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System: A Process Control Case Study

Rahul Malhotra

Research Scholar,

Punjab Technical University,

Jalandhar, Punjab, India

blessurahul@gmail.com

Narinder Singh

Ex-Prof., Thapar University,

Patiala, Punjab, India

Director, GGS Colleges,

Talwandi Sabo (Pb.), India

Yaduvir Singh

Associate Professor

Thapar University, Patiala,

Punjab, India

yad_pra@yahoo.com

doi: 10.4156/ijact.vol2.issue4.14

Abstract

In this paper, an optimal control for gas turbine and compressor system using fuzzy logic, genetic

algorithms have been suggested. Gas turbine compressor system is most widely used in chemical

industries. The primary objective of this kind of setup is to control the flow rate of high pressure steam.

Different controller architecture has been taken up to control the flow of gas. Firstly, a conventional

PID controller is used to control the flow, which cannot provide an optimal control due to its inherent

disadvantages. To overcome this problem artificial intelligence techniques using fuzzy logic and

genetic algorithms have been implemented. The transient and steady state response and performance

criteria IAE, ITAE have been discussed. The result shows the better optimization of fuzzy GA

controllers.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic controller, Gas turbine, Genetic algorithm, PID controller

1. Introduction

Traditionally, control systems modeling have been based upon the use of mathematical techniques

to model the input/output relationship of the system. Such an approach relies upon a mathematical

description of the plant in order to model the behavior of the system, subject to certain conditions and

assumptions. Many real-world systems however, may not be as readily described mathematically due

to the complexity of the components of the plant and the interaction between them, and consequently,

the model may be subject to certain assumptions or conditions. In such models, the degree of

mathematical precision required to completely describe every aspect of the process, is either

prohibitive or non-trivial. In addition, for actual implementation of such systems, heuristics, gained

through human experience, are often employed in the tuning of the final controller.

The use of Fuzzy Logic [21] has found application in the area of control system design where

human expert knowledge, rather than precise mathematical modeling, of a process or plant is used to

model or implement the required controller. Human expert knowledge is based upon heuristic

information gained in relation to the operation of the plant or process, and its inherent vagueness

("fuzziness") offers a powerful tool for the modeling of complex systems. Uncertainty and ambiguity

are evident in many engineering problems [1, 2]. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) therefore provides a

formal method of translating subjective and imprecise human knowledge into control strategies, thus

facilitating better system performance through the exploitation and application of that knowledge.

Optimal design of the FLC knowledge base is central to the performance of the FLC. The rule base

reflects the human expert knowledge [22], expressed as linguistic variables, while the membership

functions represent expert interpretation of the variables. In the absence of such knowledge, a common

approach is to optimize these FLC parameters through a process of trial and error, with respect to the

performance of the system for each knowledge base formulated. This approach becomes impractical

for systems having significant numbers of inputs since the rule-base size grows exponentially and

consequently the number of rule combinations becomes significantly large.

The use of Genetic Algorithms (GA) [4] in this regard can provide such a solution. Genetic

Algorithms (GA's) are robust, numerical search methods that mimic the process of natural selection.

Although not guaranteed to absolutely find the true global optima in a defined search space, GA's are

renowned for finding relatively suitable solutions within acceptable time frames and for applicability to

128

An Efficient Fuzzy-GA Flow Control of Turbine Compressor System: A Process Control Case Study

Rahul Malhotra, Narinder Singh, Yaduvir Singh

many problem domains. Using primary concepts of genetic selection, crossover and mutation [7], GA's

are a stochastic, but directed method of identifying global optima within a problem domain-space. This

is achieved through successive performance testing of potential solutions, which collectively form a

population, with respect to a problem objective function. In this way, convergence to optimal solutions

is achieved.

The knowledge base of a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) encapsulates expert knowledge and

consists of the data base and rule-base of the controller [19]. Optimization of both of these knowledge

base components is critical to the performance of the controller and has traditionally been achieved

through a process of trial and error. Such an approach is convenient for FLCs having low numbers of

input variables, however for greater numbers of inputs, more formal methods of knowledge base

optimization are required. Genetic Algorithms (GA's) provide such a method. They are stochastic, but

directed, numerical search methods which use operators consistent with evolutionary theory and find

application in many disciplines, particularly function optimization problems. Although not learning

algorithms in the strict sense, GA's can be applied to learning tasks [5]. The organization of paper is as

follows: Section I gives the introduction about fuzzy logic and GA. Section II shows the mathematical

modeling and designing of Gas turbine using PID controller, Fuzzy controller and Fuzzy-GA controller.

Section III shows the simulation work and the comparative performance of the above controllers.

Finally, the results and discussion have been given in the section IV. Section V gives the conclusion of

the work.

2. Case Study

In chemical plants gas turbine is used to drive the compressor [18]. A turbine is a mechanical

device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. Its

modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884. The compressors are of centrifugal

type [6]. They consume much power due to the fact that very large volume flows are handled. The

combination gas turbine-compressor is highly reliable. Hence the turbine-compressor play significant

role in the operation of the plants. The high pressure steam (HPS) is used to drive the gas turbine [13].

The turbine is coupled with the compressor and eventually the compressor is run by the gas turbine.

The hydraulic governor [14] is used to control the flow of the high pressure steam. In the above set up,

the high pressure steam is usually used to drive the turbine. The turbine which is coupled to the

compressor will then drive the compressor. The hydraulic governor which acts as a control valve will

be used to throttle the amount of steam going to the turbine section. The governor opening is being

controlled by a PID which is in the electronic governor control panel [19, 7].

HPS

Electronic Governor

Controller

Speed (S.P)

Speed Signal

Compressor

Turbine

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of turbine compressor system with electronic governor control

2. 1. Mathematical Modelling

The basic conventional feedback controller is shown in figure 2. In conventional PID controller the

controller and the process are in series where as a feedback from the output is given to the input. The

129

Volume 2, Number 4, October 2010

turbine compressor system is mathematically modelled using experimental data available [19] and the

transfer function of the above system is achieved as G ( s ) =

PID

3

.

s + 6 s 2 + 5s

3

Process

R(s)

C(s)

The stability analysis of the system is done and the bode plot of the system is plotted which is shown in

figure 3. The gain margin is 20 db where as the phase margin is 56.2.

A feedback control system measures the output variable and sends the control signal to the

controller. The controller compares the value of the output signal with a reference value and gives the

control signal to the final control element via the actuator. The characteristic equation obtained as

below.

s + 6 s + 5s + K p =

0

3

(1)

From auxiliary equation in Routh criteria we get

= 2.23 and T = 2.81.

The equation of ideal PID controller is

t

1

de(t )

U (t ) =K c e(t ) + e(t )dt + d

dt

i 0

130

(2)

An Efficient Fuzzy-GA Flow Control of Turbine Compressor System: A Process Control Case Study

Rahul Malhotra, Narinder Singh, Yaduvir Singh

1

+ d s E (s)

U ( s )= K c 1 +

s

i

(3)

1 + i s + i d s 2

U (s) = K c

E (s)

is

(4)

1 + i s 1 + d s

E (s)

i s 1 + d s

U (s) = K c

(5)

The PID controller is traditionally suitable for second and lower order systems. It can also be used

for higher order plants with dominant second order behavior. The Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) methods rely

on open-loop step response or closed-loop frequency response tests. A PID controller is tuned

according to a table based on the process response test. According to Zeigler-Nichols frequency

response tuning criteria K p = 0.6 K c , i = 0.5T and d = 0.125T .

For the PID controller in above case study, the values of tuning parameters obtained are K P= 18, i =1.4,

d =0.3 and P= 30, I= 21.4, D=9

Usually, initial design values of PID controller obtained by all means needs to be adjusted

repeatedly through computer simulations until the closed loop system performs or compromises as

desired. This stimulates the development of intelligent tools that can assist the engineers to achieve

the best overall PID control for entire operating envelops.

PID controller is a standard control structure for classical control theory. But the performance is

greatly distorted and the efficiency is reduced due to nonlinearity in the process plant. The fuzzy PID

controllers are the natural extension of their conventional version, which preserve their linear structure

of PID controller. The fuzzy PID controllers are designed using fuzzy logic control principle in order to

obtain a new controller that possesses analytical formulas very similar to digital PID controllers [23].

Fuzzy PID controllers have variable control gains in their linear structure. These variable gains are

nonlinear function of the errors and changing rates of error signals. The main contribution of these

variable gains in improving the control performance is that they are self- tuned gains and can adapt to

rapid changes of the errors and rate of change of error caused by time delay effects, nonlinearities and

uncertainties of the underlying process.

Error

Fuzzification

e (t)

Fuzzy

Reasoning

Actuation

Defuzzification

u (t)

Fuzzy

Knowledge Base

In this paper different linguistic variables have been considered as per detailed in Table 1.

131

Volume 2, Number 4, October 2010

NB

NM

NS

ZO

PS

PM

PB

NB

Negative Big

NM

Negative Medium

NS

Negative Small

ZO

Zero

PS

Positive Small

PM

Positive Medium

PB

Positive Big

Error e(t)

Negative Big

Negative Medium

Negative Small

Zero

Positive Small

Positive Medium

Positive Big

NB

Negative Big

NM

Negative Medium

NS

Negative Small

ZO

Zero

PS

Positive Small

PM

Positive Medium

PB

Positive Big

Designing a good fuzzy rule base is the key to obtain satisfactory control performance for a particular

operation. Classical analysis and control strategy are incorporated in the rule base. The rule base used in

simulation is summarized in Table II. Each rule has the form IF e(t) is NB ANDe(t) is NB THEN u(t)

is NB. The control literature has worked towards reducing the size of the rule base and optimizing the

rule base using different optimization techniques like GA, PSO for intelligent controller. At last

defuzzified output is obtained from the fuzzy inputs. In this research work centroid method of de

fuzzification is used. It is given as below.

(u ) * udu

(u ) du

c

(6)

Table 2. If-then rule base for fuzzy logic control

e(t)

NB

NM

NS

ZO

PS

u(t)

e(t)

NB

NM

NS

ZO

PS

PM

PB

NB

NB

NB

NB

NM

NS

ZO

NB

NB

NB

NM

NS

ZO

PS

NB

NB

NM

NS

ZO

PS

PM

132

NB

NM

NS

ZO

PS

PM

PB

NM

NS

ZO

PS

PM

PB

PB

PM

NS

ZO

PS

PM

PB

PB

PB

PB

ZO

PS

PM

PB

PB

PB

PB

An Efficient Fuzzy-GA Flow Control of Turbine Compressor System: A Process Control Case Study

Rahul Malhotra, Narinder Singh, Yaduvir Singh

Genetic Algorithms are intelligent optimization technique [12] that relies on the parallelism found in

nature; in particular its searching procedures are based on the mechanics of natural selection and genetics.

GAs was first conceived in the early 1970s by Holland. GAs is used regularly to solve difficult search,

optimization, and machine-learning problems that have previously resisted automated solutions. They

can be used to solve difficult problems quickly and reliably. These algorithms are easy to interface with

existing simulations and models, and they are easy to hybridize. GAs includes three major operators:

selection, crossover, and mutation, in addition to four control parameters: population size, selection

pressure, crossover and mutation rate [15]. Population-based optimization methods are addressed also.

This paper is concerned primarily with the selection and mutation operators. There are three main stages

of a genetic algorithm; these are known as reproduction, crossover and mutation. The algorithm of a

genetic algorithm is described below.

[Start] Generate random population of n chromosomes (suitable solutions for the problem).

[Fitness] Evaluate the fitness f(x) of each chromosome x in the population.

[New population] Create a new population by repeating following steps until the new population is

complete.

a) Selection. Select two parent chromosomes from a population according to their fitness (the better

fitness, the bigger chance to be selected).

b) Crossover. With a crossover probability, cross over the parents to form new offspring (children). If

no crossover was performed, offspring is the exact copy of parents.

c) Mutation. With a mutation probability, mutate new offspring at each locus (position in chromosome).

d) Accepting. Place new offspring in the new population.

[Replace] Use new generated population for a further run of the algorithm.

[Test] If the end condition is satisfied, stop, and return the best solution in current population.

[Loop] Go to step 2.

The objective functions [19] are MSE (Mean Square Error), IAE (Integral Absolute Error), ISE

(Integral Square Error) and ITAE (Integral Time Absolute Error). The main objective of PID controller

is to minimize the error signal or in other words we can say that minimization of performance indices.

t

1

2

(e(t ))

MSE =

(7)

t 0

e(t ) dt

IAE =

(8)

ISE =

e (t )

dt

(9)

ITAE = t e(t ) dt

(10)

The fitness value of the chromosome is the inverse of the performance indices. The fitness value is

used to select the best solution in the population to the parent and to the offspring that will comprise the

next generations. The fitter the parent greater is the probability of selection. This emulates the

evolutionary process of survival of the fittest. Parents are selected using roulette wheel selection

method.

133

Volume 2, Number 4, October 2010

The chromosome string is [c1 w1 c2 w2 c3 w3]. Each parameter is a 4 bit string. So the fuzzy

membership function can be represented as [100011111000111110001111].

Fitness function is reciprocal of performance indices. In this paper, the discrete form of ITAE has

been taken. ITAE is treated as performance indices and fitness function denoted by J can be described

below.

1

J = N 1

(11)

[{r ( kT ) c(kT )} T ]

k =0

6 5 0

1

A= 1

0 0 , B = 0 , C = [ 0 0 3] and D = 0

0 1 0

0

3. SIMULATION STUDIES

This section gives simulation results of the above case study. All the simulations have been carried

out using MATLAB Simulink. Figure 8 shows the Simulink model of the case study, controlled by PID

controller. Figure 9 shows the step response of the process controlled by feedback PID controller. The

step response characteristics give a very high overshoot which is not at all desirable.

134

Rahul Malhotra, Narinder Singh, Yaduvir Singh

Figure 10 shows the Simulink model of the case study using fuzzy logic controller. Figure 11 shows

the step response of fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller gives much lower overshoot than

conventional PID controller.

135

Volume 2, Number 4, October 2010

Simulink design optimization can generate comparative plots of estimation results to help determine

which model parameter values result in the best model and measured data fit. Simulink design

optimization provides access to a variety of optimization algorithms.GA is pattern search algorithm, by

which the optimization process can be fine tuned.

Simulink design optimization automatically tunes model parameters to meet time domain

requirements. The optimization of any design criterion can be done by expressing it as a Simulink signal

and connecting this signal to the signal constraint block provided by Simulink design optimization. The

signal constrained block constrains the signal either graphically shaping the desired response or

specifying a reference signal trajectory. The signals constrain block GUI updates during optimization

process. Figure 12 shows the Simulink representation of the case study using Fuzzy-GA using the

optimization block set of Simulink.

Figure 13 shows the step response of fuzzy-GA system which is better optimized than fuzzy logic

controller and PID controller. This shows the superiority of fuzzy-GA hybridization over conventional

techniques.

This section shows a comparative study between different controllers. In this paper, three steady state

and transient state parameters have been considered. These parameters are maximum overshoot, settling

time and peak time expressed below:

136

Rahul Malhotra, Narinder Singh, Yaduvir Singh

%M p = e

tp =

1 2

tan

n 1

,

2

tr =

n 1

Three different intelligent controllers have been evaluated to control the flow of turbine compressor

system. The comparison of above parameters shows the maximum overshoot problem in conventional

PID controllers. The better performance have been noted while using FLC or the Hybrid Fuzzy-GA

approach which shows the minimum overshoot, settling time and peak time. This proves the more

stability and efficacy of the gas turbine to control the flow of the high pressure system.

Table III gives the comparison of steady state and transient state parameters of PID controller, fuzzy

controller and fuzzy GA controller.

Table 3. Comparison of steady state and transient state parameters of pid controller, fuzzy controller and

Fuzzy-GA controller

Parameters

S.No

Controllers

Maximum Overshoot

Settling Time

Peak Time

1

2

3

PID Controller

Fuzzy Logic Controller

Fuzzy-GA

52.4%

8.75%

1%

9.66 sec

6.8 sec

3.7 sec

10.9 sec

6.2 sec

4.1 sec

Figure 15, shows the graphical representation of the simulation results, i.e. maximum overshoot, settling

time and peak time. The graphical results show the better performance of the Hybrid Fuzzy-GA

approach in comparison with FLC and conventional PID model.

Figure 15. Performance comparison of Maximum overshoot, settling time and Peak time for different

types of controllers.

An index error IAE (Integral Absolute Error) and ITAE (Integral Time Absolute Error) has been used

to quantify the error in PID Controller, Fuzzy Logic Controller and Fuzzy GA controller. Table IV

shows the comparison of the error performance parameters IAE and ITAE of PID Controller, Fuzzy

Logic Controller and Fuzzy GA controller.

Table 4. Comparison of performance indices parameters of PID controller, Fuzzy controller and FuzzyGA controller

Performance criteria

S.No

Controllers

IAE

ITAE

1

2

3

PID Controller

Fuzzy Logic Controller

Fuzzy-GA

0.98

0.83

0.76

1.94

0.91

0.98

Among all these three controllers, Hybrid Fuzzy-Genetic based controller shows minimum error.

5. Conclusion

This paper discusses a process control case study taking turbine and compressor. The flow of high

pressure steam of the turbine is controlled by electronic governor. First of all a mathematical model of

137

Volume 2, Number 4, October 2010

the system is developed and a conventional PID controller is implemented in it. The conventional PID

controller gives a very high overshoot and high settling time. So to improve the performance, artificial

intelligence techniques have been incorporated in controller architecture. Fuzzy logic controller is

implemented and further optimized by FLC-GA hybridization. The comparative results indicate the

minimum overshoot, settling time, peak time and minimum error in fuzzy GA hybridization in

comparison with conventional and fuzzy logic controlled model.

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Authors

Rahul Malhotra is currently pursuing Ph.D. degree from Punjab Technical

University His area of interest includes Wireless Communication, Adhoc Networks,

Fuzzy Logic & Genetic Algorithms. He is a member of Indian Society for

Technical Education, The Institution of Electronics & Telecommunication

Engineers (India), Institution of Engineers (India)

E-mail: blessurahul@gmail.com

Yaduvir Singh obtained Bachelor of Engineering from Dayalbagh Educational

Institute (Deemed University, Agra) in Year 1991, Master of Engineering in

Control & Instrumentation Engineering from Motilal Nehru National Institute of

Technology, University of Allahabad in Year 1993, Master of Business

Management from Newport University, USA in year 1997 and Doctor of

Philosophy from Thapar University, Patiala in year 2004. He joined Thapar

University as Assistant Professor in 2000. He is currently working as Associate

Professor in the University.

E-mail: yad_pra@yahoo.com

Narinder Singh has received his Bachelor of Engineering from Thapar Institute of

Engineering and Technology, Patiala, India under Punjabi University in year 1964

and M. Tech degree from Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee in 1968 and

Ph.D degree from Indian Institute of Engineering, Roorkee in 1987. He served as a

Professor in Thapar University, Patiala. Later, he joined Giani Zail Singh College

of Engineering & Technology, Bathinda. He is currently working as Director in

GGS College of Engineering & Technology,Talwandi sabo,Bathinda. His field of

interest includes Surveying, Fuzzy Logic, and Genetic Algorithm optimization.

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