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CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms

Electromagnetic Radiation
WaveAmplitude
Wavelength
Low

High

1
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 279

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Electromagnetic Radiation

2
Chemistry A Molecular Aprroach, Tro, 1st edition, 2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, p.284

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Electromagnetic Radiation

Frequency () in HertzHz or s-1.


Wavelength () in metersm.
cm
m
nm

(10-2 m)

(10-6 m) (10-9 m)

pm
(10-10 m) (10-12 m)

Velocity (c) 2.997925 108 m s-1.

c =

= c/

= c/
3

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic spectrum

4
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 10th edition, 2011, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 296

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Example
When lithium atoms are excited in a flame, they produce strong
intensity 670.8 nm light.
What is the frequency of this radiation?

In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum does this radiation


fall?
Is the radiation visible? If so, what color?

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Light as a wave
Constructive interference
Destructive interference

6
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 281

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Light as a Wave - interferometer design

7
Chemistry A Molecular Aprroach, Tro, 1st edition, 2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, p.288

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Light as a particle - Quantum Theory
Blackbody Radiation:

Max Planck, 1900


Blackbody Radiation light emission by a heated solid
Classical Physics predicted an increase in intensity of
blackbody radiation at lower wavelengths
Experiment showed a peak and fall-off

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 285,6

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Quantum Theory

Max Planck proposed:

Energy, like matter, is discontinuous.


Energy is limited to a discrete set of values; the difference
between any two allowed energies is a quantum of energy
Energy is proportional to the frequency of radiation

E = h
h = Plancks constant = 6.62607 x 10-34 J s
9

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Example:
What is the energy of one photon of the 670.8 nm light produced
by lithium atoms?

How much energy is produced from photons of the 670.8 nm light


of two moles of lithium atoms (assume one Li atom produces
one photon)?

10

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms

Light as a particle
Photoelectric effect

Heinrich Hertz, 1888


Light striking the surface of certain
metals causes ejection of electrons.

> o threshold frequency


#e- I
KEelectron

11
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 287

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms

Light as a particle
Einstein, 1905
The light striking the surface has particlelike qualities - photons
Ephoton = h
E=

hc

Threshold frequency condition:


h =
= the binding energy of the electron,
aka work function
Additional energy of photon is transferred
to the electron as kinetic energy:
h = KEelectron +

Albert Einstein 1905

12

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 287

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Quantum Theory
Photochemical reactions = chemical reactions induced by light

Example:
O2 + h O + O

1 mol of photons are required to dissociate 1 mol O2


molecules into 2 O atoms

1 mol photons = 6.022 x 1023 photons


13

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms

Practice Example:
The binding energy of the electrons of In metal is 397 kJ/mol. Will
indium metal display the photoelectric effect with UV light? With
infrared light?

14

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Atomic Spectra
Hydrogen (g)

Helium (g)

Lithium

Sodium

Potassium

15
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 283

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Atomic Spectra

Helium

Hydrogen

16
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 284

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


The Bohr Atom
Bohrs postulates for the Hydrogen atom (1913):
1.
The electron moves in circular orbits around the nucleus
2.
The electron has a fixed set of allowed orbits (stationary states)
3.
An electron can pass from one allowed orbit to another; energy is absorbed or
emitted
Picture of Bohr model
Energy of electron:
(RH = 2.18 x 10-18 J)

RH
En = 2
n
Chemistry A Molecular Approach, Tro, 1st
edition, 2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, p.293

17

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


The Bohr Atom - Energies of Bohr atom orbits
Ground state the lowest allowed energy level (n=1)
Excited state -a higher energy level than the ground state (n=2,3,4,)
Energy-level diagram

Balmer Series

Lymon Series
18
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 291

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


The Bohr Atom
Electrons can move from
one energy-level to another:

DEatom = E photon
1

RH RH
1
1

18
DEatom = E f Ei = 2 2 = RH 2 2 = 2.179 10 J 2 2
n n
n n
nf
ni
i
f
f

i
DEatom = h
Note that the sign of DE indicates energy is being emitted or absorbed by the atom
19

Chemistry A Molecular Approach, Tro, 1st


edition, 2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, p.303

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


The Bohr Atom - Spectroscopy and the Bohr model
Emission Spectroscopy
Absorption Spectroscopy

20
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 294

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Example:
Calculate the wavelength of light that is absorbed when a ground state electron in
the hydrogen atom moves to the second excited state (n=3).
Step 1: Calculate the energy associated with the transition of the electron from n=1
to n=3.

1 1
1

1
1 1

DEatom = E f Ei = RH 2 2 = RH 2 2 = RH = RH (0.8889)
n n
1 3
1 9
f
i

= 2.179 10 18 J (0.8889) = 1.937 10 18 J

Step 2: Use the energy calculated in step 1 to find the wavelength of light
absorbed.

DEatom = E photon = h
hc (6.626 1034 Js)(2.9979 108 ms 1 )
7
= =
=
=
1
.
026

10
m
18
DE
1.937 10 J
c

21

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Example
Calculate the frequency of the photon absorbed for the n=2 to n=4
transition of Hydrogen.

22

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Example
An electron in the n=6 level of the hydrogen atom relaxes to a
lower energy level, emitting light of = 93.8 nm. Find the
principal level to which the electron relaxed.

23

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


The Bohr Atom
Ionization energy and the Bohr model

To ionize an atom, we remove an electron completely


In terms of the Bohr model for Hydrogen, this means transporting
the electron to the farthest orbit/highest Energy from the nucleus, or
n=
We calculate the ionization energy using the transition from n=1 to
n=

1
1 1

DE = RH 2 2 = RH = RH 1 0 = RH
n n
1
f
i

24

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


The Bohr Atom
Limitations of the Bohr model

The Bohr model works for any one-electron atom (Hydrogenlike atom)

H
He+
Li2+
Be3+
etc.

Include the nuclear charge (atomic number) in the energy-level


expression to determine which Hydrogen-like species is involved:

Z 2 RH
En =
n2

However, the Bohr model does NOT work for systems that have
more than one electron
25

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Example:
The emission spectrum to the right shows all
the lines resulting from transitions to the
ground state from higher energy states for a
one-electron species.
Which transitions on the
corresponding energy diagram
result in lines A and B in the
emission spectrum?

n=
n=6
n=5
n=4

n=3

5 1 4 1

n=3 to n=1
3 1

n=2 to n=1
2 1

DE = E5-E1

DE = E4-E1
DE = E3-E1

Energy

n=2

DE = E2-E1
Smallest energy difference
= longest wavelength

n=1

26
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 331

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Example:
The emission spectrum to the right shows all
the lines resulting from transitions to the
ground state from higher energy states for a
one-electron species.
If line A has a wavelength of 10.8 nm, what is the identity of the one-electron species?

27
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 331

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Quantum Mechanics
Two ideas leading to Quantum Mechanics were considered in the 1920s
1. Wave-Particle Duality (de Broglie)

Wave-Particle Duality
Einstein suggested particle-like properties of
light could explain the photoelectric effect.
Diffraction patterns suggest photons
are wave-like.

de Broglie, 1924
Small particles of matter may at times display
wavelike properties.
h
h
p = momentum
= =
p mv
p = mv (mass x velocity)
If mass or velocity are small, the deBroglie
wavelength is larger

Louis de Broglie
Nobel Prize 1918
28

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 296

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms

Quantum Mechanics
Two ideas leading to Quantum Mechanics were considered in the
1920s
2. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (Werner Heisenberg)
h
Dx Dp = Dx mDu =
4

Heisenberg and Bohr

29
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 298

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Example:
Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of a 145-g baseball traveling
at 168 km/h.

What is the uncertainty in the position of this baseball if the


uncertainty in its velocity is 0.01 km/h?

30

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Example:
Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of an electron traveling at
2.05 x 106 m/s 3.1 x 104 m/s (masselectron=9.109x10-31kg)

What is the uncertainty in the position of this electron?

31

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Quantum Mechanics
Wave functions of the Hydrogen atom

We cannot know both the position and the energy of


an electron simultaneously (Heisenberg Principle)
We choose to solve the problem mathematically such that
we will exactly know the ENERGY of the electron, but
NOT its position
We can only know the region in space where an electron
PROBABLY is; the orbital

32

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Wave Mechanics

Standing waves.
Nodes do not undergo displacement.

2L
=
, n = 1, 2, 3
n

33
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 300

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Wave Mechanics - Wave functions (bound harmonic functions)

, psi, the wave function.


Should correspond to a
standing wave within the
boundary of the system being
described.

Particle in a box.
=

2
n x
sin

L
L
34

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 302

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Wave Mechanics - Wave functions

, psi, the wave function.


Does not have physical
meaning

2 gives the electron


probability density
the probability of finding an
electron in a particular
location

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood,


Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 302

35

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Wave Mechanics
Wave functions of the Hydrogen atom (three-dimensionalize the particle
in a box; the particle is an electron; the box is the atom; and more)
Schrdinger, 1927
E = H
H (x,y,z) or H (r,,)

(r,,) = R(r) Y(,)


R(r) is the radial wave function.
Y(,) is the angular wave function.

36
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 303,7

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Atomic Orbitals
The wavefunctions of the Hydrogen atom have no physical meaning
The square of the wavefunction, 2, describes the probability density
distribution
We can look at 2 to determine the shape of the region where an
electron will be found, the orbital
Each orbital is assigned a set quantum numbers to describe its:
size
shape
orientation
37

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Quantum numbers - Assigning quantum numbers

Principal quantum number, n

n is a positive, nonzero integer; n = 1,2,3,


principal shell
Distance from the nucleus

Orbital angular momentum quantum number,

is zero or a positive integer; n-1


subshell
Shape of the orbital

=0 is
=1 is
=2 is
=3 is

s
p
d
f

Magnetic quantum number, m

m is a negative or positive integer or zero


m ranges from to +
Orientation of orbital in space
38

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Quantum numbers

39
Chemistry A Molecular Aprroach, Tro, 1st edition, 2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, p.302

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Quantum numbers - Energies of hydrogen atom orbitals

1
En = 2.178 10 2 J
n
18

(Same as Bohr formula)


Orbitals with the same n value are degenerate (have the same energy)

40
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 305

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Example:
What type of orbital is designated by the following quantum
numbers?

n = 5, = 1, m = 0

n = 4, = 2, m = -2

n = 2, = 0, m = 0

41

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Atomic Orbitals
s orbitals ( = 0) are spherically shaped

Number of angular nodes = 0 ( a node is a point where the probability


density, wave function and the radial distribution all go through zero)

42
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 308

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Atomic Orbitals
p orbitals ( = 1) are dumbbell shaped

Number of angular nodes = 1

43
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 310

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Atomic Orbitals
p orbitals have three orientations in space (ml = -1, 0, +1)

Chemistry A Molecular Aprroach, Tro, 1st


edition, 2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, p.302

44

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Atomic Orbitals
d orbitals (l = 2) are (mostly) cloverleaf shaped

Number of angular nodes = 2

d orbitals have five orientations in space (ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2)

Chemistry A Molecular Aprroach, Tro, 1st


edition, 2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, p.311

45

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Atomic Orbitals
f orbitals (l = 3) have 3 angular nodes

f orbitals have seven orientations in space (ml = -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3)

Chemistry A Molecular Aprroach, Tro, 1st


edition, 2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, p.311

46

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Atomic Orbitals
Atomic orbitals and the principal
quantum number

As n increases, the probability


density distribution extends
further away from the nucleus

Each time n increases by 1,


another radial node appears

Radial probability distributions


show the probability of finding an
electron in a sphere of radius r:
4r2x R2(r)

Chemistry A Molecular Aprroach, Tro, 1st


edition, 2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, p.309

47

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Examples:

Write an acceptable value for each of the missing quantum


numbers:
n = 3, l = ?, ml = 2
n = ?, l = 2, ml = 1
n = ?, l = 0, ml = ?

How many orbitals have the values n = 4 and l = 3?


How would the 3p orbitals differ from the 2p orbitals?
Which electron, on average, is closer to the nucleus: an
electron in a 3s orbital or an electron in a 4s orbital?

48

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Atomic Orbitals - Angular and Radial Nodes of Atomic Orbitals
The nodes of a specific orbital can be related to n

n = number of radial nodes + number of angular nodes + 1

Recall that the number of angular nodes:

0 for an s orbital
1 for a p orbital
2 for a d orbital

Recall that the number of radial nodes increases by 1 as n increases by 1:

Example: how many angular and radial nodes are present in a 4d orbital?

d orbitals contain 2 angular nodes


n = radial nodes + 2 + 1; Since n = 4, there is 1 radial node
49

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Example:
Identify the orbital that has:

2 radial nodes and 1 angular node

5 radial nodes and 0 angular nodes

1 radial nodes and 3 angular nodes

Which d orbital would be represented by the following


probability distribution?

50

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms

Electron Spin - The fourth quantum number


George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit, 1925, proposed that an
electron acts as if its spins

An electron can spin in two different directions

We give the electron spin the quantum number ms and is either

1
1
ms = or
2
2

A spinning electron
generates a magnetic field

51
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 313

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Electron Spin
The Stern-Gerlach experiment

52
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 313

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Electron Spin - The four quantum numbers for the Hydrogen atom
Each orbital contains up to two electrons with opposite spin

Example:

n = 2, = 0, m = 0, ms = +1/2
indicates an electron in a 2s orbital

Because each orbital can hold two electrons:

Shell (n)
1
2
3
4

Subshell(s)
s
s, p
s, p, d
s, p, d, f

Orbitals
Electron capacity
1
2
4 (1s and 3p)
8
9 (1s, 3p, 5d)
18
16 (1s,3p,5d,7f)
32

53

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Multielectron Atoms
The Schrodinger equation and solutions for orbital shapes all apply to one-electron
systems
When atoms contain more than one electron, corrections for repulsions between
electrons must be accounted for

Penetration and Shielding

Electrons in orbitals closer to the nucleus shield electrons farther away from feeling
the attraction to the positively charged nucleus of the atom

Chemistry A Molecular Aprroach,


Tro, 1st edition, 2008, Pearson
Prentice Hall, p. 324

54

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Multielectron Atoms

Effective Nuclear Charge, Zeff

The nuclear charge that an electron actually experiences


Smaller than the effective nuclear charge if no shielding occurs

Chemistry A Molecular Aprroach,


Tro, 1st edition, 2008, Pearson
Prentice Hall, p. 324

55

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Multielectron Atoms

Because of shielding, the energy levels for


the same n of different orbitals are
no longer degenerate

s orbitals have a higher Zeff, are held


more tightly, and have lower
energies than p orbitals

s orbitals have a higher Zeff and have


lower energies than d orbitals
56

Chemistry A Molecular Aprroach, Tro, 1st edition,


2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 5

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Multielectron Atoms
Orbital energies of multielectron atoms

57
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 316

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Electron Configurations
An electron configuration for an atom shows the particular orbitals that
are occupied for the atom
Example, the electron configuration for the hydrogen atom is 1s1:

58
Chemistry A Molecular Aprroach, Tro, 1st edition, 2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 321

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Electron Configurations
Assigning electrons to orbitals
1.

Electrons occupy orbitals in a way that minimizes the energy of the


atom.

The order in which orbitals are filled:

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d 7p
2.

No two electrons in an atom have the same four quantum number


The Pauli Exclusion Principle

3.

When orbitals of identical energy are available, electrons occupy


these orbitals singly Hunds Rule
59

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms

Electron Configurations
Assigning electrons to orbitals
1.

Electrons occupy orbitals in a way that minimizes the energy of


the atom.

The order in which orbitals are filled:

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d 7p

Simple visual device

60

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Electron Configurations

Representing electron configurations: Example - carbon


spdf notation (condensed): 1s22s22p2
spdf notation (expanded): 1s22s22px12py1

orbital diagram:

valence electron method: [He]2s22p2


Also correct to write the valence shell configurations with
the lowest n first
61

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 317

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Electron Configurations
The aufbau process assign electron configurations to elements in order
of increasing atomic number
Example: Elements 7-10:

62
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 318

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Electron Configurations
Example: Elements 21-30:

63
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 319

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
The organization of the Periodic Table is based on electron
configurations

Also see Appendix D (Page A-17)


for a listing of all electron
configurations
64
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 322

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

Recall that elements in the same groups have similar chemical


properties

Elements in the same group have the SAME ELECTRONIC


CONFIGURATIONS in their valence shells

Example Group IIA (2)


Be 1s22s2
Mg 1s22s22p63s2
Ca 1s22s22p63s23p64s2
Sr 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s2
Ba 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s2
Ra 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d10
6p67s2

All of these elements have two electrons in an s orbital in their valence


65
shells (ns2)

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Example:
Write the electron configuration for Sn in:

Condensed spdf form

Orbital diagram form with valence electrons

Condensed spdf form with valence electrons

66

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Example:
Which of the following is the correct orbital diagram for the
ground-state electron configuration of phosphorus? What is
wrong with the others?

67
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 333

CHEM101 F15: Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms


Practice Example:
Which of the following electron configurations corresponds to the
ground state and which to an excited state?

68
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 334