
comprehensively otherwise the reader lose the interest & attention. Here Comprehensiveness
does not mean that you should mention every research report, article or paper that has ever been
published on your subject. Concentrate on the most widely cited authors and the most significant
findings. No Wastage of efforts. A review of literature tells the researchers knowledge
about the
topic, there focus upon the specific problem whether they are logically developed and plan about
the research area & major issues. When a researcher studies various research articles and thesis,
he should write them in literature review as it is either he is agreed with it or not. The literature
review provides the bases for the development of theoretical fame work by identifying variables
that are very important, as determined by the previous research findings. Though it is based on
assumptions but the researchers must use them near to the fact. Remember it is not a fiction or
the researcher embossed his writing skills on the readers mind. He must be very clear to the
objectives of the research and follow them accordingly. Variables, that are the foundation of the
research and are taken to highlight the problem, should be simple and easily understandable for
the readers as it increases the readers confidence in the ability, competency and
professionalism
of the researchers. All the details in a review should be synchronized in such a manner that it
will not leave any flaw in the readers mind. As a review tells us what has already find out
about a specific problem so it will help the future researcher to plan out their framework in
different dimensions using different type of variables in the different situations to reach the
result. A literature review ensures that you are at least familiar with the body of research in
your field
before starting your own investigations. Writing a literature review also provides practice in
critical thinking. Once you have applied critical thinking skills to the findings of past
researchers, you are in a better position to apply these same skills to your own work. A
comprehensive literature review enables the researcher to select most appropriate method of
research. It tells us that which procedure and methods was used in previous studies and if there is
any problem with these procedure and methods, what kind of strategy should be taken to avoid
them. Repetition is never being appreciated in any literature as it bothers the reader. You have to
avoid this if you want to engage the reader till the end. A review tells the whole story of the
research so it should comprehensively precise including all necessary details about the topic,
situation, variables that are taken and kind of questionnaire that are asked. After reading your

literature review, the reader should come away with a deeper understanding of your topic. A
good literature review setsout the gaps in current understanding. It seeks to explain these reasons
why gaps persist. Some problems have not been thoroughly investigated for technical or practical
reasons. In other cases, gaps are the result of methodological or theoretical "blind-spots".
Identifying these can lay the foundation for new insights. A review of the literature on Job
Satisfaction & Employee Turnover The industrial and business sectors of various countries
specially developing countries including Pakistan (where per capita income is very low) are
facing the problem of job dissatisfaction among the employees and high rate of turnover. JOB
SATISFACTION is regard to ones feeling or state of mind regarding the nature of their
work.
Job satisfaction can be influenced by variety of factors such as kind of supervision, organization
policies & administration, salary & quality of life etc. Employers have a need to keep employee
from leaving and going to work for other organizations. The best way of retaining employees is
to provide the job satisfaction and opportunities to build up their careers.
The good hope is hard to find, is even truer these days than ever before because the job
market in becoming increasingly tight. (Eskildesen, Hammer) Theresa gave the study to
examine the job satisfaction and intent to turnover using the co relational design. He takes
the sample (n =
107) consist of direct support professional who worked for non profit organization located in
South Carolina that served People with disabilities development. Two instruments were utilized
that measure the overall (Specter job satisfaction) and facet job satisfaction and intent to turnover
(Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire). Demographic information regarding
age and tenure were examined. Data analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics. The
result from the study suggests that there is a significant and negative correlation
between job satisfaction and intent to turnover. It was demonstrated that tenure is related to
job satisfaction and having positive & low relation. There was little evidence that
suggest that age was significantly related to either job satisfaction or intent to turnover.
Theresa take sample from single organization which in non profit organization. The non
profit organizations are some extent running by the charity & donation and the
remunerations for the employees in such organizations are low.
1 Bhatti & Qureshi collect the information regarding the Name of organization,
Life of organization in years, Number of employee,
Employee participation,
Job satisfaction, Employee commitment &
\Employee Productivity from the first line managers and their immediate 1 Theresa Ricke-Kely.
USA bosses. The Managers were given a questionnaire and were asked to give the answer at
their best knowledge with reference to working conditions in their organization.

Questionnaire was divided in to two portions. First line manager had to answer the question
regarding name of organization, life of organization, number of employees, employee
participation, job satisfaction and employee commitment. While the immediate bosses was to
answer the question from the portion of employee productivity. The questionnaire consists on
relationship among job satisfaction, employee commitment, and employee productivity. They
used Likard scale questionnaire. They take sample from communication sector, banking sector
and oil & gas sector of Pakistan. 34 organizations were selected for study. They measured job
satisfaction by using the variables, employee productivity, employee commitment and employee
participation and their hypothetical research found strong and positive relationship between the
job satisfaction and mentioned variables. The finding suggests that management of organization
should increase the satisfaction among employees with compensation, policies and working
conditions in order to attain high level of employee commitment and reduce turnover.2 The
sample size was not enough to reflect image of the organizations functioning in Pakistan. Data
collection method for research is very common. Other methods could have been used for this
research study like group discussion / discussion forum. The late 1920s one of the first studies of
job satisfaction undertaken by Mayo & Hawthorne. This study referred to & focused on
employee attitude and its impact on production levels. The study highlighted that employees &
workers develop their own perceptions of the work situation and the social environment, which
affects their 2 Komal Khalid Bhatti & Tahir Masood Qureshi. attitudes towards their work. The
findings of the study provided consistent results with the observations of Taylor in 1911, that
individual workers wants economic incentives/monetary rewards and are willing to work harder
for it. He used the global approach to measure job satisfaction. The study found that 88% of the
surveyed were classified as being satisfied, and there was a direct linear relationship between
occupational level and job satisfaction3 This section examines the literature regarding theories
and models used to explain the determinants of job satisfaction. There are two broad categories
to classify job satisfaction theories, that is, process and content theories. Content theories are
predominantly concerned with the identification of specific needs or motives most conducive to
job satisfaction. The Maslows Need Hierarchy and Herzbergs Two-Factor theory are
examples
of content theories. Process theories go further than identifying basic needs that motivate people.
They focus on the individuals dynamic thought processes and how they produce certain
types of behavior/attitudes. Equity Theory, Need-Fulfillment Theory, Social Comparison
Theory, Facet- Satisfaction Model, Job Characteristics Model. To better understand
employee attitudes and
motivation, Frederick Herzberg performed studies to determine which factors in an employee's
work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The studies included interviews in
which employees where asked what pleased and displeased them about their work. Herzberg
found that the factors causing job satisfaction were different from that causing job 3 Mayo &
Hawthorne study dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain these
results. He called the satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfier hygiene factors, using the term
"hygiene" in the sense that they are considered maintenance factors that are necessary to avoid
dissatisfaction but that by themselves do not provide satisfaction.

He describes that factors leads to job satisfaction are Achievement, Recognition, Work itself,
Responsibility, Advancement and Growth and the factors which leads to dissatisfaction are
Company policy, Supervision, Relationship with Boss, Work conditions, Salary, Relationship
with co workers Herzberg argued that management not only must provide hygiene factors to
avoid employee dissatisfaction, but also must provide factors intrinsic to the work itself in order
for employees to be satisfied with their jobs. 4 The two-factor result is observed because it is
natural for people to take credit for satisfaction and to blame dissatisfaction on external factors.
Furthermore, job satisfaction does not necessarily create a high level of motivation or
productivity. Herzberg's theory has been broadly read and despite its weaknesses. True
motivation comes from within a person and not from KITA factors (Kicks in the Pants). Maslow
suggested that there exists a hierarchy of human needs, commencing with physiological needs
then safety, social, esteem and at last self actualization need. He says that these needs must be
satisfied in the order listed. Maslow's theory says, there are some important implications for
management. There are opportunities to motivate 4- Frederick Herzberg 1959 employees and
provide them job satisfaction through management style, job design, company events, and
compensation packages.5 Physiological needs provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that
are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. Safety needs provide a safe working environment,
retirement benefits, and job security. Social needs create a sense of community via team-based
projects and social events. Esteem needs recognize achievements to make employees feel
appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. SelfActualization provides employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career
potential.

Evaluation of Literature Review.


I have read almost 14 articles & theories about my topic and discussed some of them which were
easy to understand for me. The Source which I used for study was internet.The literature review
given above is easy to understand and covered findings of home (Pakistan) and abroad researcher
also. At the end of every researchers finding the criticism on their research is also given in
such a comprehensive manner that it shows the clear picture of all findings and lacking
area of
research. I used the way which attract the readers and tried to carry them till end. The variables
used by the researchers are discussed in detail and their dependency & impact on problem. Some
researcher used single variable to check the job satisfaction and some use two or more. I
discussed both.
5- Maslow 1943
6- (www.netmba.com)

The review given tells that there are many factors which influence the job satisfaction in an
organization but in Pakistan are remunerations and monetary rewards as the research work done
by Komal Khalid
Bhatti & Tahir Masood Qureshi.
The literature shows the clarity and accuracy. It provide the base for further working and having
complete knowledge about the topic that what has been done in the field so far. I tried to avoid
the reputation of statements and convey the whole story in short wordings. The bad factor of my
literature review is that I have only discussed five researches & Theories but that was only
because of shortage of time and restrictions.
Theoretical Foundation
Many theories support The Topic Job satisfaction and Employee Turnover and define the
characteristics of satisfaction and to some extent dissatisfaction. Some of the theories are
discussed in detail here.
Job Characteristics Model
Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model which is widely used as a
framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job
satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task
identity, task significance, autonomy, and
feedback). These impact three critical
psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and
knowledge of the actual results), in turn nfluencing work outcomes (job satisfaction,
absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to
form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely
a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors.
Maslow Hierarchy of Need
Maslow suggested that there exists a hierarchy of human needs, commencing with physiological
needs then safety, social, esteem and at last self actualization need. Maslow says that these needs
must be satisfied in the order listed. According to theory, there are some important implications
for management. There are opportunities to motivate employees and provide them job
satisfaction through management style, job design, company events, and compensation
packages.Physiological needs provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that are sufficient to
purchase the essentials of life. Safety needs provide a safe working environment, retirement
benefits, and job security. Social needs create a sense of community via team-based projects and
social events. Esteem needs recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and
valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. Self-Actualization provides
employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs


Self-Actualization
Esteem Needs
Social Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
Herzberg's Motivation - Hygiene Theory
(Two Factor Theory)
To better understand employee attitudes and motivation, Frederick Herzberg performed studies
to determine which factors in an employee's work environment caused satisfaction or
dissatisfaction. The studies included interviews in which employees where asked what pleased
and displeased them about their work. Herzberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction
were different from that causing job dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory
to explain these results. He called the satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfiers hygiene factors,
using the term "hygiene" in the sense that they are considered maintenance factors that are
necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but that by themselves do not provide satisfaction. The
following table presents the top six factors causing dissatisfaction and the top six factors causing
satisfaction, listed in the order of higher to lower importance.
Factors Affecting Job Attitudes
Company policy
Supervision
Relationship w/Boss
Work conditions
Salary
Relationship w/Peers
Achievement
Recognition
Work itself

Responsibility

Advancement

Growth

Summary of Literature Review


The industrial and business sectors of various countries specially developing countries including
Pakistan (where per capita income is very low) are facing the problem of job dissatisfaction
among the employees which is causing the less productivity, less job commitment, and
increasing turnover. Employers have a need to keep employee from leaving and going to work
for other organizations. The best way of retaining employees is to provide the job satisfaction
and opportunities to build up their careers.
What is Job Satisfaction?
Jobs Satisfaction is regard to ones feeling or state of mind regarding the nature of their
work. Job satisfaction can be influenced by variety of factors such as kind of supervision,
organization policies & administration, salary & quality of life etc. Organizations invest a
lot on their employees in terms of training, developing, maintaining and retaining them in their
organization.
Therefore, managers at all costs must minimize employees
turnover.
What is Employee Turnover?
Employee turnover is a ratio comparison of the number of employees a company must replace in
a given time period to the average number of total employees. Many factors play a role in the
employee turnover rate of any company, and these can stem from both the employer and the
employees. Wages, company benefits, employee attendance, and job performance are all factors
that play a significant role in employee turnover. The good hope is hard to find, is even
truer
these days than ever before because the job market in becoming increasingly tight.
(Eskildesen,
Hammer) Theresa examine he job satisfaction and intent to turnover using the co relational
design. Two instruments were utilized that measure the overall (Specter job satisfaction) and
facet job satisfaction and intent to turnover (Michigan Organizational Assessment
Questionnaire). Demographic information regarding age and tenure were examined. Data
analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics. The result from the study suggests that
there is a significant and negative correlation between job satisfaction and intent to turnover. It
was demonstrated that tenure is related to job satisfaction and having positive & low relation.
Bhatti & Qureshi collect the information regarding the Name of organization, Life of
organization in years, Number of employee, Employee participation, Job satisfaction, Employee
commitment & Employee Productivity from the first line managers and their immediate bosses.
The Managers were given a questionnaire and were asked to give the answer at their best

knowledge with reference to working conditions in their organization.

Questionnaire was divided in to two portions. First line manager had to answer the question
regarding name of organization, life of organization, number of employees, employee
participation, job satisfaction and employee commitment. While the immediate bosses was to
answer the question from the portion of employee productivity.
The questionnaire consists on relationship among job satisfaction, employee commitment, and
employee productivity. They used Likard scale questionnaire. They take sample from
communication sector, banking sector and oil & gas sector of Pakistan. They measured job
satisfaction by using the variables, employee productivity, employee commitment and employee
participation and their hypothetical research found strong and positive relationship between the
job satisfaction and mentioned variables. The finding suggests that management of organization
should increase the satisfaction among employees with compensation, policies and working
conditions in order to attain high level of employee commitment and reduce turnover. The late
1920s one of the first studies of job satisfactionundertaken by Mayo & Hawthorne. This study
referred to & focused on employee attitude and its impact on production levels. The study
highlighted that employees & workers develop their own perceptions of the work situation and
the social environment, which affects their attitudes towards their work. The findings of the
study provided consistent results with the observations of Taylor in 1911, that individual workers
wants economic incentives/monetary rewards and are willing to work harder for it. He used the
global approach to measure job satisfaction. The study found that 88% of the surveyed were
classified as being satisfied, and there was a direct linear relationship between occupational level
and job satisfaction. The study of job satisfaction and its effects have been of concern and of
interest to organizations and researchers since Hoppocks first study of the topic in 1935.
Studies
have found that the lack of satisfaction can have serious consequences. One is the intent to
turnover. Turn over is a serious problem is and its seriously effect the quality of
service,
productivity and ultimately overall organizational success.

Research Design
OBJECTIVES
1. To Study the basic characteristics of Job satisfaction & Employee turnover
2. To analyze the job satisfaction in a particular sector and reasoning of dissatisfaction among the
employees
3. To identify the variables influence the job satisfaction
4. To measure the employee productivity, employee commitment and loyal ness to their
organization.
Date will collected from the Accounts employees of various organizations. The variable used
will be employee turnover. 20 to 30 people will be selected for the collection of data.

Methods of Data Collection


The broader purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship among employee job
satisfaction and employee Turnover. Data will be collected from the accounts employees of
various organizations. A questioner technique will be used in order to obtain data and employees
will be asked to give the answers of questions in accordance to their best knowledge.
Questionnaire will be divided in to two parts dissatisfaction factors and satisfaction factors.

Methods of Data Analysis


Data will be analyzed according to job experience with respect of salary and secondary data will
be used to make calculations and analysis.
END REFERENCES.
1- Theresa Ricke-Kiely, University of South Coroline, U.S.A.
2- *Komal Khalid Bhatti, Business Administration Department,
Mohammad Ali Jinnah University,
**Tahir Masood Qureshi, Business Administration Department,
Mohammad Ali Jinnah University,
3- Myo his colleagues & Hawthorne study
4- Frederick Herzberg 1959 The Motivation to Work
5- Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation.
6- www.netmba.com

CHAPTER No. 6
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Research refers to a search for knowledge. It is a systematic method of collecting and recording
the facts in the form of numerical data relevant to the formulated problem and arriving at certain
conclusions over the problem based on collected data.
Thus formulation of the problem is the first and foremost step in the research process followed
by the collection, recording, tabulation and analysis and drawing the conclusions. The problem
formulation starts with defining the problem or number of problems in the functional area. To
detect the functional area and locate the exact problem is most important part of any research as
the whole research is based on the problem.
According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating
hypothesis or suggested solutions: collecting, organizing and evaluating data: making deductions
and reaching conclusions: and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they
fit the formulating hypothesis.
Research can be defined as the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the
purpose of
generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction
of theory or in the practice of an
art
In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution
to a problem is research.

4.2 DRAFTING QUESTIONNAIRE


The questionnaire is considered as the most important thing in a survey operation. Hence it
should be carefully constructed. Structured questionnaire consist of only fixed alternative
questions. Such type of questionnaire is inexpensive to analysis and easy to administer. All
questions are closed ended.
4.3SAMPLING
It was divided into following parts:
Sampling universe
All the employees are the sampling universe for the research.
Sampling technique
Judgmental sampling
Sample was taken on judgmental basis. The advantage of sampling are that it is much less costly,
quicker and analysis will become easier. Sample size taken was 100 employees.

4.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES


The research has been undertaken with following objectives.

To study the level of job satisfaction among the employees of SEVA Automotive Pvt.
Ltd. if any.

To study the methods of measuring job satisfaction of SEVA Automotive Pvt. Ltd.

4.5 DATA COLLECTION


The task of data collection begins after the research problem has been defined and research
design chalked out. While deciding the method of data collection to be used for the study, the
researcher should keep in mind two types of data viz. Primary and secondary data.
Primary Data: The primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to
be original in character. The primary data were collected through well-designed and structured
questionnaires based on the objectives.
Secondary Data:
The secondary data are those, which have already been collected by someone else and
passed through statistical process. The secondary data required of the research was collected
through various newspapers, and Internet etc.

4.6 RELEVANCE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY


The study was thoughtful for knowing the existing job satisfaction level of the employees
of PTL MOHALI.
Limitation for the study, the study was restricted to PTL MOHALI only and other being the time
as constraint.

CHAPTER No. 7
DATA ANALYSIS
AND
INTERPRETATION

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


After data have been collected, the researcher turns to the task of analyzing them. The analysis of
data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories, the
application of these categories to raw data through tabulation and drawing statically inferences.
Tabulation is the part of technical procedure where in the classified data are put in the form of
tables.
After analyzing the data, the researcher should have to explain the findings on the basis of some
theory. It is known as interpretation
.
The data has been collected from 100 employees of PTL MOHALI through questionnaire.
The data thus collected was in the form of master table.
That made possible counting of classified data easy. From the master table various summery
tables were prepared. They have been presented along with their interpretation in this manner.

1. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the workplace of
organization
Table 1
Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly satisfied

31

31

Satisfied

49

49

Slightly satisfied

12

12

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Graph 1

percentage

responses regarding whether respondents are satisfied


with work place
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

no. of respondents

satisfaction level

Above table shows that 31% employees are strongly satisfied with their work place 61%
employees are satisfied with their workplace. It means over all 92% employees are satisfied and
other 18% are not satisfied with the work place.\

2 Respons regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the infrastructure of
organization.
Table 2

Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly satisfied

50

50

Satisfied

20

20

Slightly satisfied

10

10

Dissatisfied

16

16

Strongly dissatisfied

response regarding whether respondents are satisfied with


infrastructure
60

percentage

50
40
30

no. of respondents

20
10
0

satisfaction level

Graph 2

Above table shows that 70% respondents are satisfied with infrastructure and 30% are
dissatisfied with infrastructure of PTL. It can be interpreted that 30% are not satisfied with
infrastructure which not more in number.
3. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the canteen facility
provided by orgarization.
Table 3
Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly satisfied

56

56

Satisfied

17

17

Slightly satisfied

16

16

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Graph 6.3
responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with
canteen facility
60

percentage

50
40
30

no. of respondents

20
10
0

satisfaction level

Above table shows that 88% employees are satisfied with the canteen facility provided by the
organization. Only 12% employees are not satisfied with canteen facility
4. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the implementation
of rules and responsibilities.
Table 4
Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly satisfied

51

51

Satisfied

23

23

Slightly satisfied

10

10

Dissatisfied

11

11

Strongly dissatisfied

Graph 4
responses regarding whether respondents are satisfied with
implimentation of rules and responsibilities
60

percentage

50
40
30

no. of respondents

20
10
0

satisfaction level

Above table shows that 84% employees are satisfied with implementation of rules and
responsibilities. And 16% of respondents are not seems to be satisfied with the implementing
rules and responsibilities.

5. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the freedom given at
work.
Table 5
Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents

Strongly satisfied

30

Percentage
30

Satisfied

36

36

Slightly satisfied

14

14

Dissatisfied

16

16

Strongly dissatisfied

Graph 5

percentage

responses regarding respondents are satisfied with the freedom at work

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

no. of respondents

satisfaction level

Above table shows that 80% respondents are happy with the freedom at work given by
management but only 20% of respondents are not satisfied with freedom given at wrk place

6. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the team spirit in
organization
Table 6
Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly satisfied

52

52

Satisfied

21

21

Slightly satisfied

Dissatisfied

16

16

Strongly dissatisfied

Graph 6

responses whether respondents are satisfied with equal treatment


to all

percentage

60
50
40
30

no. of respondents

20
10
0

satisfaction level

Above table shows that 80% employees are satisfied with team sprit built in organization and
other employees are not satisfied with team spirit in the organization.

7 Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with convenient working
hours.
Table 7
Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly satisfied

20

20

Satisfied

41

41

Slightly satisfied

11

11

Dissatisfied

23

23

Strongly dissatisfied

Graph 7

percentage

responses whether respondents are satisfied with convinient


working hours
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

no. of respondents

satisfaction level

Above table shows that 20% employees strongly feels that the working hours decided by
organization are most convenient for them. Other 52% employees are satisfied with these
working hours. And only 28% employees are not much satisfied with the working hours.
8.Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with Job security
Table 8
Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly satisfied

13

13

Satisfied

18

18

Slightly satisfied

11

11

Dissatisfied

12

12

Strongly dissatisfied

46

46

Graph 6.8

percentage

responces whether respondents are satisfied with job security

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

no. of respondents

satisfaction level

Above table shows that only 31 % employees are satisfied with the job security. And remaining
69% of employees are not satisfied with the job security provided by the organization.

9. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the targets achievable
Table 9
Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly satisfied

64

64

Satisfied

21

21

Slightly satisfied
Dissatisfied

11
4

Strongly dissatisfied

11
4
0

Graph 9
responses whether respondents are satisfied with the targets achievable

70

percentage

60
50
40
30

no. of respondents

20
10
0

satisfaction level

Above table shows that 96% employees are strongly in favor that the targets given are achievable
and only 4% are not feels that the targets given are achievable.

10. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the opportunities of
promotions
Table 10
Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

14

14

Slightly satisfied

Dissatisfied

26

26

Strongly dissatisfied

46

46

Graph 10

percentage

responses whether respondents are satisfied with opportunities of


promotion
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

no. of respondents

satisfaction level

Only 22% of the employees are satisfied with the opportunities of promotions given by
organization. And most of the employees nearly 78% are not satisfied with opportunities of
promotions.

11. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the payment of salary
on time
Table 11
Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly satisfied

44

44

Satisfied

16

16

Slightly satisfied

Dissatisfied

32

32

Strongly dissatisfied

Graph 11

percentage

responses whether the employees are satisfied with the payment


of salary on time

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

no. of respondents

satisfaction level

Above table shows that 60% of employees are satisfied with the payment of salaries on time.
Only 40% of the employees are not much satisfied with the payment of salaries on time.

12 Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the quality of formal
training and induction program

Table 12
Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents Percentage

Strongly satisfied

42

42

Satisfied

36

36

Slightly satisfied

Dissatisfied

14

14

Strongly dissatisfied4

Graph 12

percantage

responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with


the quality of training and induction program

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

No. Of respondents

satisfaction level

From the above table it shows that 76% of the respondents are satisfied with the quality of
training and induction program and only

13. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the proper and
proactive HR division
Table 13
Satisfaction Level

No. Of Respondents

Strongly satisfied

72

Satisfied

Percentage
72
18

Slightly satisfied

18
2

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Graph 13

percentage

responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the


proper and proactive HR division

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

no. of respondents

satisfaion level

Above table shows that 92% of the respondents are satisfied with the HR divisionOnly 8% of the
respondents are not satisfied with the proactive and proper HR division, which is very negligible
in number.

14 Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the performance
appraisal system
Table 14
Satisfaction level

No. Of respondents

Percentage

Strongly satisfied

62

62

Satisfied

28

28

Slightly satisfied

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied2

Graph 14

percentage

responses regarding whether the respondents are satiosfied


with the performance ap[praisal system

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

no. of respondents

satisfaction level

Above table shows that 90% respondents are satisfied with the performance appraisal system and
only 10% of the respondents are not much satisfied with the performance appraisal system
implemented in organization.

15 Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with positive acceptance of
employees suggestions
Table 15
Satisfaction Level

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

Strongly Satisfied

Satisfied

22

22

Slightly Satisfied

Dissatisfied

45

45

Strongly Dissatisfied

25

25

Graph 15

percentage

responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the


positive acceptance of employees suggestions
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

no. of respondents

satisfaction level

Above table shows that the 26% of the respondents are satisfied with the positive acceptance of
the suggestions given by the respondents but most of the respondents 70% are dissatisfied with
this point.

16 Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with management keeps
promises
Table 16
Satisfaction Level

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

Strongly Satisfied

76

76

Satisfied

14

14

Slightly Satisfied

Dissatisfied

Strongly Dissatisfied

Graph 16

percentage

responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the


management keeps promises

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

no. of respondents

satisfaction level

Above table shows that 90% of the respondents are satisfied with the management keeps
promises and only 10% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the thing that the management
keeps promises.

CHAPTER No. 8
CONCLUSION AND
SUGGESTIONS

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS


All the conclusions are drawn based on the analysis and interpretation of the primary data
regarding the job satisfaction of the employees of PTL MOHALI.

From the analysis and interpretation, it is concluded that most of the employees are
satisfied with the workplace and only few employees are not satisfied with the workplace,
which are negligible in number. And similarly in case of infrastructure most of the
employees are satisfied and very small number of employees are not happy with the
infrastructure of PTL and the canteen facilities. It means the workplace and infrastructure of PTL is good or satisfactory.

It is concluded that near about all the employees are satisfied with implementation of
rules and responsibilities. And only some of them are not seems to be satisfied with the
implementing rules and responsibilities. Therefore it shows that implementation of rule
and responsibility is done fairly.

From the study it is clear that the higher percentage of employees are happy with the
freedom at work given by management but only some of them are not feeling satisfied
with the freedom given at work place.

According to analysis and interpretation, most of the employees are satisfied with the
team spirit built in organization and only few are not happy with team spirit in the
organization. From this it seems that the team spirit in the organization is strong.

This study shows that only few employees strongly feel that the working hours decided
by organization are most convenient for them. Other is not in favor with these working
hours. So it is clear that the management kept the main consideration about working
conditions and the hours, which satisfies the employees.

The study shows that very small numbers of employees are satisfied with the job security.
And remaining most of the employees are not satisfied with the job

security provided by the organization. Hence from this analysis it is cleared that there is
feeling of fear of job loss in the employees of PTL.

An analysis shows that employees are strongly in favor that the targets given are
achievable and only are not feels that the targets given are achievable. Hence the targets
set by management are achievable.

From the analysis it is concluded that very small number of employees are satisfied with
the payment as per their roles and responsibility and remaining all are not satisfied with
the payment according to their roles and responsibilities. Hence from this analysis it can
be cleared that payment according to roles and responsibilities are not much satisfied.

Only little number of the employees is satisfied with the opportunities of promotions
given by organization. It shows that the employees do not have any growth of
opportunities. Analysis shows that the payment of salary is made always on time.

From the analysis and interpretation it is clear that very large number of the respondents
are satisfied with the quality of training and induction program and in house training held
by the management. And few are not satisfied with the quality of in house training. But
the period of training is not satisfactory to the employees.

From the analysis it is clear that HR division is most satisfactory to all employees only
few are not satisfied with the HR division in the company.
In case of performance appraisal system and the office events and parties organized by
the organization near about all the employees are satisfied. The birthdays of all the
employees are remembered and celebrated in the organization.

It is concluded that the employees are not much satisfied with the forum for face-to-face
communication. From the analysis it is clear that half of the employees are satisfied and
other half are not satisfied with the encouragement given to the suggestions of the
employees. But only few thinks that there is positive acceptance of the suggestions given
by the employees. From the analysis it is clear that management keeps all the promises.

SUGGESTIONS

The suggestions are drawn from the analysis and observations. Few suggestions are given as
under:

In case of working hours decided by the organization are not convenient for the
employees of PTL MOHALI. The working hours are 6 hours per day that from 8.30AM
to 5 PM. These hours should minimize up to 5 hours.

The criteria for Job security is not much satisfactory so management have concentrate on
job security of employees so that they can work without fear of job loss in the
organization.

Opportunities of growth of employees are very less so that there can be employee
turnover hence management has to give emphasis on increasing the promotion
opportunities for according to the performance of employees.

From analysis we concluded that the period of in house training is very short that is of
only 3 days, which is not sufficient to get complete knowledge about the work. Hence the
training period should extend up to 5 days.

As there is an active participation of employees in decision making but rarely the


suggestions given by them are drawn in action. Hence the confidence of employees gets
demotivated.
So to motivate the employees management can take into consideration some proper
suggestions given by the employees. It will help to increase the motivation and ultimately
the Job satisfaction of the employees of PTL MOHALI.

CHAPTER No. 9
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books: Hitt, Miller, Colella Organizational Behavior A Strategic Approach, Wiley


Students
Edition.
th

Luthans Fred Organizational Behavior, McGraw Hill 7 Edition.


Newstrom John W., Davis Keith, Organizational Behavior Human Resource At
Work,
th

9 Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Edition.


Pestonjee D. M. Motivation and Job Satisfaction, 1
India
Limited.

Websites: www.hrcouncil.com
www.workforce.com
www.google.com

st

Edition. Macmillan

CHAPTER No. 10
ANNEXTURE

ANNEXTURE
Questionnaire
NAMEAGE-

MOBILE No.OCCUPATION-

1 .Responses regarding whether the respondent are satisfied with the workplace of organization.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

2. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the infrastructure of
organization.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

3. Response regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the canteen facility provided by
organization.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

4. Responses regarding whether the respondent are satisfied with the implementation of rules and
responsibilities.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

5. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with freedom given at work.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

6. Responses regarding whether the respondent are satisfied with the team spirit in organization.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

7. Responses regarding whether the respondent are satisfied with convenient working hour.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

8. Responses regarding whether the respondent are satisfied with job security.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

9. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the targets achievable.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

10. Responses regarding whether the respondent are satisfied with the opportunities of
promotion.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

11. Responses regarding whether the respondent are satisfied with the payment of salary on time.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

12. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the quality of formal training
and induction program.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

13. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the proper and proactive HR
division.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

14. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with the performance appraisal
system.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

15. Responses regarding whether the respondent are satisfied with positive acceptance of
employees suggestion.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied

16. Responses regarding whether the respondents are satisfied with management keep promises.
1. Strongly satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) slightly satisfied 4) Dissatisfied

5) strongly satisfied