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# CHAPTER

## TgnRMAL RnsrRArNT Srnnss

!.:ne stress analysis problems involve superposition of stresses
fl::erent planes using Mohr's circle, or simply the calculation
' -"ransient stresses that arise from physically restraining a
r,,-r:ir while its temperature changes. This is especially true
r-.:n fatigue life analysis is required.
Now I am fully aware that the really cool way to analyze
you may
"lch things is to use finite element analysis' However'
a good
need
i, r have the time or budget for that, but still

## These symbols are used interchangeably, although rarely in the

same textbook. It is good to check on a syllabus of terminology
before using a formula, right?

## rlr; *'er. Whatever the case, good approximations can be made

r,. tand calculation, and the thermal restraint part is not all

n.: difficult.
.\s you recall from school, the basic idea is to calculate
nc thermal growth an unrestrained body would undergo, in
-:,-rging from one temperature to another. Next, determine the
rL:rting effect of full or partial constraint of that expansion by
.: re rigid or elastic structure. The stresses, which we visualize
i' -ing created by the imaginary process of forcing the thermal
,:rins to reverse, by the full or a selected partial amount, are

## ncr calculated by normal means (the usual equations from

;::ngth of materials.)
The textbooks usually offer a simple example, such as
,r rl tension in a bar that tries to cool down when restrained
u 'is ends, or axial compression when the bar tries to heat up
r --lle

## structurally restrained at its ends. These one-dimensional

r': problems are very easy to solve by hand, but real-life
: r rnples may involve a little more geometric complexity than
ru:. Hence, the following little collection of additional geomet-. ,'ases may be useful to you.
By the way, depending on the particular formula, you will
.'-:J two different symbols used for Poisson's ratio:

## F = v = Poisson's Ratio (use 0.3 for steel)

-.!:ewise two different symbols for thermal expansion coeffi- .nI appeaf:
c[,

## External constraints prohibit or restrict thermal growth,

causing thermal stresses in solid objects. Calculate thermal expansion/contraction stresses by first calculating
the size and shape of the object at its new temperature
(T + AT) when its growth or shrinkage is not constrained
in any way. Then calculate the stresses which would be
produced in the object if we were to mechanically force
it back to its original (@ temp. T) size and shape. These
are the stresses due to external restraint of thermal

with

these

## stresses are the same magnitude but opposite direction

(algebraic sign) as the net unconstrained thermal move-

## ments (dimensional changes) the body would make in

going from uniform temperature T to (T + AT).
2.

;1

I.

## Unconstrained solid bodies upon being cooled or heated

can still generate thermal stresses because of incompati-

## ble expansions or contractions between different parls

of the body, or from uneven heating and cooling which
create a similar effect. Thermal transients during heat
transfer can be visualized readily, since different-thickness parts of a body heat up or cool down at different
rates depending on relative mass and geometry factors.
These transient strains naturally result in the accompanying stresses, which wouldn't be there if the body were
shaped such that all parts of it could shrink or grow at
the same volumetric rate. So be sure you recognize the
differences between true thermal equilibrium, in which
the stresses relax to a minimum stress condition, and
thermal transients, during the heat transfer process,
which easily exceed the equilibrated minimum stresses.
Thermal transients often create cyclical stresses which
result in unplanned-for fatigue cracking and mechanical
105

.)

ir

lt

106 . Chapter 6
failure. Stress concentrations are to be avoided when a
pafi's temperature must cycle. This means the shape

No melting, no

sagging

like taffy, no

cryose:lr

fracturing.

cally or abruptly.
In all cases, our simplified equations consider the properties constant over the temperature change range, ho-

mogeneous

5.

6.
1.

## SOMB COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED

GEOMETRIC EXAMPLES

density,

## modulus of elasticity, coefficient of thermal expansion,

shear modulus and Poisson's ratio as well as initial
residual stress.
AT is assumed positive. If negative, the stresses are of
the opposite kind and strains in the opposite direction.
Compressive stresses do not reach the point of causing
the object to buckle. If instability of the shape is likely,
solutions must be modified accordingly. (But not in this
book.) (Consider finite element analysis if the design
is important and you think it will buckle.)
Stress remains in the elastic region below yield stress,
throughout the temperature range being studied.
Temperature is not high enough to permit material creep,
or low enough to cause loss of its malleable properties.

## The next few pages of this chapter give worked-out examp *

of about eight different solid-body geometries often encc'-r.
tered in these types of analyses (see Figures 6-1 to 6-8). \ '"
will see that they are not difficult, and I assure you ther ;,:
be very useful in practice. Best of all, you can use the procedu::r
illustrated there in deriving corresponding answers for --r;
about any catalogued solid shape you are likely to encour.ii'
on the job. The only limit is your patience and mathemar:r
ability, because as the shapes become more complex the si r'
tions become more tedious. (So what is new?! We would:,t
surprised, even deeply disappointed if such were not the c;:l
wouldn't we my friends?)

fiiG

:u:"

rrl

-d
Lur:l
_r!li

Jl:g
i1-llr

@ T*AT

!:'i-'
;

inl

. ,{rl

## The solid body is initially at uniform equilibrium temperature = "T."

At a given instant, the shaded region on the surface has its temperature changed to a new value by the
amount of change = "AT."
The region may be a very tiny % of the surface, or a very large % of the surface (even 100%), or some
percentage in between.
lf AT is positive, that is, 12 -T1 > 0, at the instant of change a compressive stress develops in the surface
layer of the heated (shaded) portion of the body. lf AT is negative, the stress is tensile.

## Either way, the peak value of the stress o = ocE (AT)

o = Themal Stress (lbflin.')
E = Modulus of Elasticity (lbf/in.')
!r = v = Poisson's Ratio (use 0.3 for steel)
cr = y

I-ieure

= thermal exp.

6-1

coefficient

## Thermal Stress Due to Internal Restraint Within the Solid Body

(1

v)

1O7

108 . Chapter 6

Q ra/,ius J'r*

plug 6{

'radius 'AThe solid circular disk is initially at uniform equilibrium temperature = "T.
At a given instant, the shaded volumetric plug region at the center, which is the radius "a," has its
temperature raised to a new value by amount "AT ' (A sudden local electrical current flowing thru center, for
example, could create heat and the AT in the resisting disk material^ The stress at location of interest radius
"/' depends on location: INSIDE or OUTSIDE of the heated reqion "a."

OUTSIDE heated region: r ) o I op is compressive, o1 is tensile, and they are equalto each
other in absolute magnitude;

q:sEjal}a-Jzft

INSIDE heated region: I < I i on and or are both compressive, and they are equal to each
other in absolute magnitude;

qiqElAI--2

## r = Thermal Stress (shear) (lbflin.2)

o = Thermal Stress (normal) (su^b "R" = radial, sub "T" = tangential direc'tion in disc.) (lbf/in.')
E = Modulus of Elasticity (lbf/in.')
F = v = Poisson's Ratio (use 0.3 for steel)
or

= T = thermal exp.

coefficient

## Figure 6-2 Thermal Stress in Element at Radial Distance

in Plug Volume of Radius "a" at Center

## THERMAL RESTRAINT STRESS

tF{l,r
qtuD c

-T

L*"d
}L
O"y

X|

dl

,sl
I

*lfe{ -',-

"fir VnN
- Hea**dt'

Ylr f*R
fnsg Vtgu.l I T*l,p.**file
is initially at uniform equilibrium temperature = "T." Thenn ils entire circumference is uniformly
heated so that a higher equilibrium temperaiure distribution arisee as shown above.

## ihe soiid circular disk of radius "R"

"ri" anylvhere in or on the disk, with or = the radial and st = the tangential stress vectors, ihe stresses are as given
these expressions, plus sign means tensile and minus sign denotes compressive stress"

below.

In

## * T'in} per the above skelch

Oru"= {T66r-T6ia}
and
@ r:
6; = {T'

0,6:0

@r:R,O=Or",

ii the thermal boundary conditions cause the temperature distribution to change with time, then the stress distributions will change to {it
ihe new temperature distribution. As long as the temperature distribution remains radially symmetrical, the equations lor the stress
d istribution remain accurate-

## Equalions for stress drstribution:

o11=(aE)((tn')
ox = {rrE}

^l
'
Jordr-(1/r11jordr)

(-o+1rn21 J orcr+11tr12}J o

ror}

## radial normal strEss at point 1

otr = langeniial stress at point 1
rr ! rsdial dislance fiom disc cer*er lo poinl of interest
E = Modulus of Elasticity {lbfdn.'}
!r = v = Poisson's Rstio {use 0,3 for steel)
a' y' thErmal exp. ooefficient

tangential

o rr =

"l"

## 6-3 Thermal Stress in Element at Radial Distance

ileated Circumference and Center
:iigure

"r"

## from Center of Circular Disk, AT between Uniformly

109

110 . Chapter 6

*y

rX

The solid straight bar of uniform cross-sectional dimensions is initially at uniform equilibrium temperature =
"T." Then the bar is heated uniformly throughout, but is prevented from lengthwise expansion by singledimensional end anchor structures which are rigid in the bar's lengthwise direction. The bar is free to
expand or contract in the other two space dimensions, including the ends contacted by the anchors.
At a given instant, the bar's temperature has risen to a new value by amount "AT." The compressive
"length-axial" direction normal stress is given below. lt should always be remembered that these thermal
expansions when heat is added to a svmmetrical body are the mirror images of thermal contraction of the
body when it is cooled. The algebraic signs of stress, AT and directions of thermal motion of course
are reversed, but the same stress equations apply.

## in the case of this singlerestrained bar, for example, we

must remain within stability limits on heating (the bar is not stressed to the point of buckling as a slender
column). On cooling, when the restraints stop contraction and cause tensile normal stress, the buckling will
not occur and the equation remains good for engineering purposes.

q=-sE (AI)
o = Thermal Stress (normal and/or planar [typicalt) (lbflin.z)
r = Thermal Stress (shear) (lbf/i^n.')
E = Modulus

of Elasticity (lbflin.')

## F= v= Poisson's Ratio (use 0.3 for steel)

thermal exp. coefficient

cr = T =

Figure

6-4 Thermal

Cross-Section

Stress Due to External Restraint: Single Dimension Restraint of Ends of Bar of Uniform

rh

{m,

## THERMAL RESTRAINT STRESS

EY

+Y

rX

,y
The solid flat plate resides in the X-Y plane. lts thickness lies in the Z direction. The plaie is of uniform
.ross-secti0n, and is initially at uniform equilibrium temperature = "T." Then the plate is heated uniformly
:hroughout, bui is prevented from expansion in the X-Y plane by rigid structure. lt is free to expand or
coniract in the Z{hickness dimension, including at the perimeter edge, fully contacted by the resiraining

\$ructure.
At a given instant, the bads temperature has risen to a newvalue by amount "AT," The compressive plane
slress is given below.
Unless you specifically knoui vfor the metal, you might Wsh to use y= 0.30 per the ASME Piping and
tressure Vessel Codes oractice.

q E-sElAT}-r-1-1-:rd

## r = Thermal Stress {shear} {lbfiin.'}

[typical]] (lbilin,2]

## = Modulus of Elasticity {tbflin.2}

= y = Poisson's Ratio (use 0.3 for steel)
a = T = thermgl exp. coefficient
E

Ir

Fleure
,imraint

6-5 Thermal Stress Due to External Restraint: Complete Two-Dimensional Circumferential Edge Reof Flat Plate of Uniform Cross-Section

Chapter 6

+Y
tr
r-Y

tlx

The solid three-dimensional body is initially at uniform equilibrium temperature = "T." Then the body is
heated uniformly throughout, but is prevented from expansion in any direction by rigid structure which
encloses and bears upon the entire outersurface ofthe body.
At a given instant, the body's temperature has risen to a newvalue by amount "AT." The compressive
stress is given below. (This would be a difficult physical arrangement to set up in practice, but is useful for
understanding what happens. )
Unless you specifically know v tor a metal, you might wish to use v= 0.30 per the ASME Piping and
Pressure Vessel Codes practice. We assume it is homogenous and isotropic.

o=crE(ATl + (1-2v)
o = Thermal Stress (normal and/or^planar [typicalt) (lbf/in.2)
r = Thermal Stress (shear) (lbf/i^n.')

of Elasticity {lbf/in.')
v
Poisson's
Ratio (use 0.3 for steel)
lt= =
cr = y = thermal exp. coefficient
E = Modulus

6-6

Thermal Stress Due to External Restraint: Complete Three-Dimensional Outer Surface Restraint of
Solid Bodies and Flat Plates of Uniform Cross-Section

Figure

## THERMAL RESTRAINT STRESS

-he illustrated example of this case is for one specific set of end restraint conditions. There are many other
:ossible types of restraints, and they have their own solutions. You can get them from Roarks magnificent
^andbook of stress and strain, which is given in the bibliography: (37), Young, Warren C. Roark's
=crmulasforStress and Strain, McGraw-Hill, Inc., NewYork, NY, Oth ed., 1989.

:or a bunch of other end conditions and cases, see these Tables in Roark. chapter

7:

Table 3, 6a4f
Table 4, 1r-12r
Table 7, case 7
Table 8, case 7
Table'10, 6a4f
Table 1'1,6a-6f

-he first illustration is for the unrestrained bar, which curyes into

## a "boiled hot dog weine/' shape due to the

^ot face of the bar expanding more than the cold face. Since the bar is totally free to expand/contract, in
:nermal eouilibrium it is unstressed. The radius of curyature "r" is:
r=

{0,
*i
(t\r

*b".t

## (Roark used'yinstead of crfortherm. exp. coeff.)

*,,

'xnl

k1

ftTr

({ineor
tetn7.
-

,!,'itribntiin)

=fffi
TreEr.Iry
T

(
q,

sect.

,&f

:i

q.t

bar

-q .l*

5<

q, .+
tuF-+'l *

ronst''s*
efd
*erny. h _f
,,
,,
&rgfees
@
6 uer r^' h o e r.% of bqr
,

6-7 Rectangular Bar with Linear Temperature Gradient Perpendicular to Bar's Length Axis: Curvature
d L nrestrained Bars, and Thermal Stress Due to External Restraint

Ilsure

113

114 . Chapter 6

But if the bar is restrained by a rigid couple at its ends, keeping it straight, the hot side is compressed and
the cold side is stretched as shown in the diagram.

sv
cr*

.#

Y'
14

tt
L

*s

et

..c

The couple "C" in in.ibf units which the bar imposes on the rigid restraints is:

A-=-rH(Alll-rt
The max bending stresses in lbflin.2 are:
Max. gending Stress
E = Modulus

p=

of Elasticity (lbflin.2)

cr = y =

I
i

## THERMAL RESTRAINT STRESS

-ls was the similar case for rectangular bars, this illusffated exarnple is also good fcr only

## etlge restraint conditions- There are many other possible types of

:estraints, ancl they have their own solutions. In gerreral, plates and disks are considerably
nore elifficult than bar shapes, but a gccd many are analytical and tabulated in terms of
*irp* and loading parameters. You can get theSn from RoarlJs, tos. 5ee these Tables in
foark Chapterl0:
rb{
Table 2{, cases 8a - th
cireular disk)
Table 24, case 1"5 (general tceatrnent r

cf

## ]he first illustration below is for tlr*

*upport such as a table tcp- cr suspeneled in
sq:herical shape of radius -r", where "1r' = ptlflt
'r " is:
ttr'j

## l3.ing flat on a rigid

IRCULAR
buoyant fluid. The plate curves into a
in inches. The radius of ccrvature

* *y.2 "-T'l

rcdr"as

Aariler.o
L the dead weight of the,circular plate is
dre perimeter, perpendicular to the pLane of the
dren there are no therrnal shesses in the plate"
edge support reactions are theteu nf cnurse, but
rill stiil be as given above"

fu*p * nT*AT*

## sirnply supported in a line arorrnd

but no other restraints are provided,
nominal "weight stressesl' due to the
y be negligible.) The radius of eurvature

is

## around the perimeter, perpendicular to the

providetl, thete will be thermal stresses in the
stresses-" The *rermal stresses are due to the
incompatible with natural expansicns and con

## of the plate, but nc other restraints are

in addition ta the nnminal "weight
rcular {orrn of the body, which is
of different parts cf the body.

## Il the dead weigl*t o{ a N0N*circular plate

.tTrl

r7
fn6s

@
Dcs. vtEW
-TEMfi

UNIF6RM

--r-

'

-fr
ll I

<a

Hor

n6n *
c ird{{l4rr

pla*e.
b^l

Borprl

cl y.c.

Nkk

pta*e

Tar vtrw

Flgure 6-8 Flat Plate, Any Plane Shape, with Linear Temperature Gradient Between Hot and Cold Faces:
furvature of Unrestrained Circular Plate and Thermal Stress in Plate of Arbitrary Shape Due to Edges Being
Homent-Clamped All Around by External Restraint

115

16 .

Chapter 6

ff the flat planar plate, of any shape and uniform thickness, is continuously restrained by
rigid couples at around its perimeter edge keeping it flaf the hot face side is under
compressive stress and the cold face side is stretched in tension. The expression for
maximum bending stresses, which occur on the surface, is the same
6-7.That is,
The max bending stresses

## Max.BendingStresses= tvE(AT) + 2(1 -v)

E = Modulus of Elasticity (lbf/sq.inch)
p = v = Poisson's Ratio (use 0.3 for steel)
s.= T = thermal exp. coefficient
Figure 6-8 (continued)
ru

ln

It

ift{l
li'
l,
lx

i{l
itu

i4

l{

as

CHAPTER

## THn Typns AND AvrouNTS

oF MncHANTcAL Srnpssns
To Bp ExpECTED rN CovrMoN

UrrurY

PrprNG SysrEMS

'-"lFne

,dl{lune

## stress" is sort of a discipline of its own. It is traditionally

by a small group of experts who tend to themselves. This
uu r*d. because "pipe stress" interfaces with many key issues
,umt :esign and safety. While certainly not everyone needs to
,diF,:iop proficiency in actually doing pipe stress analysis, or
iln .sln a working familiarity with the various governing Codes,
xffiui: as the ASME B31-series of Pressure Piping Codes, the
{S\tE Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Sections, the various
4uFI Codes or even the civil engineering waterworks standards,
m .:
good ideafor all mechanical engineers to have a "feel"
't
iwr 4hat happens in typical piping, stress-wise. For those who
llh-r15s 1s work in mechanical contractor companies, designltlriulting engineering offices, A/E firms, power generation
ur:orations, or any process-type of industry worldwide, it is
*cecially important to not be totally unfamiliar with the subru-:. One should know enough about the subject to recognize
llL :rrtential pipe stress problem with some level of confidence,
umc hence when to seek expert guidance in its regard.
.'rust to handle it. My goal is to convey appreciation for the
ruur-iect on the technical level of an average workaday mechani.:u engineer, without undertaking the deep, specialized and
mgthy process of trying to proffer expertise in the actual
n->iness of pipe stress analysis. Indeed, if one wishes that
-upability, a great deal oftraining, practice, and experience are
neJessary and simply cannot be avoided; and that is beyond
me limited scope of this book of guidance for novitiates in
nechanical engineering.
Then it dawned on me that in the beginning of my own
:ueer, irll I had for a basis of understanding in any piping

The college courses dealing with mechanics of solids mentioned piping only in passing, but certainly not in enough depth
to convey understanding or gut feeling for the subject. If stress

## in a pipe was mentioned, the pipe was loaded as a beam of

some sort, or as a truss member, was analyzed in the usual
manner of static load beams and trusses, and that was it.

## Fluid-mechanical courses simply viewed pipes as rigid

external conduits, to set the stage for the internal fluid-flow
hydraulics work, with discussion of "stresses" limited to a
qualitative descriptor for forces in the fluid boundary layer,
not in the pipe walls, and with no mention of "strains" being

## So, I decided to begin this topic assuming the only tools

we have available are those courses in mechanics, which I am
certain you have also studied in detail, namely first courses in
Statics, Dynamics, Fluid Mechanics and elementary Strength
of Materials.
Taken from that point of view, my task was clarified enormously. What I needed was to create a simple static pipeloading example, easily visualized and understandable, and to
use Mohr's Circle to analyze the combined stresses at work in
the pipe material. And so, here we go (see Figure 7-1).
Let's assume a 6-in. welded carbon steel pipe as shown
in Figure 7-l.Let it be Schedule 40 wall thickness, and assume
it is carrying water at 200"F and 80 psig. According to ASME
831.3 Appendix A-1, seamless grade 4-106 carbon steel pipe
material has an sllowable sfress of 20,000 psi at this temperature. Also, let the insulation be calcium silicate, 3 in. thick.
117

118 .

Chapter 7

0r.il

nc

RIGID
\IERTIC,AL
SUPPORT

9Sdeg. ELBOW
(typical)

,il'
lld

TERMIML CONNECTION
( AilrcHoR )

.,lill

6'

-'trrl|-r

fillulr

3'

4',

'i

[]rT"

rrg,

ml

,lirtidS

z',

il

3'

Irlifi

19

+Y

6'

ill

il

'l!l
mml

I
'ti

4',

t
fl

ii

1,tl

M,!t

ilm

## lAhter @ 80 psig, 200 deg.F

3' cal.silic. insulation
corrosion allonr. = 0.06,,

,]1llll

ilur

.liill[tl1

,t
dl,i

TERMIML CONNECTION

4i

JIIII

{ ANCHOR )

NODAL COORilNATES

@illll

mrr

trfulllr

,rd
Figure

7-1:

{f

Piping Isometric

l:
.U\$rMl

## We will make a wall thickness allowance of 0.06 in. for

future corrosion, and would assume a mill undertolerance of
I2.5Vo on the wall thickness (inner diameter increased beyond
nominal value). We will need to know these quantitative factors
when calculating pipe stress due to intemal fluid pressure'
The pipe terminal ends are the nodes numbered #10 and
#80. We assume these are rigidly anchored against translation
and rotation in all six possible degrees of freedom.
One intermediate support is provided, at node #40. It is a
rigid vertical "stop"; it will prevent vertical translation, both
up and down, but will permit unhindered horizontal motion
and rotation about all three axes. (Our coordinate system is
orthogonal X-Y-L, with "plds Y" being vertical upward' The
right-hand rule always governs the algebraic signs of the vec-

tor quantities.)

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Find the stress in the pipe wall at terminal end node #10.
illrllE

i[lMI

il04

## If this piping was a rigid body at room temperature, we

take Figure

7-l

andconvert it to

freebody diagram by

## ing the anchor symbols at nodes #10 and #80 with

\A'i
rep.uru

tris-

forces and moments, which would be acting on the crossnormal to the pipe's longitudinal axis (which lies paralle
the X-axis at nodes #10 and #80.)
We would add the weight vectors representing the c
bined weight of pipe steel, water and insulation to the free

ry

d[
iM

m6

## :iagram, and then write the equations of static equilibrium for

re rigid body and find the reactions at nodes #10 and #80.
At node #10, the object of our analysis, we would find a
- ertical reaction component of the support acting upward on
:e pipe cross section, which we might label "Fy." We would
"F2." We would also find
"lso find a horizontal component
,lme moment reactions at the node. No need to delineate them
-.ere, just be aware
for now that they exist.
All these reactions of the anchor suppofi on pipe node #10
i:e the result of gravity, dead weight, as we have assumed the
:roblem. It would be a pretty good approximation of reality,
:':t only an approximation. It may interest you to make the
:gid freebody analysis yourself, and compare your results to
:e table of accurate results presented below.
In reality, the piping is flexible, not rigid. It deflects under
,-ad. This fact alone creates bending, which shows up as addi::,:nal moments on the pipe cross section and as an axial reaction
'Fr" at node #10.
Also, in reality, the pipe undergoes a temperature change
::se) of 130"F (initially stalled at 70oF, operated at 200"F).
Itis makes the pipe steel attempt thermal expansion, but the
:ipe support and end anchors restrain this expansion. The therr-.il restraint creates additional stress in the pipe, which shows
u: as additional force and moment reactions.
So a rigid-body room-temperature analysis will not find
*l of the support and anchor reactions on the piping, and will
':eld only an approximation of the actual stresses. To make the
:lculation accurate, the piping must be considered as flexible.
-:ing the principles of elasticity, an accurate stress analysis

rn

be done.

## There are plenty of computer programs available which

the elastic analysis easy, including the pipe stress analysis
rr-rqrams themselves. I used my own such program to do just
r;t (Peng's SIMFLEX.S from the 7990 era, a classic and
xill-powerful DoS-based application. "What the hell is DOS"
N,Io that right now.) The results are as follows, following the

r"*e

'

119

## Fy = (+) 757 pounds

due to weight, flexure = 29L
due to thermal restraint = 466
net sum =291 + 466 =757
Fz = (+) 343 pounds
due to weight, flexure = 3

restraint:340
netsum=3+340=343
due to thermal

## Mx = (+) 758 ftJb

due to weight, flexure = 69
due to thermal restraint = 689
net sum = 69 + 689 = 758
My = (-) 936 ftltr
due to weight, flexure = 9
due to thermal restraint = (-)945
net sum = 9 + (-945) = (-)936
Mz = (+) 2003 ft-lb
d"e to weight, flexure = 758*
due to thermal restraint = L245**
net sum = 758 + 1245 = 2003*'r*
xFrom Pipe Stress Analysis Computer Output Node 10, LOAD
CASE NO. 1, WT/PRS, MEMBER FORCE, SIMFLEX output
page 2 of 6, attached at end of this chapter.
**FromPipe Stress Analysis ComputerOutputNode 10, LOAD
CASE NO. 2, THERML, MEMBER FORCE, SIMFLEX output
page 3 of 6, attached at end of this chapter.
***From Pipe Stress Analysis Computer Output Node 10,

## LOAD CASE NO. 3, THL+WT, MEMBER FORCE, SIM.

FLEX output page 4 of 6, attached at end of this chapter.

## DISCUSSION OF LOADS VS. STRESSBS

Figure 7-2 shows the conventions of pipe loads (Fx, Fy,Fz,
Mx, My, Mz) and their point of application, which is at the
centroid of the pipe cross section at Node #10, on the axial
centerline.

## Figure 7-2 also shows the conventions of pipe stresses

t) and their point of application, which is on the

(ot, o.,
these

## 'i:r;es, moments and the resulting "pipe stresses." Again, these

lr: the forces acting on the pipe cross section.

tll'l "

## Fr = (+) 116 pounds

me to weight, flexure = 5
orc to thermal restraint: 111

lrtsum=5+111=116

## outside surface of the pipe at Node #10. The salient points to

recognize are:
a. The actual stress condition is an extremely local phenomenon. It varies continually throughout the pipe, radially
and longitudinally and circumferentially. The question "What
is the stress in the pipe?", without specifying the precise point
of location and the sense and type of stress, is meaningless.

b. The

stresses

## "at a pipe node," *hicir is another way of saying "at

any specific given point along the pipe longitudinal axis," are on
the outer surface of the pipe. They are expressed in cylindrical

120 . Chapter 7

*t'

+3"

M
rUr,
\",

q;-"*

Pol"r* pn f;ryfa-ce ot
@ hj*cde" d* JC)

?;y*

"t+
I

4'

*X

nL-

NI

lnl

tfr

d"#.4jls

lTl
.itJ

"

ouf*

a{ yge""

tm

xI

5
P
{l

\JI

StTes \$sf

;
\$_3

{\{*#;*
i;F

\ r*r
:-! \Jr

ID

#ff-

ii.\ ?*" *
Js*-

]T

Srt sfybsje.s
6.e . *13* braice ll;1
ae*t tr\)e- . CLVL& 4.itg
I

5hor.r,r

ov1

A5 5uc la

l&is e[ew*mt

,t!

lh

TI

1ll:

Figure

7-2:

Freebody at Node 10

.l[

ill

Il

## :oordinates and are two-dimensional: longitudinal stresses,

:,. which act along the pipe longitudinal centerline or "flow"
lis, and circumferential stresses, o6, which are the "hoop"
iresses which would tend to split the pipe open along a longitu-

iiral

seam.

## c. In a thin-walled pipe, which is one having a diameter

-tl or more times greater than its radial wall thickness, the
radial stress is generally negligible in magnitude, and is safely
.3nored in practice.

=
=

(n)(OD2

## The deformation due to this load is axial compressive strain,

so the sign of the stress is negative (-).
c. Bending stress resulting from anchor node moments My
and Mz, which come from the same motive causes as the
reaction Fx of 1.b above.

M = {(My'

## {ND THE STRESSES IN PIPES

1.

Longitudinal Stresses: o,

## The longitudinal stresses act parallel to the flow axis of the

::pe, in the direction normal to the cross-sectional area of the
::pe. In other words, they act perpendicularly upon the circular
.i-uular ring of pipe material seen in an end view of the pipe.
The net longitudinal stress is the algebraic sum of several
:dividual longitudinal component tensile and/or compressive
;:rsseS being superimposed. The component stresses arise from
a. Longitudinal component of internal pressure acting on
:e pipe end area, based on pipe outside diameter;

-IDr/4

## - 6.255:)/4 = 3.74 sq in.

stress (1.b) = (-)(1L613.74) = (-)31 psi.

stress = lWZ

:,-'rursework.

121

(Tc)(6.625)

## d. The maximum shear stress t, likewise occurs in the

:r lindrical surface element on the pipe outside diameter (O.D.),
:rape. We treat the pipe surface stress element and its algebraic
;lgn conventions in exactly the same way typical Mohr's Circle
.ilalyses are treated in general mechanics of materials

Mzzl =

Fr-Lbf

## Z = section modulus for 6 in. sch. 40 pipe

(look up in pipe data tables) = 8.50 in.3
stress (1.c) = (2,211Ft-LbfX12 in"fft)/8.50 in.3 = 3,121 psi.
The deformation due to this load is lateral bending, producing
axial tensile strain on one side of a neutral axis and equal but
opposite axial compressive strain on the other. The stress is
proportional to radial distance from the neutral axis (pipe centerline), numerically zerc at the neutral axis, and maximum at the
outer surface, where radius = (l/2) x pipe outer diameter. The
pipe is bent into the shape of an archer's bow by these moments.
Since we are interested in the maximum value of the overall

## will consider the (+) component,

for addition to our composite at node #10.
net stress, we

NOTE:

if

## the tensile stress,

the pipe at node #10, such as water hammer forces or relief valve
thrusts, the resulting longitudinal stress components would join

## if there were any additional

bending moments, say due to wind loads or earthquake gforces, their resulting longitudinal stress components would
those discussed above. Likewise

also

## join those discussed

above.

sress=(PxD)/(4t)
.'. NET LONGITUDINAL STRESS

P=80psi
D = 6.625 in.

:jll

## x 0.280 in.) - 0.06 in. = 0.185 in.

cress (1.a) = (80X6.625)(4X0.185) = 716 psi.
,

## = (+) 3,806 psi (tensile).

or:

31 + 3121) psi =

under-tolerance removed

= i0.875

## = l.a + l.b + l.c = (+716

l}le deformation due to this load is axial tensile strain; the pipe
s stretched lengthways. The stress component algebraic sign
r,i {+) since it is tensile (tension.) Compressive stress by conven::,u is (-).
b. Longitudinal component of stress resulting from anchor
=action Fx of Figure 7-2, which comes from flexure under
:irtic weight of the pipe steel, liquid contents, insulation and
ivging, added algebraically to the axial force generated by
rermal restraint of the piping by the end anchors, which are
r- nodes #10

& #80;

*ress = F/A
["s = 116

Lbf

2. Circumferential Stresses: o.

If

## the pipe was made by rolling a plate around a circular rod

mandrel, it will have a straight lengthwise weld seam showing
on the surface to join the two plate edges together. The seam
runs parallel to the pipe centerline flow axis. The circumferential stresses act perpendicular to the seam.
If the pipe receives more internal pressure than it can
withstand, it will bulge or swell (local increase in diameter,
like a "snake swallowing a rat") and the seam will come open.
Circumferential stress is sometimes called the "hoop stress."
If you imagine the rolled plate being not welded, but instead
being held together at the edges by tight circular metal hoops,
then the circumferential stress would stretch the hoops in tension. Given enough pressure to cause the circumferential load,

122 . Chapter 7
the hoop would swell in diameter until it snapped at the weakest

714 psi

## The circumferential pipe stress is caused by the component

pressure acting on the pipe side area, where the
thru-center cross section is a rectangle having the same length
as the pipe and a width equal to the pipe's diameter. The stress
thus created is tension, and thus has the (+) algebraic sign.

of internal

stress = (P x

D/(2t) =

## = (80X6.625)(2X0.185) = 1,432 psi.

Note that the hoop stress, due to internal fluid pressure, is
always exactly twice the longitudinal stress component due to
internal pressure, per (1.a) above. Compare the two equations
(l.a) and (2.) to see this.

ql

3. Shear Stress:

,t,

## The shear stress acts on the pipe cross section to create an

angular distortion, i.e. a "twisting" of the pipe's cylindrical
surface. The square element shown in Figure 7-2 is warped
into a "diamond" parallelogram shape by the shear strain.
a. The primary agent causing shear at node #10 is the
moment about the pipe axis, Mx on Figure 7-2. This is of
course a torsional, not a bending, moment at node #10, Figure
7-1. The direction of the shear strain in our example problem
by the usual sign convention is algebraically positive. It and

rI

tl

il

(;
1l

all the other stress vectors are therefore positive in our example,
and are shown in the correct directions by convention on Figure
7-2.

stress=(Txp/(J)
T = Mx = 758 ft-lbf
p = radius of pipe at point of interest = 3.3125 in.
; = polar moment of inertia for the pipe cross r""1ion = (n/

## J = 1n/2)(3.31251 - 3.0325') = 56.285 in.*

stress (3.a) = (758 x l2)(3.3125y(56.285) = 535 psi.
(Important note: at node #40, the moment Mz is the torsional
moment, since at that node the pipe axis runs in the Z-direction.
The moment about the pipe longitudinal axis is always the
torsional moment, creating twisting or shear strain, and the
two orthogonal moments to it create tensile or compressive
strains due to bending in the pipe.)
b. In addition, the two reactions Fy and Fz on Figure 7-2
make algebraically positive additive contributions to the shear.

stress = (V)/(A)

!G'y'+

Fz')

## A = cross-sectional area for 6-in. sch. 40 pipe

= (ru)(OD2 -IDrl4
= (n)(6.6252 - 6.255r/4 = 3.74 in.2
stress (3.b) = (670)l(3.74) = 179 psi

## 4. Net State of "Maximum" Stress at Pipe Node

#ll

Thus far, with only one exception, we have done nothing mcr,.:
than perform a typical academic stress analysis of a piece r
steel cylinder, anchored to separate rigid structure at its en8.
subject to the forces of gravity and thermal expansion restrais.
We have used the manual calculation* methods we all leamaa
in our Strength of Materials class in school.
(*As a shortcut, I pulled the thermal expansion forces aru
moments out of a computer pipe stress program, but I cotrt.

i;t

## simultaneous statics and linear elastic stress-strain equatior;

albeit in a very tedious way. I warned you in the outset thc:
am a typical lazy engineer! Since I used the program, I ai:"t
let it find the gravity loads, and obtained flexible-pipe as o:posed to rigid-body results as an extra, but basically negligib.t
bonus. The fact remains that we could obtain essential\' ;L
these same results strictly by doing hand calculations usir.t
schoolroom methods. If we wanted to, which we don't.)

stres.

## components which arise from the internal pressure. Those a:*

peculiar to pipes and pressure vessels, and would not arise r
our example involved, say, a handrail instead of a pressure pipt
The fact that I had to show the hand calculations for hotc
a"A t
p{ogram. Since the pipe stress codes are concerned with hocr:
and longitudinal pressure stresses only insofar as obtainirs
adequate design thickness of the pipe wall, the pipe strei;
programs (conectly) do not account for them in their Sustaine;
Thermal Expansion, Occasional, Combined and Code-Compl:ance Load case analyses. These pipe code calculations do ntr
mix stresses in the circumferential direction with the longitudnal restraint and bending moment stresses, and thus do nc,r
obtain a "grand total absolute max net stress number." Indeec
the codes recognize that such a number is meaningless in pre.-

sure-containment vessel and piping work. This is a point doubt you learned in school: Without a theory of failure weil
defined, s "stresst' value is a useless number.
That is a major difference between

## pipe stress calculatior-

*frlc
strength of materials calculation of the same physical objeci

## The Pipe Code Stresses are specialized in focus, have ver-"

special meanings, and are not to be confused with the resul:
using manual or computerized finite-element program computa-

tional tools.
fo finistr up with our "non-Code" stress analysis, I offer
you Figure 7-3. It contains Mohr's Circle for the plane stresse!
we have calculated. Figure 7-4 is a "freebie" I have includec
for you, so you don't have to waste time looking up Mohr'.

F-[

## TYPES AND AMOUNTS OF MECHANICAL STRESSES

NT

123

+14ffi

re

ced
erfr,
nm"

,4

red

*ssfl6

rod

d
fft

ffitg + {Sx.,{00*Pl@ile

&n&
fis@

It

## (38ffi +{{s2l t {2}

= 16{9 pci

alp
f

dtrts

\$ldi:

!{e
ffifur

[-gs
Erc
is tr
prye
b"gP

ry

-ff

hosp

inW
lIEffi
itrEil-

rylF

)tm
xr6

&,g

)fltr

HF frE

Led"
prE\$-

iill

rul

dil,
nicrl

lga

II

\!

:ir'

:.E:
/tt

}|4
__::-

st

{Il
.e

]r=E.}f '{It
r.J7<
\-. f,{t

-&
-E
r9.,3

esnft

rlEr
ruIr-

rfftr
trdgd

lhr'r

slEnr

t+

veql

)sseF

ril nsi

,n
tn

ligure 7-3: Combined Plane Stresses for Example of Figure 7-2 with Mohr's Circle

ptut

{+

psftt
,

+ffil

124 . Chapter 7

r*

, {ry 7 rry

} exist,

## and Yectqr \$isn Gonvention

Flane \$tress Element
plane strassee {crx,rrl
arthogonal
values
of
the
initially-known
shcwing
and the shear stre*s {r xv} at the anallrzed point in or on the solid object.

tttb

4c

{tv)

{ry

-J**
[{x )

{ry,-rxJ
kngr.tr.r,

q-\$

z-)

'{qo}

/q.t
\e

l*#

/e
rb,

: Qqvs,

\$oe the "User's Coo*Booff' for Mohr's Circle on the following Page, please'
Figure

Stress

## TYPES AND AMOUNTS OF MECHANICAL STRESSES

[,|OHR'\$

CIRCLE

"U\$ern\$ SookBock"

## cr*, ry r rxy } exi*tn but { u, g T;gr s rvr) = uero

\$ee the diagrams ( "Refresher Sheet" l on the preceding page, please.
{

## (A.l To p\$e this technique correetlv. the angles r!lu,\$t be undErstood.

{1,} An angle S measured on the physical object is shown as O degrees on the Plane Stress Element
(the rube face in the x-y plane, see diagram.i The direction "zero degreee" for CI lies along the reference +X
s 0 do*rees therefore line ip llrg lt:v" dgg* and points in the +X direction
axis. An azimuth specified *s
on the Plane Stress Element.
{2.} Ths same angle however is drawn as {28} on the Mohr'e Circle. An angle af size 6 on the physical
object {element) has siae {2@} on the eircle; {80"an ihe circle = 93" on the cube face element
t3.) The meaning of angte O is the amount of ratation the cube must undergo in order for the shear
stress to disappear and the normal stress to maximize (became th* principal stress {r1, \$E diagram.} This alt
beesmes clear after playing with the CookBook procedure"

r,

tr, o
and ru, which are found by the usual methcds of mechanics of
materials stress calculation. These values coneaBond to S e 0" on the cube's lefierence axis. Draw lhe Mohr's
Circle o nsrmai stress and t shear stress axes as per thc diagram on previous page. Fositive directions are to
tne fjg,hJ for o and SqWJ't for r ! Thi\$ is our empty framerrork fsr the Mshr's Circle plot and construction.
{8.} B*gin with th* knpwn values of

* rv }} 2,

## and plotthe circle's center point {o,qy6,,0} to yourchosen scale.

{D.} Plot point {o* nrxy } and then drarnr radius R from center lo the point. The positive direction for shear
stresg on Mohr's Circle is downward! Note that you can plot the other known stress pair, pint {ay I - Txy }
ins{eed, and draw R to it, and we get the *ame end result a cirrle centered at the point {a*vc. ,0} of radius R.
Use connpass and construcl the circle. The principal stresses ofei sr ={qnye. + R} ; {cz = \$AVc. - R}. The
rnaximurn shear

T** =

R,

{E.} Now we have a nice right trinngle to play with, see below" We use it with trig lo find lhe values of R & the
physical rstaticn angle B of the planes of principal stress and oJ maximum shear at the point of analysis in ior
on) the phyeicat object. We see that reqardless of the value qf angle 8, the planes of maximum shear are
always 90o from the princioal stress plane-s on the circte, so in the real physical object it is always at
exactly half that value, = {\$a frcm th* prine ipal stregs plane;. And fsr what its wor{h, ysu ean note that the
value of absolute S + absolute F = 45o.
{We do aiJ tius becarse sornefifi?es we need fu J<now al/ fftese slless direc{rons wfi mag*fudes in vecfor ftrm far superposifon
in many goblems ra.ilfiple /oadrngs ean exist ff&e bending Bt#s tersrbn prus torsion in a p,p or on a slruf or slaf, and
:hes probtrns' are easier fo anal11,;;e singty and then vse yesfor *ddifisn fo ge{ lihe gn*nd fotaa re\$srfant ,sfressesJ

rurp*s\$,

vre

{ax*av}fI
*-a-trffi
?@

S = 0.5 arctan

*.rr'(sx-\$y }l2l;r'

Rinccyvsense!

il
ft= rl l(trx-o")/2)t*{"*r}'-t
\l

I
I

h-'l

125

126 . Chapter 7
Circle in your Strength of Materials text if you have, by any
chance, gotten a little rusty on the subject.
To summarize the results of stress superposition found
from Mohr's Circle:

.
.
.
.

for mild
Circle radius = maximum in-plane shear stress at Node
#10 = 1,385 psi.

## Maximum principal stress = 41004 psi, in tension.

Minimum principal stress = 11234 psi, also in tension.
Absolute maximum shear stress at Node #10 = (ll2\ x
maximum principal stress at Node #10 = (4OO4l2) =
2,002 psi.

I
fti

I'
il
q't

l*
11,

[j

>
e
q

## materials and mechanical design, black or low carbon steel a-,

forged pipe and plate material is both ductile and tough. Whet
loaded to failure, it always fails in shear. In other words. i
subscribe to the maximum shear (Tresca Stress) failure theor.

## I suppose you might say, "According to my handbook,

forged carbon steel seamless pipe material 5A-106 Grade
B at 200"F has a minimum tensile ultimate strength of 60,000
psi, and a minimum tensile yield strength of 35,000 psi. At
node #10 we found a maximum tensile stress of 4,004 psi from
Mohr's Circle. So it depends on how you design.
If you design for strength, we are only loading the pipe to
4004/60000 x l00Vo or 6.67Vo of the value at which it would
break. If you design for holding its shape permanently, to stay
within the elastic region of the material, then we would stay
at less than the yield stress, so we are loading it to 4,004/
35,000 x 1007o or ll.447o of the point at which it undergo a
p e rman e nt defo rmat ion."
Okay. Nobody would argue too much with that. In our
occasional opportunities to do stress calculations as workaday
mechanical engineers we usually are only thinking of one state
of stress, at one instant of time, in a steel fabrication used for
only one purpose and loaded only as we have assumed it.
Refinements such as thermal or vibratory cyclic load fatigue,
relative anchor displacements during earthquakes, bending
Well,
the

steel.

We know from tri-axial stress theory that the maximmtwo dimensional or plane shear stress in the object is exacti'
one-half of the maximum principal plane tensile stress, wher
the tensile stresses at the point in question all have the san::
algebraic sign at all angular orientations ofthe elemental plan:
(i.e., when all points on Mohr's Circle occur on the same siat
of the vertical shear axis, hence are either all in tension or a-.
in compression as in our example problem). So to be sLre t'
avoiding stress failure we must keep the absolute maximur
shear stress below 507o of the maximum allowable tensile yie;:
strength at all times.
a pretty sharp fellow, and would maybe tend to treat you wit:
higher regard in the future. (Maybe. Or maybe not. My be:;
friends tell me I am old, crusty, cranlcy, and unpleasant i',,
nature, and not likely to bestow kudos whether eamed or othe"wise. Others tell me worse.)
Anyway, good for you! For you would be thinking mor:
the way the pipe code and pressure vessel code experts, u'i::
all of their experience and testing data and book-smarts, thini
You would be choosing a different value of allowable stresi
namely 507o of the yield strength, since the published yietr:
strength for the material is by definition the maximum tensir*
stress it can bear without permanent plastic deformation.
For the mild carbon steel, you would choose 0.50 x 35,0-l:
psi yield = 17,500 psi as your maximum allowable shear stres'
By that standard, our example is loaded to a factor of 20tt*
17500 x IOjVo = Ll.44Vo of the maximum allowable value. ;:
is no accident that this mirrors the II.447o we obtained abor :
when we used the maximum tensile yield stress as our criterii,l

## etc. don't enter into handrail designs, corrosion is prevented

by a heavy globber of paint somehow, and thermal creep is
not a problem.
No, sir! We usually are just trying to make sure the welded
steel contraption (i.e., handrail) will take the weights we put
on it, and not break or bend so much it looks bad and gets us
fired. Aren't we, my friend? And we can think that way, in the
trouble this time. Any way you look at it, the stresses are too

had better believe them, tooo if you know what's good for
yah!
The final batch of info I have included in this chapter f :r

## stresses brought on by prolonged exposure to strong

Another way you might choose to look at the stress results
would be to say, "According to my training in mechanics of

## reasoning behind the various failure theory models becomes r

bit subtle for my ancient comprehensive skills, but I do belie::
those Code boys know what they are talking about. And 1an

your perusal is the little six-page copy of the pipe stress reF\r
for our example problem. If you take the time to study it, r,ru
will see that questions like "What's the pipe stress?" and ";.
the stress in the pipe too high?" are loaded, to the extrenr:

TOPIC #20

COMPUTER

OUTPU'f

PAGE I OF 6

## (3.:.D) (ANS] 83L.3) - (J.A.WINGATE,P.E.

28 MAY 02

PIPE

I
tlt

TOPIC 2O.T
STRESS ANA],YSIS

REPORT

ANALYST:

APPROVED:

CHECKED:

DATE:

********************************************

**

## * THE ANA],YSIS CALCUT,ATES :

*
* STRESS IN THE pIpE, !'ORCE AND MOMENT *
* AT PIPE AND CONNSCTING COMPONENTS, LOAD *
* AT SUPPORTS AND EQUIPMENT NOSZLES, AND *
* DET],ECTION AND ROTATION IN THE SYSTEM. *

**

## * IT DOES NOT CHECK THE FOLLOWING :

* RE]NFORCEMNNT REQUIREMENT AT OPENINGS
* AND BRANCH CONNECTIONS, STRESS IN THE
* VALVES, CONNECTING COMPONENTS, VESSELS,
* AND OTHER EQUIPMENTS.

*
*
*
*
*

**
SYS.PARM: L2 0 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0000000000131
11 13 0
0
0
**
********************************************

**Toprc 20

ECHO

## SPIPEl / D:-6r THK=S4 0,}&\TL=CS, CSG=L, 1THK=3r

sH-20, 0, SC-20. 0

CA=O .

10, PTPEl,ANCH

20,X=4rBR

30'Y:6, BR
Ef,I

th

50, 2=2, 8R

60, Y=3

70, Z=3, BR
80. X=6rANCH
END

**

rI
illr
!c

2** PIPE

il|

## 7 6.625 .280 2AA 27.9A 27.70

2** SYSTEM DESCRIPTION **

It

PIPE
NO

PROPERTIES

OD
(IN)

THK
{IN)

TEMP E, {E6.PS])

(F)

EC

EH

EXP_R CA
IN/IOO {IN)

.99

PRESS UNI-WT

(PSI)

.095

1,8/FT

80.0

F],ANGE
CI,ASS

39.9

150

TYPE PT
(FT)
PT
(DEC)
X{TT)
Y(r'T)
ZIFT)
NO (LB) (FT)

RUN 10
BEND 20A
RUN 208
BEND 30A

10
20A
208
30A
30B

.00
3.25
4.00
4. 00
4 . 00

.00
00
.75
5.25
6. 00
.

,00

00 3.25 1
.00 1.18 1
. 00
4.50 1
. 75
1. 18 7
,

130
47
180
41

.00
.'75
.00
.'75

.00

90.00
.00
90. 00

127

128 .

Chapter 7

TOPIC #20

## PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS

: COMPUTEROUTPUT

RUN 308 40
4.00
RUN 40
50A
4.00
BEND 5OA 5OB
4. OO
RUN 508 60
4.00
RUN 60
?0A
4.00
BnND 70A 708
4.75
RUN 708 80
10. 00
2** SUPPORT DESCRIPTTON **

6.
5.
6.
9.
9.
9.
9.

NO
LX
LY
LZ

10
40
80

ANCH
STY
ANCH
E,r

dtl

2**

L,

00 1.00

00
00

75
00
00
00
00

4.00
5.25
6.00
6.00
8.25
9. 00
9. 00

PAGE 2 OF 6

3.25
7.25
1.18
2.25
2.25

r;
.1,

1. 18

2r0

. 00
. 00

90. 00
. 00
. 00

90. 00
. 00

SPRING*CONSTANT

1N

.2818f10

.00

.2818+10
.2818+10

TRiUi

WTIPRS

I*__________

**

(LB)
FY

## suPT DATA -----FORCES,

TYPE PT

4'7

5.25

t"
I'lil

trn

90
90
41

(LB,/IN, FT-LB/DEG)

.00

.00
.00
.15
.00
.00
.75
.00

130

FX

EZ

## _I1___ FRICTION ___I

--FORCES, {LB) -FFX FFY FET,
MZ

MY

]"D<

4l

ANCH
F'

J,ir

10

STY

40

ANCH

80

NET

-2

-68

-9

-758

110

-72

599

- 160

-1

-68

-16

*1

69

*55

L'7

*18

67

19

65

-1

-55

56

-22
23
82
-81
59
-58
55
-54
55
*54
55
-54
51
-50
39
-38
39
-3S
39
*38
*598

lL4

161
* 113
114

.00
.70
.70
.00
.00
.70
.70

-29L
-548
-226
-1065

FORCE

P'

trl

il,
Ir
4r

.A

20A

BEND

2OA

208

*A

RUN

2OB

5
_A

30A

BEND

RUN
RUN
BEND

RUN
RUN
BEND

RUN

3OA

308

-A

3OB

5
*A

40

*64

IL2

-1

- 111
242
307

-1

*18

11

-74

-r6

15

592
-5 91
240

-1

4A

50A

-256

5OA

25'7

*239

-209
2IA

-1

62

L2

-11

_A

508
5OB

60
60

*A

70A
7OA

1,

*11

_A

-1

- 100

ZJ

JU

101
* 110

-22
-24

5
*A

MAX,VALUE

6B

-61

7OB

AT PO]NT

-6L

_t

80

-1

-l

r2a
-29

70B

*ll9

*1

17

*1

-L6

111

226

-1

* 110

25
IJ

307

592

25

1A

4A

70

40

70

NO. 1,

',iTlPRS

rs8
10

149
970

842
840
932

730
703

1869
1869

Lr49
14 93

863
66

"7

785
197
868
959
800
751
1883

2209
10

.00
.42
.42
. (10

.00
.42
.42
.00

1. 00
1. 00 1. 00
1.00 1. 00
1. 00 1. 00
1. ?0 r.42

1.70 'r.42
1. 00 1.00
1. 00 1.00
1.00 1.00
1. 00 1. 00

1.70 7,42
1.70 r.42
1. 00 1. 00
1. 00 1. 00

PAGE 3 OF 6

PO]NT

DX

IN)

IN)

*.01

2AB

.00
.01

30A

308

60

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00

70A

.Oil

708

.00
.00

.01

*.

5{lA

508

80

].:AX.VALUE
,]-: POINT

zudCHOR

.00

10

:-v

Ai

,I,ICH

_____F"ORCES,

20A
20A
208

]JN

2AB

:trND

30A
30A

],UN

308
308
40

* n1 1

.003
. c13

*.

## SUPPORT FORCE AND MOMENT

_____MOMENTS, (FT-LB)
(LB)

MY

FY

EZ

- 111

-465

-340

-689

338
126

340

1-23

111

MX

946
00
1455

-110

-465

-339

_6BB

111
- 110
111

466
- 465
465

-158

340

-339

689
- 433

340

434

-110

-465

-339

10 9?

159
- 413
4L4
- 413

340

-1096

10 03

111

466

4r4
-330

*110

*4 65

111
- 110
111

466

340

*1002

-465

-339

-5 09

L27

340

510

*29

-339
340

* 668
669

* 168

252

*33

331
30

*110

*L26

111

'r27

508
508

-110

-126

-339

-508

:.iJN

111
* 110
111
- 110
111
* 110
111
- 110

121

*L26

340

*339

509
257

252

L27

340

-256

-257

340

-501

-126

*339

2B

r27

340

123

-329

70A
70A

:-.UN

708
708
80

"

010

.000

n1

20

## _II___ FRICTION ___I

-----FORCES, (LB) **
MZ FFX FFY EFZ
-1,244

*31'l

0
0
0

0
0

0
0

-1

50A
50A

:END

004
50

-END

bU

003
001

60

40

60

.001
.001
.004
.005
.006

.000

:,UN

].JN

-. 008
-.005
-. 002

-.
-.

. 015

01
50

.000

-.004

.015
.014
.008
.000

FX

!'ORCE

:END

*.

01
70

- .0L2

THERM],

I______--*_-

.lj.icH

n1

.000

00tl

-. r101
-. 003
-.003
-.003
-. 004

* . {102

.00
.00
.00
.00

.000

*.

003
006
009

RZ (DEG}

## AND SUPFORT FORCES {ACTING ON SUPPORT} **

.:JP? DATA

:YFE FT

01

-.00
*.00

30

.000

-.
*.
-.

-.01
*.01
-. 01
-. 01
-. 01

.00
.00

RY(DEG)

RX (DEG)

.00
.00
.00

n]

*.

(IN)

DZ

.00

.00
.00

4A

l;-T

2AA

10

--

DY

-L26

r2]

*126

*339

*339

*27

r69

502
330

*L22

- L454

258 7016 1. 00 1. 00
-261 7376 2.2] 1. 89
s34 2L62 2 .21 1. 89
-533 1143 1. 00 1.00
34 t669 1.00 1.00
*33 358 5 2.2'7 1.89
-48 3353 2.2] 1. B9
49
1504
1. 00 1.00
731
1. 00 1. 00
-48
49
137 1. 00 1. 00
*48
984
1. 00 1. 00
49 22A4 2 .21 1. B9
-131 1776 2 .27 1. 89
732 529
.00 1. 00
147
-381
.00 1.00
382 7 47
.00 1.00
899
-381
.00 1.00
382 1709 2.2"7 1.89
*286 132? 2.2'/ 1.89
281 641 1. 00 1. 00
378 2L46 1. 00 1. 00

129

130 .

Chapter 7

MAX.VALUE 111466
'7O
AT POINT
30

340
?O

PAGE 4 OF 6

1097

r454

30

80

1245
10

3586
30

POINT

DX

.00
.03
.04
.01
.00
- .02

10

20A
2OB

30A

308
4A

508
OU

4r

70A

l-

708

ft,

BO

lr

MAX.VALUE
POINT

AT

!
il!
H

)
P

Il

2**

DY

IN)

DZ

(IN)

.00

.00

-.01

*.

-.06
-.06
-.42

-.

.05

*. 06

.065

30

30

40

.00

.01
.01
.01
.00

-. 06

.00
.00
.02
.03

l'Y
rYPE Pl
E(

ANCH

STY

ANCH
NET

10
40
80

-116
0

IL6

T"ORCE

20A

BEND

RUN
BEND

RUN
RUN
RUN

2OB

- 115
116
* 115
116

30A

-115

2OA

208

-.
-.

-757

342

233

-.

Ml

936
00
L442

-L'75

-626

-342

62"7

343

758

-5'1 9

-342

-500

*432

580

343

501

433

*400

-342

104

-1040

71 6

*432
A??

401

J45

-352

-342

102 0

-345
346

5OA

*115

353

343

- 1019

-223

-342

82

32

116
* 115
116

433

?12

-81

-31

-382

-342

Jd"J

343

428

L77
-r"7 6

264

-263

_Aa1

508

*115

-335

-342

5OB

116
-1 15
116

336

?4?

-44s

-246

-342

446
325

24'7

343

- 11s

-156

-342

'LzB

L5'7

343

129

RUN

60
50

BEND

?OA
7OA

LI6

.000

036

.042

4A

30

-II--_

---MZ

ERICTION
**EORCES ,

_*-I
--

(tB)

## 3.t'x I.l.Y l'l.z

-2003

221

246
-245
616
-615
93
-92
6
-5
6
-5
6

204L

1. 00 1. 00

2308
3344

2.2"7 1 aq

-1064

116
116

.0r2
-. 003

THL+WT

* 115

40
40

.024

**

308
3OB

.040
.039
.030

015
006

-----MOMENTS, (FT-IB)

-342

.042

.000

MOMENT

}O(

.034

n?1

3OA

50A

BEND

3,

-756
*209
-99

SZ

.02L

- .423

I---------_-

.000

-.017

-.414
*. 031
-. 036

036

.00

* n]

RZ iDEG)

.000
.014
.aL2

031

- nq't

- .02

-.01

10
3, THL+WT

.000

.065
.058
.006
.003
.005
.009
.000

- .02

RY(DEG)

RX (DEG)

-.01
-.00

.04
.05
.00

-. 03
-. 04
-.06
-.06
-. 05

50A
lI

(IN)

*324

264

-263
526

*525

-J

-80
81
-342
343
-342
343

2153
2452
4246
4206
2343
1413

2.27 1. B9
1.00 1. 00
1.00 1. 00
2

,2'7 1. 89

t49L

2.21 1".89
1.00 1. 00
1.00 1.00
1.00 .00
1. 00 .00

ZZ

{4

2.2"7

ao

2335

2.21
1.00

.89
.00
.00

1438

1645

L662
1650
1693

2598

1. 00
1. 00 1.00
1. 00 1. 00
2.21 1. 89

708
RUN l0B
B0
MAX.

VA],UE

AT POINT

*115
716
-11s

-109
110
100

115

751

'7

10

(IN)

DX

n?

208

.04
.02

508
60

(IN}

.00
- .02

*.

DZ

*355
-7442

1041

r442

30

80

(IN}

o1

* .02

- .07
- .0'7

.063

-.

40

- .02

.01

.00
.02

05

.00

.00

-.

r'sx.vALUE -.06
'70
_r-T POINT

.04
30

-.

30

- .02

l0B

.012

057

- .444

-.07

-.03

*. 00
-.00

- .429
.072

.03
.00

.00

_AA

.00{)

013

- .02

-n)

-.

-.01

RZ (DEG}

.000

.045
.053
.061
.019
.018
.019
.017
.000

.04

- n?
- .04
*. 05

.000

-.034

01

.03

RY(DEG)

RX (DEG)

.00

-.

.01

70A
80

## -241 2162 2.2'7 1 . 89

248 7628 1.00 1.00
-221 2886 1.00 1. 00
2003 4246
10
30

356

**

DY

.00

20A
30A
30B
40
50A

-233
234
*233

THL+WT

NODAL DISP],ACEMENTS
PO]NT

PAGE 5 OF 6

COMPUTER OUTPUT

-342
343
-342
70

10

nto

015

-.040
-. 038

.040
.040
.040

. 034

^24

. a2'7

-.
-.

.029

019
010

.018
.008
.000

.030
.000
040

.040

4O

50

## _-* CHEMICAL PLANT PIPING CODE COMPLIANCE ANALYSfS - ANSI 831.3 **

NOTE: ALL STRESSES ARE IN (PSI) UNIT; AN (*) MEANS OVER STRESS)

/304.7,8Q-3/ /302.3.5,

:YPE PT OD THK

B0

1143

0A 6 .63 .280
2AB 6.63 .280

80
B0

1143
1143

: il'I

20B 6.63
30A 6.63

.28A
.280

80
80

::ND

30A
308

.280
,280

:lN

308 6.63
40 6.63

.280

:i]'ID

-N

6.63
6.63

40 6.63
50A 6. 63

.280
.284

.284

::].trD 50A
508

6. 63
6. 63

.284

: -.J

JUIJ

C'. bJ

60

.280

6.63

.284

60 6.63
70A 6.63

.280

-tJ

.28

(c)

## / /302.3.6, {A) / /302.3.5, (D),/

INT-PRESSURE SUSTAINED
DES]GN ALLOW CAI,C ALLOW

.280

'7

14 20000

OCCASIONAL EXPANSION
CALC ALLOW CA],C ALLOW

49286

20000
20000

1143
1143

49
9]A
842
840

20000
20000

840 26604 L669

49158
49L60

0
B0

1143
1143

932
730

20000
20000

## 932 266A0 3586

730 2660A 3353

49068
49270

80
80

1143

703

LI43

1869

20000
20000

703
1869

26600
26600

1504
131

48131

80
80

1143

1869
1149

20000
20000

LB69
Lt49

266A0

731
984

48131
48851

B0
80

1143
1143

L493

863

20000
20000

T493
863

26604

2244
7'7 16

48507

80
80

1143
1143

766
785

20000
20000

66
785

2660A

26600

'7

829
47

49234
49215

B0
B0

1143
1143

197
868

2{1000

'7

9'7
868

2660A
26600

747
899

49203
49132

tL43

20000

49
970

26600
26600

26640

266AA

I3-7 6 4925I
2L62 49030

49291

4973'7

132

Chapter 7

TOPIC#2O

PIPE STRESSANALYSIS

## BEND 70A 6.63 .280

708 9.63 .28a
RUN 708 6.63 .280
80 6.63 .2BA

: COMPUTEROUTPU'f

B0
80
80
80

## 11-43 959 20000

1l_43 800 20000
r-143 ?51 20000
l-t-43 1883 20000

PAGE 6 OF6

## 959 256A0 1?09 49A41

800 26600 1"327 49200
?51 2660A 64-7 49249
1883 26644 2146 48L1't

## ** Af,I, STRESSES ARE WITflIN THE CODE ALLO}IABLE

2** MAXIMUM SYSTEM RESPONSES
211}.

rx

(l,B)

548

592

25

40

?0

40

1fi

r"11
7Q

466

340

10 97

l-455

30

'7n

30

80

1l_6
?0

?5?

343

L04 1

1442

t-0

?0

30

80

POINT

YHERMAL.

AT

POINT

THML+WT.

AT POINT
2{2).. MAXTMUM

MA)(.VAI,UE
AT POINT

MIN.VAIUE
POINT

758
10

2209

t245
l_0

3586

2003
10

4246

DX

AT

## FZ(LB) M((m-rB) MY{FT-IB) MZ{r'T-LB) S(PSr)

5
?0

WEIGHT..

AT

FY (LB)

-.

IN)

DY

(]N)

DZ i

rN)

RX IDEG)

in

.05

na

2A

30

7Q

. 06s
4A

06
70

-.42

- ,47

-. 05?

50

30

2A

RY{DEG)

RZ {DEG}

.031

.442

70

5U

bao

- .429

40

ZU

-.

l_0

30

30

CHAPTER

PnnssuRE (HvDRo-)
i.ner construction, but before initial startup of mechanical piprg systems, process vessels and storage tanks, the building
:,ustruction and industrial safety and health codes nearly al*eys require some sort of physical-integrity testing to be per: -,rmed, witnessed, and passed. The test purpose is quite simple;
i':, show that the vessel will hold the intended operational pres.ure without deforming excessively and without losing fluid
: rntainment. Any material, design, and construction flaws that
:rght cause physical breakage of the vessel under pressure, or
nlrich might permit leakage, are thus detected under controlled
::'nditions, and can be corrected and retested if necessary. This
:rocedure is commonly called "hydrotesting," but the prefix
-:r'dro-" implies "water" or "liquid," and that can be misteding. Pressure tests may not involve liquids at all, and that
'""1 is a main reason for discussing pressure testing in this book.
(The systems excepted from pressure testing regulations
;'e both small and innocuous, posing no significant health or
;.tbty hazards. That does not exempt themfrom common-sense
ttk-testing before startup, or sanitarry testing per health and
t "tmbing codes, etc., of course. So don't insulate anything
:ctbre at least doing a good leak-test on it! Thermal insulation
,, as brutally expensive the second time around as the first,
,nd can cost the culprit his job as welll)
The various pressure-test regimens are typically well-de:ed in the applicable construction codebooks, and are gov::led under the auspices of state and local regulations. These
r::ulations in turn are ultimately based upon legally adopted
wofessional codes, which have historically been compiled from
. mixture of scientific principles, engineering knowledge and
: r-perimentation, common sense and real-world experience.
It is the referenced professional code which spells out
ne actual procedures, technical details, and quantitative plus
;r:alitative results required of the testing.
Some good examples of applicable professional code relr-irements are contained in the "hydrotest" paragraphs of (1)

&

## Pressure Vessel Codes, such as the

\SME Section VIII Division 1 rules for design and construcr,:,n of unfired pressure vessels, and (2) the ANSUASME Bll series of pressure piping codes. Also, (3) the API Standards

Trsrs

(primarily 500 & 600-series documents) cover bulk petrochemical storage tank design, construction and safety, and their
pressure testing procedures. In absence of other criteria, the
API Standards bear scrutiny for testing tanks not covered by
the ASME rules.
As project engineer, you really should give careful reading
the supporting material in the Code as well as the basic

to
"test" paragraphs. It will help tremendously in obtaining

## thorough understanding of what the tests mean and what to be

on the lookout for, as engineer and as user too.
The ASME Section VIII Division I rules for desisn and

conrtructry

UG-90 General

UG-92 Access

for Inspector

## UG-93 Inspeetion of Materials

UG-94 Marking on Muterials
UG-95 Examinution of Sarfoces During Fabrication
UG-96 Dimensionul Check of Component Parts
UG-97 Inspection During Fabricqtian
UG-98 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
UG-99 Stsndurd Hydrostatic Test
UG-100 Pneumatic Test

## UG-101 Proof Tests To Establish Maximum Allowsble

Working Pressure
UG-102 Test Gauges
UG-

03 Nondestructive

Te

sting

## MARKING AND REPORTS

133

l
,1

1l

134

Chapter

I
344.2 Visuul Exumination

UG-l15 General
aG-I 16 Required Marking

344.2.1 Definition

344.2.2 Method

Stamps

## 344.4 Liquid Penetrant Examination

UG-l19 Nameplates

## Similarly, in the ASME B-31.3 Code for Process Piping we

find these sections of information important to testing:
34O
llt

qi

l',

345 TESTING
345.1 Required Leak Test

INSPECTION

## 345.2 General Requirements

340.1 General
340.2 Responsibility

for Leak

for Inspection

(a)

;l

341 EXAMINATION

## (c) Preliminary Pneumatic Test

;J

!r

341.2 Responsibility
t,

34 1.3

## 345.2.2 Other Test Requirements

341.1 General
|]

Tests

for Examination

(a) Examination

for Leaks

(D Heat Treatment

Exqmination Requirements

*i:

'I
u,

## (c) Low Test Temperature

341.3.1 General
2 Ac c eptanc e Criteria

3 4 1. 3,

## 341.3.3 Defective Components and Workmanship

341.3,4 Progressive Sampling

for Examination

## 341.4 Extent of Required Examination

341.4. 1 Examination Normally Required

for

Testing

![

l,f

6l'

4rl

ntI
-:]lil

## 341.4.2 Exumination-Category D Fluid Semice

3 4 1.4.

3 Examination-Sev ere

Cy

clic Conditions

3

41. 5

}{

'18!

## 345.2.6 Repairs or Additions After Leak Testing

345.2.7 Test Records
345,3 Preparation

for Leak

Test

## 345.3.3 Piping with Expansion Joints

for Examination

@) Welds to Be Exsmined
341.5.2 Hardness Tests

{l

rE

## 345.3.4 Limits of Tested Piping

345.4 Hydrostqtic Leak Test
345.4.1 Test Fluid

344.1 General

lE

'm

ul

System

ll

## of Piping With Vessels gsc

il

PRESSURE (HYDRO-)

## 345.5 Pneumatic Leak Test

345.5.1 Precuations
345.5.2 Pressure Relief Device
345.5.3 Test Fluid
345.5.4 Test Pressure
345.5.5 Procedure
345.6 Hydrostatic-Pneumatie Leak Test
345.7

Test

## 345.7.1 Test Fluid

345.7.2 Procedure
345.7.3 Exumination

for Leaks

## 345.8 Sensitive Leak Test

345.9 Alternutive Leak Test

## 345.9.1 Examination of Welds

345.9.2 Flexibility Analy sis

## FIow shall we satisfactorily demonstrate that the pipe and vessel

ronstruction has the necessary structural integrity for safe sus:r.rned operation under the physical conditions intended in its

## it is also free from leakage?

Essentially, it boils down to subjecting the whole volume
rf the closed piping system or pressure vessel to a specific
;mount of constant internal Jluid pressure, for a specific contin:'ous period of time. The fluid is pressurized up to the specified
ralue of psig by an outside source, such as a pump or gas
:ompressor, and the system is kept tightly closed by leak-proof
:.olation valves, stub-end caps, blind flanges, etc. The pressureJesign, and prove that

## If during the specified time span the hydrotest pressure is

iustained within specified limits, without dropping below the
rllowable threshold pressure and without detectable leakage
,rf the contained fluid, and assuming all other specific test
:equirements a"re met, then the system is judged to have passed
ie test. Final preparations can then be made for putting the
i\ stem in service: installing thermal insulation, lagging, safety
:elief valves, and so forth. So far, so good.
Now herets the rub.
The exact methodology for testing depends on the system's
-ntended service usage, and therefore upon the governing regu:ations. Some codes permit a choice among alternative test
f,iethods, including using compressed air or some inert gas,
mstead of water or some other liquid, as the compressed
:luid medium.

135

It may be that, in some cases, one must choose the pneumatic pressure method, because of sheer magnitude of the volume of the vessel and piping, or unavailability of suitable
sources or quantities of water, or problems with containment
of potential water spills, or concerns about introducing corrosion or contamination into the vessel and piping along with the
liquid test media, etc., etc.
These can be real and overriding concerns, for sure, and
sometimes you have no real choice other than using compressed
gas for the testing. Fortunately, when choices of test method
are permitted, especially in major industrial applications, the
Owner usually makes the decision, using his own established
plant standards of practice as stipulated in the corporate insurance requirements.
However, in less technically structured applications such
as public and governmental works, commercial and institutional
projects, the Owner may lack scientific and engineering sophistication, and having no set standards of his own may leave it
up to you to recommend the best test method. If the applicable
regulations allow a choice between hydraulic (compressed liquid) and pneumatic (compressed gas) hydrotesting, you face a
tough decision.

346 RECORDS

TESTS

## Subcontractors, or even your own Project Manager(s) may wish

to use a short-duration, relatively simple and clean compressed
air pressure test, and probably will furnish some really convincing practical arguments involving construction cost-avoidance
and schedule-saving to support that wish.
What to do?
In my opinion, unless the facts behind the arguments
in favor of pneumatic testing are absolutely inescapable and
overwhelming, the Engineer should always choose the liquid
hydrotest. A pneumatic hydrotest should only be used when,
for some darn good set of reasons, there is no other reasonable choice. Here's why:

## Gases are markedly compressible, but liquids are only

barely so. Think in terms of mechanical work and energy;
to raise a closed-end cylinder initially filled with air to
a high final pressure, a piston would have to be forced to
move a significant distance. To raise the same cylindrical
volume of water to the same high pressure, the piston
stroke would be tiny in comparison.
So the work of cornpression, being the integral of force
with respect to distance, is much greater for the air. The
mechanical engineer's most powerful tool and weapon,
namely, the first law of thermodynamics, tells us that
the compressed air contains one heck of a lot of stored
energy. To illustrate this point, study the following stored
energy figures for a moment:

## In a vessel or piping volume = 50 gallons

Stored Pressure (psig) vs Stored Energy (ft-lbf)

136 . Chapter I

Water
10 psig
1 ft-lbf
100 psig
22 tt-lbt
1000 psig 1,525 ft-lbf
Liquid

Gaseous Nitrogen

ft-lbf
ft-lbf
251,675 ft-lbf

2,795

101,016

## But compressed air undergoes a much larger and rn.;,w

violent expansion, accelerating metal fragments in w
explosive and lethal manne4 precisely as does a br,ni
or a gun.

im

:[

IIITEII:

tW.

## In a vessel or pipe volume = 500 gallons

Stored Pressure (psig) vs Stored Energy

Liquid

l0

psig
psig
psig

100
1000

ttt,

fl
il

'!l

Water

9 ft-lbf
223 tt-lbf
15,250

ft-tbf

(ftlbf)

Gaseous Nitrogen

ft-tbf
ft-Ibf
2,516,750 ft-tbf
27,950

1,010,160

## Most people will be surprised by these figures; maybe not

so much by the relative difference between liquids and gases,
but by the startlingly large absolute magnitude of energy stored
in the compressed gas. The potential effects of accidentally
releasing that energy are probably not intuitive to many folks.
The choice of fluid media makes a whopping difference

in safety concerns. Consider the consequences of actually discovering a flaw in construction while under hydrotest pressure:

## Remember the s0O-gallon storage tank of nitrogen eurl

pumped up to 100 psig? With its stored 1.01 million t'o:n
pounds of stored fluid energy? Well, please note that a *4
magnum pistol bullet has a kinetic energy of about 1,275 fcrmpounds at the pistol's mluzzle, a quantity which results in
-entx**
overkill when dissipated inside a human, but represents our"r
about a thousandth of the potential death lurking in that mearru
5O0-gallon vessel.
And another thing: we can see tiny jets of escaping liqr.rrc
from a distance, but we cannot see the gas at all. At one tir.nnr
folks used to wet the hydrotested system with bubble bath soru,
to help detect loss of containment. It may still be done that u i,,r
Would you like to stand close enough to a leaking tanli d.
highly compressed air to actually see tiny bubbles form in mr
soap film? What if the leak is not at a mechanical joint. tnr
emanates from a tiny crack in the vessel's wall? Would 1r.
stand there and watch the crack propagate under the extrerrt
pressure of the test? Or would you run? And if you ran, hr-{e
fast? And how far? And in what direction?

## Some things to beware.

True, the water jet could cause injury but the odds would be
pretty long against it. The jet would not have much physical
volume, because during decompression, the actual volumetric
expansion of a liquid is quite small.
Also, if the pipe joint or vessel crack had any size to it, the
liquid decompression would be over pretty quickly. (Actually, if
the breach had enough flow area to qualify as a visible "hole"
rather than a microscopic flaw, depressurization would be over
in the time it takes a sonic wave to cross the vessel. and return.
at its characteristic velocity, which is on the order of4,900 feet
per second, about 4 times faster than in air.
If the vessel's max dimension is 8 feet, then the depressurization wave travels a total of 16 feet at the local sonic velocity
ofthe water, and the total fluid expansion is over in about (16/

## 4.900) = 0.003 seconds.

Consequently, according to Newton's dynamic laws, there
is simply not enough impulse force applied to the jet (because
the time of contact between the expanding front of liquid and
the ejected jet is very tiny) for the jet to attain much momentum.
We will arrive at the same conclusion by applying energy

## principles via the first law. Although water is heavy, bulk

expansion of a liquid state dictates that the water ejecta volume,
hence ejected mass of the escaping jet, is small. The paucity
of potential energy stored in the compressed liquid precludes
that mass from reaching damaging velocity.

## So, we are justified in having no fear around a liquid

hydrotest, as long as anyone very near the pressure wears safety
goggles. A squirt in the eye would be about the worst thing to
be feared.

## For any type of hydrotest, one must install temporary closrnt

of all openings in the pressure-containing system. For example
open pipe ends are usually closed for testing by inline isolatitt
valves and blind flanges. Vessel nozzle openings are closed
with bolted blind flanges; smaller ones may have threadec
pipe nipples or couplings and caps for temporary closure. Th
pressure class used in construction (the maximum pressurr
rating at the specified operating temperature) of valves, flanger
and pipe fittings is determined by the piping-vessel desisn
engineer, as are the actual materials (by ASTM Specificaticu

## from which they are constructed.

We all know that cast iron and carbon steel are both stroos
materials. However, carbon steel and its alloys are yasly su;e-

pressure-

## containing devices. Ductility is the reason; where carbon steel u

extremely tough and resilient, and very forgiving in its structurar
properties, the much-inferior grey cast iron is too brittle fcr
safety's sake in pressure systems.
Give a cheap grey cast iron nipple, cap or blind flange r
good, healthy rap with a steel hammer, and it will probablr
shatter into pieces. However, give the same healthy rap to ir:
forged carbon steel counterpart, and the steel nipple or flan-e*
would simply issue a bell-like tone, and make your hammerhand tingle a bit (or tingle a lot, if yolu didn't manage to hn
the sweet spot).
Now if the cast iron blind flange is on a vessel containing
static, pressurized liquid, the pieces of broken cast iron wiL
drop to the floor, and probably cause no harm unless the vesser
is huge and the test pressure is gosh-awful.

'iliifi.'rI

mu

f0
([n
ffir

TT
FF

PRESSURE (HYDRO,

-lillJ

.,ul

|il

,l[1,

Il.
lL

J-

..lx_ljilt

l
lnl

n:lui
TfrLtLL

lu
,NLilI

"r,t 4lf

!fl;

-fitr
tmr

"11:
.11

irc
:ii
il

lii!
.lr

l1

::

ti1

ul
r.l

## However: under hydrotest pressure from compressed air

u' rther gases, those same pieces of cast iron become massive,
:u.dly high-velocity ballistic objects; that is, shrapnel.
Note: Since same pipe-size 125# and 150# ANSI forged
ri":l and cast iron flanges have the same outside diameters and
r.,: hole patterns, potentially mistakes could easily be made
n :he field assembly of the test setup.

TESTS

137

## Therefore, pneumatic pressure testing should always

be recognized as the hazard it is, and considered in light
of the potential loss of lives and property it puts at risk. If
it must be done, the pneumatic test must be thoroughly
engineered and conducted with the utmost of care to reduce
the danger as much as possible. No brittle materials shall
be permitted in the test, especially cheap grey cast iron
flanges or pipe fittings.

CONCLUSIONS

## The whole pressure test area and surroundings, out to

some calculated safe radius from the pressurized test vessel,
should be considered a likely blasUfragmentation zone,

## i-,rmpressed gases are extremely dangerous, especially

uhen their container's integrity is unknown! Which is al-

## must be selected as such, considering fire safety, and should

be evacuated of human occupancy for the duration of all
testing.

riping system!

CHAPTER

## IssuES AND ConES CoNCERNTNG

PnoTECTToN AND SnrnTy
SOME OF THE IMPORTANT TOPICS ARE
S-{FETY/RELIBF VALVES, RUPTURE DISKS,
GUIDELINBS FOR SIZING THESE DEVICES
\$iD CALCULATING THE HYDRAULICS OF
RELIEF FLOWRATES
>.-rme of the present and past applicable Codes for calculating
rressure relief fluid mass flowrates from vessels immersed in
:limes of external fire, for preventing piping and pressure vessel
r ,erpressure via mechanical relief devices such as liquid pres-

and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Systems in Refineries, Part I_Design and Part Il_Installation.

7.
8.

L
).

## ASME Section I, Division 1

(not discussed in this chapter)
Unfired Pressure Vessels Code:

-1.

-t.
-i.

## par. UG-125 rhru UG-I37.

Power Plant Piping Code:
ASME Pressure Piping Code B31.1

par. l0l.2,122.6
Chemical Plant and Refinery Piping:
ASME Pressure Piping Code 831.3
par. 301.2, 322.6, F322.6
(Hydrocarbon) Transportation pipelines:

## ASME Piping Systems Code 831.4

6.

par. 401.2,422.6
American Petroleum Instirute (ApI)
API 521, "Guide tbr Pressure-Relier.ing and Depressur_
izing Systems. Rect'rmmended Practice 52l'.:
API RP 520. "Re.-.rmnren-Je,l precdce for the Desisn

## *:re relief valves, vapor pressure safety (pop-open action)

,lr.es, rupture disks, low pressure relief vents, and the like,
-r*:lude:

## Storage Tanks (Non-refrigerated and Refrigerated.)

National Fire Protection Assoc. (NFPA)
NFPA-3O, "National Fire Codes" Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.

Combustible

Liquids."
The Codes and Standards listed are well written and largely
self-explanatory. Their authors knew better than to make them
too academic in nature or too vague or cerebral, because their
subject matter has great bearing on plant safety. These are
Codes we all want to be easy to understand and safe to apply
for most technical folks, including all mechanical and chemi-

cal engineers.
So if you encounter a project involving storage tank, pressure vessel or piping safety relief engineering, requiring your
their applicable parts. They are too voluminous to permit reprinting here, and are updated regularly anyway. Go now, posthaste, and get the latest versions for your working library.

## As for this humble book, there are several neat related

topics we want to expand a bit, with the usual goals of achieving
clarity and conservatism, where experience has indicated the
need therefore, plus avoiding the invention ofwheels and doing
more work than personally necessary. These expanded topics
include:

A short discussion

## re_earding the things that usually need

consideration *'hen vou are makin_s a calculation of relief

139

140 .

.
.

Chapter 9

## fluid flowrates for safety device sizing. Included: a set

of blank self-instructive checklist-form data sheets to
A very nice article (pp. 168-173) by Mr. R.A. Crozier,
engineer at DuPont, comparing the various code approaches to fire-sizing relief valves, courtesy of Chemical Engineering Magazine (1985.)
A sample calculation of a fire-sizing vessel relief example
problem, based on the NFPA - OSHA - API 2000 heat
gain procedures (pp. 175-179).
Figures 9-1 thru 9-4, pp. l4l-144. A short but sweet

## "how-to" paper by the CONSOLDATED Safety/Relief

Valve Company on finding the reaction forces acting
on a safety valve when it is discharging gases, vapors

.
.

## or steam. This is necessary for ASME Piping Codes pipe

stress analysis compliance. Also, it is handy for designing
thrust blocks and relief valve pipe supports!
A similar sample calculation by myself for finding reaction forces from liquid relief flows (Figure 9-5, pp.

r4s-r47).
Finally, an approach to satisfying ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessels Code, Section VIII Division 1, "Rules for
Construction of Pressure Vessels" UG-127(3Xb)(4). This
may help if you have to design a series installation of
Rupture Disk + Relief Valve (Figure 9-6, p. 148).

## CALCULATION OF RELIEF FLUID

FLOWRATES FOR DEVICE SIZING
The basics:
Pipes and Vessels must contain MAXIMUM flowing pres-

## sures at COINCIDENT MAX operating temperature without

deforming. breaking. leaking o, tno*i,t4
And since we are not made out of money, in fact we ale
darn close to going bust most of the time, there is a limit to
how robust our pipes and vessels can be made. This means
that each vessel must have a MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
WORKING PRESSURE (MAWP) in its anticipated working
range of temperature, extreme high to extreme low, beyond
which pressure limit the applicable piping or vessel CODE
deems operation unsafe.
Accidents happen. Fires break out and turn our placid
storage tanks into huge pressure cookers. Pumps fail and pumps
run away; valves fail to the wrong position; electrical power
is lost; flow regulators run away, and human operators make
every mistake in the book, plus a few new ones nobody ever
heard of before.

## Therefore we must install failsafe devices (safety/relief

valves, engineered rupture disks, emergency vents) to relieve
internal pressure if for whatever reason the upset event overpressure tries to climb above the vessel's MAWP, else our
vessel may explode. Not good; not good at all.
Pipes andVessels can contain solids, gases, liquids+vapors,
a mixture of these, or a vacuum. Handling solids and slurries

## Handling vacuums is also a separate topic, although breaio;4

vacuums in a vessel is a good trick to know, and we';'ill
mention it in passing where it fits the discussion. (See ::ur
Jacketed Piping Topic elsewhere in this book for a discus'.,
of vessel crushing due to external pressure.)
That leqves us with pipes and vessels as fluid stute m&ilt
containers. In order to do engineering safety relief studie. n,
nmr

## pipes and vessels, we have to know a good many definite f":.:

not the least of which is a precise thermophysical descrip:,

-t

&

.l
s

lts
.

,nm

## of the process system containing the vessel and the ves::

contained fluidsl

## THEREFORE, We need an accurate P&ID of the sr s:=u

(Piping & Instrumentation Diagram, or Process & Instrume-u
tion Diagram, take your pick, they are the same thing ir
addition, we need mass flow balance data for the various fltun

I
!
I
t

## temps and pressures, we need pipe sizes and approxiniLL:,r

geometry, pump curyes, specific control valve sizes, tr -r:
and actual Cv vs. Vo open range data, heater capacities rl;'
mal & runaway, especially for steam-powered heaters), et;
We need to have the list of contained fluid constituem
by chemical molecular identity.
We need to know the mass fraction of each constitu:n

in the mixture.
We need to know the pressures and temperatures in::r
the vessel at the emergency upset condition, so that we:;r:
figure out the phases of each constituent.
We need a good cross sectional elevation view drarrfuq

## of the vessel and its mechanical contents and appurtenan::

inside (tubes, trays, grids, screens, instrument transduc:-'
gauges, heat exchangerbundles, etc., and nozzles outside: ir."r

## pipes, outlet pipes, vents, drains, manways, agitator mi,.:.

mounting nozzles, pressure relief devices, etc.)
From all of the above we can calculate each constituer:
specific gravity, and hence guess pretty accurately at its ph)\$.
cal location inside the vessel. This gives us the physical msq
we need for understandingthe patterns of flow inside the t'es t
when the rupture disk ruptures or the relief valve blows, in t)
potential cases of process flowing conditions which may app.This in turn tells us what type of safety relief device we neir

to apply.
In other words, we need to select vapor-relief safety valr:
(*pop action) operating at2l%o above MAWP inlet overpressu::
when the fluid at the vessel top-mounted safety valve inlet
a fire-generated vapor such as steam.
But when the fluid is a cool liquid such as water, needr..l
relief when a feed pump control valve runs wild, then we ne-':
to select a vessel bottom-mounted liquid relief valve (*prop'.,:"
r

erpressure.

## The two devices are different animals altogether, and er.r

the two relief flowrates were equivalent (they never are) ti,.
different type devices may or may not be interchangeable.
This sounds like a lot of work. It is. fCont. p. 147.]

if

## A thn gl is exsrisd ** a pr\$stjte reli*f valve vvh*n

it ix diseharging. Thi* thr\$sl i5 squal io ma** fl*w
rate lines exit velocity, plue oullet {langa area, times
ths difter*ncg be,lween exii pressvre and atmospherir prex*re. Thi* thrust, eelin& *ppt*l* ta tllc *irsc-

when

## :'elixving Sas*s sr risp6\$s" *"llhc*gh **eiS&LlEATg0

Satety Slief Valves *re de*ignd lc withgtand ltris

i*

piping ar *q*ipx*nl
shsuld b* inve*tigated. l{ is espeeialfy imp*rta*t
whcn lh* vslvx is discharging io atms\$phsre thraugh
A sir*pie Frscedur* ud*g the curves in lhis calalog,
rerrfiit\$ g{ct}r&lg del*rr*rination ol discharge reac*
:ionx tfrr SSNS*|-i*ATEb \$aiety H*lief Va{vex ss
sh*** i* thi* caia*cg. Th \$1gS i* t*e prcc*d*re
lhrust, slressss developed

ar:

rgl-

## Find the air dis*harg* repscily {S*fSr} {rnnr lhe

* i*r the orifice s*lerlS. ilOT:
Th*x* eapacilies are lor tSoA cverpr*ss*re whi*h

labl* *n Fxge

## A b*l*rv. lccate ih Eir *a\$**ity

i**nd in 3te* ?. *ra!r. a verlie.al l;rl* ls ini*r\$ect

-1 Lrsing *hsr1

## tha *loping lin reprcs*ntifig salve e\$llet siea.

0raw a hsriecntal tine fr*m lhis int*rsection t*
lhs oullet r*a\$isn line and read th* vsiue F,.
T* *c*sct lhir reartitn l*r any gas olher lhe*
air, use Chsrt I'ls. C. Srsw a vertica{ line acrots
llls crrrvs fi:r different values *f k {e,J0,} atr *
\$si*t resr*\$entifiS llre rR*leesler lveight rlf lh*
g*s. On lh* vertical line dra!#n" toeate E p*lnt
nhiclr is the k valus t\$f the gas. il|ltc{Falsts if
n*tessary]. Drav* a horixsnlal line tr*m this p*inl
ts the reacliun ecrre*tion lact*r line end rs*d

F" x F* x F',

## Example: lt is necssa{y to relleve 70,S0\$ p*nd:

psr hour af i**-hulqne si 15S"F. Valve set
pf*ssure is 5S psig and fh* allewabl*
ovsr*presf,ura is 1S%- Find ths discturge
f8&cti*n-

is

## \$.S!4 *.quar* inches. The sel*clcd orilice

i\$ a "Q'n. h*vinE en ]l.SF *q. in. ari{ice
eree, The valv* selecied is a 1SS50, which
ha* an 8' sutlet flange. The air capaeily
labl* {page4-l}shows thxt at 5ff F\$ig set
prg\$6urs, lhis vptrve ha\$ a cassciiy sf
13.SS* SCFM eir.

## A, the rec{*isn fcrc* f*r

S*FM air idisclargieig frerx e
valve, wilh *n \$' cutl*t ffangeJ. i* E\$0
pounds. Jhe cnrreciion iaefor Fu, ior a
molecular lvight sf 58,1f snd a k ia*iur
ftlr 1.094 {isa"bulan} is ,67 as sfrsln i*
Oh*r! e. The ternperatvre ccrreclisfi {acf*r i*r 15**F, is 1"]1 as *hswn \$n S{l*rl &"
Ttte urit*et re*slisn fsri F, is:
f"*t-,xl-^xF,
*850x 67x1 i -62\$pounds
Frcfir Sharf

'13,*SS

Chsrt A

r.,,
Fn {rc*'r"l \$tep 3 Sy F,, lrorn Step 4 :s ti*d
lh .e*cti*n *f a gnx fil SS*F. T* c*rrect tlris
t*&efirrn tar a teftlpeN'st*r* clher ]h*r* &**F., rrs*
Ch*rl S- Lgeat* tlrs Fehr*nheil t.emperelufe on

f'{uiiip,y

## ths r.rppqf \$f,*le" drav* a verlical lins down t* ths

eloping line and hori:anlally l* the left. Read thn

## l*n*pera{ure correclicn fa*t\$r F,. {Frr ab**lute

lemper*lures use folser po*ion cf Chart Bl.

IGURE 9-1: Safety Relief Valve Thrust Reaction Forces Due to Discharge of Gases and Vapors. Force direction
:posite to relief flow vector (Consolidated Valve Company)

141

142 . Chapter 9

Chart

F*

fhart S Chsrl

f1]r

cHAft? t0R

Wejght

## ctiIlLT RtAerl!\$ e{BRtcli0u f0n nlltilljltR vltGlil

11,.f
',1

g',

*..

F i-.
g
i::
; t::

giii

*i:

FIGURE

9-2:

Company)

Reaction Forces Charts for Temperature Correction and Outlet Correction (Consolidated Valve

## ?tla fst{owing slep*, *l*rx*ld be used tr detprmine

restien *rree f*r a SSH\$\$LfnATgg Ssf*ty

tft*

## 1. Fir*d ihe steam *apacity frorn the table on page

4.S *sing the valve orifiss sies,
f.lOTE: Th*re capa*ili** ar* fnr 1011 over*
Sr*ssurc rryhich is il{rr}r}al fcr rn*s:l a*slieatigns.
*" Using th* eharl bel*w" lind the s&lsn *s:pac;ty"
ldEve vertically *lntil lhe curv ir interse*t*d&krw mcv* ft*rieonislfy ts firrd lhe reactlon tngc*"
& sin*ta cervs sraa us*d for simplicity and is ba**d
on saturated \$tsam.'Fue ta ths r*any variablec that

143

## *auld bs i.rff*l\$ed, i* 1* !*prt*ti**l ts pnlvlde a

rha* fOr eseh *et &f varl*bles.
Determinatiun of er.ltlel r*aetiafi f*r**\$ r* the ra-

## \$ponsibility *l the de*i{}rr 6t v*sssls andlm piping.

*fssser lndustries, Inc, pubfl*hcs thls inf{}rmatlon as
tsehnisst advi'ce or rr*si*ttlf tnly. Sres*er Induslria*, lnc, ar\$\$\$rs no obFgstisn sr tie&ility t*r thi*
edvice sr fls*i*t&{rcs bel*g giv*n and it *vnlsl he ae-

## **pt*d &t the buysrs' ri*tL

[f th* eustomcr wish*x to calculate reaction i*rsse,

IIGURE

9-3:

Reaction Forces Due to Valve Discharge (Steam Service) (Consolidated Valve Company)

144

Chapter 9

## \$ample Calculation of Reaclion Fcrce

4.6805f

Given: 3x41912KValve
Sel Pressure 896 psig Saturatd Starn
10olo Accumulation"

u.

## (Reterence'1967 ASME Slearn Tables, Table 2l

Inlei Pressur, Pr : {896 x 1.1} + 14.7 * 1000 psia

sc;

: 1.3910

h"r

1192.9

4.5028 ft3/lb

## From lhe iable on page 4-3

93'729. = 104,143 lbs/hrr
Flow Rate .90 saturaied steam
NOTF: Astual valve capacities must always
be used.

Inlet Conditions

## : 0.4684 t's: * .|.1393

ht"r * 692.1
hr, * 293.9

1489 ftlsec
V,
Since the exit velocity (1487) dces not exceed the

## sonic veloc;iy (1489), the calculation may conlinue.

Calculated Capacity, W

h"r = .1 186.0
as: : 4.6982
0r*r

4'6805

V'

v.: /144sk% u;
g : 32'174 ftlsec'
k - 1.13 {ASMF Steam Tables, Fig. 'l'l}
Pz : 94 Psia
r," - 4.508 it3llb
*
=

3600 V" A

sr:

Outlet area,

Ar =

*-__asm--

103,783 lbs/hr

## Assume 100% isentropic {low at valve outlet.

lsentropic quality,

X'

1."'***:j3*

1"39'10

0.4684

y.yo

80.98%

This is a good comparison with the valve rated capacily and the calculations should b'e cansidered
correct.

1.1393

fnthalpy at exit, h, :

hrn

{X" x h'u3}

## h: = 293.9 + {.8098 x 892.1} = 10'16.\$ BTU/lb

It is assumed that ?5% of the available energy is
convrted t0 velocity.
A h/ * .25 (hr * h!)
: .25 t1192.9 - 10't6.3)= 44.15 BTU/lb
Exit Velocity * 223.8 / ATI---

V.:

* 148? fty'sec
=
h-r+ah'-hF'
f\
\I ^u*,
flr"t

223.8

'{4415 t:n

:
*
*

## Static Pressure Forces, F"

Dynamic Force, Fn
Fa

*
-

MV

P: x Ar
{94

14.7i (12.57}

997;P

t0!,149 x t:A!.
32.174 x 3600

1337\$

cn=tc2-

FIGURE

9-4:

## Totat Reaelion Force

F"

Fa

RF:997+1337=2334+

145

di

DG

KgtIEF VAL1rS

6r
l\$1

t/
P
l//

iv

PRESSURE VESSEL

.""'

## Define Pser * sef pressure of relief valve, IIG {Lbf,/int.}

Defin l}I&rt= :nass flowrate tlgough relief valve in steady state blowdovrrl Lbmlsec.
Defi::e V: lluid veloci{y in steady state blowdowry Ft./sec.
FH , FV = horizontal & vertical components of reactions of the thrust block acting on the
discharge pipe elbow in diagram above.
5 I MP

.LI F I

## ED CON SERV AT IV_E. DfSIGN APPROACH:

T}e s&net{ loait at t}& mome&t t'he ra^lzte psp\$ rrps, is the maxit*ruwr loll,rt on the syste*. ,\$.ltlr.lo*glr i:t iteesr*
quicklg t* tke \$e*ily etate blasrdoton l*ad, it stiil tnust be r{.'itlr.stoed by the {laxge bolt*, {If th* flal'v;ge bol*s
sfie*clr, altnwing pipe ta m*ve *Iightiy, the *rust blo,ck lrr's to absarb tbe ntirs laard, w# *ti* cam be
acaa**crdoteil itt t:he sttucttrral design of thc thrxstblack. Tkis is a consenlqtiu* ryproach")

stat* l*ad appl,ie* *fter t*e pipe has filleit with liquid and is discharging against a:tmasphertt
brrck?l*ssure (i*to either tfte reeeiver vsssel or tke a|r:r'r.splwr* itself") T&{r is tke achml load *n the blad*
?ke stearJy

SIGURE

9-5:

## Standard Derivation of Liquid Jet Thrust

Itl

146 . Chapter 9

W:Theworst-caseshockforcesforthrustblockdesignare:
Fu =

k"ho.k x

## ABS (Fr,' ) = ABS

(FH)

{Fv perpendicularto
{

g. =

F11,

Vertical- upward.

32.174 Lbm-Ft/Lbf-Secz

Fn

= (Pr )(n

Fv

## = (Pz )(n ){d)2/4 + (Ma"t V /

block, in Lbf units.|

S.l

## + {WEIGHT of pipe material and water borne by the thrust

EXAMPLE: for a nominal -inch dia. safety aakte outlet, set to open at 200 psig and required to deliaer 350
gpm of rnater in the relief condition.
P""t = 200 psig as given. This is a plant vessel safety data item.
6.19 inches ( the outside diameter of the raised face; see chapter on pipe flanges.)
=
Mdot = acfual flowrate for this valve, obtained with the valve inlet pressure = 200 psig with zero

-:
::

:lr

*1.

.tti
?,{

Us-e Dc

\$"'Tr

## V = actual velocity corresponding to acfual flowrate.

We could get fancy with this and calculate the built-up inlet pressure of the valve, obtain the AP
across the valve and straight piece of outlet pipe, and subtract from the built-up pressure to get Pr
(and similar process for Pz.) But the simple conservative solution is to let Pz = Pr= (P"". + %overpressure allowed by the vessel code ) ( which is ASME Section VIII Div. 1 in this case. Section VIII
Div. 1 allows the pressure to build up to 110% of the set pressure P""t for a single liquid relief valve
instaliation.) Therefore for the pressures Pr e Pz , use:
Pz

## = Pr = 200 psig x 1.10 =

22O

psig

Now we can solve for the two sets of forces we want the shock loads and the steady blowdown
forces. HERE ASSUME ACTUAL FLOWRATE = THE REQD. FLOW = 350 gpm.

c:
.Ji;

## FH = k"ho.k x [(P*t )(lr )(Dc)'z/a + (Ma"t V / Sdl

kshock = 2.0 for mechanical impact load.
P""t = 200 Lbf /sq.n.
n (Dc)2 /4 = n (6.1912 / 4= 30.0934 sq. inches
Mdot= 350 gal/min x (1min/60sec) x (1,ftz 1 7.4805 gal)x 62.4Lbm/ftz = 48.66 Lbm/sec.
From Cameron's Hydraulic Tables, 4-inch pipe @ 350 gpm, obtain V = 8.83 ft/ sec.
Shock Fn = Shock Fv = (2)[(200X30.0934) + (a8.55)(8.83t/32.L741= 9.064-Lbt (design 5 tons.)
FIGURE 9-5 (continued)

'i{

n(
l{l

nl

147

Fn

## = (Pr )(n )(d)'z/4 + (Maot v / g.)

Pr= 220Lbf /sq.n.
:r (d)z / 4 = n (4.026), / 4= 12.73 sq. inches
Maot and V are same as above , 8.66 Lbm/sec. and 8.83 ftf sec., so:
Steady Fn = (220)(12.73) + (48.66)(8.83)/32.T74= 2,.8L4_Lbt
and Steady Fu = ( 2,814Lbf.. + weight of discharge piping and the water it contains. )

Discussion: The shock load is more than twice the steady state. The impact load factor of course is a
doubling effect on the static force, but in addition it is an unbalanced transient acting on the entire
rvetted flange area, which we saw was about 30 square inches versus the pipe cross section which is
only 12.73.

## if there is not enough steel rebar in it. Concrete is

not a good material to resist tensile impact stress, being too brittle alone. The tough steel rebar must
Iimit any tendency toward tensile strain in the concrete.) The shock force is transmitted through the
steel outlet pipe metal, not the water, and lasts a very short time (as long as lt takes a sound wave to
travel through a few feet of steel.) Design structural steel accordi.gly.
The shock load miglrt crack a concrete thrust block

## F'IGURE 9-5 (continued)

:ontinued from p.

1401

## This also sounds pretty complicated and detailed.

This doesn't sound too easy. It isntt.

lt

is.

## HOWEVER, thus armed, we are prepared to begin a

*efety relief analysis of our vessel.
Next, in order to select appropriate pressure relief devices
.
. protect the vessel, we must figure out a list of things can go
'":ong, including accidents, elrors, failures, process upsets,
":es, storms, and the like. We must identify each possible bad
[ing with a realistic probability of happening to us, decide
u:rether or not to try to protect against it, cull the list down to
-'.trepers,"
and go from there. Those that we do not try to
ir:r'ent, we write off as an act of God and let what will hap:n:n. happen.

airplane

## u-: examples of things in the non-nuclear industries that most

as acts of God. No point in trying to negate
neir effects with safety valves or rupture disks. Note also,
I','r'ever, that the stupid acts of people making errors and mis4res in design, operation and maintenance activities, are very
r-"'h omnipresent; they can and must be considered in any
*ety relief study!
NOTE: At least in the non-nuclear industries, we usually

## devices for "simultaneous unrelated failures." This is a bit

subtle; let's use a couple of examples to clarify.
An example of two simultaneous unrelated failures is: (1)
A vessel's electrically actuated electronically operated nitrogen
pad regulator valve fails wide open, subjecting the vessel to
full nitrogen source pressure if allowed to persist. We assume
the nitrogen feed pipe contains no safety relief valve of its own,
downstream of the regulator, and that the vessel primary relief
device will be forced to handle this situation. The vessel MAWP
may be lower than the nitrogen source pressure. If so, we have
a problem! (2) During this time, the vessel's self-pilot actuated
pneumatically operated steam feed regulator valve, not connected in any way to the nitrogen pad regulator, also fails wide
open, subjecting the vessel to uncontrolled internal heating.
This may generate more internal pressure of boiled-off vapor
than the MAWP can allow. Another bad problem. (RESULT:)
We must consider both potential failures, but only one at a
time. The first case results in the need for a vessel safety valve
to pop open at the MAWP, and to relieve a mixture of nitrogen
gas and vessel headspace vapor, at the relief flowrate which
you must calculate. The second case calls for a safety valve
to open at the MAWP and relieve another flowrate of heatgenerated process fluid vapor; you must ulso calculute the
boiled-off vapor quantity. Then you must determine the relief
requirement resulting in the largest capacity relief device. This,
the larger of the two calculated mass flowrates, would be the

148 . Chapter 9

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## ASVA t rl PV {c'DE 5ec W

l-}iv

j.

il& * l#.Tgrlay*)

## Sketch of Rupture Disk/Tell-Tale/Safety Relief Valve Assembly for ASME Section

1 Vessel. Please refer to page 150 for discussion of this.

FIGURE

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## flowrate sizing basis for the relief device. Also, in the

Focess, you would calculate the chemicul constituency, prespre, temper&ture, specific gravity and other pertinent thermophysical values (k, R, m and state points of the relief fluids),
vhich must be identijied to size the relief devices properly.
An example of two simultaneous failures which WOULD
:,ave to be considered RELATED and ADDITIVE is: A vessel's
arrogen pad regulator valve and its steam feed regulator valve
rre both electric-motor actuated and electronically controlled,
r! the same programmable logic-type multichannel setpoint

## :rrntroller (PLC.) Both valves' actuators are designed to fail

:1 spring action into the wide-open valve position. One fine
-t&\'that PLC undergoes a sudden and complete failure; maybe
:r: power supply dies a natural death and it has no backup.

149

## fire-sizing procedures. The standards mandated by Management

for use will vary from plant to plant, and you may end up
having to use several seemingly conflicting ones; for example,
NFPA-30 standard procedures for one group of vessels, but
API-520 for certain others.
Fire-sizing almost always creates the governing relief condition for sizing safety relief valves/rupture disks. (But not
always, so be careful. You still have to check out the requirements accruing to other potential causes of overpressure.)
Anyway, Mr. Crozier's comparison study of the API-520
fire sizing procedure versus the OSHA/NFPA-30/API-2000 criteria will help answer most of the questions you are likely to
encounter in your calculating work. I can't do it any better than
he did, so read his paperl

!'taybe some control-room yahoo spills his coffee onto its moth-

rboard while its cover is off. Or maybe a rat gets into it and
sraws through a circuit board. Whatever. The PLC fails to
nork, and both valves go wide open simultaneously.
Granted, it would take some ultra-lousy E&I engineering
csign to set the stage for this scenario, but the world is no
lsilnger to lousy engineering and such a thing could come to
lrl-ss. If it does, the vessel's relief device will have to handle
lhe concomitant sum of both flows, wild nitrogen feed plus
nriled-offheat generated vapor. It would be yourjob to calcu.!rle the flow details (good luck, Doctor Einstein!) (Actually,
tle thing to do is earmark this vessel for a system safety upgrade,
n:"separate the controls for the two regulators so that one device
i*rlure cannot force both valves to go wide open. Good luck,
Wr. Project Engineer.)
To aid you in constructing your decision matrix and making
ne host of calculations required to get to the relief device sizing
n:,int, I have stuck a bunch of blank, self-instructive checklist:':rm data calc sheets which will help you in this task. They
u: located on pp. 151-165.
Wow! Now we have reached the stage of deciding the
ryF(s), size(s), desired feature details and the pertinent vessel
ur-rzzle location(s) for the devices you will select for your safety
r:rief system. Congratulations! All you have to do now is write
lhe whole thing up in a recoverable fashion for your file, and run
,te computer programs of your favorite Safety Relief Device
'.:ndor
to select and size the devices.
By the way, get Mr. Vendor to run the selection programs
m'Jependently, and provide his results to compare with your
i'; n. A good competent technical check of the myriad thermor.emical and thermophysical calculations you had to make
':ould also be obtained and verified. (Most plant safety review
t.'"rrds will insist on these or similar steps, and probably more.)

llis

## nicely written article by Mr. Crozier, which begins on p.

is quite good. If you end up doing HAZOPS, plant vessel
xrrssure safety review work, you will have to plunge into the

:-.

## SAMPLE CALCULATION OF FIRE.SIZING A

PRESSURE VESSEL RELIEF' REQUIRBMENT
USING NFPA-3O/API 2OOO/OSHA STANDARD
DATA FOR HEAT FLUX FROM FLAMBS
Let's work a simple fire-sizing example problem (see the results
on pages ll4-119). I used the applicable checklist data-calc

sheets.

il

## Our example vessel is a horizontal cylindrical vessel with

ASME F&D (flanged and dished) heads, mounted up around
5-10 feet above ground on a steel platform. It is 4 feet in OD,
its straight tangent length (cylindrical shell plus straight weldflange portions of the heads) is 10 feet long, and it is filled
with the process liquid.
The vessel is bare, stainless steel, not sprinklered, and is
not in a particularly well-drained area of the plant. So our "Ffactor" is 1.00 as defined by NFPA, et al. We assume that it
is totally enveloped in flames for a good while, so 1007o of its
wetted surface area receives the fire-sizing heat flux.
We will assume for simplicity of demonstration that the
process liquid is pure water. There is a trace of light solvent
floating on top, but it is soon gone, and not great enough to
taint the pure-water thermophysics we assume in our example.
We will also assume that the vessel is U-stamped, and that
the stamp data and National Board Registry data mirror that
found on the vessel's design shop drawing: Normal operating
pressure 80 psig at 70"F, with design MAWP = 100 psig, also
at 70'F. This vessel was hydrotested successfully at 150 psig
per ASME Section VIII Div. 1 requirements, and so stamped.
We wish to check the size of its existing safety relief valve,
which happens to be a Farris Type 2600. That's good; we have
an old copy of Farris's safety valve software to check the

## selection by. Saves work!

Our assumptions are straight ASME VIII-I Code for single
relief device fire sized, setpoint at the MAWP (100 psig here)
and sized to pass the relief flow load at 2lVo overpressure.
Hence, our vessel pressure underneath the safety valve inlet
will be = (1.21x MAWP setpoint + I4.7) PSIA, = 1.21 x 100

l|

ul

u!

iii

u'l

{1tt

150 . Chapter 9
+ 14.J = 135.7 PSIA. My old steam table says that at saturation
350.5'F, and the latent heat of evaporation h1, is about 870.3

## Code, Section VIII Division 1, "Rules for Construction df

Pressure Vessels", Para. UG-127(3)(bX4).

BTU/Lbm.

## safety/relief valve from the discharge of the rupture disk hols"

by a piping spool piece, which contains some means to sig:a"
the operator and warn him of any leakage past the rupture d:nr-

## So here is what is happening: our plant is on fire, the vessel

is swallowed in flames, and its liquid water contents are boiling
inside. It has a safety valve blowing pure steam, entering the

## valve at a saturated thermal equilibrium condition

of

135.7

psia, 350.5"F.

We wish to know:
a. How much relief steam, Lbm./hr.
b. Required Safety Valve size: Body size and orifice size.

## RUPTURE DISK IN SERIES WITH SAFETY

RBLIEF VALVE: TELL.TALE SPOOLPIBCE
MUST SEPARATE THEM PER ASME B&PV
CODB
Refer to Figure 9-6, page 148 for sketch.

## IT CAN BE VERY DESIRABLE to install a rupture disk in

series combination with a safety relief valve. The pressure
vessel contents may be corrosive, making it more economical
to place a corrosion-resistant rupture disk in wet contact with
the pressurized fluid than it would be to manufacture the safety
relief valve out of equivalent material. Or, the fluid contents
may tend to cause a buildup of CRUD (a technical term meaning
exactly what you think it meanr) under the relief valve seat inlet
to prevent the relief valve from opening properly when needed.
However, it's not quite a simple design task, because rupture disks fail soon and often in most types of service, needing
cyclical maintenance replacement. They can "seep" under pressure, letting small amounts of fluid bypass the disk, defeating
the very purpose of their installation.
ASME recognizes this dilemma, and mandates a solution
for it. The details are up to the engineer's judgment and are his
personal design responsibility. The applicable Code reference is

## Figure 9-6 is the schematic of one such spool piece affan+

ment. I used it on some jobs once. It may not work in r,urapplication. Use it at your own peril. (Of course that goes .-v
any author-generated designs shown in any chapter of:*u:,
book. Only an idiot copies blindly the work of another b,:r,t

idiot !!)

## Care must be taken to select proper materials throughi,uc

to size the RD (rupture disk) and SRV (safety relief valve : u
'
the amount of backpressure which will be generated, and alj:*r
sufficient pipe gradient for drainage of liquid to a safe recepi:ri
Also, an automated or fancier seal-water makeup valve arran+:,
ment may be desired in some cases.
It may seem silly to mention the last point, namely seln-

## tion of non-conosive internsl components for the tell-tn[*

pressure switch. Negligence to use gold or platinum contocil
in plac e of c opp er inside s ensory instruments subj e ct to cont*
sive-to-copper vapor and liquid hqs cuused the acciderua
deaths of a number of innocent people working in chemits.
plants. Pay attention to absolutely all details when specif-iq
such systems. Where is the corrosive material? What materioh
c&n we use to prevent loss of function? Where are the "saJt'
boundaries where corrosion csnnot occur

in the physitu

system?

## AUTHOR'S NOTE: SAFETY/RELIEF DEVICE

SIZING CHECKLISTS
The 16 pages that follow, pp. 151-165, comprise the set of bl::u
checklist-form data calculation sheets mentioned on page 1jI developed them personally, and have used them "on nr

## job" many times for record file calculations.

You have my permission to copy or scan these sheets

::n'

:
!

151

d
FROCESS VES\$EL

MT

## & EOUIPII'ENT UP\$ET

CONDITION CHECKLIST

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152 . Chapter 9

EQUIPMENT NAME

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BY:

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CHECKTYP OFVE\$SEL

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O API 520 STORAGE TA}.IK
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rsxnT

SOTTOtI OF STEEL)

MEASUREDMTI\$i,IUSOTTc|'HEf,DT|||CXNSS

PSEUOSi,AWP

tPS!3)

..{Sac}ts}

O{pEnffinAT\$SGPfiOCRST}

otlA}lDcAtc-cHEcK)

## {ATTACH COMPUTER OUTPUT OR HAND CALCS AS APPLICAELEi

RECOi,fIiENDED HYOROTST

PRESS *-

pROCEDURE
{PSIG} &

## PIPING AND VESSEL OVERPRESSURE

REF. UPSET CONDITIOI'I

&

EAUIPMETTT SAFETY

'

## T}ENTIFICATIO}I }It}lt,|BER OF THIS \$HEET:

8Y:_JOg#_DATF:

CLIENT:

EQUIPITffiNT |\[ATiE
THIS RECORS DOCUTIIENTS THE \$AFETYAELEF CATCUTANONS APPLICAELE TO THE FOLLOWING
CONDMONS UARI(ED OIII THE REFERENCED CHECXTIST {CHECK ONE OR iiIORE} AI{CI AS NOTTO

TJPSET

o 1.1
o 1.2
o 1.3
o 1.4
o 1.5
o 1.6
o 1.7
o 1.8

o 2.'t
o 2.7
o 2.3
o 2.4
o 2.5
o 2"6
o 2.7
o 2.9
o 2.s

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

## FLUID PHA\$ HAND!O BY RELIEF OEVICE :

o 4.1
o 4.2
o 4.3
o 4.4
o 4.5
o 4.6
o 4.7
o 4.8

3.1

3.2
3.3

3.4
3"5

3.6
3_7

3.8

o 51
o 5.2
o 5.3
o 5.4
o 5.5
o 5.6
o 5.r
o 5.8
o 5"9
o 5.10
o 5.11
o 5.12
o 5.13
0 5.14
o 5.15
o 5.16
o 5.17
0 5.18

3.9
3,10

O (LlOUlO)

{VAP0FUCTAS}

FLUID }.IAME:

RELIEF FLOWRATE :

{2-p}rAsE}

triOLEC. WT.

LgtHR

GPM

RELIEVING

PRE\$\$URE_{PSIG}

## FOR LlQUlfl : Sp.Gr. {uratr @ 6O F = 1.0}

FOR LIQUID: LAT.HEAT EVAP.

if.C

_
GAS / VAPOR V!\$CO\$|TY
GAS / VAPOR DENSITY

RELlEVll.lGTEltP.
:

Vl\$C

(DG.

{cP}: SATURATI0}.|

{8TU/IB): SPEC.HEAT @ F

r}

TE}F @ F.C.

{OEG. F)

--

{sTUn-8-F}

DEHSffY
using Z=
(cP) : GA\$ / VTFOR RAIIO GgCv
: COI,PR. FACTOR Z
{LBlCu.Ft. @ f .C. using Z= '1.0}:

SIZE & TYPE OF \$AFETY RELIEF DEVICE REQ'CI. FOR THIS CASE : {f\$ in)

153

154 . Chapter 9

CaAS

EAU|pUENTNATiE

iEj

NG

## IDEI{TIFNANOil ilt*ffiER OF THI\$ SHEET;

BY:_JOH_OATE:_

CLIENT;

g."Elr.

0HEG|(tF||ttl{AFPUCAALDAT*Fm*LLVrrErTDVSSELffiirNFgpOSED?ORAneB{UFTOSA
O 9OT. FIEAI}

DIA__

## {Sl.) : SIJfiF. AREA (hacl-

sEcT.DtA
O COltllC.SFGT. Me
O lsT

SHELL

ff{.} : XFOSEE

\$R"

LG.

FIGJ

.{SCLFT.} :

L.

{Fl.}:ETFOSD

FljI,ES

Si,--.]FQ.FT.}:

LCin pf.

{SA.FT.)

.,..
:

.--.

PAn GAAfti

## o F.1.0(!toil6 0 F{.t (DfrAs{rGEpER?{3"3,Ar2!0}

o F{.tt (Ittstfi.ATKil + lmTmlpRAY + mAst ieE}

m'3

{g,Ttrr}lR}

llOLEC.Ylr?.00

poRATs{ATRg.EFle',Vrcgrq..gronoirslcco|rlDfTpiltl}_

t8n\$"s

el\$:}

## \$!fiAIERSpRAY+DltArt{A&} O F'o.3 \$\${*XA1loflpn2{.5.7..}

vAFORSElEntnOnRAIE,SCFl{A{RgAslt}{!0F,tt1.7F\$A}.7ll.iFQ,

tltil*O5}l;lSDFAfrr0.O?HltDAHl

RELIEF FLOIAI =

## CS\N,ERT RELIEF FLOWTO LB/HRA0TALFLUID PERASIIE SECT.\,III D|V.I AFPEHDX,Il

- |3.\$TEAll / lR , tllh - l3.SlO.AR t HR , llllv - t.8lCTllAL YAPOR, HR , ttlJc .0.370 r {\$CFt\$
lfilr. 5i"5I(AP ; l{!to r Cl(lP l{lllQ^0 il ; eR\$ra C.edi HA.N?' t\$a0 OEG. R*t{{l*.
l/llv . SAI# FORlilff.lAS FOf, lfY. HrT USll{6 ,CTt At \IAPOR C, tt * T YALUES.

(scrH)

lllltfERE l/lfr

C.tincilurofrpccfrshcdrdc,|f{|e'Cpt!)loehCfiornAFP.it;A:n|lfdafur*&!qescr{uts\$,n,havc*pnmc@;
K * rolcf drslcr &rrlp ro{ldu* {lnlqm*. bauc x grgtx&r} ; p : (l .10 x ret pn*.} + 1d.7 pd. &ts rt potrntiila.}
CALC.14fo:

Vlty =

"{

AB\r"cRAFq__{Fr}

trXlhpOFF,IiIAf,IE

tifi!

r8\r.CRAtl--{Fr}

-.

LATEf{trfiAtoFEtr

l-\$tE Aglt

{A}

Q:
FLUID

A6Oi/EGnlDe}

## O 2ttD SIEtt SEC?.nn___j(ll{.} :6(FOS8\$

*A

{L3.ACT.FLUII}THR.}

-i

ri

## VESSEL EXPOSURE TO LIVE SPARGE STEAT' FAILURE

. RUNAWAY

FEED

'
EQUIPMNT NAME
REF, SATETY'RELICF EI|}GII'IERS{G RECORO IDEXT.}IO.
IDEHTIFICATIOhI NUiNBER OF THIS STIEET

BY:

cLtNt

\$tZF''._tin.)

VALVE IDENT,
tilLET

tpsK) : vAL\,f

slEAhl P(E\$S{JRF

vAtvE DELTAf

tfitEr

o'rTLsr)-

TYPE..

JOB#

.. -

## {ps|} : GALC{I-ATI} sTEAil FL\$rv

DATE:

{ESTJACT.}

Cs:,"

& C1=

SSIPONI } P*\$SURF

DELTSP \${llrtu}

tP\$e}

ilsFrR)

HOW DOES TH|S STEAI| RAIE CAUEE VE\$\$EL PRcS\$URE RISF FIRT ? TCHECK OllE UPSET CQilDITIONi

(A)

n*ffi

a {s} r*CKASEil0RilTALBOLSFFnA.IE 0
soe#FLtQmDCCfifTEins-AS{ffi[aAL
*ffi

lr*f trllti*t*fi

***i.

tl*f*ffi

*t***i*}r#tf

**i*ffi

-******ffit*t**tr**

{C} LlvE\$EAXEXpAt{SlS{

## FOR UPSETS {A} & {B} :

o FIRST (MOST VOLATILE COMPOT\ENT! LIOUF

llTEr{r

>
>

HEAT sF EVAP.

## nEUEF O6/|CS ST pRESURE

{11}

(8-run:Bl, _ , _,

CICAPr)

(LE.VApORfttR)
ESIIMA1ED HORitA! tCfr C*prCrr OF VESSEL FOR Tllls VApOR O RzuEF OElltGE SEr PRESS.
(N\$TE: ll{cLuOE Xm}ilALCOilO}lSERTl#SlAlCAPAC|Wlt{THEASOVE. IFAF&AABLE; ATllCtl CATCS'}
*
Xeef r{ELASE l CSIOEN. s.|EA\$ t0s) * Wrtn r I Eil*\$LFry sd.vepsr O b*r* !ru6s. - E]rmLPY sd*q. @ ** procs- ]

> COI{TNTS

*l

o (sECOllD

{ffi.l

{Qs I L1} -

\/cAPi'

e2)

## > TJTEilT HEAT OF EVAP. O Rg,"Er OSVIC SEr PRES\$URE

> ESTII ATED tt|ClmtAl \ffi{T CApACXTY OF !'ESSL FOn
VApOR

SIOTE: II{CLIJOE

coltTEt{Ts

>

fi

ltffiSlAL C\${Oi{SERTtEnnALeApAClTY
'}{S

(V6&} r fits

/ LE} - \tOAp?

F{

pr!&qi,

g.VAFOFJ!|R)
{VCnP2}
- tt
C'ALCS.}

(LBr|lR)

.,.- -.-

Fnfi-B}

0rcAP) -

## oF lrEssL Fffi TH\$ vAPoR A RELGF DarlCE r FRES3.

-{LB.VApORlFlR}
{ISTE: lfrCLUffi I\$FWAL COf{OEI{SER THRIiAL CiPACfTY lt{ TH AAO/E, lF APPLICABLS; ATTACH CALG\$.}
> HEAT RSLEAS Q CS.lgN. SrEAU tQs) * lt{rt|| r t EHttlAlPY istvrpor ilei p|Gss" - EXIHALPY sitliq. @ ser press- } =
>

\rlit C*P^dTY

=Qa>

Frun*n)

(LSTHR!

A\$ID &ATE

RELIEF FLUID

## FOR UFSET {C}:

ATTACH CALCS FOR TOTAL NOI{-EMIRGENCYITE\$TIHG CAPACITY OF EXPAilDED \$TEAI' g! \tESSEt SET
PRES\$URE {NORtrl vf tfr}.
>

NORMVENT

## > RELIEF FLOW

(LB.STsArirHR) SATTJRAIED @

SE

PRE\$S. OF

.-

{PSIG)
=

{P\$lG}

155

156 . Chapter 9

## vEssEL tt'tLET LIQUTD FEEDSTRSAM FATLURE {RUNAWAY FLOW}

EOUlPlffil'lT f{AltE

30

RE

fi

BY:_JO*_

CLIENT:

DATE:

r||

HORMAL

>> CHECK

(GPfr)

(L8r!tR;

>)

## I.IORUAI PROCE\$S i/EA}IS OF PRODT.|SIi{G IT{LET LKIUID FLOW:

o INLEIFEcDFIUHP{\$)

O GRAVT?Y-rEELTA!|K O

OrrERFLeVCUpEmArs\\$SL

O I,ESSELVACT.|JiI

>>|FPutlFED'\$|ilGLrPur,FNoR},"cF}|@TI}H:-{GP[|}e-tFT.}r2CI}{rT.ua.}(Ps|}
>> lF PUIiPED,

ltfORM,CIPER.

## >> C}IECK NORTNAT

o srircrlrc*Xmfi;sAlpt

i*p

o ouAlcifixr. nFARALLEL o

o vACUUfi{

## OF RU}'IAWAY FEEDSTREAII FLOI'IJRATE;

O VALT'ECOilTROI.LSRFAILTIRETOT'TffiOPS}I
O FEOTAf{I{

O IhXI,'AIVAL\G

LFTOPI{

O RUf{AI'IAYPIJIFSEEOCO\$TROT

## O OT'ERFRESAIJRE D{J ?O FLWD \GSSL

o crrERPREsSt Re BYpt tP D\$CriARcE HAD { pr} Pulp+ LGS OFV*LI,E DELTI

p)

## O O1'ERPffSSURS R.E TO DANELOPO TIIIIRAT.SJC SAC{(PRSSSUR

O OT}IER

o NoirstEpl"*il{l

## >> RELIEF FLUID NAIJE:

>> RELIEF LNU\$ CO}ISITION\$AT RELIEF DFI'ICE INLET \$ET PRE\$\$URE;
RELEF D\'ICE STT PRE\$8T,RE
TEMPERAruRE

>)

p,o. Funp

## o AUTOiIATEOCOI'|TRO|VAI1rE O HAltlrALvAtlrE O FEEDPtIITIPSPEEDCONIRCL O YttElR

>> CHECK CAUST

r(

(DEG.F} : OENSITY

{pse}
{LS|CU.FT.)

-

S.S._

(Hl0-l)

PRESSURE

vlsCO9lY-*{cP}

L&HR)

tcplll)

>:

157

VESSEL

## OUTLff LKU|D \$TREAttl FAILURF {LOSS OF

FLOW}

EOUIPfiENT }.|Afiffi
REF, SAFETY'RFLEF EI'IGI}IERIT{G RCORD IDENT.XO.

## If}fT{TIFICATP!I| M.tffiER OF THIS \$HEFT

8Y:-JO8#-D*TE:-

CLIENT:
NAME OF OI.ITLETLIQUIO;

NORMAT'

iI\$(|llAJ\$

>> CHECK

LIQUIO OUTFLOW

(GFu)

(LBTHR)

DrscHARcE

FrjirPts) o

CRAVTTY O \$rHER

ll

i
>> CHECK

## lPRlrAt lEAtlS OF OUTLCT tlQUlI'

O AUTOilATEDCOT{TROLVAL\|E O

FLOU,RATE COilTROL:

ITIANIJALVAL}IE

O OIS}1. FUTaPSFEEDCOff|RON- O

L*ElR

O VACuUtil

uI

## >>CHTCK CAUSE OT LOS\$ OF ilJTLET FLOW:

tf

O rnmIALVAt\G Ctffi]R
O SPEED CONTROU:R FAILURE
O LOSSOTDUAL PUITIP\$
o vAL\rE cot{TRor.tER FsLunE o YrrEllt BLocl(ABE

o LosswstrrtcL P{JMP

O plPf &OCI(*GE

l[l
lr

l[.
rt

oTlrgR

>> CHFCK

rt

lI

o gtlR

th
rul
i{
f

Li

## GOVERilIIIG CA{JSE OF VESSET PRf\$SURE UP\$ET DUE TO OUTLET FLOW LO\$\$;

o qrEnpreSslrRg ByFEEp PrrHp otgcHrRcE
o oldERpre\$strRE SYFEED puilp U{FnARGE
O O\/EMMS\${'RE

}tAO tCEt\$R|F\GALFT.FDrDfAAffiiElArCEXlFLOTU

O OT}IER

o r{saEG)(P|.*\${
>> RELIEF FLUID I{AME:
>> RELIfF LIOUID CO}"IDIT|O}IS AT RELEF T}EIACE INLT \$ET PRES\$IJRE :
REUEF DE1/IC ST

PRES\$ME

TEilPRAIUffi-{Ds-F}

{P\$rc}
:

## >> {ATTACH CALCUT.AflOH\$}:

(L8rCu.Fr.) : S.G.

Ua\$O DENSITY

RrLlrF

FLOIIVRATE @

Srr

PRE\$\$URE

_ - (ll&t):lXltJlDVlliCOElW-:(cP)

(LSHR)

(GPM)

158 . Chapter 9

## vEssEL 0UTLET LIQUID STRgAfrf FATLURE (RUf.tAWAy FLOW)

EOUIPIffiNT f.IATiE

ga

REF. SAFETY'RELIEF

## IDEITITIFICATIC}N }IT,I'BER OF THIS SHEET

f,E

NE

3Y;-JOL_DATE:_

CLIEHT:
NATyIE

OF OUTLET LIQUID:

NORMAL

MN(MUM OUTFLOT'V:

{crul

{18'}rR}

r
t>

## o ouTltrpuuRs) o GRA\ITY o oculti\$rRA]tvAcuult

>>|FPulJ|PED's|NcLeP\$pl'pRrn.GP[@T0H:-{GPM}@-iFT.}|20}(FT'LKl.){PsD
>> lF PUltlPED, NORIi.OFER.
>> CHECK NORTIAT

srrrct-E cEr{TRFrJcAr-

pln

e anl

cEr{TRf. t{

>> CHECI( CAUSE
O

## OF RUIiAWAY OUTLET STREAILI FIOWRATE:

vAwEcCIHTRoltERFIrltURTOLtllOOpN o itAlq.l*tvAl\rE

O LEVELCO}ITROLSFALUNE O EXCS\$\$
>> CI{ECK GOVER}IIXG CAU\$E OF

LEFTSN

Rlrl{AwAYPUtlPspeDcOf{TRq.

VACULA' GEilTNATCI{

## O E'(CSSS VAPOR GEilERATIOf{ OUE TO LOSS OF HAT SII{K

O RT'T{A\$'AY REACTION
O OITIEfi

o NoNE(EXprAtr{}

## >> RELIEF FLUID NAIIIE:

>> RELIEF LIQUID COND|T|ONS AT RTTET DTV|CE INLET \$ET PRE\$SURf
RELTEF

TEI'PERATURE

-*-*-TDS.FI

tPS)
: OEilTTTY

PRE\$\$UR

LS}IR)

{GPM)

>:

## vEssEL rilLET LIQUID FEEDSTREAIII FAILURE {LOSS OF FLOW}

EQUIPMET.ITNAME
REF, SAFETYIRLIEF EI.ISINEERiNG RECORD NENT.NO.

BY:-JOLDATE:-

cLtEt'lT:

NORIIJ|AL

(GPM)

tL6rHR)

## >>CHECK I.IORUAL PROCESS TIIFINS OT FRODUCI}IG IT{LET LKIUID FLO\,Y:

o INLETFEEOPUITIP{S} O GRAVITY-FEEDTA\$|K o {nrERR.aAtOuFstREf,illtSSL o lrEssElvAct.nfi
CHECK I'IORMAL MEANS OF LIQUIO FLO\$'RATE CONTROL:

>>

O AUTOT'ATEDCONTROLVALVE O

## >> CHECK CAUSE

I'A}ITJALVALVE

O FETOPTS|PSPSOCOITTROL

g \$frlR

o vAcuux

OF LOS\$ OF FEEDSTRATiI:
O PIFE &CCI(AGE
s FEgo Tt!0t Loss oF lE'lrEL

O }'AI{IIALVALVF CLOSURE
o Lo\$\$ OFSINSLE PUtrlP
O SPED COfiTROU"ER FAILUR
o LossoFDUAt PuMPl,
C VALV COIIITROILR FAILURE O WE|R ELOCI(AGE

LosT vAcuuil

## >>CHECK GOVERNING CAUSE OF VESSL PRESSURE UP\$T OUE TO FEEO\$TRAI\i IOS\$:

O UNBROKEN VACUUM
O THERI{AL' VAFORGENERANON
O THER}NAL' E)(oTHER}I| REACIOI{
O THERI{AL' ENDOTIIERU REACI|OT.I
C OTHER

Not{E

## >> CHECKTYPEOFRELIEF REQUIREMEf'IT: O PRESSURE

>> CHECK RELIEF FLUID

TYP:

VACUUftI O NONE

O 2.PHA\$E

CIAS/VAPOR ONLY

## >> RELIEF FTUID }.IA}IE:

>> RELIEF FLUID COT.IDMONS AT RELIF DNNCE \$ILET \$T PRE\$SURE

TEMPsRATuRE-tsEc'F}:LtoU0DEilsrry-(Lscu.FT.}:L|QU|DVlSCo\$rrr_-...-.*(cP}
{IB/CU.FT.) : VAFOR CpCv

VAPOR DENSITY

>>

\$Ef

VAPOR

: VAPOR

MSC"-

(r_s,HR)

PRESSURE

t0p)

{\$crn AR

BAS|S}

159

160 . Chapter 9

## vEssEL \$|LET VApOR STRFA\$ FATLURE {RUNAWAY FLOW

EOUIP}EIIIT'{AII,E
REF. SAFETYAELEF EI'IGINEERING RECORD ICIENT, NO.
IDENTIFICATIOH NU}J|BER OF TTII\$ S}IEET:

BY:_JOB{__DATE:

CLEilT
NANF OF IT'.LET VAFOR:

NORMAT /

(13't{R}

## >>CHECI( t\PRilAL PROC\$S f,lEAl.lS OF PROnCil.rG &

tl'ltlTE: nmRr TH*N OhlE T|AYAPPIY.)

ftAfft

o vAculjn

8oiril\$reAil

## >> CHECK HORIIAL

{ilOTE:

o REAcTIofi o

co\$toEltsER ooJllf{srREAx

oTltR

## T#ANS OF VAPOR FLO\$MATE CONTROL:

Qf{E IiAY APPIY.}

frcRf l}lAtl

O AUTOCIA1D|f{LETCOi{IROL\riL\G

## o xAS*rAL\${I"ETViL\, O }ArTr{*ilSFERR TECo{t{TROL

COiITROL O OT'TI.ET O|SOTARG RATE COi{TRCX.

\$

'

il

il
ll

fr

O OT}FR

## C IrSE OF RUI\$WAY INLT VAP{R \$TREAll:

{tlOTE: ftORE THAN Ot{E ltlAY APPLY.}

>> CHECK

## O RUf'lAtllrAYD*8U{AreE O r*ru{UtLlfS,"YVAL\rE OPEI{ O SffTVALtFCOf'nROUtn F\$LtJiEoFf,il

O LO6SOFfATTRfi'{SFER O f,N,fiAITAV@T'PR,RON'ER O OCTWISTRETN CONNETSR FALURF
O RUNAWAY VACTJTJI' O OT{ER

## O OI'ERFRESSURE FRS{ II{,"8T VAFORM,|PFESS'N

O OVERPRESST,}RS FRfi{ EXOfiERIi|IC RACTIOIT

## o o\rsREssuR FRor irot\$T?nuAt reAcTtsl

O OT}IEB

o iloilE(\${PLAlN)

TYPE:

O GASwAPOR

0 3-PllASE

OltlLY

O LnU*t

## >> RELIEF FLUID I{AIJE:

>> RELIF FIUIO COI'|DIT|OX\$ AT RFI|Ef DE'llE n&T SgT PRE\$\$URE

TEMPERATURE-(DG.n:LQU|DDEHsfrY-tLgrcU.FT.):L|QUlDV|SCoS|TY'(cP)
VAPOR DElil\$lTY

VAFOR

VAFOR

Vl\$C.-

\$rr

PRE\$\$URE

tcP}
{LBTHR)

(scFlr

ArR 8A\$rs)

161

## vEssEL 0UTLET VAPOR \$TREAI' FAILURE {LOS\$ OF

FLOyY}

EQUIPITIENT NAilIE
REF. gAf ETYIRELEF fNGNEERlltlG RCORD lOl{T.N0.

IDET.ITIFICATA}{

HtNffiR

OF THI\$ \$}IEET

BY:-J03#-SATE:

CLIENT:

iIAXiI{'II

NORMAT

VAPOR OUTFLOW:

tL"g'HR}

'

## >>CHECX ltORiltAL PROCESS tGA\$tS OF PROCItC\$trG

{i'IOTE: T'ORE THAN ONE

THERIiAL

o vAc[Jr.st

rifl

FLOVTI:

;\$

i'AY APPLY.}

tEOtLrEr/ApJO{\$nU\$lOSr} O VACln

owrilstREAil

## & llAltTAS.llXG OttTLgT VAPOR

if sPARAllOf{

lr
{l

O oOilI}ef{SER Dg\$ril\$'rffiAnl

lri;

REActpN o oT]R

rlt

## >>CHCK T{ORMAL iIEATIS OF VAPOR FLOVIIRATE CONTROI.:

TNOTE: ITNORE THAl.l

rI

th
rft

## t{At\$nLOUlr-ETViL\rE O }tATimmKr{RtrE@atnmCS{lROl- O ffiAclloft R rE colrfTRg. O lfSTFmnAIE scF{rM.

o AUTOT*AIEDU,TTLETCOifIK"VAL\,E O

o O(nfiflttlffilll

VAC{ff,Si|

th

{
il

O OTI{ER

il

## >>CHE0X CAU\$E OF L0\$S CIF 0\$ILET VAPOR \$TREAltl:

{I{OTF: n0ne THAXO|IE MAYAPPIV.}

I
li

## o r^l\$JililJTl-gTyA\$tg cts{.{nE o dJfl.rvALtJEcs{rRc[rER FA|n RECLo\$D

O LOSAOFHTATADOMOil O q''LET PPE ELOCI(AGE
o oofriltgfaE\$t coii{lilsGR F{LuRg
o

LcxtsoFlm,xoFEFo

## o olEnpfiEs,a,nE FRsl s0mMED r}mfi.t \tfiFonGEXERArKx{

o o\JERpRESg,re FRO[| COffr\${UED A(onGnrrc ruAcroil
o oJERPRESSJRE FRm Coxili{rgp f{{r{*THESiAL RlCltOf{
o ol/EfipFgggUnE FRSrI CSflt}.t.EP \$S.ETFFg
O

OT}TER

xof{E{F)(pr.A|H}

>>

CHECK RELIEF

FIUD TVPf :

O GASVAFTOR

Ot'lLY

O ?+lltSE

## >> RELIEF FLUID NAfrlE:

>> RELIEF FLUIO CONOMOilS AT RELIEF DEVICE IIILET gET PRE\$\$I.FE

_
vApCIR OE}l\$lTY _
TEMPERATURE

{DG"F)

: LQUfI) DEXSTTY

## >> TATTACH CALCULAT|ONS); frELIEF

{L\$CU.FT.} : LlQUlf}

VAFOR

## {lF GASJ\|APOR:} RL|F itAS\$ FLOWRAIE

(!

S'r PRESSURE

WSCOSITY-________;(cP1

VAFO*

Vl\$C"_

(cP)

(LBllrR)
{SCFH AIR BASI\$)

162 . Chapter I

lileRT

## , FEED , PURGE ANDTOR STEAI\$ , WATER PURGE FAILURE

EQUlPll'NT NAI|E
REF. SAFEW'RELIEF EXSINEERING RECORD IDNT.HO.

## IDEI'ITIFICATIO}.I NUHBER OF THIS \$HEET:

8t_J08*_DATF:_

CLIEXT:
}TAME OF IHLE'T FLUID:

>> CHECK MEAIIS

o PUilP(S)

Of

tl

o ston*cETA!{x

## O t{if{UALVALTTEORSilfrTCn O Sg-F{O{rfT.Rgsr\$A'rOR O OT}R

AUToiTATEOCO|TaTRCILVALTTE

## O BLOCXED VEI{T' DRAIT{ CX,}TLETS

O FLdITRAIECd,fiROLLERFAfLURF
O OPERATCRERROR
O

OTHER

o NofrE(E)(FlllN)

vAct t rti

TYPE:

LIQUID

O GASwAPOR

: IIOLEC.IIVT

## >> RELIFF FLUID COHDITOII\$ AT RELIEF DE'\'ICF INLET \$ET PRE\$STJRE

TEIPERATURE
VAPOR DENSTTY

NOIIE

DEHSffY-{L\$CU.FT.}:
: ViFOR Z-:
(LBICU.FT.) : VAFOR ClCv

{DG.F) : LKIUIB

## (tF GASA AFOR:) RELIEF ilIASS FLOWRATE @

TE @ SET PRFSSURE

Ssr PRESSURE

Vl\$COSfi
VAPOR \/lSC.-

LKIUID

(cP}
(Cp)

(LB'HR)

'

## TUBE\$IDE PRESSURE HIGHER TIIA'{ \$HELLSIDT PRESSURE

EQU|P}I{T I{AMF
REF, SAFTY'RELEF ENGINEERING RECORD IDENT. NO.

BY:-JO8#-

CLIENT:

## I{AME AI{D \$TATE

DATF:

Of TUBESII}E FLUID

## NORISAL/ MA)(IMUM TOTAL TUBESIDE FLOW

{LB'}|R}

ENTERlNGTuBE\$|pEPREss.(P1}-tP\$G}:AVG'\$HELLsilXPREs\$.
(DG"F) : AVG. SHEtLSIffi TEIF.

SINGLE

ruBE

RUPTUREO

nfgEs

{DEG.F)

{pstG}

I.D.

RUPTURF TLOWARA

{FStG}

{\$0.lN.}

tsa,N.)

= 0.63} TO FIND

FLOWRATE")

## >> CHECK RELIEF FLUID STATE

O GA\$I/APOR Ol,lLY

LIQUIS ONLY

z-PHAST

## >> RELIEF FLUID l.lA,lllE:

>> RELIEF FLUID COilD|T|ONS AT RELIEF DVICE INLT \$T FRE\$\$URE

IEMPFRArURE-{DEG.F}:L|QUloDENs|TY-(Lecu.FT.}:L|QU|DV|\$co\$|TY-_-:(cP)
VAPOR

DENSITY

{LBTCU.FT.} : VAPOR

Cplev

## RELTEF MASS FLQWRATE @ SET PRESSURE

VAPOR

Z--:

VAPOR

Vl\$C..----.-

tcP}

{LB1HR)

(|FGAsruAPoR:}REL|EFij[AssFLowRATE@SETPREssURE-tscFHAlRBAs|s}

163

164 .

Chapter 9

## VAPOR OR z.PHA\$E RELIF FLOWRATE RQUIREMENT

LOSS OF COOLING WATER OR COOI3NT TO COf{DENSER

E'

EOUIPMENT HAii|E

IE

BY:_JOS{_DAT:

CLIENT;

NORIT/IAL /

(LBTHR)

NOTES:

PRESSURE

TrMp.

(PS|G) AND

{DEG.F)

## SHELL.SIDE RFLIEF DEVICE \$ET FRESSURE

>> CHECK RELIEF FLUID STATE

>)

O ?.PHASE

O VAPOR ONLY

_
VAPOR DENEITY
TEMPERATURE

{DEG.F}

LIQUID

DENSTTY

-TPSIG}

## * RELTEF MASS FLOWRATE

* { ATTACH CAtCU|.AnOil

tlst\$t
:

>:
:

.FT.} : LIQUID

VAPQR

VISCOSITY-(cP'

: VAFOR

Vl\$C.-

-*

tLBfi-lR)

{cP)

tr;

## (rF VAPOR ONLY) RELTEF MAS\$ FLOWRATS

>)

.i!E

l SETPRESSURE

(scFH

ArR BAS|S)

))
I9 THIS CONDENSER \$AFEW RELIEF PROVIDEO BY RELIEF OEVICE ON VESSEL FEEDING IT?

OYES
IF

YES.

ONO

I\$.AM THE

FEEDVES\$L

'

165

## LIQUID RELIEF FLOWRATE REQUIREMENT

THERil|AL EXPANSIOI{ OF BLOCKED.IN LIQUIO DUE
EQUIPiffilT

TO HEAT GAIN

HANNE

## REF. \$AFETY/RELIEF ENGIT{EERING RECORD IOFI'IT. NO.

IDNTIFICATIOH Nl.ilffiER OT

TH\$ \$HEET:

3Y:-JOg*-D*TE:-

CLIET'IT:

IS IT POSSIELE FORTHI\$\'ESSEL'EQI.'IP.TOgEIIECI{ANICALLYBLOCXIO{N?

'.:..I*.]ff s,j*.s.msl,*K::.:53ffi
rF

NO

## RELISF DEVEE \$T PRES\$URE

VAwE

:!SXin}:g.gHnffiT3t'

RELIEF

YE\$

{P\$lG}

## >> RELIEF LlSUlD CONOffiO|ISAT REI-IF VALVE ll.ll-ET \$FT PRE\$\$URE

=lrP, _
G-E|Ce(p.C*FF.{8}

{oEs.R : OE|{\$TY

SOUFISOF T{EAT:

**-

\$"BiCil.Fr.}

\$..*

&l2Q*l}

of

T1 1'E8SL

VISC.

{c?}

SC.HEAT

FOR

TtULBf}

O?ln LIAUDS. }

o A\$\$eilTsQuRlAT

## F SOI"AR rrEAT 6Alt. rXlE 300 SnSlmQ.F " sFr 50ti

>> (ATTACII

GPlil * { B x H )

TS t

SDS ARSA,

{sru/lrn}

{ SO x \$.G. x \$FEC.HfAT }

{rBrHR)

(GPU}

166 . Chapter I

## AUTHOR'S NOTE: FIRE SIZING SAFETY/

IELIEF VALUES
Tbe 6 pages that follow, pp. 168-173, are a copy of an excellent

## uticle published in the

magazine CHEMICAL ENGINEERING in the October 28, 1985 issue. Mr. R.A. Crozier
*as its author; at the time he was a project engineer with
DuPont in Wilmington, Delaware. I love the useful way in
It is based on sound principles and referred to current codes

## It would be a good idea, as

dways with any published code, to obtain and check a copy
ofthe latest edition of the code before applying it to new work.
phce during the mid-1980s.

167

168

Chapter 9

SIZING RELIEF
\,{LVE\$ FOR FIRE
EMERGENCIES
A pressure*relief volve for
venting a vessel thot mcy
be exposed to fire can
be sized differenlly because of inconsistencies

## omong the oppliccble

codes, These voriotions
qre summorized, c:nd criterio ore presented for
evcluating the pertinent
correlstions.

R.rq.

bnt de

## 1 nconsistencies among lhe pub'lished codes ari*e from varying interpretations

I of the heat flux due to fire exposur, the area to which the heat flux applier,
I and the proteclion factors used to eharaeterize the installation.*
I As heat is absorbed into a ve**el, some of the liquid in it is vaprized, causing
the plessure to rise until the relief vah.e discharges. Heat absoSed in the vapcr
spare contributes rninimally to r.'alve<li*cbarge requirements. f'herefore, relief
valves for liquid-canlaining vesseis are sized on the basis of the wetted su*ce
area tJrat is exposed to iire. flffelted area i* that part, ofthe vessel surface that is
in contact with the liquid.)
The fundame\$al eonelation for sizing relief valves is bq.sed an an equation in
the ASME hessure Vessel Cotle, One of the vari*bles in this equation is tJre total
heal input to the vessel fmm fir'e.
For an uninsulated container, the trtal heal input t'om fire exposur:e is lhe
produet of heat ilux and heat-ir':ansfer area:

Her.e,

Q:

## heat input, Btu/h;

Q: qA
heat flux,

ir)

Strr(hXftl;

and

4:

heat transfer

area, ft:.
Considemble expoimental d*ta for vessels exposed to frc have been colleeted.
The tests ll'ere conducted under contrslled conditians fhat included ninimizing
wind di*tortion of the 11ame, suppiying &esh fuel to sustain the fire, and diking an
alea ofsuffcienl size to allcw flames lo toially envelope the container. Unfo*unately, iotal flame envelopmenl ofthe container lvas not xhieved, and the heatlrancfer af,ea had to be estimated by observation in older to calculate the heat

flux.

Fig"

## tu'olled eondiiions (maximum heat input)"

Heller-llEwkinson moditisqtlon
Yia nonlinear regression analysis, !l J. Heller and
oped the following equation &om the data:
Q

P.

: 29,3e3.4e

## Hawkinson [8] devel{2)

Here, ;{s = exposed wetted-sur{ace area impinged by liarnes (i.e., the heattransfer area)^
flame size or impingement area tlepends on ihe type and quantity of fuei,
deglee of combustion, flame distortion, and m:rny otherfactors. The same data as
those for Fig. I were evaluated on the basis of totai wetted area (i.e., the
contairer sur{aee in contact r+ith liquid, w'hich, ii should be noted, does nol
depend ou flame conditions)" Fig. 2 graphieally rrepr*sents the data based on the
total rvetted area definition. Helier and Hawkinson cune-fitted the data and
obtaincd lhe following equati*n:
Her,

d,' :

21,&7

Aw

(3)

wetted al'e*.

## (}t follo\$ irys

'Alnons rhe aKnci6 th{t have sblislFd erirria un t"he vertint of vo<'ls rxp*rl tu firo :trt
Comrc*i{ Ud Asqiatid {CC;l}..Am(riw lttruleM lrqtituk
iAPI}, Chloine lNliture t('lt, Natioe{
t'iroTt,ntrtit'n A^.qirtior' {N}'P,l), s'l Scslm ionnl \$afely od genlth Adminixtnlion {OSHA}.
ct{Ex,cAt, ENGlNEEnlNCrOCfOBg& 2*. 1S9 49

A*A

## by the addition of two parameters for

adjusting the total heat input t0 a vessel from flre exposure:

q: qFEA

t ttlilil

tt
r^

-o

10.0

## Here, Q = total he*t inpui, Btu/h; g =

heat llux, Btu/(hXft1;
= protection
faetor (0 to 1.0);
= exposure factor (0
to 1.0); and.{ = heat transfer area, fts.

19

P.

,#j
.l,9

.d

7*c

l"d
6"s"

,5

!'

## fhe protection factor, F', aceountg

for external eondiiions ihai can reduce
the heat input (e.g., imulation, drainage or a sprinkler). For the same conditions, the agencies h*ve assigned different values for F (see lbbie I).
The area exposure factor, ,&', compensates for the size and shape of the
eontainer (i.e., the probability of a
large vessel being fully enveloped by
fire is less than for a smaller one). It

.9

';

(4)

r.0

## tion relating the vessel area directly

exposed to fire to that not exposed:

e : @e/A)

100

1.000

Figure

46,

10,000

ft2

## lleql flux reloled lo urelled qreo

Usually, 46. is set equal to 1, and .9 is
defined on the basis ofwetted-area. In

1
Comparison of data lrom experimenls canducled
under controlled conditions llotted on total exDosed wettod-area basis

Table

l-

## Definilions of protedion factor

Code souace
NFPA.'30
osHA 1310.10S

As
APr

F'

Tank
dralnage

5e0

20&ll

Chlorina lnstitute
Compressed Gas Assn.

o.st
o.si
N0*
0.5
ND
ND

Insulatlon

Insulatlon
and
wa{er spray

Water
spray

0.3
0.3

0,30tt
0.30
0.07s.0.3\$ 1.0{
o.075-0.3\$s 1.0{
NO
0,3

0.15t*
0.15
ND
ND
ND

\$lnsulatloneonduclancsal1300f:alF=0"3,,(*[4.0Btu/th]{ft1lfFIn.}iatF-0,15,X:!.0:

F: 0.075. K ; 1.0.
\$SThickne* of iffiulatton: l'in. at F

## 0.3i 2 in. at F = 0.15i ard 4 in. at F

0.075.
{"To supply tho volme of wat6r rqu,rsd to ab\$rb most of th .adiant heal bocotrs irMactical tot
most inslallalaons."
"U thermal conducti\rly oi inslaiis/lhickness ot insulaton, Btu/{hxtt }.
itFaclor\$ given ar6 tor unrelrigeraiFd tanks; sae API 2000 to. refigrdtad tanks.
*+For.thse factors to apply, NFPA 30 also reguires drainag ir conjunclion with water spmy,.or
tnsulation togther wlh waler spray,

## Beeause the intent of the experiments was to deterrnine

lhe maximum heat {lux from fire expo\$ure, Oqs. (2} and {3)
represent ma-rirnums. In the design and installation of a
storage tank cor:taining a flammable liquid, the fire potential
shouid be rninimized; thus, it is highly u*likely that an actual
ire will reproduce the test condiiions. Eq. {1) was modiJied

;0

cHEIlcALElicrN[gBlNc]oc1r]BER18.1985

API Subcom-

## mittee on hes*ure Relieving Systems

in 1950, L. lV. I Cummings evaiuated
the relationship between heat inpul
and iotal wetted area. The technique
he proposed, rvhieh was adopted by
API, involves a combination of size and
shape effects:

No

## 'Only orB protoction iactor can be usad in a givsn spFlicslion.

tFot lanks of over 2@ tt? wetled surtae, olhGfltise F * 1.
tND means Not Ofinsd.'use F : 1.O
and at

(5)

Here, A6 : total exposed area enveloped in flame, ft!; and A = total surface area of the vessel, ft?.

a:

(uA)0.ts

: d-.0.18

i6)

## Inserting Eq. (6) into Eq. (4), .&'and

can be combined:

i?)
Q = g!\$0'8?
In a series of committee meetings,
the individuals and agencies responsible for develgping a relief-valve-sizing
formul* for fire exi\$sure agreed on the
following definitions of heat flux: g =
21,000 Btd(hxft'), with A being the

q:

34,500

## Btrf(hxft'z), rvilh d being the wetted

area exposed to direct flame impinge-

## ment. Fudher study led to heat inpui, Q, for sto:age vessels

being defined as shown by the doited line in Fig. ?.
ASME Code on rellef-vchre copocity
Aceording to &e ASME code, fhe relieving capaeity of a
relief valve shall be ealculaied bvt

169

Ghapter 9

W = CKAaP{M|ZT)% (s)
Here, W = flow through valve, lb&; K
coefflcient of discharge; C
florv
coefficient, deterrnined by the ratio of
the speeific heats, &, ofthe gas or vapor

= As = 3s71.a, af vessl in
contact with liquid contents

at slandard condidons*i.e.. C =
520 lk tzl(k + l)jtA + tr& - tII'h; AR
=,effective dischal.ge area ofthe valve,
in"; P
upstl'eam pressure, lblins absoiute (this is the set, pressure mult!
plied by 1.21 for fire exposure, plus the
ai,mospherie plssure, Ib/inz; .4{ = molecular weight of gas or vapor, lbr'lbmol; Z = compressibility faetor for the
deviation ofthe actual gas from a perfeet gas, a natio evaluated at inlet conditions; and ? = absolute tempetature
of the inlet vayrr, 'F + 460.
For a rclief valve tested with dry air
at 60"F and 1 atm:

Wo

= CaKAaP(Ma/Z&T)k

lfo :

Here,

28.9 lb/lb-mol;

ffiffi

936.4004s"a38j

?#
NFPA-3o, OSHA 1910.106

## and API 2.000

(9)

"r-"r-r-**

Io :

520"R; Zo
1.0; and Co
356 (i.e.,
& = 1.a).
After the physical properties ofair at

## standaxi coudilions are insetted into

Eq. (9), the equivalent air-flow capacity fcr a relief device can be found by
solving Eqs. (8) and (9) for KAslP and,
equating the equalions:
Wa
{W /0.01\9)( uC)(ZT/tu|)w

Iable ll

10,000

Figure 2
Experimental data presentd in Fig. 1 on total
exposed \$retted area basis is rtow ptoted on,,@i\$ryS\$*\$*\$\$qq\$i::::

{sa,)

Table lll

## Fira exposure criteria: NFPA-3O end OSHA 1910.106

Wettd area vs. ft3/h free air at 14.7 psia and 6O.F

ftz tt3/h
ttr
ttslh
ti8
tttth
20 21,000 200 " 211,000 " '1,200
1,000 524,ooo
30 31,6@ 250 239,000
557,000
40 42,1@ 300 . 265,0@ 1,400 587.000
50 52,700,,. 350 288,000 t,600 614.000
.400 312,000 1,800 639,000
...:!60, 1,, .63,20O,
7A 73,7W 500 354,000 2,000 662.000
r: 80 ,: 84,2tA.,. , 600': 392,000 ' 2,400 704,000
90 94,800 700 428,000 2,800 742,000
100 105,000 800 462,000 2,800
]?9
129,qCq eoo 4e3,0o0 and 242,000.
1.t0., 147,00C 1,000 524:000 ' ovsr
"'
i, 160 .168.000 '
, .. .
:'
180 t90,000
2oo 211.000
*f

usa O
2t,O@t+06?

than,

## Io-r liquiel stolage, the vapor flow thrnugh a pre\$sure,

rehel device results from the eonversion ofliquid into vapor
through heat input. This florv can be caiculaled by:

:
\$ere, Q

1y : QtL

## total heat absarbeli by the liquid, Btu/lr, and

latenl heat of the liquid, Btu,1b.

(10)

I -

p*,

lf

and

ths qesxre is

oreat*

## By inserting lV from Eq. (10) into Eq. (9a), the equivalent

air flow for vapor generatirrn frcm heat input, lbh, can be
calculatedl
WCI

(Q/0.0119/C)Qr/Wk

## The equivalent discharge rate

(cfin)"

ofair in ft3lmin

* {18.UQlIi)g'YM)v'

cllE}rrcAL El{ct}iEtnl}-crocToBER

{11)

is:

a9,

(1S)

l9r5

51

## "saucral fonmtlas hat'e noltetl oa-er the Aears for calcu'

the iressure relief capatit y reqnired uwler lire cun di'
tioris. 'lhamajor differences involve heat flux rates' Than is
no siwte fornlula yct deteloped u'hich take.s-ittto.a.ccounl all
of the ,wnu fadors uhich cluld be rcnsid'ercd in making
t"his detern;i1;atiorr. When fire conditions are a considel'ation
in the design of a pressure vessel, the follouirrg refelences
which plovide recornmendations for specific installarions
may be used." lltalics added by author.l

lati,w

P ^,

lvoluotlng e qnd

recomrnendgllons
^ tlte vatious leconr"nendations lor
By means of Eq. (12),
deternriiing heat l1u, Q, and the col'resporrding defiritions
of heat-transfer area, A! can be evaluated. After Q and d

0.2

60

4A

20

Volume of liquid

{96

80

have been desned, the implied assumptions can Lle ascertained, and this knowledge ean be applied to speeifying
under g'hieh applicatians a couelation is valid.

100

of tank volume}

(13)

## latent heat, Btuilb; C : gas con\$tant related to

speciflc-heat ratios; Z = compressibilily faclor; 7' = temperature, "R; ,ilf : molecular weight, lbllb-mol; and A =
total surface area, fly.
&quatilg Eqs. {12) and {13) yields the heat input as used in

Here, I, :

/F--:- --:-,:--:---

*-

8z

t Ott*"l"t

{__*_

CCA S.1.3:

:eicentaoe
Table lV

{cfnt')o

Here, Gu.

## Relief-valve sizing lor lire-exposed chlorine lank

Heat-transter area,

tl'r

## Total heat inpul

trom fire,
milllon Blu/h

Rellet-valve
oriffce
designation

BCAB
ltz
A
"1,22A 915 610 1,220 4.73 4.03
1,470 r,100 795 1,470 4.99 4.71
1,7?O 1,290 8S0 1,7n 5.27 5.36
.' 1,970 1,,180 985 1,970 5.52 5.98
Codlngr A : OSHA; B : API 520; C : Chlorin lnstitut

c ,. - A I C
't1.?1 K J M
13.65 K J N
rs"52 K K N
17.35 , KX N

Assumptions: normal level 50% full, and.rninsulaid vssef with approved drainaga'
Orificedesignationand size:J = 1.?87 in2', K = 1.ff18in2; M :3.60in2: N = 434 in2.
fulief-valvedesignation: J-2in. v 3in.;K-3in. x 4in.:M-4in- x 6in.: N-4in
'tuea definitions: OSHA

)2

in Sectiun M.

S11

;{0'32

(11,1

## containers (for chlorine ai 2?5 psig, &t'

4!r.8)" lnserting <:hlorine physical

## prcperlies into Bq. (12), substiiuting

6a into Eq. (14), and equating the trvo

I ue

the

## APl, CGA dxl NFIA Uods l/,

ciln;urcAltrNctNtERlNoiocroBEk:r,rrn)

Q _ 34.500

A11.8? (15)
The heat-flux value of 3'{,500
Btu,{hxft1 is based an the total o,r!
i.e-, the rvetted
poserl wetted area

## surface directly impinged by flames.

Therefore, because Q : 34,500 Ao 82
and A is defirred as the tut*l surface
area, lhe container musf be fitll of liq'
uid and tolally enveloped in flame for
the CGA fcrmula to be applicable. Al
though these assumplions are reasonable for port:rble cot-ttainers, the prob*-

## All the variables (e-xcept Q) in Eq. (12) are defined by lhe

:hysieal properties of t he liquirl in t he container. Hence, if an
:icceptable equation for Q u'ere available, the required relief;alve size ctruld be solved viu Eq. t12).
Section S1-11 of the ASME Code, Section VIIt, Dir'. I.
.a-vs the following on thc applopriate value of Q:*
'Liltcd

equations;

ou,oo"

area,

lnstit{.d

34'500 F'd0.8?

## The Chlorine Institute adopted the CCA riteria, and its

formula for sizing relief valves ior vessels expnsed to five is
derived by substituting ehlorine's properties into Eq. (13):

Fioure 3

9, 4 aild b

anrl

## rvhrilly enveloped in flanre declines wilh increasing size.

For stationary storage tanks, thc API or OSHrt (i'e.,
NIPA) reconnrendations can be adopted. If the storage
tank contains a llammable matei'ial, the OSHA 1910-106
criteria are mandatory. If it holds an unregr:lateel nratelial
ilLmlhht

'

171

172 . Chapter 9

## but is exposed to fire, either the API or

OSHA criteria could be applied. T\vo
API standards pertain in the case of
frre exposure: .API 2000 for atmospheric or low-pressure storage tanks, API
520 for process vessels designed for a
maximum allowable working pressure
of more than 15 psig.
The following definitions ofQ appear
in OSIIA 1910.106, NFPA-80 and API

= A* = gui-;6.. of ve\$el in
contact with l;quid contents

## 2000 (Fig. 2):

For 20>.4<2([,

o=

8:20,000A 06a)
For 200>d<1.ffi0.
g: 199,300A0.566 (l6b)

199.300/0.568

For 1,000>A<2,800,

e=

986,400

40.438

## NFPA-30, OSHA 1910"106 and

good drainage basis

(16c)

API 2,000

For 4>2,800

.
:

"'

## Q = 21,000 40.82 (t6d)

iiere, ,{"." = : w.tt d roa fi,e:, theisrrr.f4e'in contdct wi*r tne v.eeset s tiqUa

## eontiints), Area definitious rbr diffeient

'::'::::::ggiirh*'iii are given in Tbb,le II. Eqs,
(l6a)-(160 were obfained from NFPA30 Appendix A. The 0SHA 19i0.106,
NFPA-30, and API 2000 regulations
consist of tabulations of wetted area
yersus ft3-free airlh
i.e., knowing
the wetted area, one looks up the re*

## qrired relieving rale.

Hory ean relievilg-rate f*bles thaf

1ry, ft?

Figura 4

## wetted area is plotted against lotal

heat input-Total
lor vessel inslallations provided with good drainage

## are independent of physieal proper-ties

be generated? By assuming that the process material is
hexane at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressurei.e., by defining the physical properties and the heat-input
lenn Q per Eq. (16), ore can generale such a table via the
following procedure:
Convert Eq. {12) from stand*rd ft3lmin to standard ft3&:

I -

## Here, scfli = required air flow from Tbble IV;

latent
heat of vaporiaation, Btu,4b; and .44 = molecular weight of
the specific liquid.
lbble
venting for areas over 2,800 ft: is based on
storage pressure. At atmospheric, metal strength *'ill fail
due to overheating before maximum vapor evoiuiion" Over 1
(scfrn)" {I,nA Ql If}{Z T / }4}e
(1?) 'psig, the liquid may be close to its boiling point and vapor
If the proeess vapor is assumed to be similar to ambient *ir evolution ai maximum, requiring additional venting.
(i,e., Z
1.0,
520"R, and C = 356), Eq. (1?) becomes:

III

tf it

f :

,,,''

{18)
ltclh)u .; .7,pi41\$i\$&,#4',,
is aiSo aSsu*ia ttrat the pxxess liquid is hexane,

I' M'a *

1,33?,

## Proleetlon fcclar lmplled in API 520

The API-520 correlation is unique in that

it eontains an
implied protection factor of 0.5 for good drainage. I{eat flur,
g, is defined in API 520 as:

## tables can be generated.

This air-hexane assumption is discussed in Appendix A of
(20)
NFPA-30:
Ifthe API 520 value ofq is heat input from fire exposure in
"The. attaehed table gives, for a v*riely ofchemicals, the
constants iLV,{f) which can be used to compuLe the vapor an installstion having good drainage, and the 0.5 protectiongenratd and equivalent free air for liquids other than factor value is included, a heat-flux value of 42,000 Btu/
21,000) is used in API 520.
hexane, where greater exaetness is desired. Inspection ol (ttxft?) (i.e., q = 0.5 x 42,000
This heat-flux value is consistent with an earlior API 520
th,e tables zvill show that thc use of hexan* in dcriuing 'ta.ble
,-8 (lbble III) Wovides results a'fuirh are witluin an accept- recommendaiioti of Q = 48,000 A-0'33.,.}{n:Cai::rbgg*Use 4,
protection lactor for good drainage is inrlurted in its correlaa.ble dcgree of accura*y tor the listed liquids." (Italics added
,tiali;,:*FI:5&0:should:'&ot:ba,:*pFlisil,t6,stdisii6:tariL*::liiwi:ig.
by author.)
For greater exaetness, Tbble
can be useil for other inadequate dr*ireg;,:;,
The API 520 definition of O is:
liquids if the following correction is made:

{ : 21,000

lII

{scflt'}"

sefi'{I'93'l/L

Mq

(19)

(21)

21,000 A0.82

cunMrcAt 0NcltiEltRlNC/o0?oBrR, a.

1985

(.J

5Si

## and the'surfacc.litili t'odd be Lakerr'ta'be ?50 fii.

in Fig. 4, API 5C0 and OSHA 1910.106 data are plotfed on
the same "good drainage" Lrasis. As can be seen, the heat-

## llux values are similar throughout lhe wetted-area range.

The significant diffei"enee bett'een lhe API 520 and OSHA
1910,106 criteria is the atea defitrition and prolection-faetor,

F, values.
?he OSHA area criterion of 90?o liquid-full is ree\$onable
for storage tanks but ean be conservative for process lanks.
Although the API 520 area criterion is niore realislic for
process equipment, one must consider upset conditions or
ftiture process ehanges ihat might inerease the liquid level
for example,
and eause the relief valve tc be undersized,
the initial caleulation rvere based on a holding lank being 307o
liquid full, and a process change requires it to be 60% liquid
full, the relief valve wculd have to be vesized. Because a
maximum liquid level is assumed in the OSHA criterion, one
does not have to be conoerned rvith liquid-level changes and
the efibct on relief-vslve size.
API 520 and O\$HA 1910.106 diff*r in the protection factor
for water spray. The fu'st says "to supply the volume of
water required to ab'sorb most of the radiani heat hecotnes
impracfieal." Henee, a factnr for water spray is ttot provided
in API 520, but 0.3 is alloned in 0SHA 1910.106.

Il

## Ivqlusllon ol the various correlqfions

Ib eval*ate the adequacy of lhe variors fire expo\$ure eoire-

## In this exarnple, if fhe OSHA 1910.106 criterion were

adopted, the cost penalty over the API 520 criterion would
.,bS minimal. The advantage of ihe OSHA criterion is that
:ielief valves an all pressure vessels exposed to fire would be
'siaed cn the same basis, If the OSHA area definilion were
\$i:plied, a change in the liquid level resulting frorn process
upsels and modifcalions would not require that' the relief
'valve be resized. ?he OSHA eriteria also eliminates ineonsigitencies that can arise when diffedng "normal inventory
'leveis" are assumed,
I'r'om the various corelations {involving heai flur, area
de{initions, and protection factor:s) for delerraining the total
heat input frcm fire exposurt, a proeedure has been deveiopetl for reducing all the colrelations io a single definition.
By analyzing the carrelations in their redueed form, on can
ascertain the heai flux and area definition. With i'his knowledge, one can determine if the correlation is based on llame
impingemenr or velted areal as t'ell as the degree of llarne
envelopmeni assumed. Inconsisteneies among protection
factors assigaed by the various ageneies h*ve also been
shown.

## For unregulaled materlals, one is free to use any of the

apprcved correlations for fire exposure, Relief-vaive sizing
calculations are put on a more uniform basis by the OSHA
criterion, but may be eonservative in certain procets applications. For regulated materials in storage tanks, the O\$HA
1910.106 eliterion is mandatory, but one can choose any of
the approved eorrelationr if the regulated material is contained in proeess

equipment'

J,

References

I.
2.
3,

laNions in relation to

,1.

5.

## ihe OSHA criterion, relief r'*lves were

Ib put all
correlations on the same basis, the storuge tanks were
assurned to have "good dminage," In lbble IV, heat-input
values and required relief-valve sizes are tabulaied for the
OSHA 1910.106, API 520 and CI (CGA \$-1.3) *oirelations.
The conservativeness of iire CGA eottelation is clearly
indicated in Table IY
e.g., whereas a 3-in. x 4-in. relief
- 0SHA
valve is required by the
critericn, a 4-in. x Gin. one is
required by the CGA eriterion. Whereas the same-size relief
valve is required in the larger tanks by the OSHA and API
criterion, bul a relief valve one size larger is required by
O\$HA on the srnaller tanks. The reason for this difference
lies in the definition of exposed conlainer area. In the example, a norrnal inventory level of507o was assumed; this made
the API beai-transfer area less th*n that of OSHA. If it had
been assumed fhat the tank rvas 307o full, lhe difference in
relief-valve sizes between API and OSHA would have been
even glealer. On the ather hand, ifit had been assumed that
the tank was 90fo full, the relief-valve size required by both
APi and OSHA would have been the same.

54

*la*ey,9d.ihr

6.
78.
9.

## Natioml Academy of Scierrces,'[tsueRelieving S]steru for Mrine

Crgo Bulk Liquial Cntains. hinting & t\bli.hing Otrre. !l'Ghingt@,
D.C., 19?3.
Americm Rtrolem Inslitute, .{PI RP 520, Smnd & fiird Etlitioro.
"Rffimsrded fuacliee for the Desisn sd INtalation of PrsweD*ign and Rart II * lnsttllsRelhving Systcm il Refimrie*, furt I
- 196?, tg\$].
tion," AFI, Refining Div., Wmhington, D.C-,
Amsien }ttmlem lrxtitrrt*, API Standad 2000, Sercnd Edition,
'Ventiry Amosoheric sd lrcw-Presw Storuge'lbn]cc (Noru'efigertted
ad Reliigemtei)," APl, Reiring [tiv., Wruhin!'ton, D.C., l9?1. Conrressed Gm Asn., Inc., 'fte*sure Relief Devie Siand*rls," hnphlci CtiA \$1.3, New lbrk. 19S.
fhe Cilorine lrstii{te, tM., "!'aciliries ard Optnting It(dlrc fs
Ctrlorine Storage," kmphlet 6, Edition 3, Itevision 3, New Yor*, 197?,
l.{aiicnal !'ire f}otee\$on Asociation, "Nationrl [\m Co4e." NI'PA-30,
Flanmablc and Comhrqtihle Liquids Coie, Nl PA, \$rincy, Ms., 1981.
Ocooational Saferv and Hdlth Adsin., OSHA 1910.106. "!'lammable
and Cemlrbtible Liquids," U.S. Dept cflabor, Wahington, D.C.,1981.
Helhr, E J., md Hanliiru"on, R. 1{, 'A Sludy of AvaiLable Fire Tbst
Data As Rclated to Dnk C* Stdety Devic Rclicving Cap\$city Fomulac.- Phillips htroleum Co., Banlesville, 0kla., l9?1.
\$eller, Fi J., 'Ilow t\$ Si Satery ReliefDevices," Sulletin E-9, Phillips
&lnrlerm Co.. Bsrtlsville. Olda., 19il (reo\$ni).

the outhor
R. A- Crozier, Jr., is a project engin*r sirh Du hnt
(Enginering Deut., l*uviero BldE., Wilmindon. DE
198f8). reso6nsidle for petrchemiials lrrnc* delirn.
He is a member of AIChE's Ercrsi Crrnseruailon
Commil.tee and cf Du
dards Committee,

lbnt'i llet

Exehanger Stan.

ruW m\$;ii\$&1{r,nriffiii;*i;;#',ffi

rlieles nublished in Chetnieal Ensilieerin,.. the lmt beinc "Eouiralocc mcthod solscs imompresihle.0uid
ffors problcns," which appeai*l in
the Nov. . 1983 issue.

several

173

i
I

174 .

Chapter 9

## AUTHOR'S NOTE: FIRE SIZING SAFETY/

RELIEF VALVES ILLUSTRATTVE EXAMPLE
PROBLEM
The 5 pages that follow, pp. 175-l79,are a sample calculation
showing the sizing of a hypothetical liquid storage vessel's
relief valve based on exposure of the vessel to external fire.

## It uses the blank data sheet format introduced earlier.

note that all codes are subject to periodic revision, and new
should always be done in accordance with the latest

PROCESS VESSEL

&

## EQUIPf,IENT UPSET CONDITION CHECKLIST

AAA- 0I
...Ix+AeJllankx f.o, By: ALC ros-!-el

loENrlFrcAnoNNUMBERoFrHtssHEEr,

f,"ll
*ou,"ur*r,**, ?;ffin&n-Ecf*.,
cL'ENr,

.Ye.

fBfI - I

ASME
PFD {

eurpuErrcoor
REFEREN.E

REFEREHCE PITID

rypeoFsRvrcg
NoRm"op-pRess"
DEslGr.r

"*ess.

"CHgM. TgT

(p\$rel**fi-O--

tpsro)----JOO

- D,rrE .X/y/e
WAT-R. =- ,1{:

iloRun Ax
FLUID

scFt-l

|? {riOLEg

WT.)

## rqonulrHx "3O -..

L3/hR

LB&tR--cplr_scFH
L8/HR

FLU|O *7 {MOLEC.WT.)

f{ORlr t lylAx

## EQUIPMENT [ilAY BE SUB,ICT TO THE FOLLOW|ilG UpSeT

O 1.0 OPRATORERROR
O
SLOCKEDII{LET
O 1.?
'.1 SLOCKEDOUTLE"T

LE/tfR

***

_
GPM _
GPM

SCF|I
SCFH

## 4.0 PROCESS / CONTROLS FAILURE

+.1 ACCU},U|AT|S{ Of NOt{ConnENStBtgs

o
o

42 VALVE

## O ,t.3 VAI-VE ACfIJATOR I{ALFUNGTTON

O I.' SEITSORIIRANSOI',CER FAILURE
O /1.5 TOCALINSTRUUEHTFAILURE

ELOCKSDNORft4AL\,Ei{T

O 1.4 FLOCKEOPURGEI/EHT
O 1,5 BLOCXEDCLEA}IOUTORA'N

o
c

opENv L\BY?ASS
trtAtluALVAL\m ERROR
1.8 oTltER
1.6

O t.7

4.6 pLC

## DCS HAr.FUitCTlOf{ {C|RCLE WHICH}

r.7 LossoFsGNAtcOitDugToR

unLfYFAttuRE tcENERAtTpARnAL)
2.r coouNowA?ER

2"0

o
o
o

L8/tlR_

_
) f'lORtt / l{\$( _

FLUID;6 {MOLEC.WT.}

9CFH

FLurD,* firorc.'ryr.)

'

\$CFH

.{enr / rrAx

NORII I*A.X

epu

RrJrD*r{rmLEc.ffr.)

(DEG.R*--U3--HoRrrl r.AX
orsr.rdrEirp.(ogc.n 7n
-- FLUlori0fi!rc.'rvr.)

O'.3

rBlnR \

NoRrr.op.TEMp.

rHls

--

## 2.? ELECTRTC POVrrtr

2.3 STEAlil /BOIERFEEDI,\rAIER
2-r sTEAit cff{gttsA'r REncnrAr

O
O
O
O

2.6 I{.TSTRUilSNTAIR
2.7 PtAttlTVACUUtl
2.8 PLAt{T DM,f.l

2.5

## O 5.3 TfR!,iAL E)AFIS{ON

O 5.I VACULM RLIEF

## o 5.5 rs{,ET FALT R (BLOCXED , RUt{AvYAy FEEO}

o 5.6 O{rTLEr FA&URE (SLOCKED , Rut{AwAytxs*lqneF}

O 5.7 il*fi,\EI{TFAILtJR
O 5.6 FURGE\GXTFAILT,IRS

o 5.9 CfTEilIcALREACTFn(exoTHRM)
o 5.r0 Rut{AwAy STEAM{LnORSPARGE)

2.9 OTHER

3.0

LoCALEQU'PiIEHTFAILURE

O 3,' SHELL&TUSECO*IDSHSER'HX
O 3.? AIRCOOLEDCS{DRSER/}IX
O 3,3 PTATE'F8AIIEI-IEATP(CITANGER
O 3,{ REBOILER

o 3.s REFLUX
O 3.6 FAN/8LO{rIJERIVACUUI{PUMP
o 3,7 EJEcroR
o 3.8 PUMp
,/ O 3,9 FLASH TANK
,./
o 3 ro orHER
l.
RELTEF oEvrcE(s) REauIRED?
o 6uo1
ffi)

Ytr,ne tn

,r'

*h6

eu amF

cHcK't\$posAl.,*-*";;
o

(lNclHERAroR I THERMAL

oXOmR) o

l{VENT

to

o 5.r5 LOSSOFCOOLANT
O 5,16 PURGEIITAINT.OR.AI|IIFA|LURE
o 5.r7 FRESSURSTRANsIENTsIWATERHAMMER
o a.ts oTl.lER

FLTJTD

## OTHER EQUIPMENT PROTEC1ED wlTH SATT{E RELIFF OEVIC IF

'

O 5.II RU}aYVAYil'TROGENPAO
O 5.I2 TUSRUFTURETSTEAfrI)
O 5"13 ruBERUPTURE'CSOLAI{I
O 5.r. RESOI-ER TALUNS

le

eHAsE RELF

t./_---{

/?--

## Ro'D o (uouD) , ffrynpon I ces)) o

v

AIi::

\_--_-_/

{z-pHAsE)

I l

t0{D8 /yn-

LcflYER pqssSUR

SysTErr) o (swR} o

(SHEM. TREATIT,E!{T}

175

176 . Chapter 9

T- 1

EQUIPMENT NAME

## thpn tral Traf*rnt

SHEET rDEr{r.No.-AAe

## IDENTIFICATION NUi;l8ER OF THIS SHEET:

Y f.

cLrENr

-T7

- Oi

* sr

C.

Vess"l

BY:

X/V/Z
ABC row-/a3-oon --7-..r*

## REF. VESSEL DESIGN DWg.

CHECKTYPT OF VFSSEL:
STORAGE T

o Nol.r-coDE

O OTHER
SE ATTACHED DIMENSIONED VESSEL SKETC}I YVITH IN\$TALLED ELEVATIO}I. i'.ATERIAL\$ & THICKNES\$ES
r*OreS:

Bd

(7rI*Ito ) *
?'

> tF ASME OR Apt DESlcN, r\$ CODE STArip NAnEpl.ATE ST|LL ATTACHTD TO VESSET-?

MAr{rrFAcruR*

ha.k's

-?6r,

}q f'dlt n ks

, t*.bft,'
* t55 ft."

NArr. soAmRrG

1@Sp

.r*. ?4 -Zi-

tr.rOt

## > IF ASME CODE VE\$SEL:

*ow

,-

lO0. -*--.t"",.):Hr?florE'r"nsouae

cHEcKoArAsouRCE:
ARE THESF OArA

g@*p l@@

*.-,/5O

**,F{

DEvlcE{tr|re:/

e",nfl
'p,,u*

r6.e

## > IF NON-CODE \IESSEL:

oPERATING

:
(P\$F) : OPER TErrNP.-------*-(DC8
(RgF. 0.4" @ BA\$ ISKIRT 8OTTOM OF STEEL)
(tHClfES) O ELn/
SHLL TH|CXJTSS

MEASURED M|N|MUM

THtCKNeSS___*tlNCfiS)

MASUBFD

nrNr{Ut

MASURED

p\$Euoo MAWP.

"

TOp HAS

T}{CIfiESS

0ilCHES)

PROG

## (ATTACH COMPUTER OUTPUT OR HAND CATCS AS APPLICABLE)

RECOMMTNDD HYDROTEST

PRESS.

{PSGi A PROCEDURE

## \IESSEL \$(POSURE TO E}\$ERT'IAL FIRE PER HFPA-3O STANCIARD

Eeufpusltr x,r,tu

cLrENr:
ctcK

Y I-{-

## FOR ALL t rrETtES \fESSEL

AR,^sncLslRFLsl

"rr.*r-*{l-o*.i:6utr
zt{O

TV -q3

sr:

Appuc*e.E oATA

a F\$.L ti|

S}ttt SECT-0tA--;0il.}

1* ?

vvw-

IIAT

## ro#-J-AE- oorr, X/Uf

: ELBJ' LOt

w {ex4,.* + teS,*

INPtfT TA)

Pr"

Asvr eRlDe}

155

'

,so.Fr.)

## Qtodt,{Ooe'A'3t) O Atlfoo, qt,0E0(A^!.E0

t

t8

= 3,1* x lC-',

t55

lsTt\${R}

:ltFl..fc-wr-Otl
t\$^

I A.*N?uEr?N.raNi'*
argntrffirsFraFtftin.,^a:rn,"rncra
,.'r
FoRliIlsf{ATRgUrDgr{crFs-E
f.ATElJTlfEAroFEtt
CFurrinxcslofirgx&rnh

## FnorEgnoN FAcroR (R pER fspA.3' pAt?\GRirpH 2\1.5.7 1"J",(

,4._.*..\
(rg-r,r.o

)o r.o.s
-Ir|ifif1rfnM.Arqr
Oronet

(DRAtt{Ag FGR

+ WATERSnAY

VAPORCENRATSOf{

RELIEF FLO\$/

rt

ffi'

''

2
\$?CI,
O /U' 3

/8
(grw!-g'
,"n*-s

## l>@ o r-o.B ttt{ATER \$FRAY + oRA\${i6Q o ros 0\$srAJrrTlof{

+ DRA'IA{IE)
r !*rr 1 . ro.i Fe, I L ( t ^0.3 ) | i r SGF i&. 0.0?ut lB AR

pER

zs:'

1ve.?

nsi

COI\$'ERT RELTEF FrOW TO L&HR ACTUAL FLUID PER ASMc SCT.vlll DlV.1 AppgNDX 11

## WHRE W*.lIl.STEAlllf{l, ffr*t9.STD.Antt*', \$Jy.LSrlCTtllLVApOn,}*,lih-0'f?iBrFCf}0

fOF Ub, C-3{6, lf'Ct'97' T'{40 De6. RAf{(fiElr*r r i1.5 l(AF
!4b - {I(rtP l{!*,T)ig.q
w!. sArrrE FoRrrltx-AAs Fonwr guTtjstt{G tcluA|.vrpsn c, }i| I TVALUES.

rc

lg.t'?'a}

ST ltscFH) ArR

A^a?P bn

| 6p7:i;'^i
q.ir'@
F a-t,
^)
6p'F

t*.7 l3
83t'ta*

***-l-rtt}

## 200<A<10fi, A*t9s,300{At.5C6} O tmo<A,<4\$o,

y6 e<aoo, o.ito,ooo(A)

Aqc

-.

4&- V* 7 7q-

## CorrPotrrg gFosED to FlrnEg &{t ?o 3t tE\t

rorArwErTEBsuRFAcARFAEXposEDro Ft-AtiEs
*f

*Fcfi*il

## Rrcoan rorxr r.to.

""""."

C4finc{fiot|f|ccfictt6*rdo1f (|.if4it}r};oMhgSomApP.ll;A*n*fdaicc*dtde.*!tSdo.tfrr,h!f,t*Porrt?etit};

Krrclcfdcr,leailrd*ln"*Y1*;,h.,/teg.nn#r);p*{1.!Oxtotpx.}+14.7pd.oaawppsrumrfrr.}
cALc. r^ty t

Lb*-S*um
3'loxlol
t.rrr
Ws - ..-8,f,,& z 3r54Q --*6;-1.

"

rli t-

--

1Q t/E
r..pt.,tL/

14/a

lvl :

KAP
a,t* wa lra* Fla *
,"rlt e&!
dg.fr 'frhein fs *atsusar{ 6*'F *
a8.f 7

5crl"r

356.

6?.&6

"

KAP

Asrur
35eA

".

'Jh

Wtt4

r*t

l-a-&

w,87/

"ro5&.P

r, ^
= 2t 5G e1
*1

\$n

"8.

178 . Chapter I

&t'*a*-4
AREA

======_========

## & .7o* fr/**&

CALCUIJATION SIIEE?

1. Customer MectrMentor
3. Inguiry g y.I.C. Uxample
5.

e3

iit,tr
r\A
rififl * u'J*

t/_Lant

42

P&ID

none

2. Sheet 1
0f L
4. Rev 0
5. Date 08-28-03
7. By
m.m.

T-7

9. Service

8- Tag No.

Sizing Code
t2. Fluid State
15. Fluid
10.

ASME SEC

Sat"

VIII

chem.

## l-1-. Sizing Basis

l-3. Rupture Disk

Steam

## 16. ser pressurelh I p+d|.g

L7. Back Pressure
Io, (Jver
18.
0ver Pressure
raresSUfe
-{.*-{v
19. Relieving capacir.y I n l) 14 | >
20. Relieving Temperature t^
;p
ii:
Ib Il:

Fire-vapor 6en.
NO

PSIG

PSIG

Constant

LB/r{R
F

-ill

IN2
I

A-

*-

## 40. Valve Series

OuTTtLt L
4L.
42. Orifice Designation
43. Maxirm:m Relieving Capacity
0trlerating remp

7A

IN2

r,r/nn //
Cold Dif f Set press t-00.000
46. operlset, Press 90.000
5l- " Faci-ng
RF
52. Facing
RF
50. Modet-No" fffi*}
78. outtet-----L;=J__
size)/1i*Y
25 - 000

0per. Pressure 80
PSIG
47. fnlet Class
150#
48- out1et Class
49. Manufacturer
Inlet, size
90. Note ].
FOR EXAMPIJE PROBTJEM,
"oP]c
CoefficienLs are:
kd = 0"9530 kv - 1.0000 kb = t.0000 ksh
EQUATTON USEP IN CALCUI,A?ION:

PSIG
?

#9.
1-.0000

cf = 9.0000 kn =

1"0000

Steam

A:

Ws

Kn

Where:

## A = required orifice area

p = relievj-ng pregsure
f'

capaciCy

## NOTE: Minimum Over Pressure is 3 ps:

-------:=========-====l==

/llt<

rrtl,J

D*: 3* &a

/-.^,^_

I {4r rl

W = required

>

yy

#{

r {cnf

r*:i-r*

/'v1

t /q

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PROCESS VESSEL

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179

CHAPTER

10
JacTETED PrprNG Issuns
General Info
The term "jacketed piping" refers to a pair of pressure pipes.
consisting of a smaller diameter pipe nested coaxially inside a
larger diameter pipe. The larger, outer pipe is called the

ttcorett
"jackettt and the smaller, inner pipe is called the

## along the common axial centerline. These spacers create an

annular ring of empty space between the ID of the Jacket Pipe
and the OD of the Core Pipe. This annular space carries the
jacket fluid under pressure when the system is in operation.
The core fluid is pumped through the inner pipe, of course.

(see

Figure 10-1).
The "core fluid" is the hot material being transported in
the particular process. An example would be molten plastic or
polymer being pumped to extrusion dies to make fibers or
bulk chips.
The "jacket fluid" serves as thermal insulation, and typically is supplied to the jacket as saturated vapor of one of the
commercially produced heat transfer oils, such as one of the
DowTherms. A typical hot oil vapor jacket fluid temperature

## plate-fin arrangements equally spaced at l2O" intervals around

the circumference of the core OD. Sometimes four plate fins,
located 90o apart, are used (see Figure 10-1). The plate fins
are oriented radially to the core OD, with the spacer plates
always oriented edge-on, to allow the jacket fluid to flow
through with minimal resistance.

## Pressures are typically moderate,

Jepending on specific fluids used and the process temperature
requirements. Although the active jacket fluid is normally in
*re vapor state, it may be pumped through as a liquid. A hot
ril boiler system generates the vapor from pumped condenrlte retufn.
The jacket pipe OD is heavily covered with an appropriate
termal insulation having a protective top cover of some sort.

Heat transfer oil is not the only jacket fluid you may
elrounter. Sometimes moderate pressure steam may be used
b pipe (and heated mixing vessel) jackefs. The normal steam
r*stem rules must be followed, including startup blowdown
means, supervisory controls, and especially liquid condensate
m-ip system collection and return system design. Because of

fu

## danger inherent in steam system design, actual design of

ream-jacketed piping should only be attempted by experienced
suEineers, and requires careful analysis of pipe stress and hyFiulics, especially to avoid accidental steam hammer. We will
rur{i into this in more depth as a subtopic.

?HT'SICAL DESCRIPTION
Mnh pipes maintain the same axial centerline. They are held
lr rrsition by rigid steel spacers, located periodically on centers

## The spacers may be welded to the jacket ID or to the core

OD; care is taken to make these welds clean, and the weldments
are designed to minimize local stress-raising effects. Although
not universal nomenclature, these spacers are often referred to
as "spiders."
Jacketed piping construction, if done properly, is difficult
and demanding. Such pipeline elements as tees, branches, line
strainers, flowmeter elements, and feed-throughs for ther-

problems.

## Typically, the core pipe will be designed with long radius

elbows and bends, sized for the process flow requirements. The
jacket is then welded in place in half-sections, using the "spider" spacers to maintain axial alignment relative to the core.
Thejacket pipe is sized so that the annulus can caffy the desired
flowrate of heat transfer fluid, and it will be at least one, and
often two pipe sizes larger than the core. Typically the jacket
turns will be shorl radius elbows.
Note that each section of jacketed piping terminates with
a heavy ANSI Flange at each end of the spool piece. Special
flange configurations are used. For example, the flange may
be a slip-on type, double welded to the core as usual, and the
jacket may (or may not)be tapered at its ends to a somewhat
smaller OD/ID, and is then butt-welded to the back face of the
flange. Nipples a.e btatt.h-*.lded ottto the jackets near the
flanges, to act asjacket fluid inlet and outlet nozzles. The nipple
pipe sizes may be quite small relative to the jacket pipe size.
181

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182 . Chapter 10

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## JACKETED PIPING ISSUES

Finally, after the jacket sections are all welded into place
around the core, the actual pipe supports are installed and
hydrotesting is accomplished per Code (ASME 831.3). It is
not unusual to see a lot of variable spring hangers among the
supports, and directional guides are critical for displacement
and sffess control.
It is important to note that the pipe supports that attach to
plant structure actually support the jacket directly, but the core
only indirectly. The actual core pipe support is provided by
the jacket pipe via direct contact through the spiders. This
is crucial to recognize for Code pipe stress purposes. If you,
as the piping engineer, do not demand that the specific quantity,
configuration and exact locations of each and every one ofthe
spiders be documented as-built, for the pipe stress analyst to
use in his modeling, then the pipe stress analysis will be at
best a guess, and as such will be essentially worthless.
Stress-wise, jacketed piping is somewhat crude, and presents a considerably more complex design problem for the mechanical piping engineer than single pipes.

.
.
.

## They are more rigid than congruent sections of jacket

pipe alone would be, due to the nature of their twinshell constructiorr.
They are quite heavy, which exacerbates gravity support
design difficulties.
In addition to difficulty due to their constructional rigidity, they are even more prone to severe thermal expalsion
sffess problems than single pipes, being usually very stiff
because of being composed of short runs of pipe. As
such they have little natural flexibility.
They impose large loads, forces and moments, on anchors
and terminally connected equipment such as pumps, dies
and vessels. (It is not uncommon to mount the pumps
on guided slides, to allow them to move freely as the
jacketed piping expands and contracts thermally.)

## The problems just described are pretty well known in the

process plant piping community. But there are a few other
problems, a bit more technical and insidious, that in real life
can create havoc with jacketed piping. Those are the problems
we want to discuss here.
The first of them concerns wall thickness of the core pipe.

## THE CORE PIPE WALL THICKNESS PROBLEM

Normal single pipes are exposed to the atmosphere, and are
filled internally with a fluid under a gauge pressure, which
must be either positive (as when conducting a pumped liquid
or steam or compressed gas), negative (as when serving as a
vacuum line or air compressor inlet pipe), or zero (at atmospheric pressure inside as well as outside.) Internal pressure
tends to cause tensile hoop stress in the pipe wall, causing it
to swell and burst.

183

Of course, single pipes can be exposed to abnormal conditions. They can be surrounded externally by matter at higher
than atmospheric pressure. Buried soil pipe, underwater oceanic
piping and pipe coils inside pressure vessels are examples of
externally pressurized piping. The external pressure creates
compressive stresses which tend to crush the pipe wall. So in
pipes such as these, you need to calculate the minimum wall
thickness required to withstand the maximum possible differential pressure, inside-out as well as outside-in. The thicker ofthe
two calculated wall schedules is then selected for construction.
Core pipes in jacketed pipe systems thus fall under this
"abnormal" condition.

## Core pipe minimum allowable wall thickness is first

calculated using the differential pressure based on maxi-

## while the pipe wall metal is held at the maximum working

fluid temperature, combined with full vacuum applied
externally to the core (maximum allowable fluid pressure
in core, full vacuum in jacket).
Next, core pipe minimum allowable wall thickness is
calculated using the differential pressure based on maximum allowable working pressure applied externally, with
the pipe wall metal still held at the maximum working
fluid temperature, combined with full vacuum applied
internally to the core (full vacuum in core, maximum
allowable fluid pressure in jacket).
This procedure yields two different values for minimum
required wall thickness. Select the larger of the two for
determining construction requirements of the core pipe.

lill

rit

## Example Calculation of Core Pipe Wall Thickness:

To best illustrate the potential pitfalls ofjacketed piping design,
we will use an example that magnifies the pitfalls. However,
this example is in no way unrealistic. Similar systems exist in

## the real world this very day.

Core Pipe Details:

O.D. = 12.15 in.

## **Core pipe material: A-3I2 type TP 316-L stainless steel.

allowable working stress @ 42OoF per ASME 831.3 Code
Table

A-l =

15.28 ksi.

## **Core fluid: hot melt organic vapors.

**Core corrosion allowance: 0.06 in.
x*Pipe service duty: off-gas vent to recovery vessel.

## **Max core internal pressure: 10 psig.

**@ max core fluid working temp: 420"F.
Jacket Pipe Details:

## x*Nominal jacket pipe size: 16-in. diameter.

O.D. = 16.00 in.
*xJacket pipe material: A
-1068 carbon steel.

184 . Chapter 10
allowable working stress @ 422"F per ASME 831.3 Code
Table A-1 = 19.76 ksi.
xxJacket fluid: 300 psig saturated steam.
xxJacket corrosion allowance: 0.06 in.
**Max jacket internal pressure: 315 psia.
**@ max jacket fluid working temp: 422oF.

## "t." based on Internal

Pressure acting on Core Pipe: use ASME 831.3 Code,
Equation 3(a) of Paragraph 304.1.2: {Also see pages
1-2 of this book.)
Find Core Pipe Wall Thickness

## stainless steel) is found on Page 689. Reprints of thex

two figures are included on pp. 185-186 herein for yorr
convenience; in this book they are named Figures l0-2 ao;
10-3.

## #l : make a first guess at the ratio of pipe outside diametr

"Do" to the finally selected wall thickness "t". My guess woul:
be schedule 80S pipe, which has t = .50 inches for Do = 12.;-<.
Step

so D +

t=

12.15/0.50 = 25.5

## (D/t) = 25 curve, and selecr

minimum value of Pipe Length to Diameter ratio (L/Do) abor.e
which the value of "Factor A" does not decrease (i.e.. aborE
*t'rere ttre pt,rt of lOoltt r.r*lns perye
he plot as:
of "Factor A".) Use this value of (L/D) to read "Factor A''. I
read this point as (L/Do) 2 10.0, with a corresponding constanr
value of "Factor A" = 0.0018.
{This procedure assures that a conservative value of wall thickness will be selected. )
Step #2: look at Figure G on the

t.=[PD(2XSE+PY)]+c
before making allowance for mill undertolerance of wall
thickness, or

t
P

=[PD(1.75XS8+PY)]+c

if

## 10 psig max internal gauge pressure

14.7) psig full vacuum in jacket =

(-

= 24.1 psi
D = 12.75 in.

## Step #3: enter Figure HA-4 @ "Factor A" = 0.0018, u:.

420oF as the metal temperature parameter and read t'Factor

## Y = 0.4 (Table 304.1.1)

c = 0.06 in. corrosion allowance

## Step #4: Use equation P" = 4Bl[3(Do/t)] to calculate P", which i:

the ASME Pressure Vessel Code-maximum-allowable externil,

## S = 15.28 ksi x 1000 = 15,280 psi

E = 1.00 (seamless pipe)

## ance is allowed. Schedule 55 pipe is the minimum available

commercial pipe thickness, and equals 0.156 inches in the 12
in. pipe size, according to the dimensional tables for commercial
steel pipe. Allowing for undertolerance of 12.57o, the Sch. 55
pipe wall in new condition could be as /ftiz as (1 - 0.125) x
(0.156 in.) = 0.1:65 in.; since 0.1365 in. 2 0.0703 in., pipe
wall thickness of Schedule 55 would be adequate for the core
pipe considering only the internal pressure.

## "t " based on External

Pressure acting on Core Pipe: use ASME 831.3
Find Core Pipe Wall Thickness

B" = 6.900.

for all runs of pipe which are longer than (L/Do) >
I0.0. {Note: the calculated max allowable external pressurt
will thus be conservative for shorter runs of un-reinforcedpipe.
So Po = (4X6900) + (3X25) = 368 psig.

pressure

Step #5; Compare this result to the design requirement "Marimum design value ofjacket pipe internal (differential) pressure
= 315 psig @ max jacket fluid working temp = 422'F.

Since the calculated value of 368 psig for the ASME Code
max allowable external pressure is > 315 psig design re'
quirement for the external differential pressure acting on
the Core in our example problem, we conclude that Schedule 80S is acceptable for the Core pipe wall thickness.

Code Requirements.
831.3 Paragraph 304.1.3 tells us how to calculate for external
pressure. It refers us to two other ASME Codes, from which
we must dig out the appropriate data and equations: these are

## **ASME Section VIII Div. 1, Paragraph UG-28(cX1).

This is the unfired pressure vessel portion of the ASME
boiler code.

## **ASME Section II Part D, Subpart 3, Figures G and

HA-4. This is from the Materials: Properties portion of the
ASME boiler code. {Note: in the July 1,2003 Addendum
to Sect. II Part D, Figure G (generic, all materials) is found
on page 682 and Figure HA-4 (specific, type 316-L austenitic

Discussion of Results
In this example, the core pipe wall thickness must be selecterj
on the external pressure crushing criteria. Schedule 80S is the
proper selection. I will leave it as a practice exercise for you
to check my calculations in stating:
*xlf the core pipe wall thickness had been selected using

## internal pressure (hoop stress) criteria, that is, Schedule 55.

0.156 inches, the pipe would have been crushed by the stearn
pressure in the jacket. The max allowable external steam jacket

## pressure for Schedule 55 pipe would be about 23 psig.

*xSchedule 405 (0.315 in.) wall thickness WOULD NOT
be acceptable, because its maximum allowable external pressure

185

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## G from ASME BOILER CODE Section

would be 245 psig steam, too much less than the required 300
psig saturated steam pressure.

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## I selected a large diameter core pipe in conjunction

with relatively high pressure steam in the jacket annulus was

The reason
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## to illustrate the important fact, now to be revealed. that steam

hammer cannot be neglected in jacketed pipe design.
The effect of increased core pipe diameter is to magnify
the crushing force on the core cylinder (the P x A force) relative
Io the resisting metal volume comprising the core pipe. The
:atios (L/D) and (Dh) are analogous to "slenderness ratio" in

II Part

## a compressed column problem: the higher the ratios, the more

susceptible to buckling is the column, and the more susceptible

to crushing is the core pipe cylinder under external fluid pressure. Cylinder crushing is a stability phenomenon, just as is
buckling of a slender column. A threshold of elastic response
is passed in both cases, and drastic catastrophic plastic failure is
the result in both cases. (.1 strongly recommend to the interested
reader all of Chapter 8, "Buckling of Vessels Under External
Pressure," in Prof. John E. Harvey's terrific reference text,
Theory and Design of Pressure Vessels, Van Nostrand-Reinhold, Second Edition, 1991, New York. h is immensely valuable
to the design engineer.)

## The effect of increased jacket pipe steam pressure is to

exacerbate the destructive effect of a steam hammer event, if

186 . Chapter 10

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## one is triggered in the jacket. I have personally examined

and testified to the results of such events. I can tell you with
absolute certainty that peak oYerpressures resulting from
steam hammer events in pipe jackets, carrying considerably
lower steam saturation pressure than we used in our previ-

1,000 psig.

## Yes. One thousand Psig.

It should now be obvious to you that in our example problem, we could not expect our l2-inch core pipe to survive a
full-fledged steam hammer event. Our core pipe is constructed
of the greatest commercially available wall thickness for austenitic stainless steel pipe, Schedule 80S, t = 0.500 inches, and
we have already found that its maximum safe external pressure
differential is only 368 psig. How in the world could we expect
it to withstand 1000 psig or more?
The answer of course is that we could not expect survival'
Try plugging in about 1,300 psig for max required jacket operating pressure into the Code P" evaluation procedure above,
and see what you get for required core pipe wall thickness'
Then imagine trying to get seamless pipe fabricated in that
thickness to a 12.75 in. outside diameter, and paying the bill
for it. Not to mention the matching bends and fittings!
Clearly it is not feasible to design the core pipe wall to
survive jacket pipe steam hammer in anything approaching
normal circumstances! Submarine warfare, maybe, or nuclear
processes perhaps, but not in commercial manufacturing
plant duty.
Then what must you do if you are unfortunate enough to
become involved in engineering or constructing a steam jacketed pipeline in large diameters?
Well, I will tell you. You may wish to start with a thorough
review of chapter I in Volume One of this book, water hammer/
steam hammer dynamics. But, for sure, you will have to design
a failsafe supervised steam staltup-timed condensate blowdown
system as well as failsafe steam condensate trap(s) and liquid
condensate return systems. You will have to design the piping
mns to slope a lot, always toward the drains, such that all points
the jacket always drain completely, by gravity, with no
inverted P-traps or flat places in the line which can let conden-

in

## You will have to catch the drained condensate in mud-leg

reservoirs of adequate volume such that steam trap selection
can approach normal sizing criteria. You will have to train all
hands involved in proper operation of these systems, and then
pray thatthey don't skip, or skimp on, the "frequent steam trap
maintenance" programs that are necessary to keep those steam
jackets full of nothing but dry steam at all times'
So much for core pipe wall thickness calculations.
The next problem we should recognize concerns the high
temperatures, pipe stiffnesses, and effects of dissimilar metal
expansion rates, and the resulting thermal fatigue failures which
can happen.

'

187

## THE DISSIMILAR METAL THERMAL FATIGUE

STRESS PROBLEM
Usually, jacketed pipe systems feature jacket and core pipes
fabricated of the same materiall both may be low-carbon steel
such as A106 or A53, or both may be stainless steel of the
same type, such as 304_316 austenitic. And this is good.
What is very bad is when the jacket and core pipes are
different metals. As in our previous example, in which we
stipulated an A106 carbon steel jacket with a 316-L stainless
steel core. Of course we picked the dissimilar pipe metals to
illustrate the pitfall. But, once again, such things actually get
built and indeed exist in operation this very day. So pay careful
Here's what happens. First, bear in mind that jacketed
piping sections are fabricated with stiff ANSI welded flanges
at both ends of each spool-piece. The core is welded to the
flanges, and so is the jacket. This means that the iacket pipe
end cunnot move relqtive to the core pipe end, or vice'versa'
The two pipes are rigidly joined together by the flanges to
which the ends ure welded. You may wish to refer to the
jacketed piping schematic once more to appreciate this fact'
When dissimilar pipe materials are used, they will have
different rates of thermal expansion. At room temperature, the
jacket and core will be of the same length. The pipe with the
greater coefficient of thermal expansion will try to grow to a
greater length, when the system is heated up to the operating
condition. But they will be forced to end up at the same hot

length, because

## of the rigid end restraint imposed by

the

flange weldments.
This means that the pipe with the greater thermal coefficient will end up being compressed axially, while the other
pipe will be axially stretched. In other words' each pipe will
have a physical strain relative to the free length the pipe would
have attained if its thermal growth had not been restrained.
These strains are acco

@omtt.

## In our example problem, the 12-in. stainless core pipe tries

to grow at arate of about 4 in. per 100 ft of room-temperature
length. But the 16-in. carbon steel jacket only wishes to grow
at a rate slightty less than 3 in. per hundred feet' So in our
example, growth of the system stretches the jacket pipe and
compresses the core.
Is this a problem? The answer often is "yes." It depends
on the magnitudes of the stresses, upon the material's fatigue
strength characteristics, and the number of thermal cycles to

## which the system is exposed.

For each numerical range of stress magnitudes encountered
by the particular pipe material, there is a corresponding number
of thermal "cold-to-hot-back-to-cold" cycles, which will result
in formation of fatigue cracks, which will over time propagate
clean through the pipe wall. Thus containment is lost. The pipe
leaks under pressure; it is failed; it has broken.

188 . Chapter 10
In general, the nearer the elastic stress to the tensile yield
point, the fewer cycles it takes to cause this failure. If the yield
stress is exceeded, what happens on any given cycle is that the
points of strain corresponding to tensile or compressive stress
above the material's yield strength will relnx locally, due to
plastic deformation at the maximum stress points after the
maximum temperature has been reached. When this occurs,
fatigue failure will occur rather quickly; only a relative few
thermal cycles will be needed to crack the pipe wall.
Remember, ASME B31.3 prohibits stressing pipe to the

## yield point, and is normally intended to yield a leak-free

working lifetime of at least 7,000 full thermal cycles for the
piping system.
Now for the insidious part. The leaks will usually occur
at the flange weldment ends, where the local sffess raisers
nonnally exist. The stress intensification factor for a slip-on
flange properly installed by a Code-worthy welder is at least
1.2, and sloppy welds will be worse than this. So *ercxpectthe first leaks to occur at the flange-to-pipe welds.
Now if the jacket-to-flange weld cracks, in our example
problem, 300 psig steam will blow out into the room. This is
bad, of course, and very dangerous, hut at least it is detectable.

But a crack in the core pipe weld will cause the 300 psig
steam to blow into the core pipe, and the leak at first will
be physically undetected. The condition will persist until

something in the core system blows up, necessitating emergency shutdown of the system, and hopefully not involving
death or personal idury. Once this has happened, if you
had a hand in it, you will no longer enjoy being an engineer.
So do your best to avoid letting one of these bastard systems
get built in the first place. Get your boss to read this chapter
before approving the project.
If you can't do that, then be very careful in your participation and make absolutely no technical errors.
And if you can't do that, then either beg off the project, or
go find anotherjob where they are not bent on self-destruction.

Illustrate Cot" Pip" Wull Cr*king bar"d on the condiof the ASME 831.3 Code to make these catculations:

## You will next encounter an example of engineering analysis. It

except for the first page, which remains in the original handdrawn sketch format (for MY convenience, wise guy! See Figure 10-4a-j). You can use this example for guide purposes, but
remember, the completepipe sffess analysis includes multifudes
have given it to you mainly to illustrate how bad the problen
of differential expansion of dissimilar materials can be.

J*I*L{J,sTR.ATH.

Fi-xr'ls:q.

Shrxrr

&:

{c.s}

f\$s e {s"5t
&c""r * t***\$

f*.

:h,

tr
g.

-E

J*

e(g_s-*

ffi

7l*

in

Fuu*"L*.

*1i

.rt3.

o-l

/in-'' F

&

='{

rd

qr.' f*I
C'l

.\$
\J3 a.J
* rt\$
F-"
.a
Iiqt

*r
"(}(

.f,
trt"/in.* 6F

x f.E**

f**{*

lrA
{u
\ fi*n3

n"*
*rJ
+.J

t*

tr

A,t

l FI
*f( &r
w

t:

i:
::

..-!&.

FIGURE

f0-4

.Ii&c

lI** tl'3O

Ls

*.1

fi*

{ F*s*rsff
trpe.
\$ \Jltcke{e&
\$
I( bFdpiue_ @
rl
7'rn,e.
\ Rer.r
rl

x Ia^6

trj

X
t/'!

{ERT FIP.

Lr

r\l

d3F

189

Chapter 10

"H'

## Write the deflection Euations:

Lz = Lr + cri

Lr(ATli

Lg =

Lr + a. LI{AT}"

Lr = free length of jacket and core when both are at room temperature (70"F.) and unstressed.
ci = thermal expansion coefficient of the carbon steel jacket, at the mean value between 70'F. &
final jacket temperature.
crc : thermal expansion coefficient of the stainless steel core, at the mean value between 70"F. &
final core temperafure.
*{AT}i = final jacket temp. 70oF.
*(AT)" : final core temp. 70"F. *(note that these deltas can be different)
-

abspr)>abs{Lz);

L: are the free lengths which jacket and core would grow to, if not end-restrained
by the "infinitely'' stiff flanges. But since the flange connections force the two to end up at the
same hot length, the jacket is stretched by amount " 6 " beyondLz, and the core is compressed to
amount " \$ " shorter than Ls. In algebraic terms,
Lz and

Lz

+ 5-

Ls

## [Lr+a;Lr(AT];] + I s [Lr+a.Lr(AT]"1- g ;nowwemustevaluateterms 6 and

g.

Assume elastic axial shess and strain in both pipes, the core and the jacket:

iacketskess o;=E;e;

; c0restress 6.=E."

{stresso_psi}=ElasticMod.

## E (p"i}x straine (in:,/in}}

Note that in this particular example the jacket pipe stress oi is tensile and core pipe stress o" is
cawryessiae because crc ) cri . Otherwisg if a" < cr.; .the reverse would be true. And if the
expansion coefficients are equal, ck = a; , and both pipes reach the same final hot temperature,
(ATh = {AT}., then the stresses o7 and 6c ole zero.
The jacket shetch "6" relates to the strain e; by { ei = 6/Lz} ,
and the core compression " \$ " relates to the core strain e" by {e.=

## therefore 6 \$/Lel , and { :

e; L2

e. Ls.

We can now substitute the expressions for Lz and L:from the deflection equations into these little
strain relationships, and we get

6= t; I Lr + crj LI{AT);]

## we substitute these 5 and \$ relations into

ILr+a;Lr{AT};] * n = [Lr+a"Lr{AT)"]-\$,whichwasobtainedpreviously,andget:
Lr+[a';LI(AT]j] + [etl[Lr+ct;Lr{AT};l =Lr+[cr.Lr(AT)"]-[".][Lr+u"Lr(AT]"1
When we divide each term of this mess by

Lt,Lt

## 1+oi(AT)i +j + eia;{AT}i = 1+ct{AT). - { - e.a.(AT}.

Now we substitr:te the term tr#) wherever ie) appears in this equatian, to fran*form the
deflection equation inta terms af stress {c} for use as an intermediate working equatian; after
sirnplifiratian, the result is ESUATIQN-t1:

## {a" AT"} - {o"/E-}\$+ cc AT"} { Sg, #1

Obtain the necessary secr:nd equatinn from a STATICS analysis of the pipes-to-flange connection.
The figure belaw is a {reebatty diagram oJ the flange, ign*ring its weight and assr'rming perfect
*ytooritry. It is a raised \$ace slip*on ANSI flange, which is typical for iacketed pipes ccnskuction'

p;F
i,ackef
ot'

brce

xF=
evi*[

*-c*ing

f/a na/"

yv

E,
f
frxrs t4
or
nFi7u

"* aA #angz.
"acfing
lpct

191

Chapter 10

## Core Fatigue Sheet

"d"

The force u Fc'n is compressive, caused by axial compressive skess o'" acting on core pipe crosssectional area " Ac" . Likewise, "Fi" is tensile shess o; acting on jacket pipe cross-sectional area
" Aj " ,At equilibrium, the sum of forces
zeto, and we can write directly:

Fx = 0 = (Ft - Fc) =

o'j

Ai

## Gi\$ = ocAc { Eq. *z I

This completes the derivation. Now we can write the two equations in terms of the two unknown
stresses.

t}1

Ej

## E.Ac(1+ ai(AT);) + E&(1+ cr.(AT).)

oc = oiAi /Ac

Note: This analysis is valid within the linear-elastic range of the specific piping materials. ff the
1'teld stress is exceeded, it shows that your piping design is overskessed for proper ASME 831
Code purposes. Also, it assumes that the flanges are of sufficient weight/pressure class to remain
conditions, especially when the pipe flanged end is subfected to significant compound loadings
of which bending stresses play the major role.

193

## SAMPLE SOLUTION\$: CA\$E #1"

1. |acket pipe 16-in. Diameter Schedule 40 carbon steel at 42OoF steady operation.
2. Core pipe 12-in. Diameter Schedule 40S austenitic stainless also at 420oF.
FIND STRESS IN CORE AND JACKET DUE TO THERMAL RESTRAINT.
COMPARS TO ASME 831.3 ALLOWABLE STRESS FOR THERMAL STRESSES.
(1.a) Data for Carbon Steel lacket:
16-inch dia. NPS Sch. 40: Outsicle Dia. = 16.00
Cross-sectianal Area A{r : 24.35 in.2

## Thermal Expansion Coefficient @ 420oF = 66c : 7.14 x '10- 6 oF -1

Modulus of Elasticity@4200F = Ec = 27.62 x1A6 Lbf /in.z
Temperature Cyclic Range : (ATlc : 42A - 70 = 35goF
(1.b) Data for Stainless Steel Core:
t2-in. dia. NPS Sch. 40S: Outside Dia. = 12.75 in. , Wall Thickness = 0.375 in.
Cross*sectional Area Ac= 14.58 in.2
Thermal Expansion Coefficient @ 420oF crc = 9.54 x 10 -6 oF -1
Modulus of Elasticity @ 420oF =
Lbf / in.z
Temperature Cyclic Range (AT)c 42A - 7A:95goF

Ej
:

## (1.c) Evaluate Parameters:

prpE
E"Ac= 26;36 x106x 14.58= 3.8433xL08

## CARBON STEEr JAC"KEJ prpE

EiA= 27.62 x106x 24.35 = 6.7255xLff

L

1 + cc;

COMI'O\$ITE:

## E;E.A6 = (27.62 x 1"0\$(3.8a33 x 108) =1.06152 x 1016

(ATli = 1.,ffi2499
COMPOSITE:
2e35 / 14.58 = 1,.67

Ai/&-=

## (1.d) Calculate iacket pipe stress from Eq. #L-a:

oi :

{1,.06152x1016X0.003339

## (3.8433 x 108 )(1.002499)

0.002499}

= SAllLbtl inz

(6.7255 x 108)(1.003339)

## (1.e) Calculate core pipe stress from Eq. #2-a:

6c

= oiA;fAc =

8,411

x1.67

= 14,M6Lbflin3

we have found the carbon steel jacket in tensile stress, sketched to B411 psi.
The stainless steel core is compressedto 14,A46 psi. The rigid weldments of both pipes to the
massive flange transfer the loads, pipe-to-pipe. If, instead of heavy ANSI steel flanges we tried to
connect these pipes rigidly through a thin plate membrane like a tubesheet, the thin plate would
be warped cut of shape and prcbablv lose confinement of the jacket pipe fluid.
So

194 . Chapter 10

## Core Fatigue Sheet

"f'

(1.f) Evaluate the effect of these stresses per the intent of the ASME Process Piping Code 831".3.
831.3 Paragraph 302.3.5{d} applies to cyclic fatigue stress due to thermal restrainf as is
thoroughlv discussed in Chapter 1of this Volume. Our conservative "first look" is via Equation
(1a) of Para. 302.3.5(d), since we have developed no information at this stage of our pipe stress
analysis regarding any longifudinal stresses which may accrue to sustained external loads on the
piping system which probably do exist.

Therefore, we apply 302.3.5(dx1a) to find Sg" the allowable thermal stress range:
Se = f {1.25 5c + 0.25 SH} , in which "t' is a stress range reduction factor s 1.00, sn6l "gs// 6nd
"SH" are the cold and hot allowable material stresses tabulated in Table A.1 of the 831.3 Code.
We look up the allowable stresses for the core pipe by finding the austenitic stainlesses in Table
A.1 of the 831.3 Codg and see that their cold and hot allowable stress values are:
@ room temp 70 oF, Sc z 16,7A0 psi, and @ hot working condition 420oF, Sn= 15,700 psi.
Soby B373 3A2.3.5(d)(7a),9-4 = t (1.25 Sc + 0.25 SH) = 1.0(L.25 x167A0 + 0.25 x 1.5700) = ?4.800
p,qi.

We must compare this with the local stress in the stainless steel core pipe caused by the thermal
reskaint of the flange which we found to be cr'. = 1.4,A46 psi. Bat not quite yet! The 831 Codes
incorporate statistically determined stress intensification factors (SIF's, see Chap. 1) which for the
local core pipe slip*on flange weld, which is specified in Appendix D of 831.3, = ii= 1.20. So the
Expansion Stress range we must use - Sr = (ii)(<r"1 = {1.2 xM,846 psi) = 16.855, psi.
Discuss results:

On the surface, it appears that we probably would be OK since the calculated expansion stress
range \$r, 16,855 F\$i, ( Code-Allowable Appendix A.1 shess for thermal expansion Se, which
for the temperature is 24,800 psi. The expansion shess range is less than the code allowable
maximum skess by some 32%, which would be a safe-enough operating margin if the axial
restraint-inducecl thermal expansion stress were all we had to be concernecl with.

However, the restrained expansion of the piping system itself, in reacfing with its internal spider
guides and its jacket-external anchors, guides and pipe supports will also create lonqitudinal
bending stresses in the core pipe and in the iacket pipe which are in the same plane as the
axial flange restraint skesses we just calculated. These adclitional bending stresses must be
calculabd, as required by the Code, as best we can (which would normally be done by one of the
Code-Compliance-capable computer pipe stress programs or by some other approved means,
such as by a validated finite element analysis OEA). These additional bending stresses ra,ould be
subject to the same 1.20 SIF in their computation, and would be superimposed by vector

## Core Fatigue Sheet

"g"

While we are discussing superposed stresses, you cf course are aware that most piping systems
will be found to contain \$ome level of longitudinal bending stress caused by the simple gravity
weight loading of the system on its supports, and there can of cour\$e be other external sustained
loads present besides the pure weight forces to create sustained bending stress in the piping.
However, the ASME Codes do not consider the sum of weight stresses plus expansion stresses as
a single".number to be computed and.gompared wjth qome fory\$glated value of an allowablg
stress. The r,r'eight stresses do factor into the allowable cyclical {thermal expansion) skess range,
but do so in a different way (as shown in Chap. 1 of this Volume and as will be illustrated in Case
#2).

The expansion stresses are cyclical, going back and forth over a range of min to max to mio and
thus cause tiny fatigue crack failures at stress-raiser points to gradually develop over time, as the
thermal cycles pile up. On the other hand, the sustained weight stresses (if large enough) cause
immediate plastic-range gross distortion failure the first time the piping is installed. They arise
from inadequate support. The two types of stresses are computed separatell', in different wavs,
and evaluated separatelSr by the ASME Codes, using different sets of evaluation acceptance
criteria. THE UPSHOT OF THIS tS: ALL THE VARIOUS THERMAL EXPANSION STRESSES
MUST BE ADDED TOGETHE& AS VECTOR QUANTITIES, FOR THE CODE EXPANSION
ANALYSIS REQUIREMENT. DO NOT ADD THE WEIGHT STRESSES DIRECTLY TO THE
THERMAL EXPANSION STRESSES FOR THIS PURPOSE. (Chapter l and Case #2 explains all
this in greater detail.)

In conclusion for SAMPLE SOLUTIONS CASE #1, the contribution of the stress <i'" from the
flange restraint of dissimilar metal expansions core-vs.-;'acket, 16,855 psi, may or may not be fatal,
trut it is &&d!g[y large enough that it would have to be addecl to the thermal expansion stresses
caused by external support guide and anchor restraints, and thus be incorporated into the formal
expansion stress analysis per ASME Code 831.3 para. 302.3.5(dx1.b), in which the various
lcngitudinal stresses INCLUDING VVEIGHT STRESSES are taken into account. On the next page,
we will look at a second sample solution, which is a worse case where the core and jacket pipes
do not reach the same equilibrium temperature. We rn'ill take a look at ASME Code 831.3
paragraph 302.3.5{dx1.b) there, and demonstrate how it is applied.

196 . Chapter 10

"h"

## SAMPLE SOLUTIONS I CASE #2

Same problem as Case #1, except this time the jacket pipe temperature does not rise as it should
have, but the core pipe does. {l haae seen this happen in industry, in a systew in which the jacket fluid zuas not
tln ususl hat oil, but wss h:igh pressure steaw. Tlrc jacket steam flow failed because of faulty design of t'|rc plant's

steam condensate retutu systew, which did ttot alluo the jacket pipe steam traps to rernoue the condensate from tlrc
jacket prpe, and so the jacket pipe "ran clld", ex&cerbating the dffirential expansion stress problew already tlrcre
because of dffirent core t jacket pipe ruaterials. It contributed to q wassir:te plant upset and piping failure.)

In this case, the "hot-end" flange will have the core pipe temperafure Tc = 420oF due to process
heat in the core fluid, as in Case #1. But the jacket fluid heating fails, so the jacket pipe will be
much colder, receiving only radiant heat from the core pipe. We will start by assigning an
approximate intermediate value of iacket pipe temperature Ti = (42A + 70)/2: 245oF. It could be
even lower, quite easily, and most probably would be. For illustration purposes, we will assume
a nonconservative value T; = 220oF (nonconservative here meaning the shesses we calculate may
not be the maximum and could go higher because the value of T; might in fact be lower than
assumed.)
REVISED ]ACKET DATA:
]acket pipe 16-in. diameter Schedule 40 carbon steel at 2?09F steady operation.
Core pipe 12-in. diameter Schedule 40S austenitic stainless remaining at {?89I.
FIND STRESS IN CORE AND }ACKET DUE TO THERMAL RESTRAINT.
COMPARE TO ASME 831.3 ALLOWABLE STRESS FOR THERMAL STRESSES.

r
r

(2.a) Data for Carbon \$teel Tacket {revised from Case #1}:
16-in. dia. NPS Sch.40: Outside Dia. = 16.00 in.. Wall Thickness = \$.500 in.
Cross*sectional Area A; :24.35 in.z
Thermal Expansion Coefficient @ 22AOF = crj = 6.4 x 10-6oF -1

## Modulusof Elasticity@220oF : Ej = 28.70 x106 Lbf /in.z

Temperature Cyclic Range = (AT); = 22A - 70 = 150{:tr'

## (2.b) Data for Stainless Steel Core (same as Case #1):

12-in. dia. NPS Sch.40S: Outside Dia. = 12.75 in. . Wall Thickness = 0.375 in.
Cross-sectional Area ,4.6: 14.58 in.z
Thermal Expansion Coefficient @ 420oF = oc = 9.54 x 10-6 oF-l
Modulusof Elasticity@420oF Ec 26.36 x106 Lbf/in.2
Temperature Cyclic Range = (ATlc 42A - 7A = 350of

## (2.c) Evaluate Parameters:

STAINLES\$ STSEL CORE

PIPE

## EiAi = 28,7 x1"06x ?4.35 = 6.989x 108

E"Ac= 26.36 x106x 14.58 = 3.8433 x 1018
a" (AT).= 9.54x 1&6x 3.50 x1G = 3.339x 1&3 cr,i \$T);=6.4x1&6x 1".50x l{F = 9.6x10a
1 + a; (AT); = L.00096
1. * rx" (AT)" = L.003339

COMPOSITE:

## E;E.Ac = (28.7 x1"06)(3.8a33x108) =1.103x1016

COMPOSITE:

4/A.-=

24.35114.58 = 1.67

## Core Fatigue She.et

197

"i"

(2.d) Calculate iacket pipe stress from Wingate's {not the Code's} Eq. #1-a:

oj *

u1

{AT};l

oj=

## (3.8433 x 108 )(1.00096)

24,165Lbfl inz
(was 8,4.11 in Case #1)

## (6.989 x 108)( 1.003339)

(2.e) Calculate core pipe stress from Wingate's (not the Code's) Eq. #2-a:

oc =

c';A1

0c:

/As
24,165 x1,.67

40,356 tb#in z
(was L4,046 in Case #1)

(2.f) Calculate core pipe stress Sn from 831.3 Code's para.302.3(dXEq. 1a):
SN

## = ii G" = L.2 x 4O356

=#,*H*psL

The allowable core stress Sertot considering otha' sotffces af lottgitudinsl exp*nsion stresses
thsn the single soilrce, intenml flange-induced restrain{, remains a4g0!-p\$i as before, since it
depends only on the hot and cold allowables from Code Appendix A.1.

Since SE >> S,q, (48,+:27 is much greater than 24,800) we definitely must include the dissimilar
metal shess in Code Equation 302.3.5(dx1.b) which reduces the amount of stress allowance by a
part of the SUSTAINED longitudinal (WEIGHT) stress Sr . Let us write that Code equation now
and see what it says:
831.3.302.3.s(dx1.b) Sa

= ( f )l 1.25(Sc + Sn) - Sr ]

The 831.3 Codebookverbiage reads to the effect that when the hot allowable stress for the
material at operating temperature, which is called Ss, is larger than the calculated sustained
longitudinal stress (w-eight stress) which is called Sr, then we can take adun:ntnge of the fact by
letting the allowable displacement stress range Se be Inrger than it is lohefi culcttlsted by Eqtt{}fion

198 . Chapter 10

## Core Fatigue Sheet " j

"

8313342.3.5{ilft.s1, which we used previously on Case #1 Core Fatigue Sheet "f ", and then
calculated 24+8ffi psi as a result for Se. Equation 831.3.302.3.5(d){1.a) tacitly assumes that Sr
Euals, but does not exceed. Slr. Therefore it assumes that Sr not only exists, but exists and is as
large as can be safely allowed (namely the hot allowable stress for the material.) Therefore, if we
can prove that the longitudinal (bending) stresses in either Case #1 or Case #2 due to sustained
(weight) loading are lower than the material's hot allowable shess, which is 15,700 psi, then our
allowable expansion stress range can be higher than the 24,800 psi which applies otherwise.
I know it is tedious and difficult to keep ttris Code stuff skaight, but bear with me. It is the only
safe way to design piping systems and still get the maximum usage out of each pound of pipe
material used.

Now the question arises: how much higher can the allowable stress range for thermal expansion
(displacement) be? And does it help us out any, is itworth considering?
Well, if there were zero weight shess in the actual piping system, which of course is pretty much
impossible, then by (L.b), using 1,.0 for the stress range reduction factor "f ," we get:

## Sa= ( f )t 1.25(Sc + Sn) - Sr ] = l [1.25(16.7+15.6)- 0] : 40.375 ksi

- 44375 psi.

_.{

-rt

"4

.,|

But since there will be some suskined weight stress, we can only say at this point of knowledge
of the piping system that:

## Sa= (f X1.25(Sc+S")-Srl = (*0375- \$rlpsi

But we are-gtalfiry-egt with a calculated value of {8,{2Zpsi for the expansion stress. Even if there
were zero weight sbess, we would still have the core pipe overstressed by more than &000 psi!
The percent overskess is AT MINIMUM POSSIBLE VALUE no less than:

## | (ffi,427 - 4A375V40,375] x Lffi% =

-{

2\$o/o!!!

We conclude that this operation with cold jacket and hot core will cause eventual fatigue cracking
in the pipe-to-flange filletweld joints and ihus is in violation of the 831.3 Code. Once S,. is
factored in, the number of cycles to failure can be calculated.
end

!1

SprpcrnD RpTERENcEs
ANSI Forged Steel Flanges, Tayior Forge Bulletin 691-881, GW
3H8,

1981.

FebruMechani-

## ASME Professional Development,

ary 7-10, 2000, Atlanta, Georgia; American Society of

York.

## Antaki, G.4.. Piping and Pipeline Engineering,lst ed., Marcel

ker, New York, 2003.
ASHRAE Guide Fundamentals Volume, American Society of

Dek-

Heat-

## ing, Refrigerating & Air Conditioning Engineers, New

York, 1989.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII-Div. 1. Rules
for Construction of Pressure Vessels-l998 Edition. American
Society of Mechanical Engineers Int'|., New York.

## ASME Botler and Pressure Vessei Code Section Il-Materials-Part

D-Properties-2001, ed., American Society of Mechanical
Engineers [nt'I., New York.
ASME Code for Pressure Piping B31.3-Process Piping-1999 ed.,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers Int'I., New York.

## Notes Vol. I; ASME Professional Development, July 15-18,

l99T,Greenville,SouthCarolina; AmericanSocietyofMechanical Engineers Int'I., New York.
Harvey, J.F. Theory and Design of Pressure Vessels,2nd ed., Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991.
Hibbeler, R.C. Mechanics oJ Materials,4th ed., Prentice Hall, Upper
ITT Fluid Transfer Division, Fluid Handling Training & Education Department, ITT Bell & Gossett, Morton Grove, Illinois.

a.

## Pump and System Cun,e

and Application, 1967;'

b.

Sys-

tems. 1966:

c.
d.
e.

## ASHRAE Journal Reprint, 1968-1969;

Cooling Tower Pumping and Piping, 1968;
Variable SpeedNariable Volume Pumpin.g Fundamentals,
1985;

ASMECodeforPressurePiping83l.l-PowerPiping-1998Edition.

Carlson, G.F., Central. Plant Chilled Water SystenlsPumping and Flow BalaLrce, ASHRAE Journal Reprint, February 1972;

## American Society of Mechanical Engineers Int'I., New York.

g. Primary Secondary Pumping Application Manual, ITT
Becht, C. lY, Process Piping: The Complete Guide to ASME 831.3,
Bell & Gossett, Morton Grove, Illinois, 1968.
2nd ed., ASME Press, New York, 2004.
Keenan, J.H.; Keyes, F.G. Thermodynamic Properties of Steam, John
Bulletin 201, August 1980 & Catalog 326-8, December 2003, Flash
Wiley & Sons, New York, 1962.
Tanks and Stream Trappirzg. Armstrong Intemational Machines King, R.C.; Crocker, S. Piping Handbook,5th ed., McGraw-Hill
Works-Steam Specialty Products, 816 Maple St., Three RivInc., New York, 1973.
ers, Missouri.
Mathematical Tables. Handbook oJ Chemistry- and Physics, Table of
ChillerWaterSystemDesign-OptionsandApplications,TraneCom- Integrals, 1lth ed., Chemical Rubber Publishing Company,
pany Commercial Systems Group, Pub. CWS-CLC-3-192, Cleveland, Ohio, 1959.
3600 Pammel Creek Rd., La Crosse, Wisconsin 54601.
Moody, F.J, How to Predict Thermal Hydraulic Loads on Pressure
Condensed Hydraulic Data, Cameron Pump Division, Ingersoll-Rand,
Vessels and Piping. Course Notes, ASME Prof'essionat DevelopCorp., WoodclilT Lake, New Jersey.
ment, November 2-3, 1998, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; American
Design YS-Converging Flow, 3-way Control, Valve Flow CharacterSociety of Mechanical Engineers Int'I., New York.
isflcs, Catalog #10, Fisher Controls International, Marshall- Moody, F.J.lntroduction to Unsteady Thermofluid Mechanics,Wrley
town, Iowa, 1989.
Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1990.
Flash Steam, Arrnstrong Machine Works-Steam Specialty ProdPiping Design and Engineering, 5rh ed., ( 1991 printing), ITT Grinnell
ucts, Three Rivers, Michigan, 19'76.
Corp., ITT-Grinnell Indusrrial Piping, Inc.
Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings and Pilte; Technical Paper
Senior Flexonics-Pathway, O.E.M. descriptive dara, Metallic BelNo. 110, Crane Company Engineering Division, New York,
lows Expansion Joints, 2400 Longhorn Industrial Drive, New

1991.

## Braunfels, Texas 7g130.

Grinnell Pipe Hangers, Catalog PH-90, Grinnell Corp., ITT GrinSIMFLEX.S, Program Manual V3.0, Pipe Stress Analysis, Peng Enginell Pipe Hanger Division, Exeter, New Hampshire.
neering, Liang-Chuan Peng, P.O. Box 801 167, Houston, Texas
j j280-1167 .
Haupt, R.W.; Flenner, P.D.l Nance, L.D. ASME 83l.l Power Piping
Seminar, Course Notes, ASME Professional Development, April
Steam, Its Generation and {Jse,40th ed., Babcock & Wilcox Power
8-12,2002, Charleston, South Carolina. American Society of
Generation Group, Barberton, Ohio, 1992.
Mechanical Engineers Int'l,, New York.
Steam Conseruation Guidelines for Condensate Druinage,Armstrong
Haupt, R.W. ASME 831.3 Process Piping Semfuar, Course Notes
Machine Works-Steam Specialty Products, Three Rivers,
Vol. II; Woods,G.;ASME83I.3 Process Piping Seminar,Course
Michigan, 1976.
199

200

References

## Steam Utilization Spirax Sarco, Inc., Allentown, Pennsylvani a,

l99l.

Thomas, L.C. Heat Transfer-Professional Versioz, 1st ed., PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1993.

## Thorley, A.R.D. Fluid Transicnts in Pipeline Systems.2nd ed., ASME

Press, New York, 2004.
Tube Turns. Welding Fittings and Flanges, Catalog 411, Tube Turns
Div. of Chemetron Corp.,2900 W. Broadway, Louisville, Kentuckv. 1977.

## TK Solver Release 4, UTS Software, Universal Technical Systemg

Rockford, Illinois. Web site www.uts.com.
Van Wylen, G.J.; Sonntag,R.E. Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1965.
Wylie, E. Benjamin; and Streeter, Y.L. Fluid Transients, corrected
ed., FEB Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1983.
Young, W.C. Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain, 6th edMcGraw-Hill, New York, 1989.

INDEX
d

## (A) fire-sizing vessel relief example problem,

4.-36 mild steel, 64

140

## Bubble bath soap, 136

Buckling of a slender column, 185

Accidents, l40

Act of God,

C,2

147

## Allowable stress, 2, 4, 17,71,72,74, 11'l , 126

Allowable stress range, 2
Allowable stress range, SA, 2
Alternative Leak Test, 135
Annular space, 181
(ANSI)/ASME Standard, 67
ANSI forged steel flanges, 104
APT-520,149
API 521, 139
API 2000, 139, t49
API-520 fire sizing procedure, 149
ASME B & PV Code Sec. VIII Div. 1 UG-127(3XbX4), 148

## ASME 831.3 Appendix A-1,117

ASME 8-31.3 Code for Process Piping, 134
ASME Piping Systems Code 831.4, 139
ASME Pressure Piping Code 83l.l, 139
ASME Pressure Piping Code 831.3, 139
ASME Section I, Division 1, 139
ASME Section II Part D. 184
ASME Section VIII Division l, 68, "10, 133
ASME Section VIII, Division I, 133
ASME/ANSI component pressure rating, 2
Austenitic stainless steels, 7
Avoiding stress failure, 126

## Bellows pressure thrust, 12

Bellows rupture, 1l
Blast/fragmentation zone, 1 37
Blind flanges, 135, 136
Brittle, 67, 136, 137

## Combined plane stresses, 123

Concrete thrust block, 147
Consolidated Safety/Relief Valve Company, 1 40
Constant effort spring, 21
Containment, 2, 5,9,73, 122, 133, 135, 136, 187
Control valve sizes, 140

Convolute.9.

11

## Core, 181, 183, 184, 185, 187

Core fatigue, 189
Core pipe wall thickness problem, 183
Corrosion + erosion + mechanical groove (in.), 2
Creep strength, 6
Cross sections ofjacketed pipe, 182
Crud build-up, 150
Cv vs. Vo open range data,14O

Cyclic expansions, 2
Cyclic fatigue stress analysis, 4
Cylinder crushing, 185

## Data sheets. 140

816.5,2, 67,72,'73

Backpressure, 150
Bastard systems, 188
Bellows, 9, 11, 13
Bellows joints, 9, 11

## Closure welds, 134

Code compliance analysis, 70

B
831.1 Power Piping, I
831.3 Appendix A (Table A.1),
831.3 Process Piping Codes, 1

## Cast iron flanges, 67

Checklist-form data calc sheets, 149
Circumferential stresses, 121

## Decision matix, 149

3

Depressurization, 136
Design fatigue life, 9
Discharging gases, vapors or steam, 140
Displacement stress range, SE, 2
Displacement stress range,3
Dissimilar metal thermal fatigue stress problem, 187
Dissimilar pipe materials, 187
Documented as-built, 183

Dowtherms, 181
Drastic catastrophic plastic failure, 185
Ductile or malleable iron,67

201

2O2

E, 1,2
Earthquake, 5, 12, 19, 22, 68, l2l, 126
Effective section modulns 7", 4
Elastic constants of metals, 65
Elastic spring constant, 61
Elastic structure. 105
Examination requirements, I 34
Excessive elastic deformation, 73

## Internal pressure, 2, 4, 19,22,67, 121, 122, l4O, 147, 183, 184

J
Jacket, 6, 71,181,183, 184, 185, 187, 188
Jacket fluid. 181. 184
Jacket steam hammer problem, 185
Jacketed piping, 134, 140, 181, 183, 187

L
Lateral bending,9, I2l
Lateral flexibility, 11

## Leak Test, 134

F,3
Failsafe devices. 140
Failure mode of the piping system, 5
Failure theory,6, 126
Fatigue crack,2,5, 6, 105, 189 fig.
Fatigue life analysis, 105

F-factor,149
Finite element. 105. 106
Fire-sizing heat flux, 149

## Fire-sizing relief valves, 140

Fire-sizing safety relief values, 167
Flange class, 2
Flange weldments, 187
Flanged

Integral flanges, 67
Internal fluid design pressure, 2

joints,

## Liquid decompression, 136

Liquid jet thrust,

145

134

## Load Case No. 2, 68

Load Case No. 3, 19, 68
l,ocal stress raisers, 1 88
Longitudinal stress, 3, 4,70, l2l

Longitudinal stresses, I 2l
Lousy engineering, 149

134

M,,3

## Fluid constituents, 140

Fluid streams. 140

M'0,4

## Formarion of fatigue cracks, 187

Full vacuum, 183, 194

Mri,4
M'o,4

M",3
Mou 5

Moi,5

Moo, 5

Glynn Woods, 6
Grey cast iron. 136, 137

M"3

trA'.5
Magnetic particle examination, 134
Mass flow balance, 140
Maximum allowable tensile yield strength, 126
Maximum allowable working pressure {MAWP), 133, l4O

Gross failure. 4. 21

H
HAZOPS, vii, 149

## Heat transfer oils, 181

Heat treatment, 134

## Hoop stress, 1,4,6,

l2l,122,

Mill undertolerance,4,
183, 184

## Human operators, 140

Hydrostatic Leak Test, 134
Hydrotesting, 133, 135, 183

118, 184

## Minimum required wall thickness, 183

Mister MechMentor. v7i
Mixture, 133, l4O, 147
Mohr's circle refresher sheet, 124
Mohr's circle, 105
Mr. Vendor, 149

I
Ii'

lnertial earthquake forces, 4
Initial Service Leak Test, 135
In-line pressure balanced expansion joint, 15

N,3,5
Nu' 3

N',3

## National Board Registry data, 149

National Fire Protection Assoc. (NFPA), 139

## fn-plane, 3,4,5, 126

ln-process examination, 134

## NFPA-3O sta.nda"rd procedures, 149

NFPA-3O. t39. t49

.
Nodal point, 3,4,5,
Non-corrosive internal components, 150
Nozzle pipe, 70, 71
Number of distinct load case i's, 3

## Reaction forces computation formulas, 144

Reaction forces due to valve discharge (steam senrce
Relax locally, due to plastic deformation, 188
Relief device sizing, 149

RFWN,70,72

## Ring type gaskets, 68, 70

Roark's formulas for stress & strain, 61
Rupture disk + relief valve, 140
Rupture disk holder, 150
Rupture disk/te1l-tale/safety relief valve assemblr . i 4*
Rupture disks, 139

P,2
P*,2
D')

P&ID,

,i!

## Relief flowrates, 139

Relief valve pipe supports, 140

Occasional, 19
Occasional excursions, 6
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA), 139
osHA, 139, r40,149
Outlet reaction correction for molecular weight, 142
Out-of-plane bending moments, 3,4, 5

zlXl

## Rigid end restraint, 187

Rigid vertical restraint support,

19

Rigidity, 22,61,183
Rigidly anchored, 118

S,

140

Peq,70,71
Phase engineer,68, 140
Phases, 68

So' 3

Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe

flange, 67
reactions on supports & end connections, 19
stress,117
stress analysis repofi,24
supports, 17, 61, 183
Piping & Instrumentation Diagram, 140
Piping spool piece, 150
Pitfalls ofjacketed piping design, 183
Plane stress element, 124
Pneumatic Leak Test, 135
Pneumatic Test, 133, 134
Poisson's ratio, 62, 105
Pressure balanced elbows, 14
Pressure relief device, 135
Pressure tests, 133
Pressure thrust,9, 11, 13
Pressure-compensating expansion
Pressure temperature cycles, 6

joint,

Prestressing,6T
Primary failure: gross deformation, 5
Primary failure mode,4
Primary stress, 4
Process & instrumentation diagram, 140
Prof. John E. Harvey's text (pressure vessels), 185
Professional codes, 133
Proof tests, 133
Propagate,

5,136, I87

## Pump curves, 140

R
Reaction forces, 17, 20,61, 140

S,, 2
SA, 2, 6

s", 3, 71
s., 3, 71
sE, 3, 5, 6

sf,71,72,'73
56

## hot allowable stress,

sh,2,3,6,7,71
sL, 3, 4, 6

s,,

s", 7l
SoL,4, 5

Su3
Safety device sizing. l-10
Safety relief valve thrust reaction forces due to ,iru:mlqc ld .guro,
and vapors, 141
Safety/relief valve. 139. 140, 150, 174
Sample calculation of reaction force, 144
Seal-water makeup valve, 150
Secondary failure: fluid leaking, 5
Section modulus, 4, 121
Self-limiting, 5, 6
Self-limiting stress, 4
Sensitive Leak Test, 135
Shear stress, 121, 122,126
Shock forces for thrust block design, 146
Shrapnel,137
Side sway force,22
Simple vertical support, 19, 2l
Simultaneous unrelated failures, 147
Single failure modes, 147
Slip-on flange, 188
Spacers, 181

Spiders,181,183

2O4 .

## Spring constant, 9, 20, 61, 62

Spring hanger selection table,20
Stability phenomenon, 185
Standa"rd Hydrostatic Test, 133

THL+WT,68, 119
Threshold of elastic response, 185

Steam feed regulator, 149
Steam hammer events in pipe jackets, 187
Steam hammer, l8l, 185, 187
Stiffness, 9, 11, 62, 187

## Torsion, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 62, 122

Transient stresses, 105
Tresca stress, 126

Stop nuts, 11
Sftess concentrations, 106
Stress intensification factors. 3. 4
Stress Isometric, 68
Stress raiser, 5
Stress range reduction factor, 3
Support displacements, 2
Support types, 61
Sustained, 2,3, 4, 5, 6, 19,21,22, 135
Sustained bending, 4

T_,2,184
Table A-1, 2
Table A-1B. 2
Table 304.1.1,2, 184
Temperature correction curve, 142
Temporary closure, 136
Temporary supports, 134
Terminal equipment, 20
Test fluid expansion, 134
Theory and design of pressure vessels, 185
Theory of fallwe, 122
Thermal expansion coefficient, 105
Thermal restraint. 119. l2l

THERML, 19,68,II9
Thin-walled toroidal convolutes. 9

## Thrust blocks, 140

Tie rods,

11

U
Ultrasonic examination, 134
Unbalanced pressure thrust forces, l1
Uncompensated-bellows, 1 1
U-stamped, 149
User's cookbook,125

v
Vapor cloud explosion, 68
Variable spring, 19, 21,183
Vessel overpressure protection and safety 139

w
Welding neck flange, 7l
Welds to be examined, 134
Wind (aerodynamic drag) forces,4
WT/PRS, 19,68, 119

Y,2
Yield point, 5,6,62, 187, 188

## Yield strength, 61, 67 , 126, 188

Yield stress, 5,62,'73, 106, 126,
Z

2,4

188

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