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CLASS 9

Fortnight: 22nd sep 9th oct


Subject: FIT
COMPUTER NETWORK
A computer network is a group of computers and peripheral devices connected through data
communication system to facilitate the sharing of hardware and software resources among different users.

ADVANTAGES OF NETWORK
Hardware sharing
Software sharing
Efficiency of hardware and software resources
Reduces redundancy
Saves paper and time
Internet sharing
Security
NETWORK COMPONENTS
The network components are server, client, network interface card and mode of connection.
SERVER It is a powerful computer or a series of computers with high speed and great
processing capability. It can link other computers or electronic devices together over servers to
provide important services to both private and public users.
CLIENT It is a computer system which uses a network to access a remote service from the server.
It can be access all the applications or information from the main server. A client is also known as a
node.
NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC) it is a small piece of computer hardware- a LAN card,
which facilitates the communication between different computers over a network.
MODE OF COMMUNICATION Computer networks are used to interconnect the individual
devices in a network, such as optical fiber, Ethernet or wireless LAN. All these nodes in a network
are connected through basic hardware components such as NICs, Bridges, Hubs, Switches, and
Routers.
MODEM It stands for MOdulator DEModulator.
There are two types of modems:
Wireless modem It connects the computer to a wireless network instead of
telephone system.
Cable Modem It provides data communication through a device that remains
outside the computer and is connected with wires.
NETWORKING TERMS
INTRANET refers to a computer network within an organization.
EXTRANET refers to a computer network that allows controlled access from the outside for specific
business or educational purposes.
TYPES OF NETWORK
There are four basic types of computer networks:
1. LAN Local Area Network is used when two or more computers or peripheral devices are
connected within a small area like a room, office building or a campus. The maximum range or
LAN can be 10 kilometre.

2. MAN Metropolitan Area Network is much larger than a LAN setup and is spread across a city.
Since it cover an entire city, it is called MAN.
3. WAN Wide Area Network comes into picture when we have two or more computers located at
faraway places, linked by communication facilities like telecommunication or satellite signals.
4. PAN A computer network which is used for communication among computers and different
information technological devices close to each other is called a PAN(Personal Area Network).
INTERNET
It is network of billions of computers which are connected to each other to share information and resources.
INTERNET TERMS
WEB PAGE : The pages of a website are known as Web Pages. It include images, text, hot links,
video, audio etc.
WEB SITE : It is just like a book. As a book contains a number of pages, a web site consists of a
number of web pages that hold large amounts of information.
WORLD WIDE WEB : It is a collection of documents stored on computers around the world.
HYPERLINKS : Web pages contain highlighted text or images called Hyperlinks. By clicking on
these links, you can move from one page to another.
WEB SERVER: It can be a computer program which delivers web content using HTTP over the
World Wide Web. Or a Web Server can be a computer or virtual machine which runs the program
of delivering web content.
WEB BROWSER: It is Application software used to view and interpret Web pages. It acts as an
interface between the user and the World Wide Web.
UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR(URL): An address or location of website on the Internet is
called its URL. To visit any website, we should known its URL.
INTERSPACE: The interspace is a vision of what the Internet will become in the near future. The
Interspace will offer distributed services to transfer concepts across different domains.
USES OF INTERNET
Education
Mailing letters
Business
E-Commerce
Media and Entertainment
Forums for Discussion
Health and Fitness
Tourism and Travel
TRANSMISSION MEDIUM
Computer network being a communication system for computers requires one or more transmitters and
receivers, a message and a communication channel.
The computers and other devices that communicate with each other on a network are called nodes or
stations. In computer networks, most nodes function as transceivers, i.e., they transmit as well as receive
messages.
Transmission media can be classified into the following categories:

GUIDED MEDIA This type of transmission includes cables wires to transmit the information
from source to destination. It is classified on the basis of material used such as:
Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for telecommunication and consists of
copper wires that are twisted into pairs. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million to 100
million bits per second.
Advantages
It is a thin, flexible cable that can easily be laid between walls.
Multiple lines can run through the same wiring duct.
The chances of Cross- talk are minimized.
Disadvantages
The transmission signal becomes weak when the distance is long.
Coaxial cable In it both the conductors share the same geometric axis. Transmission
speed ranges from 200 million to more than 500 million bits per second. The most common
type of connector used with these cables is Bayonet Neill-Concelman (BNC) connector.
Advantages
Highly resistant to signal interference. Transmission is better than twisted
pair cable.
Offer higher Bandwidth up to 400 HBPS.
Disadvantages
Difficult to install and not suitable for long distance networks. Only on use in
cable TV.
The insulation of a Coaxial cable may degrade which would result into the
replacement of the cable.
It does not ensure date security as they can be tapped.
Expensive as compared to twisted pair cables.
Optical fiber cable consists of a central glass core, surrounded by several layers of
protective materials. It transmits light instead of electronic signals, thus eliminating the
problem of electrical interference. Optical Fiber cable has the ability to transmit signals over
much longer distances than covered by Coaxial and Twisted Pair. It also has the capability to
carry information at a very high speed. There are two types of fiber cables Single Mode
and Multimode.
Advantages
Optical Fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications which permits
transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidth.
Fibers reduce loss of signal and there is no electromagnetic interference.
They ensure high data security and they cannot be tapped.
Disadvantages
It is quite tough to install the equipment of optical dibers.
It is more expensive than any other guided media.
Joining lengths of Optical Fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire
or cable. Connection losses are common problems in optical fiber.
Ethernet cables are used to connect network devices such as modems, routers, hubs and
adapters. They transmit data using the Ethernet protocol. They look similar to telephone
jacks, which use 4 pins or 8 pins. Ethernet cable are of two types:
Straight through It is most commonly used cable where the smaller cables
inside the Ethernet cable on both ends will be in the same order of colors
from left to right.

Crossover It is used to connect computing devices together without the


use of a hub or switch.
Advantages
Conceptually Simple
Relatively Inexpensive
Noise Immunity
Disadvantages
Difficult to change
Difficult Troubleshooting
Specialized Cable
UNGUIDED MEDIA The transmission in such a media is wireless. It is used to provide wireless
network communication over short distance using radio or infrared signals, instead of network
cabling. The common ways to establish Wireless network are as follows:
Bluetooth Wireless Technology was invented in 1994 by engineers at Ericsson, a Swedish
company. A product with Bluetooth means it has a piece of hardware as well as software
to connect that product with other products wirelessly using the Bluetooth technology.
Advantages
Bluetooth devices have less potential hazards than mobile phones.
With Bluetooth technology, it has become easier to use wireless services as
security, network address and permission configuration can be automated in
comparison of any other network.
Infrared Wireless Technology is used to send documents from portable computers to
printers, to connect home entertainment systems and to exchange information between
computers, cellular telephones and faxes. They require a line of sight connection between
transmitter and receiver. Infrared means below red (derived from the Latin word infra
meaning below), while red being the color of the longest wavelengths of visible light.
Infrared light has a linger wavelength (a lower frequency) than that of the red light.
Wi-Fi stands for Wireless Fidelity. It is the name of a popular wireless networking
technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network
connections. A Wi-Fi network can be used to connect electronic devices to each other, to the
Internet and to the wired networks using Ethernet technology. Wi Fi networks operate
within 2.4 to 5 Ghz radio bands with some products containing both bands (dual band).
Advantages
It has replaced the wired medium completely and is used in wireless local
area network applications.
Wi Fi reaches those places where cables cannot be installed, such as outdoor
areas and historical buildings.
Wi Fi products are backward compatible which makes the device work
anywhere in the world.
Challenges
The transmission breaks or slows down when there is noise interference.
Wi- Fi has high power consumption.
DATA AND INFORMATION
Data refers to a collection of numbers, characters, symbols images, etc., which can be processed by a
computer. It relates to facts, events and transactions. Data carries no meaning in its raw form. It must be
processed and interpreted to extract meaningful information.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DATA AND INFORMATION


Data is/are
Information is
Facts, statistics used for reference or analysis.
Knowledge derived from study, experience or
Numbers, characters, symbols, images etc.,
instructions.
which can be processed by a computer.
Communication of intelligence.
Interpreted, by a human or a machine, to derive
The knowledge about things, facts, concepts,
its meaning.
etc., in some context that is exchangeable
A representation of information.
amongst people.
The meaningful output which we get after
processing the data.
MULTIMEDIA
Multimedia can be termed as the combination of several types of media i.e text, audio, graphics, animation
and video. It can include various range of formats; from a simple PowerPoint slide show to a complex
interactive simulation.
MULTIMEDIA FORMATS
Multimedia elements are stored in media files. The most common way to discover the media type is to look
at the file extension.
Extension
Files
.htm / .html
HTML file
.gif/ .jpg
Pictures
.au
Sounds/audio
MP3 / .mpg / .mpeg/ .avi/ .wmv
Video
MULTIMEDIA ELEMENTS
TEXT Text is perhaps the most fundamental element of any multimedia project. We can use
applications to compose and edit the text. Text-based information can also be gathered from CDs
and the Internet. Applications such as Photoshop can be used to add visual effects to text.
GRAPHICS Graphics can be incorporated into a multimedia project in the form of photographs
or designs. Graphic images can be imported from a variety of resources such as Internet, digital
camera, scanner or resource CDs such as Art Mania 12000.
SOUND Sound can be added to a multimedia presentation from a variety of sources. Original
sounds can be recorded using a microphone along with special programs such as Hyper Studio,
Movie Maker or Smart Sound.
VIDEO Moving images or video can be incorporated into a multimedia project in the form of
QuickTime movies. QuickTimePro, Hyper Studio and Movie Maker can be used with a camcorder
or VCR to create and edit QuickTime movies.
ANIMATION Graphics that contain movement are often referred as animation. Animation files
can be downloaded from the Internet in the form of animated GIF files and viewed with Quick
Time Pro, Hyper Studio and Movie Maker.
APPLICATION OF MULTIMEDIA
Entertainment and Fine Arts
Education
Journalism
Engineering
Industry
medicine