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PROCESS ECOSYSTEM;

SPACING
EUIS SUNARTI

B. SPACING
Space (ruang) : salah satu hal yang dipersepsikan
manusia
tentang lingkungannya. (Process by which family
members act on and in their spatial environment).
Pengertian ruang termasuk persepsi jauh- luasdekat,
sempit,
longgar-sesak, kurang nyaman-nyaman

CONCEPT

personal space
Privacy
Territoriality
Crowding
Density
Mental map
Stress

PERSONAL SPACE
suatu batas maya yang mengelilingi diri kita yang tidak boleh
dilalui orang lain

Jarak intim : 0-18 inci / 0-0.5 m


Jarak personal : 18 inci 4 kaki / 0.5 1.3 m : jarak percakapan 2 sahabat /
akrab
Jarak sosial : 4 12 kaki / 1.3 4 m; jarak hubungan formal spt bisnis, dsb
Jarak publik ; 12 25 kaki / 4 8.3 m; hubungan yang lebih formal
spt penceramah

Faktor yang mempengaruhi

Jenis kelamin (laki-laki, perempuan)


Umur (bayi, anak-anak, remaja, dewasa)
Kepribadian (ekstrovert vs introvert)
Suku bangsa (jerman, inggris, arab,
Keadaan lingkungan (sempit-luas, gelap-terang)

PRIVACY

Keinginan atau kecenderungan pada diri seseorang untuk tidak


diganggu kesendiriannya. Dorongan untuk melindungi ego
seseorang dari gangguan yg tdk dikehendakinya

Kadar & jenis privacy (Holahan, 1982)

Gol 1; Tidak diganggu secara fisik : a) menyendiri, b) menjauh


dr pandangan atau gangguan suara & kebisingan, c) keinginan
untuk intim

Gol II; menjaga kerahasiaan : a) jati diri, b) tdk mengungkakan


diri terlalu banyak kpd org lain, c) tdk terlibat dengan tetangga

Privacy : inti dari personal space. Pelanggaran


privacy
berlebihan, menuju ketelanjangan sosial

TERRITORIALITY
suatu pola tingkah laku yg ada hubungannya dg kepemilikan atau
hak seo/ atau sekelompok org atas sebuah tempat atau suatu
lokasi geografis. Mencakup personalisasi dan pertahanan thdp
gangguan dr luar
Tk laku teritori manusia untuk privacy, sosial, komunikasi.
Tk laku teritori hewan untuk survival. Naluri teritori

Konsep kepemilikan berkaitan dg persepsi (lokasi jualan,


tukang cukur DPR)
Territoriality : alasan perang ,sengketa ind-malaysia, indsingapur ?
Contoh sehari-hari : Tempat parkir, tempat duduk, reserve area,
kursi makan ayah, dll
Teritori sbg media komunikasi

Teritori primer; kamar, rumah, kantor


Teritori sekunder, ruang kelas, kantin kantor,
Teritori publik, tepat terbuka untuk umum; mall, pasar, puskesmas, rumah
sakit, dll

CROWDING & DENSITY


DENSITY (KEPADATAN) ; kendala keruangan (spatial constraint)
CROWDING (KESESAKAN) : Respon subjektif thdp ruang yg sesak
Dampak kesesakan dan kepadatan
Pd penyakit dan patologi sosial ;
1. reaksi fisiologik; tekanan darah meningkat
2. Penyakit fisik; psikosomatik, meningkatnya angka kematian
3.
Patologi sosial; meningkatnya kejahatan, bunuh diri,
penyakit remaja
2. Pd tingkah laku sosial
1. Agressi
2. Menarik diri dr lingk sosial
3. Berkurangnya sikap menolong
4. Kecenderungan lbh banyak melihat sisi jelek org lain
3. Pd hasil usaha dan suasana hati
1. Hasil usaha & prestasi kerja menurun
2. Suasana hati (mood) cenderung lebih murung
1.

jiwa, kenakalan

HOUSING

Shelter is a basic human need, which must be satisfied


before higher-order can be meet
The basic functions which shelter performs
(Fabun, 1971) :
1.
The support of homeostasis through limiting
solar radiation as expressed through temperature
2.
Protection against discomforts from
changes in weather
3. Protection against predators
4. Privacy for biological activities
5. Symbolic communication

THE IMPACT OF SPATIAL ENVIRONMENT ON FAMILIES

HOUSING DENSITY & CROWDING


HOUSING DESIGN AND FAMILY FUNCTIONING
FAMILY TRANSACTIONS WITH THE SPATIAL ENVIRONMENT

PERCEIVING & EVALUATING THE SPATIAL ENVIRONMENT


DECIDING FOR CHANGE
CONSEQUENCES OF MOBILITY

HOUSING DENSITY AND CROWDING


A household defined as overcrowded if the number
of
persons exceeds the number of rooms

Interaction among adults are impaired. Intimate exchanges (such

as

lovemaking) cannot be carried out in positive, children


transmitted
Infectious disease are easily spread. Respiratory disease, skin
problem, accident
Inadequate sanitation & other characteristic of substandard
housing produce feelings of poor self esteem
Cannot carry on positive social interaction
Synonymous with crimes (at least trend to)
Erode quality of life

HOUSING DESIGN & FAMILY FUNCTIONING

Dimensions of the housing environment are related


to dimensions of the family.

Dimension of housing
environment: size, materials,

number & layout of rooms, number


& organization of objects, amount
of closed vs open space, ratio of
impact
glass to non glass materials, color,
convenience to shopping & schools action
facilities,
quality of neighborhood,
relationship to landscape outside, or
proximity to other dwellings

Dimension of family:
Size, stage of life cycle, social
class, religion,
style, division of labor,
communication
decisionpatterns, and value
making
orientation

PERCEIVING & EVALUATING THE SPATIAL


ENVIRONMENT

Residental Satisfaction
Satisfaction is an evaluation, based on what one has done in past &
on
sights set for future. Satisfaction is also based on comparison.

Perceiving & evaluating are colored by the resources


families
bring
theseLansin
processes.
Result
of toThe
study indicates: People may
neighborhood characteristics
g
inaccurately. Their satisfaction
perceive
depend
on their perceptions & not on actual condition.

Interior Design

Perception & evaluation are important processes in


understanding not only families feelings about their home &
neighborhood, but also their feeling & actions about interior spaces
of the home .

DECIDING FOR CHANGE

Active process by which families make decisions &


them
carry out concerning change in the spatial
environment.
Families may regard a move as temporary, other may
regard the move as permanent
Geographical mobility rates historically
high
occupational instability, custom,
reflect and social
mobility
Changing the spatial environment is just one of
possible
outcomes of the familys perceiving, spacing,
valuing,
and deciding processes.

CONSEQUENCES OF MOBILITY

Clearly, geographical mobility has no general effects when applied to


such diverse populations with correspondingly disparate motives,
resources, & life circumstances
Many residential moves do not disrupt social roles markedly
even
though the family may be moving to a different community
Adjustment to a move will be easier if the family has substantial
material & psychological resources with which to ease their
transition
Particularly if a move has been eagerly anticipated, few families are
willing to admit that the change they had worked for so hard has
turned out to be a bust

Nine policy alternatives Conserving


energy in housing (Yearns, 1987)

Install heavy insulation


Cool no lower than 85 F
Close off rooms in the winter
Heat no higher than 65 F
Build homes partly underground
Reduce the size and number of windows
Build smaller homes
Stop building homes in the country
Build homes that share side walls

PRAKTIKUM EKOLOGI KELUARGA

ANALYSIS AND WRITE YOUR EXPLANATION ON


:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

DECISION MAKING AS CONFLICT MANAGEMENT


DECISION MAKING REFLECTS FAMILY PERCEPTION,
NEED, & VALUES
DECISION MAKING REFLECTS INTERACTION
PATTERN POWER & AUTHORITY AND DECISION
MAKING DECISION MAKING AND INFORMATION
PROCESSING

SEBUTKAN CONTOH KASUS PERILAKU


KELUARGA YANG :

DIPANDANG MELANGGAR PRINSIP KELESTARIAN


LINGKUNGAN ALAM
DIPANDANG BERDAMPAK NEGATIF
TERHADAP KEHARMONISAN LINGKUNGAN
SOSIAL

ANALISIS PROSES DECISION MAKING


DI KELUARGA YANG MENYEBABKAN
KELUARGA BERPERILAKU TERSEBUT

ANALISIS FAKTOR YANG


MEMPENGARUHI DECISION MAKING DI
KELUARGA TERSEBUT