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Chapter# 01

Purpose of Research


Statement of Problem


Objective of the Study






Historical Disastor


Aror, Rohri, Sukkur


Significance of the Study


Research Methodology

1.9.1 Raport Establishment

1.9.2 Participant observation
1.9.3 Focus Group Discussion
1.9.4 Census Survey Form
1.9.5 Key Informatn
1.9.6 Interviews
1.9.7 Unstructred Interview
1.9.8 In Depth Intervies

1.9.9 The Case Study

1.10 Non Verbal Mechanical Aids

Camera and Photography


Field Notes


Daily Diary


Data Analysis

1.11 Review of the Literature

1.12 Locale

Chapter# 02




History of Village Arore


Historical Disastor


Family System


Caste System








Sui Gas






Medical Facilities


Diseases, illness and Treatment Methods


Political System of the village

2.9.1 Political Background of the village
2.9.2 Political Structure
2.9.3 Judgment

2.10 The ways of interaction

2.11 Manners of Apology
2.12 House Structure
2.13 Physical Features

The basic purpose of this research is to submit thesis of
Anthropology department of Sindh University Jamshoro, and other
purpose is mentioned below
To find the historical background of village Arore, Taulka
Rohri, Dist. Sukkur Sindh Pakistan.
To know the life style of the people living there.
To know that why this village is famous.
To know the Local Culture of the village

There is less work done regarding culture of rural sindh in
anthroplogical prespe, so there is an effort in this work which studies
culture of one village in systematic way. The cultural problems people
face in villages are presented in this study.

1. To record the history of the village
2. To document the belief, rites and rituals of the community
3. To find out educational pull and push factors
4. Explore the Economic system
5. Ecplore the political structure of the village.

Arore ,Alore, Aror
Prior to the invasion by the Arabs in AD 713, Sindh was ruled by a Hindu
dynasty whose Capital was at Arore (or Alor, Arore, Al Rur), a large city on
the banks of the Indus, also known as the Mehran. The boundaries of this
kingdom extended up to Kashmir in the north, Mekran in the south, and
Kandhar in the west. Prior to this Rai Siharas (AD 515-50) was the bestknown king of this dynasty. The Persian army attacked Sindh in AD 626,
during the reign of Rai Siharas II, defeating his forces. The king was killed but
the Persians were recalled because of an attack from the west on their
domains. His successor, Rai Sahasi, was a good and wise rule.About five
miles south-east of Rohri and close to the Eastern Nara supply canal is the
small village of Arore, Aror or Alore, comprising a few hundred inhabitants. It
stands upon part of what was the capital of Sindh more than a thousand
years ago. In the description of ancient Alore given in the Chach Namah, we
are told that it was a town adorned with various kinds of royal buildings,
villas, gardens, fountains, streams, meadows, and trees and was situated on
the bank of the River Mehran. In this beautiful and splendid city, there lived a
king whose name was Sahiras, son of Sahasi Rai. This king had innumerable
riches and thinking was well-known in the world. The limits of his dominions
extended east to the boundary of Kashmir, west to Makran, to the south to
the sea-coast and Debal, and to the appointed four governors (Maliks) in his
kingdom.In the reign of Jam Fateh Khan (AD 1412/13-28) (predecessor of Jam
Tughlaq Shah, son of Sikander), Alore was a parganah given to one Syed
Abdul Ghias. At the time of the conquest of Sindh by the Arabs under
Muhammad Bin Qasim in AD 711, Alore was the capital of Sindh and the
residence of King Dahir. The Arabs made their capital at Mansurah, and Alore
existed for more than two centuries as a Hindu town. It then disappeared.
The legend of King Dalurai of Brahmanabad gives an account of its fate. The

bricks of the ancient fort of Alore were utilized in repairing the fort walls of
Bukkur when Shah Beg Arghun decided to make Bukkur his capital.At a short
distance below the
hill to the southwest of the village
Persian inscription
of Mir Muhammad
Masoom dated
AH1008 (AD1599)
was set up in the
dried-up bed of the
river to mark its
ancient course. This
stone has been
removed and lodged
in Moen jo daro
Museum for safekeeping (a similar stone has been set up by this writer at the same place).
There are also the tombs of two Syeds. Shaker Ganj Shah and Khatal ud
Din(or Qutb Shah); the former is said to have been a contemporary and
friend of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, whose tomb is at Sehwan. There is an annual
fair in his honour. There is also a fair held annually in September in honour of
Kalka Mata which is attended by Hindus. Nothing is known of the origin of the
fair and, save for the insignificant little village, the site is now a wilderness.

There is a better education system at Union Council Arore as compare to surrounding
villages, There are Four Government Schools (Primary School, Middle School, Girls School,
and Girls art and Design School) and One Private School (Muhammad Bin Qasim Public
School) as well.

Girls education is also given priority there, Girls can study with their will, Parents encourage
their daughters to go to School and get education for their bright future.

Each year the literacy rate is also increasing, so this is the evidence to show the Good Education
system of Village Arore.

Caste and Family System

In Village arore there are so many families having different caste and language living, but
the good thing is that they all live with peace and unity with each other.
The populous caste living there is Buriro, but the most influential caste there is Banga, Memon,
Syed, Bhatti, Sirohi and Chandia.

There are so many Sweet languages of Pakistan are spoken at Arore. i.e,
Sindhi, Siraiki, Balochi, Panjabi, Urdu. The most common language is Sindhi, all
people speak Sindhi Laguage.

There are so many festivals are organized at Village Arore, for the entertainment
puropose, e.g Kalkan jo Mailo, Shah Shakar Ganj Jo Mailo, Rohal Fakeer jo Mailo, Peer
Badal Sher jo Mailo, Noor Shah Bhit Jo Mailo and others.

Around 10,000 people are living in Union Council Arore. The most Populous caste is
Buriro, Syed, Shaikh, Sirohi, khaskheli, Baloch, Arain, Memon and Banga.

There many sports games are played in Village Arore, like, Cricket, Volley Ball, Kodi
Kodi, Malh, Bull Race, Kukur Mel, Chidda Rand, Taas Rand.
There are so many festivals are organized at Arore, in these festivals, Kodi Kodi, Malh
Malakhro and other sports games are played.

Economic System:
As the Economy is the
backbone of the county, like the
same way Arore is also contributing
in economy of Pakistan.
The major contribution is
from the Date Palm Business, and
Hill cutting and supply in other
cities of Sindh and Pakistan.

Agriculture of village arore:

As Agriculture is the major sector of Pakistan, like the same way in Arore there is much
contribution of Agriculture.
The major Crops are Date Palm, Wheat, Banana, Rice, Cotton, Sugar cane and others.


Aror is the ancestral town of the Arora caste. According to the Bhavishya

Parshuram attacked the Kshatriyas but eventually met one who

to oppose the Brahmins. This caused Parshuram to gain
respect for him and as a result Parshuram asked this
Kshatriya to settle in Sind, in
Arorkot. This Kshatriya's
descendants were named after
the place
Arab historians used the words Alrur, Al-ruhr and Al Ror to describe
Aror.[5] The basic meaning being
"The Ror" as 'Al' is simply
the English word 'The' in
Arabic. Aror was the
ancient capital of
Sindh, originally

ruled by the Ror Dynasty, which was followed by Rai Dynasty and then the
Brahman Dynasty. Modern Rohri is now situated close to Sukkur, Sindh. In
711, Aror was captured by the army of Muslim general Muhammad bin
Qasim. In 962 it was hit by a massive earthquake that changed the course of
the Indus River[6]

As Alexander approached the vicinity of present-day Sukkur, he was much

impressed by the fertility of the land. This was the richest [country] in
India, his historian Arrian tells us. Fearing for the safety of his life and
kingdom, King Musicanus made an overture for peace, resultantly retaining

the throne with Alexander entering the city as guest rather than victor. The
conqueror, Arrian asserts, was all admiration for the country and capital city
and ordered for its citadel to be strengthened so that a Greek garrison could
be left behind to keep watch on neighbouring tribes.

Another Greek historian would have us believe that the land was so rich and
fertile and its produce so healthful and abundant that people ordinarily lived
to ages well beyond 100 years. Though such longevity is doubtful, the
fertility of the
land is believable:
we know from
British travellers
of the early 19th
century that
during summer
floods, the Indus
in this vicinity
spread from its
bed over 30
between Sukkur
and Rohri all the
way up to
Shikarpur and Larkana.

Naturally, when the alluvium-rich water receded, it left behind vast,

extremely fertile farmland that led to the citys prosperity. The awe
notwithstanding, Alexanders historians did not leave a name of the capital
city or its district. We had to wait 1000 years to hear it from the Arabs. When
they arrived in Rore, the second r being palatal, they called it Al-Rore,
according to their usage. Forever after, the name of this great city of Sindh
remained Aror.

Chachnama, a 13th century history of the Arab conquest of Sindh based on

an earlier account, waxes lyrical about Aror: It was a town adorned with
various kinds of royal buildings, villas, gardens, fountains, streams, meadows
and trees and was situated on the banks of a river called the Mehran
[Indus]. Surrounded by a defensive wall, Aror occupied the flat hilltop.
Below, along the riverbank, stretching in both directions were farmlands,
pleasure gardens and the houses of the elite. Even in the 8th century, when
the original version was written, the book told us of the wealth beyond
measure owned by this wonderful country.

Like Alexander, the Arabs too did not attempt to lay this magnificent city low.
For three decades after the conquest, they loved and cherished it and
maintained its status as the capital city of Sindh, adding to it in their own
fashion. But in the year 744, the Arabs moved the capital south to another
ancient town. Nevertheless, Aror was not abandoned and became the seat of
the governor of Upper Sindh.

Nature did not permit this to last very long, unfortunately. In about the year
960, a cataclysmic earthquake altered the course of the river. Of a sudden,
the Indus left its bed below Aror and began flowing some six kilometres to
the west. Bereft of its water, Arors fountains ceased to play, its streams ran
dry and gardens withered away. With its only water for domestic use gone,
the city was soon abandoned by its inhabitants and passed out of human
memory. Only its name was retained by a nondescript little village that grew
in its stead, a far and modest cry from the glorious original.


Some maintain that Rohri took its name with the diminutive ending for Aror,
for that is the place to which repaired the population of the abandoned city.
But we know that over the next several centuries after it was abandoned, the
bricks of Aror were being freely plundered and used as building material by
the citizens of Rohri and nearby villages. In fact, as modern tourists regard
the now eroding ramparts of Bhakkar Fort on the island between Sukkur and
Rohri, few know that its kiln-fired bricks, brought in the 1520s, were once
part of Arors buildings.


Of all ancient lost cities, Aror was perhaps the easiest to identify. In 1837,
explorer John Wood recognized it and made a passing reference. But it was
Henry Cousens, architectural historian and antiquarian, who wrote in 1924,
About five miles south by east of Rohri ... is the present small village of Alor
or Aror, of a few hundred inhabitants, which stands upon part of the site of
the old capital of Sind of more than a thousand years ago.

Time was when the hill on which the ruins of once-celebrated Aror stood was
liberally scattered with shards of blue-green glazed pottery from the Arab
period, fired bricks and millions of stone tools from more than 100 millennia
earlier. Over time, enthusiastic visitors scavenged what they found. But even
as these unwitting plunderers despoiled this rich historical site, no organized
excavation and study was carried out. Today, the windswept hilltop of
bleached white limestone is littered only with millions of shattered bricks but

rarely with any pottery favoured by the Arabs.

The site is unmistakable: the flat-topped hill with its broken bricks and below
it to the south the old bed of the Indus marked by a wide swathe of
exceptionally fertile land caught between two lines of limestone hills. And the
legend related even today is true to form: the pious man of God and his
young daughter sailing down the river are reported to the evil king of Aror.
He plans to intercept the boat as it passes below the ramparts of his fortified
city and make the beautiful young woman part of his harem.

The plot becomes known to the holy man. He prays for deliverance and,
miraculously, the river shifts course. Aror is abandoned and the boat bearing
father and daughter passes safely beyond the kings evil reach.

Today, Aror has only two ruins: the gateway and mehrab of the mosque built
by the Arabs in the 8th century and a single brick wall that was once part of
an 18th-century mosque that finally collapsed in the rainstorms of 2011.
Other than that, the secrets of Aror lie deep beneath for the time being, at
least. So they will remain until a dedicated effort is made to learn more of
the Eden of Sindh that so dazzled the Greeks and Arabs.

Interior Sindh is better known for its fertile Indus basin and sand dunes on
the eastern border with India. But there is a range of hills which in a way
segregate both regions. These limestone formations can be found in Rohri
and Khairpur districts, though these are inhabited scarcely , there are
frequent tourists visiting a few famous landmarks, which include shrines,
temples and the famous Kot Diji fort located in Khairpur.

These hills were not as barren always, you'll find traces of old river channels
most notably few kilometers east of Rohri, where the city of Aror once stood
with its pomp and glory. It was the seat of power when Muhammad Bin
Qasim conquered Sindh.


However it was destroyed by a powerful earthquake in 962 AD and it is

believed that the same earthquake changed the course of Indus, shifting the
fortunes of the area once and for all.

The surviving structures were lost one by one and only few arches of a
mosque, believed to be built on the orders of Muhammad bin Qasim, stand
as testimony of the bygone era.

Having said that, there are places which one should not miss in the
abandoned city of Aror. The first and foremost being the temple of Kalkaan
Devi in a natural cave.

Kalkaan Devi Mandir, is one of the holiest shrines for Hindus in Pakistan.
According to the legend Kalkaan Devi appeared here during her Hinglaj


This can be accessed via Rohri bypass. From Muhammad bin Qasim Public School in
Aror, you need to turn left and drive for two or three kms before you find the road ending
at the temple. Even on a working day you will find families visiting the temple.


Many rooms have been built around the original temple in the cave, some for
praying and others for accommodating visitors who flock in thousands at the
time of Hindu festivals.

From one of the room is the entrance to the cave which is hardly five to six
feet high. The floor is tiled but you need to watch your head. There are two
tunnels which according to the caretaker connect the cave with the temple in
Hinglaj. We looked inside into the hole which could barely fit a person.

The smell and the smoke of agarbatis (incense), created a mystic aura
around the area. The priest was sitting on a stone platform and there it was;
the idol of the fierce Kalkaan Devi with a dagger in one hand and a chopped
head in the other.
Past the priest you can see a second tunnel. Move ahead and you will enter
the Samdhi. We sat there with the priest for a cup of tea which was way too
sweet for town bred people.



At a few


minutes drive from the temple, there are the remnants of

mosque built on a mound. It was constructed on the
orders of Muhammad Bin Qasim
sign of his authority after
defeating Raja Dahirs son.
Sadly only few arches have
survived but to our surprise,
there were few praying mats
a speaker installed at the top,
indicating that the
mosque is very much

There is a small structure built on the top which probably serves as a

mosque. The view from the top is breathtaking, looking into the emptiness of
Aror on one hand and verdant green fields fueled by the panacean water of
Indus on the other side. The place could be a great camping site but the fear
remains on unstable security situation in the area and people prefer to go
back before the sunset. This area has seen a lot of conflict in past and it
continues into the present.

We sat there in silence, hearing the stories whispered by the faint wind into
the vastness of Aror landscape. It was quiet and all we could hear was the
tinkling bells of herd going back to their farms in distance. We could see the
dim flickering light of the lamps which were lit as soon as the sun set in the
west. I remembered a friend telling me that one only finds loneliness in cities
and not the solitude. No wonder a lot of saints picked up various spots in this
landscape as their eternal abodes.

Rohri (Sindhi:), (Urdu: ) , (medievally Aror) is a town of Sukkur
District, Sindh province, Pakistan. It is located at 2740'60N 6854'0E, [2] on the east bank of
the Indus River. Rohri town is the administrative headquarters of Rohri Taluka, a tehsil of
Sukkur District[3] with which it forms a metropolitan area.

Rohri city that has one hundred and fifteen

Rohri city that has one hundred and fifteen thousand saints and canonises is one of the ancient
city in Sindh. Early ages it is called Lohri to be subsequently changed Rohri found details in
Sindh Gazette. The city is situated near Indus River. Religious Moh Mubarak hair of
Beard of Hazrat Mohammad (P.B.U.H)to get a huge importance and honored is placed in War
Mubarak near Indus River as well. Hazrat Imam Hussain a.s taboot is known as Karbala
Moallah Noh dhaal (9 Shield) was placed in Iraqmosque in early ages and subsequently to be
placed in Karbala moallah and is mourned in 9th night inRohri city from Karabala moallah
domain. Secondly I wish to give you more information about Rohri city that the Temple
of Hazrat Ali a.s and keep open for followers to do ziarat and is mourned on 21st Ramadan.
Here is temple of Hazarat Imam Ali a.s to be very important place where followers come for
spiritual and religious faith, known as Najaf temple but as taboot and imam barga founder Syed
Zawar Hussain Rizvi tells its real name Azakhana e Najafi from where taboot e Ali a.s to be
appeared on 21st Ramadan. A number of historical mosques and towns are in the city. The capital
of Rohri whose old nameAlhor and now known as Aror that is appeared on map of Sindh
having saved its rest of territory stated a bit far from Rohri. There is one more point can be
visited is known as Sateean jo astaan (seven sisters) and most of very famous and attracted
bridge named Lansdown bridge Rohri Pul. A twenty four hours crowed place in Rohri is
known Rohri station a lot of hotels and guest room are available outside station. Very important
ancient streets, roundabouts and neighbors are historical places at where historical people who
are the rest of history and a very honorable following Residential in Rohri are Syed family, Qazi

Family, Akhound Family, Mukhdom Family, Paloty Family, Memon Family, Pehbha Family ,
Mehar Family, Bhatti Family , Baloch Family, Soomra Family and Shaikh Family.


Aror was the ancient capital of Sindh, originally ruled by the Ror Dynasty. Modern Rohri is
situated adjacent to Sukkur, Sindh. In 711 AD, Aror was captured by the army of Muslim
general Muhammad Bin Qasim. In 962 it was hit by a massive earthquake that changed the
course of the Indus River.


Rohri has a hot desert climate (Kppen climate classification BWh) with extremely hot
summers and mild winters. Rohri is very dry, with the little rain it receives mostly falling in
the monsoon season from July to September.

Rohri Junction railway station

Rohri Junction railway station (Urdu:

) is located

in Rohri town, Sukkur district of Sindh province of the Pakistan. It is a major railway station
of Pakistan Railways and the junction ofKarachiPeshawar Main Line and RohriQuetta railway line.[2] It is the stop of all Express trains.
The station is staffed and has advance and current reservation offices. Food stalls are also
located on it platforms.

Train routes
The routes are Rohri from linked
to Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, Quetta, Multan, Faisalabad, Sargodha, Jhang,H
yderabad, Sukkur, Rahim Yar
Khan, Bahawalpur, Gujr

at, Gujranwala, Khanewal, Nawabshah, Larkana, Sibi, Attoc

k andNowshera

services from Rohri







Karachi Cantt, Hyderabad Jn, Nawabshah, Mehrabpur, Rohri


9 UP,





Jn, Sadiqabad, Rahim Yar

Khan,Khanpur, Bahawalpur, Jehanian, Khanewal Jn, Sahiwal, Okara
Cantt, Pattoki, Kot Radha Kishen,Raiwind Jn, Kot Lakhpat, Lahore
Jn, Shahdara
Bagh, Narang, Baddomalhi, Narowal, Pasrur,Chawinda, Sialkot



Karachi Cantt, Landhi, Jungshahi, Jhimpir, Kotri Jn, Hyderabad



Jn, Tando Adam, Shahdadpur,Nawabshah, Pad Idan, Bhiria

Road, Mehrabpur, Setharja, Ranipur, Gambat, Khairpur, Rohri

Jn,Pano Akil, Ghotki, Mirpur Mathelo, Daharki, Sadiqabad, Rahim
Yar Khan, Khanpur, Liaquatpur, Dera Nawab Sahib, Samasata

Jn, Bahawalpur, Shujabad, Multan Cantt, Khanewal

Jn, Chichawatni,Sahiwal, Okara Cantt, Pattoki, Kot Radha
Kishan, Raiwand Jn, Kot Lakhpat, Lahore Jn, Gujranwala,Wazirabad
Jn, Gujrat, Lala Musa Jn, Kharian Cantt, Jhelum, Gujar Khan, Chak
Lala, Rawalpindi,Taxila Jn, Hasan Abdal, Attock Jn, Jhangira
Road, Nowshera Jn, Peshawar City, Peshawar Cantt

Karachi City, Karachi Cantt, Landhi Jn, Jungshahi, Kotri



Jn, Hyderabad Jn, Tando


Adam,Shahdadpur, Nawabshah, Daur, Mehrabpur, Rohri


Jn, Sadiqabad, Rahim Yar Khan, Khanpur Jn,Dera Nawab


Sahib, Samasata Jn, Bahawalpur, Lodhran Jn,

Gilawala, Shujabad, Multan Cantt





Karachi City, Karachi Cantt, Drigh Road, Landhi, Kotri Jn, Hyderabad
Jn, Tando Adam, Rohri Jn,Sadiqabad, Rahim Yar
Khan, Khanpur, Liaqatpur, Samasata, Bahawalpur, Lodhran
Jn, Mailsi,Vehari, Arifwala, Pakpattan, Kasur, Raiwind Jn, Kot
Lakhpat, Walton, Lahore Cantt, Lahore Jn



Karachi City, Karachi Cantt, Drigh Road, Landhi Jn, Kotri



Jn, Hyderabad Jn, Tando Adam,Nawabshah, Pad Idan, Bhiria


Road, Mehrabpur Jn, Rohri Jn, Pano Akil, Mirpur


Mathelo, Sadiqabad,Rahim Yar Khan, Khanpur Jn, Liaquatpur, Dera

Nawab Sahib, Samasata Jn, Bahawalpur, Shujabad,Multan Cantt,
Riazabad, Khanewal Jn, Shorkot Cantt Jn, Jhang
Sadar, Sillanwali, Shaheenabad Jn,Sargodha Jn, Bhalwal, Malakwal
Jn, Mandi Bahauddin, Lala Musa Jn, Jhelum, Gujar

Khan,Rawalpindi, Taxila Jn, Haripur Hazara, Havelian

Quetta, Kolpur, Mach, Aab-e-gum, Sibi Jn, Bakhtiarabad


Domki, Dera Murad Jamali, Dera Allah Yar,Jacobabad



Jn, Shikarpur, Sukkur, Rohri Jn, Sadiqabad, Rahim Yar



Khan, Bahawalpur, Multan Cantt,Khanewal Jn, Sahiwal, Okara


Cantt, Raiwind Jn, Lahore Jn, Gujranwala, Wazirabad

Jn, Gujrat,Lalamusa Jn, Jhelum, Rawalpindi



Karachi Cantt, Hyderabad Jn, Rohri Jn, Bahawalpur, Multan



Cantt, Sahiwal, Raiwind Jn, Lahore Jn


Karakoram UP,

Karachi Cantt, Hyderabad Jn, Nawabshah, Rohri Jn, Khanewal


Jn, Faisalabad, Lahore Jn


Karachi Cantt, Landhi, Hyderabad Jn, Nawabshah, Khairpur, Rohri

Jn, Pano Akil, Ghotki, Mirpur Mathelo, Daharki, Sadiqabad, Rahim
Yar Khan. Khanpur, Liaquatpur, Dera Nawab Sahib, Samasata

1 UP,


2 DN

Jn, Bahawalpur, Lodhran Jn, Shujabad, Multan Cantt, Khanewal

Jn, Mian Channun, Chichawatni,Sahiwal, Okara
Cantt, Pattoki, Raiwind Jn, Kot Lakhpat, Lahore
Jn, Gujranwala, Wazirabad Jn,Gujrat, Lala Musa
Jn, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock city Jn, Jhangira
Road, Nowshera, Peshawar City,Peshawar Cantt



Karachi Cantt, Hyderabad Jn, Rohri Jn, Bahawalpur, Khanewal



Jn, Shorkot Cantt Jn, Toba Tek Singh, Faisalabad, Chak Jhumra



Jn, Chiniot, Shaheenabad Jn, Sargodha Jn


Karachi Cantt, Hyderabad Jn, Nawabshah, Rohri


Jn, Bahawalpur, Multan Cantt, Faisalabad, Lahore Jn



Karachi Cantt, Rohri Jn, Khanewal Jn, Lahore Jn






Karachi Cantt, Hyderabad Jn, Rohri Jn, Rahim Yar

Khan, Khanpur, Bahawalpur, Multan Cantt,Khanewal Jn, Shorkot
Cantt Jn, Toba Tek Singh, Gojra, Faisalabad, Sangla Hill Jn,
* Hafizabad, Alipur Chatta, Wazirabad Jn, Gujrat, Lala Musa
Jn, Jhelum, Rawalpindi

Quetta, Kolpur, Mach, Aab-e-gum, Sibi Jn, Bakhtiarabad


Domki, Dera Murad Jamali, Dera Allah Yar,Jacobabad



Jn, Shikarpur, Sukkur, Rohri Jn, Pano Akil, Ghotki, Mirpur



Mathelo, Sadiqabad, Rahim Yar Khan, Khanpur, Dera Nawab


Sahib, Bahawalpur, Khanewal Jn, Shorkot Cantt

Jn, Faisalabad,Lahore Jn



Karachi Cantt, Hyderabad Jn, Mehrabpur Jn, Rohri Jn, Rahim Yar



Khan, Bhawalpur, Multan Cantt,Faisalabad, Lahore Jn






Karachi City, Karachi Cantt, Drigh Colony, Landhi, Kotri

Jn, Hyderabad Jn, Tando Adam,Shahdadpur, Nawabshah, KotLaollo, Pad Idan, Bhiria Road, Lakha Road, Mehrabpur,
Setharja,Ranipur Riyasat, Gambat, Khairpur, Rohri
Jn, Sukkur, Shikarpur, Jacobabad Jn

Karachi Cantt, Hyderabad Jn, Tando

Adam, Nawabshah, Khairpur, Rohri Jn, Rahim Yar

7 UP, Khan,Khanpur, Bhawalpur, Multan Cantt, Khanewal Jn, Mian

8 DN

Channu, Chichawatni, Sahiwal, Okara Cantt,Pattoki, Kot Radha

Kishan, Raiwind Jn, Kot Lakhpat, Lahore Jn, Gujranwala, Lalamusa
Jn, Jhelum,Rawalpindi

Tomb of Khwaja Khizr or Zinda Pir

Opposite Rohri is a small island of which about half an acre remains above water at the height of
the inundation. This has been enclosed with a wall and contains a shrine to which Muslims and
Hindus come together in thousands from all parts of Sindh in March and April, the Muslims to
honor Khwaja Khizr and the Hindus, Jind Pir, (Jind is a corruption of Zinda; Zinda Pir means the
Living Saint). Eventually the possession of the shrine became a bone of contention between
Hindus and Muslims, but the matter was settled when the Hindus abandoned their claim and set
up a shrine of their own to Jind Pir on the Sukkur bank of the river. The Public Works
Department, under resolution No. 55-W-1 650 of 10 April 1894, sanctioned a piece of land
measuring 16.50 ghuntas approximately to the Panchayat (Council) of Sukkurfor the use of the
Jind Pir Fakirs trust, i.e., after executing a trust deed in favor of Bhai Balo, the leader of the
Fakirs at that time. According to the trust, he and his successors would receive Rs 15000 for
discharging certain duties in connection with the shrine and monuments. The Muslim legend is
that a Delhimerchant by the name of Shah Hussain (Saiful Muluk) was traveling down the Indus
by boat with his daughter, Badu.-i-Jamal, on their way to Mecca. On their arrival in the city
of Alore, Daluraj, the Hindu King, who had heard of the great beauty of Shah Hussains
daughter, demanded her in marriage. He was refused, being told as a reason that it was
impossible for the daughter of a follower of the Prophet (PBUH) to wed a Hindu. Not content
with the reply, the king determined to carry her off by force; but as the girl was offering prayers
to Khwaja Khizr, the saint directed her father to cut loose the boat. As soon as this was done, the
course of the Indus changed and the stream began to flow towards Rohri, carrying to safety the
boat and its passengers. In gratitude for this miraculous deliverance, Shah Hussain resolved to
erect a shrine in honour of the saint who had thus befriended them. In answer to his prayer he
was directed to carry out his purpose on a small island a little to the north of Bukkur, and here he
built a mosque and a mausoleum, in honour of the saint, which in later years was enlarged by
wealthy votaries who were said to have covered the door of the original tomb with sheets of
silver. Unfortunately there is no trace of either of these buildings.

resolved to erect
a shrine in honour
of the saint who
befriended them.
In answer to his
prayer he was
directed to carry
out his purpose
on a small island
a little to the
north of Bukkur,
and here he built
a mosque and a
honour of the
saint, which in
later years was
wealthy votaries
who were said to
have covered the
with sheets of silver. Unfortunately there is no trace of either of these buildings.
[media id=9 width=425 height=344]

Astan-e-Khwaja Khizar Rohri

The Hindu identify Khawaja as Jind Pir (properly Zinda Pir), i.e. the living Pir who is no other
than the incarnation of the river Indus, elsewhere called Uderolal, Darya Shah, etc., to whom
they burn a light. The central building with the silver doors, be it tomb, temple or cenotaph,
contains a niche which is the seat of the saint and above which a slab of stone clumsily built in to
the wall bears a Persian inscription which has been translated thus:
When this court was raised, be it known that the waters of Khizr surrounded it; Khizr wrote this
in pleasing verse.Its date is found from the Court of the High one. The words Dargah-i-Ali, give
the date 341 which correspond to AD. 952. To the south-west of the shrine is a ruined brick
masjid with an inscription which gives the date AH 1011 (AD 1602). The mujawars (guardians)
of Satyan-jo-Asthan and of Khwaja Khizrs shrine were holding lands as khairat (charitable
grant) before the British conquest, discharging certain holy duties around the monuments and
shrines in their charge. Sir Charles Napier continued the practice.

Karbala jo matam rohri

Arore is one of the historical place of Indus valley, having so many things to visit, in this
Thesis, I wanted to show the importance of Arore in Indus Valley. I met with so many historians
who knows about the history of Arore.
Important places are highlighted in this Thesis, I learnt so many things in this period. It was a
wonderful experience for me.
The things that are highlighted in this thesis are

History of Arore

Education and Economic System


Caste and Families living in Arore

History of Rohri

Junciton of Rohri